The Dravidians were, however, a highly enterprising race of warriors and traders.

They practised peaceful industry and commerce. They traded in their own vessels and carried the Indian teak, rice, muslins and peacocks to far off Persia, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Originally, the Dravidians had no caste system and no regular classes of priests etc. These institutions were later on introduced y the Aryan colonists who rought with them refined notions of religion and philosophy. The Dravidians were gradually converted to the faith of the Aryans. In modern times they are mainly represented y the Tamils, the Andhras, the !annadigas and the Malayalis. The earliest historical reference to the Deccan, "known as Dakshinapatha in the period#, is in the Aitareya $rah% mana "circa &'' $.(.#, which also refers to various tri es of people living here such as the Andhras, the Pulindas, the )a aras etc. Panini "circa *'' $.(.#, the great )anskrit

grammarian, also refers to the south ut does not give any details. In the epic age "circa +,''%+''' $.(.# the Deccan was known as Dandakaranya, It is associated with the life of -ama in the forest. The Andhras The greater portion of the Deccan appears to have come under the rule of the Mauryan kings even efore Asoka. .owever, definite mention of the Andhras occurs in the thirteenth rock% edict of Asoka. Pliny "+st century A.D.# speaks of a powerful king of the Andhra country possessing thirty fortified towns as well as an army of +'',''' infantry, /,''' cavalry and +,''' elephants. !ondapur in Medak Disrict of Telangana, 012 miles, .from3 .ydera ad, is4 surmised to e one of the 52thirty6 walled 5.towns% descri ed, y .the 7reek writers, )P2,,,%08 The original kingdom of the Andhras appears to have een near the mouth of

the river !rishna, with its capital at )rikakulam "Divi Taluk, !rishna District, Andhra Pradesh#. The early Andhra kings seem to have con9uered the northern Decean consisting of $erar, .ydera ad and the (entral Provinces. In the middle period Pratish%thana "now Paithan in the Auranga ad District, Maharashtra )tate# ecame the capital of the Andhra !ings. The Andhra kings are usually identified with the )atavahana kings. According to the Puranas, )imuka was the first among the )atavahana kings. .owever, on the evidence of a copper coin8, Mahamahopadhyaya :. :. Mirashi has held that one )atavahana was the founder of this dynasty. Possi ly, the Puranas do not mention him as he was a local ruler and did not attain imperial status. !ing )imuka is regarded as having flourished in the last 9uarter of the third century $.(. "( /1' $.(.# .e seems to have overthrown the yoke of the Mauryas and e;tended the limits of

his kingdom far and wide across the Decean. The ne;t great king in the line was )atakarni Of )atakarni we have inscriptions which tell us that he was the supreme ruler of Dakshinapatha. .e appears to have con9uered <estern Malwa. The ne;t important king !untala )atakarni invaded Magadha "modern $ihar# and slew the last of the !anvas. =ahapana, a king of the !sha% harata clan " eing one of the western )atraps#, seems to have wrested Maharashtra from the )atavahanas. The greatest of the )atavahanas, 7autamiputra )atakarni, the twenty% third king of the Andhra line, succeeded in des%rtoying the !shaharata dynasty and in anne;ing their dominions. .e came to the throne a out the last 9uarter of the first century A.D. "( &'5+'0 A.D.#, and was succeeded y his son, :asishthiputra )ri Pulumavi a out +1' 88 T 8 copper coin is in the private collection of )ri .urtntM( !aus of .ydera ad

D. :asudeva. !ing )atakarni and his 9ueen performed a num er of sacrifices including two Ashvamedha sacrifices. 7reat sacrifices were performed y some of the kings. Indra. Pulumavi ruled for some thirty years. )iva and )kanda seem to have een the most popular deities .AD% Pulumavi seems to have een associated with his father as >oint ruler6 perhaps he reigned over Maharashtra while his father ruled in the hereditary )atavahana dominions. @a>nasri "+A0%/'1 A. The worship of some of the :edic gods appears to have continued down to this epoch. =othing is known of this dynasty after //A AD. who retained some vestiges of the former greatness of the line. .# was the last important ruler of the Andhras. Dharma. The )atavahana kings appear to have een $rahmins $rahmanism was in a flourishing condition during their period.e married a daughter of -udradaman. After him a few insignificant rulers continued to rule over the eastern portions of his dominions. the )aka Mahakashatrapa of ?>>ayini.

