Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.

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Household Economics Analysis of Mina Mendong Farmers (Case Study in Wajak Village – Malang egency!
+bdul ,a-ib .u-aimin /acult0 of +griculture) 1niversit0 of 2rawi3a0a) 'eteran Street) .alang 4%1(%) Indonesia E-mail of t-e corresponding aut-or5 awmu-aimin6gmail.com A"stract .ina mendong farming is an agricultural activit0 w-ic- combines fis- farming wit- crop cultivation in t-e rice fields mendong. .ina mendong farming is ver0 important for farmers wit- small land area or middle and lower economic in t-e ,a3a7 village. /or t-e farmers) it can be optimi8e land use and reduce t-e ris7 of farming because it produces more t-an one output. 9-e ob3ectives of t-is researc- are5 !1# anal08ing t-e factors t-at affect t-e production of mina mendong: !2# anal08ing t-e contribution of mina mending farming income to t-e revenue of farmers; -ouse-olds. 9-is researc- is use econometric model of mina mendong farmers; -ouse-olds; econom0 into simultaneous anal0sis model. 9-e result s-ows t-at t-e factors affecting farm production is t-e use of fertili8ers) t-e <uantit0 of seeds mina mendong fis-) and t-e use of pellets mina mendong. 9-e income of mina mending farming contributes to t-e revenue of farmers; -ouse-olds amounting 41.%( percent. #ey$ords% mina mendong) mendong) fis-) income) revenue) -ouse-old economic &' (ntroduction +n invention in fields using t-e efficienc0 tec-nolog0 can be t-e strateg0 to optimi8e irrigates rice fields and increasing t-e income of farmers. It can do b0 c-anging t-e farming s0stem from t-e monoculture into t-e farming diversification) w-ic- is appl0ing t-e mina mendong tec-nolog0. .ina mendong farming is an agricultural activit0 w-ic- combines fis- farming wit- crop cultivation in t-e rice fields mendong. .ina mendong farming is s-ould be applied in farming activit0. 9-e main reason is because t-is activit0 produce two outputs or two -arvesting: t-e mendong and t-e fis- w-ic- increasing t-e income. 2esides) t-is cultivation -ave a good point t-at is complementar0. It is said complementar0 because if t-ere is a failure in -arvesting t-e mendong) t-e farmers still -ave t-e fis- to cover t-e financial loss) and ot-erwise. Nowada0s) t-e re<uest towards mendong and nila fis- is -ig-. +ccording to t-e data) around 7 = of 9asi7mala0a;s -andicraft material w-ic- is mendong is filled from ,a3a7 District !9-e >overnment of 9asi7mala0a 2 ?#. 2esides) t-e @iti8en >ermination 1nit !UPR – Unit Pembenihan Rakyat# Sumber Mina Lestari !2 12#) t-e consumption of nila fis- in .alang Aegenc0 toda0 is 2%) tonB0ear. Seeing t-is factors: mendong and nila fis-) is -oped t-at t-e farmers can increase bot- t-eir production and income is -ig-er t-an before. Co7ollo !2 1# states t-at most of village man is t-e subsistence farmer or producing t-eir own needs) but it is no more eDist. In t-e realit0) t-ose farmer is sell t-eir product to bu0 t-eir own need w-ic- is b0 nature is consumptive or ot-er food needs. 9-ose factors become t-e main reason for t-e researc-er to do t-e researcabout econom0 of mina mendong’s farmers. 9-e ob3ectives of t-is researc- are5 !1# anal08ing t-e factors t-at affect t-e production of mina mendong: !2# anal08ing t-e contribution of mina mendong farming income to t-e revenue of farmer;s -ouse-olds in ,a3a7 'illage) ,a3a7 District) .alang Aegenc0. )' esearch Method 9-is researc- is done in ,a3a7 'illage) ,a3a7 District) .alang Aegenc0. Determining t-e location is purposive) because t-e village is appl0ing t-e mina mendong activit0. @ensus is used to determine t-e sample of mina mendong farmers in ,a3a7 'illage) ,a3a7 District. 9-ere are *1 people as t-e mina mendong farmers in t-is village. 9-erefore) t-ere are *1 respondents for t-is researc-. 9-ose farmers -ave applied t-e mina mendong cultivation. 9-ere are two 7inds of data in t-is researc-: primar0 and secondar0. "rimar0 data is obtained b0 doing interview to mina mendong farmers about mina mendong activit0) -ouse-olds; eDpending) and t-e income. Secondar0 data is obtained from village office) +gricultural Department) District office and +gricultural EDtension 2ureau to complete and strengt-en t-e primar0 data. .ina mendong farming -as two outputs: first is mendong and t-e second is nila fis-. 2ot- are different commodit0) and also different production w-ic- can not builts as one. 9-erefore) t-e production of mendong and nila fis- in e<uation compre-end model must be t-e same to ac<uire t-e same rate of production. 9o obtain t-e same production from fis- and mendong is b0 count up t-e revenue from t-e output for eac- and using mone0 !rupia-s# as t-e e<uation of production. 9-e output price is t-e price of nila fis-. 9-is researc- is use econometric model of mina mendong farmers; -ouse-olds; econom0 into simultaneous anal0sis model.