%1'' The kingdom of the Ikshvakus e.owever8 the )atavahanas continued till //A ACD . //. The Ikshvakus. the )atavahana kings were tolerant of other faiths. The capital of the kingdom was :i>ayapuri situated in the =agar>unakonda valley in the =allamalai range.D. A catholic spirit of religion seems to have prevailed.tended over the districts a out the mouths of the rivers !rishna and 7odavari. . $uddhism continued to flourish in the Deccan during their period.cavated and used either as (haityagrihas "temples# or as :iharas "residential 9uarters for $uddhist monks and mendicants#.owever.worshipped.appear 546ta3 have3 esta lished B their kingdon y overthrowing the )atavahanas in this region a out //. =umerous caves were e. the ancient name of which was )riparvata6 The 6BIkshvakus6. A. . <e also find many foreigners em racing either $uddhism or $rahmanism.

=ear the remains of a stupa which was unearthed were found a few e. The famous =agar>una. and the fragments of its railings have een removed. where the smaller relics which have een picked up during the e. It is an ancient centre of $uddhistic culture. partly to the $ritish Museum. Another famous $uddhist site is Amaravati near 7un%tur. The entire stupa is now in ruins. have een uilt here in the later )atavahana period.cavations conducted y the Archaeological )urvey of India are housed.9uisite sla s of limestone illustrating scenes from the $uddhaBs life. a $uddhist philosopher. have een discovered.The =agar>unakonda valley is situated in the =algonda district of Andhra Pradesh. ruins of stupas. A eautiful stupa seems to.. . monasteries and a university elonging to the third century A. An island museum is esta lished at =agar>unakonda.ponent of the Mahayana school of $uddhism appears to have lived at this university. who was the e.D. At this spot.

It is uncertain if the Ikshvakus of the Andhra country -epresented a rach of the ancient Ikshvaku family of Ayodhya who might have migrated to the Deecan and settled on the lower !rishna8 )antamula "(hamtamula# appears to have founded the dynasty. Madras. The figures at Amaravati are characterised y slim. A few sla s from the Amaravati stupa are in the . The image of $uddha occurs here and there ut the $lessed One is often represented y sym ols in the .e is known to have performed an Ashvamedha sacrifice. and partly to the 7overnment Museum. particularly the lotuses. are most admira ly represented in this school. The Amaravati school of Indian art had great influence all over Asia. The scenes are fascinating.ydera ad Museum "1A specimens#. . .Eondon. The plants and flowers.ina% yana period. lithe features and they are represented in most difficult poses and curves.

)antamula was succeeded y his son Mathariputra :irapurushadatta. :irapurushadatta was succeeded y his son Fhuvula )antamula II who ruled for a out ++ years. The independent rule of the Ikshvakus appears to have terminated y the end of the third century A. -ecords of :irapurushadattaBs reign have een found at the $uddhist sites of Amaravati. $rihatphalayana)> )alankayanas and :ishnukwndins In the Andhra country. only one of whom Caya%varman is known from a solitary surviving copper%plate grant found at !ondamudi in the Tenali taluk of 7untur district.D. Caggay%yapeta and =agar>unakonda. The Ikshvaku dynasty appears to have ended with -udra Purushadatta II. The inscriptions record private donations to some $uddhist esta lishments. . the latest recorded date eing the kingBs twentieth regnal year. the Ikshvakus were followed y kings of the $rihatphalayana gotra. and the remnants of the kingdom were pro a ly a sor ed into the Pallava dominions.e elonged to the .

and 0'' A. They ruled etween /A. . One of the kings of this line y name .D. The capital of the $rihatphalayanas was !udura or 7uduru near Masulipatam in the !rishna district.icons means =andi. <est 7oda%vari and 7untur districts from :engipura near Fluru.ecutive officer known as :apatam. The )alankayanas ruled over the !rishna.D.is kingdom was said to have een divided into aharas each under an e. the vahana of )iva.last 9uarter of the third century and the eginning of the fourth century A.asthivarman was the contemporary of )amudra 7upta. The word )alankayana according to )anskrit le. This grant may e said to start the seiies of $rahmadeyas or gift to $rahmins which increase in num er and importance through the centuries and confirm the decline of $uddhism and Cainism. It is interesting to note that the figure of a ull is found on the seals of the )alankayana kings whose copper plate grants have so far een .

who was followed y . The Allaha ad pillar inscription of )amudra 7upta mentions the conflict with . It appears that the kingdom was divided into several desas "provinces# governed y desadhipatis. the ne. It is therefore possi le that the ull crest of the )alankayana kings was connected with the name of their family.astivarman was succeeded y his son =andivarrnan I.asti% vatma. .t king of the Peddavegi Plates.discovered.ations and the immunties were to e preserved y the Desadhipatis. These provinces were divided into districts governed y Ayuk%tas4 The village granted in the a ove inscription was to e treated with immunities from all ta. is said to have attained vistory in many attles. <e can have an insight into administrative set up of the )alankayanas through the !ol%lair plates. Ayuktas.astivarman of :engi.astivarman II6 . :alla has and -a>apurushas. Mahara>a . Devavarma was pro a ly the founder of the line who was a devotee of Maheswara and said to have performed Aswamedha.