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2.1 Specification .odel 9-e specification model in t-is researc- is divided into * bloc7s. 9-e first bloc7 is t-e production of mina mendong w-ic- contains ( e<uations. 9-e second bloc7 is of mina mendong farmers; revenue w-ic- contains 2 e<uations. 9-e t-ird is of mina mendong farmers; income w-ic- contains ( e<uations. Specification model of t-e production of .ina Mendong !E..# -ave four e<uation) firstl0 is .ina Mendong Fouse-olds Emplo0ing !9GD..# t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as 9GD.. H a I a1 1"F I a2 J+A9 I u1 !1# ,-ere5 1"F H wage !Ap# J+A9 H number of people in famil0 !person# Secondl0 is total .ina Mendong -ouse-olds emplo0ing !9G"..# t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as 9G".. H 9GD.. I 9GC.. !2# ,-ere5 9GD.. H .ina Mendong Fouse-olds Emplo0ing !F&G# 9GC.. H .ina Mendong &utside Emplo0ing !F&G# 9-irdl0 is .ina Mendong /ertili8er 1tili8ing !""9..#) t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as ""9.. H b I b1 CF.. I b2 2"DD I u2 !*# ,-ere5 CF.. H +rea of .ina Mendong !Fa# 2"DD H Education /ee !ApBmont-# /ourt-l0 is t-e production of .ina Mendong !E..#) t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as E.. H c Ic1 CF.. I c2 9G".. I c* ""9.. I c( 229.. I c% "C9.. I u* !(# ,-ere5 CF.. H +rea of .ina Mendong !Fa# 9G".. H 9otal .ina Mendong Fouse-olds Emplo0ing !F&G# ""9.. H .ina Mendong /ertili8er 1tili8ing !7g# 229.. H .ina Mendong /is- Seeds !item# "C9.. H "ellet .ina Mendong !7g# Specification of .ina Mendong farmers revenue !9AA9># -ave 2 e<uation) firstl0 is .ina Mendong’s Income !G1..# t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as !%# G1.. H E.. J !@I"SKFIN# J 2".. ,-ere5 @I"S H /is- for &wn Needs !7g# FIN H /is- "rice !ApB7g# 2".. H @ost "roduction of .ina Mendong !Ap# Secondl0 is .ina Mendong farmers revenue !9A99>#) t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as 9AA9> H G1.. I9A&/ I 9AN/ !4# ,-ere5 9A&/ H &ff /arm Income !Ap# 9AN/ H Non /arm Income !Ap# Specification model of .ina .endong /armer;s Income !IN@&.E# -ave four e<uation) firstl0 is 9otal @onsumption @ost !2">N# t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as 2">N H !@SAC2K""DI# I !@NSACK"NSAC# !7# ,-ere5 @SAC2 H @ereal or Aice for @onsumption !Gg# ""DI H "rice of @ereal or Aice !ApBGg# @NSAC H Non @ereal for @onsumption !7g# "NSAC H "rice of Non @ereal !ApBGg# Secondl0 is 9otal @ost for Non @onsumption !2N">N#) t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as 2N">N H 2"DD I 2EA> I 2J+S I 2GES I 2C !$# ,-ere5 2"DD H Education /ee !Ap# 2EA> H Energ0 @ost !Ap# 2J+S H Service @ost !Ap# 2GES H Fealt- @are !Ap# 2C H &t-ers !Ap# 9-irdl0 is 9otal @ost for .ina Mendong /armers Fouse-olds) t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as !?# 2A9> H 2">N I 2N">N

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,-ere5 2">N H 9otal @onsumption @ost !Ap# 2N">N H 9otal @ost for Non @onsumption !Ap# /ourt-l0 is .ina Mendong /armers; Income !IN@&.E#) t-e e<uation ma0 be eDpressed as IN@&.E H 9AA9> - 2A9> !1 # ,-ere5 9AA9> H .ina Mendong /armers Aevenue !Ap# 2A9> H 9otal @ost .ina Mendong /armers Fouse-olds !Ap# 2.2 Identification .odel Sumodiningrat !1???# states t-ere are several points in identification model t-at -ave to pa0 attention to it) sucas !a# number of current endogenous variables in t-e model : !b# number of current endogenous variables in ever0 e<uation: !c# number of predetermined variables in t-e model and !d# number of predetermined variables in ever0 e<uation. 9able 1 Identification Aesult in E<uation .odel 'ariet0 of E<uation G 7 m G-7 m-1 Note E<uation 9GD.. .odel * * 1 24 ? over identified 9G".. Identit0 ""9.. .odel * * 1 27 ? over identified E.. .odel * 4 1 2( ? over identified G1.. Identit0 9AA9> Identit0 IN@&.E Identit0 2A9> Identit0 2">N Identit0 2N">N Identit0 Identification model is used to determine t-e agreement parameter of t-e simultaneous e<uation model. If t-e e<uation or model result is over identif0) t-e econometric tec-ni<ue s-ould be use 2 SCS !9wo Stage Ceast S<uare# to estimate t-e parameter. @-aracteristic of over identif0 w-en e<uation model s-ow t-at G J 7 L m J 1 ) w-ere5 • G is total variable in t-e model !endogen variable and pre determined variable# • 7 is total endogen variable and pre determined variable in e<uation w-ic- identif0 • m is total e<uation or total endogen variable in t-e model 2.* Estimation model 9-e identification result in e<uation model s-ows t-at t-e e<uation is classified to over identif0 and to estimate t-e model is using t-e appropriate econometric tec-ni<ue w-ic- is 2 SCS !9wo Stage Ceast S<uare#. 2.( Aegression .odel EDamination 9-e eDamination using t-e determination coefficient !A2#) / test and t test. 9-e determination coefficient !A2# value is used to determine t-e eDact rate in model w-ic- applies to eDplain t-e eDogenous variable or t-e percentage of endogen variable eDplained b0 t-e eDogenous variable using regression model. / test is used to find t-e closeness level between eDogenous variable and endogen variable simultaneousl0. t test is used to find t-e effect for eac- variables or eDogenous toward endogen. *' esults and +iscussion 9-e stud0 results divided t-ree) t-ere are !i# factors affecting t-e emplo0ment emplo0ing of .ina Mendong Fouse-olds: !iii# factors affecting .ina Mendong fertili8er utili8ing and !iii# .ina Mendong @ontribution Income to t-e .ina Mendong Aevenue. *.1 /actors +ffecting t-e Emplo0ment Emplo0ing of .ina Mendong Fouse-olds 2ased on anal0sis of 2SCS met-od !9wo Stage Ceast S<uare# is finds t-e result for e<uation t-e emplo0ment emplo0ing of .ina Mendong -ouse-olds as said as5

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9able 2. @ompre-end "arameter Aesult t-e Emplo0ment Emplo0ing of .ina Mendong Fouse-olds 'ariable t @oefficient Sig. t Intercept 1"F J+A9 / table M . 1 A-S<uare / 1) 1 ) 1 )7( %)(% )7? %()?7 )4$ )2? ?)$( )% )77 )

9-e main factor w-ic- affecting t-e emplo0ment emplo0ing of mina mendong -ouse-olds is t-e number of people in famil0 itself. It gives good impact to t-e mina mendong cultivation. 9-e number of people in famil0 gives regression coefficient around .7( percent and ?? percent in confidence level. It means t-at t-e more of famil0 number) t-e more emplo0ment for emplo0ing. 9-e fact is provides t-at mina mendong is famil0 business) so t-e0 -elp t-eir famil0. Suprapto !2 1# states t-at famil0 business is depend on t-e famil0 number or t-e emplo0ment from t-eir famil0 itself. *.2 /actors +ffecting .ina Mendong /ertili8er 1tili8ing 2ased on t-e anal0sis of 2SCS !9wo Stage Ceast S<uare# is obtained t-e rate for e<uation of mina mendong fertili8er utili8ing as said as5 9able *. @ompre-end "arameter Aesult of .ina Mendong /ertili8er 1tili8ing t 'ariable Sig. t @oefficient Intercept CF.. 2"DD / table M . 1 A-S<uare / $7)4$ *22)12 ) 1 %)(% )4( 2%)$7 1)*( 7)12 ) % )1?2 ) )?4

9-e main factor w-ic- affecting t-e mina mendong fertili8er utili8ing is t-e number of pellets and fis- seeds in t-e process. 9-ose factors give good impact to t-e mina mendong cultivation. 9-e amount of fertili8er in t-e cultivation gives regression coefficient around (712.17. It means one 7ilogram is increase t-e production rate around Ap (712.17. 9-e seed fis- give t-e regression coefficient around 141.(2) means t-at one seed is increasing t-e production rate Ap 141.(2. 9-e pellet give regression coefficient around 4$$7.4 means t-at one 7ilogram pellet will increasing t-e production rate around 4$$7.4 . *.* 9-e .ina Mendong @ontribution Income to t-e .ina Mendong Aevenue 9-e c-aracteristic of -ouse-old economic of mina mendong farmer can be seen from t-e income t-at t-e0 get. 9-e income itself is not onl0 from mina mendong cultivation !on farm# itself but also from off farm and nonfarm. Fow big t-e contribution income to t-e revenue can be seen in t-is table5 9able % .ina Mendong @ontribution Income Source of Income Income +verage !Ap# Income @ontribution !=# &n /arm &ff /arm Non /arm 1 ($% $) 4 2?%141)2? 17 ?47)7( 41)%( 2%)2( 1*)22

9-e main income is from mina mendong cultivation and it gives contribution around 41.%( percent to t-e revenue. It means t-at t-e farmer ma7e t-eir dail0 life dependent on mina mendong cultivation !on farm#. 9-ose incomes from off farm and non-farm give contribution around 2%.%( and 1*.22 percent. Fowever) from *1 respondents not all -ave off farm and non-farm activit0 to support t-em. 9-e c-aracteristic of -ouse-old economic can be seen in t-is table5

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Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.1%) 2 1*

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9able 4. @ontribution of Fouse-old Economics Income +ccording to Source of Income Source of Income Number of Fouse-olds "ercentage &n /arm &ff /arm Non /arm *1 2( 1? 1 ) 77)(1 41)2? percent) off farm

/rom t-e table above t-ere are * source of income: for famil0 w-o -as on farm activit0 is 1 activit0 is 77.(1 percent and non-farm activit0 is 41.2? percent.

,' Conclusions 9-e result of t-e stud0 discussed in t-e manuscript s-ow t-at t-e factors w-ic- give obvious impact to mina mendong cultivation are fertili8er) seeds fis- and pellet w-ile area and emplo0ment is not give t-e obvious impact. 9-e mina mendong contribution income to t-e -ouse-old revenue is around 41.%( percent and t-e rest w-ic- is 2%.%( percent and 1*.22 percent is come from off farm and non-farm income. It means t-at mina mendong is become t-e biggest source of income. Aecommendation for t-is researc- are optimall0 t-e main factors w-ic- give obvious impact to t-e cultivation can be t-e focus of t-e farmers to increase t-eir production and local government can provide some private or training program to increase t-e farmers; s7ill about mina mendong cultivation. 2eside t-at) t-e local government can give fertili8er) seeds fis-) and pellet in suitable price w-ic- give t-e obvious impact of mina mendong production. eferences +ndriati. !2 *#. Fouse-old /armer 2e-avior in ,est Java Economics +ctivities !In Bahasa Indonesia#. 9esis .agister Sains. "rogram "ascasar3ana Institut "ertanian 2ogor) 2ogor) Indonesia. 2arnum) F.N. N C) S<uire. !1?7?#. +n Econometric +pplication of 9-e 9-eor0 of 9-e /arm-Fouse-old. Journal of Development Economics. 4 5 7?-1 2 2ec7er) >. !1?$1#. + 9reatise on 9-e famil0. @ambridge5 Farvard 1niversit0 "ress. 2ec7er) >.S. !1?4%#. 9-e Economic +pproac- to Fuman 2e-avior. @-icago5 9-e 1niversit0 of @-icago "ress. @-avas) J.".) A. "etrie N .. Aot-. !2 %#. /arm Fouse-old "roduction Efficienc05 Evidence /rom t-e >ambia. +merican Journal of +gricultural Economics. 'ol $7 !1# 5 14 -17? @o0le) 2.9. !1??(#. Dualit0 +pproac-es to 9-e Specification of +griculture Fouse-old .odels in +griculture Fouse-old .odelling and /amil0 Economics. Departement ".&.2oD 211.1 +E) +msterdam. Everson) Aobert E. !1?74#. &n 9-e New Fouse-old Economics. Journal of +gricultural Economics and Development. 4!1# 5 $7-1 7 Dinas Gelautan Dan "eri7anan Gabupaten .alang. !2 ?#. "riorit0 "rogram of Dinas Gelautan dan "eri7anan. O&nlineP +valiable5 -ttp5BB7elautan.malang7ab.go.id !November 1) 2 12.#. Fansen) >.E. !1?$1#. +gricultural and Aural Development in Indonesia. @olorado5 ,estview "ressB2oulder Intriligator) .. D. !1?7$#. Econometric .odels) 9ec-ni<ues and +pplications. New Del-i5 "rentice Fall International. Goutso0iannis) +. !1?7$#. 9-eor0 of Econometrics5 +n Introductor0 EDposition of Econometrics .et-ods.New Qor75 Farper and Aow "ublis-er Inc. Co7ollo) E. !2 1#. .ar7et Dependenc0 and Fouse-old /ood @onsumption in East Java) Indonesia. Jurnal +gro E7onomi. 1? !2# 517-*%. Aoc-aeni) S N .. Co7ollo) Erna. !2 %#. /actors t-at affect of /armer Decision Fouse-ould Economics in Setugede 'illage 2ogor @it0 !in bahasa Indonesia#. Jurnal +gro E7onomi. 2* !2# 5 1**-1%$. Sumodiningrat) >. 1??(. Intermediar0 of Econometric !in Bahasa Indonesia#. Qog0a7arta5 1>.. Susilowati) S.F.) Supadi N @. Sale-. !2 2#. Diversification of Fouse-old Income Source in ,est Java Aural !In Bahasa Indonesia#. Jurnal +gro E7onomi. 2 !1# 5 $%-1 ? Suprant) 9. !2 1#. +nal0sis of Irian Ja0a Fouse-old Economics /armer 2e-aviour !In Bahasa Indonesia# . 9esis. I"2. 2ogor. 1nit "embeni-an Aa70at !1"A# Sumber .ina Cestari. !2 12#. Jaringan "asar Dan "rospe7 1sa-a. O&nlineP +vailable5 -ttp5BB 7ampung-nila.blogspot.com !&ctober 1() 2 12.#.

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