D.indu colonies of Indo%(hina and Malaysia and there is good reason to elieve that the early Telugu ruleirs took prominent part in the colonisation a road. )kanda was succeded y (handavarman who was followed y =andivarman II. The tutelary deity of the dynasty was (hitrarathaswami.D. )alankayanas weGre followed y :ishnukundins who had )riparvataswami as their diety. the last known king of the dynasty. and continued upto & *+* A. The original home of the :ishnukundins was pro a ly :inukonda in the 7untur district as suggested y !ielhorn and others. son of .astivarman II. Their inscriptions ear close resem lance in their script to the earliest inscriptions of the . and they also worshipped )iva and :ishnu. :ikramahendravalrman is said to have su dued the feudatory chiefs y his . The accepted chronology of this line of kings starts from 00' A.then came )kandavarman. pro a ly )urya.

tere arose a small kingdom ruled y kings of Anandagotra.is kingdom was small.own valour. $etween the kingdom of :ishnukundins in the north and that of the Pallavas in the south. Madhavavaraman I appears to e the greatest in the line who performed eleven Asvamedhas and +''' agni%stomas and some othet rites. Madhava appears to have married a :akataka princes of northern Deccan. the location of which cannot e found out. . he was descri ed as lord of Trikuta and Malaya. Other kings in the line were Damodaravarman. The son and successor of :ikramahendra was 7ovindavarman. . In the solitary inscription of his period found at Ipur. . .e had the surname :ikramasraya and the epithet naeka%samara )amghatta :i>ayin possi ly show that he was king of some importance. comprising pro a ly the modern taluks of 7untur and Tenali. The first of the line was !andata who gave his daughter in marriage to a Pallava prince. Madha% vavarman II was the son of Devavarman and grandson of Madhavavarman I.

''%A. The kings were saivites in religion.D.A The (halukyas ruled over a great part of the Deccan with their capital at .#. the ruler of a large tract of country which once formed two separate kingdoms with two capitals.Attivarman and a grandson of !andara whose name is not known. The (halukyas of :atapi.e attacked the countries of south !osala "upper Mahanadi valley# and%!alingadesa. The )outhern Invasion of )amudra 7upta )amudra 7upta "circa 11. the great king of the 7upta dynasty. Andhra Pradesh#. circa . Among )amudra 7uptaBs other con9uests was the territory of )wamidatta. The capital of the kingdom was !andarapura. This con9uest y him is known as the great Digvi>aya. . Pishtapura "modern Pithapuram in the Fast 7odavari district of Andhra Pradesh# and !ottur "in )ringavarapu%kota taluk. :isakhapatnam district.%1&' A. who ruled over Magadha "modern $ihar#. invaded the )outh and rought under his su >ection several kingdoms of the Deccan.

. esta lished an overlordship and performed an Ashvamedha sacrifice. and contain mural paintings on the walls and ceilings.D. son of !irtivarman. . $. the king of Thaneshwar and !anau>.arshavaBrdhana. who esta lished his power firmly over Eata "southern 7u>arat# and thus strengthened his northern frontier against .e died a out .' miles north%east of Auranga ad in the )tate of Maharashtra were discovered in a out +&/+. Then came the great pulakesin II. and the Ath (entury A.** A. attacked his kingdom ut was repulsed on the anks of the =armada river. Most of them elong . .is two sons !irtivarman and Mangalesa followed him.(.:atapi "$adami in the $i>apur district#. The first great king was Pulakesin I.D.ecuted etween the +st century. The /H caves seem to have een e.arsha. Their kingdom was esta lished a out the middle of the *th century A. who con9uered many provinces. Pulakesin II was a very powerful monarch.D. which are now world%famous. The caves which are situated a out .

%+'A* 5Pulakesin II con9uered from the Pallavas the :engi country "which was situated etween the !rishna and the 7odavari rivers near their mouths# and esta lished his younger rother !u >a :ishnuvardhana as the viceroy of this new dominion and the latter started .iuen%Tsang. the famous (hinese pilgrim.e overran the territory of the !adam as of $anavasi "=orth (anara# and fre9uently warred with the Pallava power of !anchi .e ruled from *+'%*0/ A.Dt +' The Fastern (halukyas of :engi. figures of the $uddha and incidents from his lives. an Offshoot of the (halukyas of :atapi.e "Pulakesin# made himself respected y the rulers of 7u>arat.to the :aka%taka 7upta age. circa *+. PulakesinBs court was visited y . . The =iIamBs 7overnment did much to preserve these paintings. They contain a variety of decorative designs and also depict sacred o >ects and sym ols. Malwa and the !onkanu .

#. the :engi kingdom came under the suIerainty of his nephew -a>endra . =olam as. The (halukyan kings of :engi had a checkered history./ AD.#. Ater the death of :i>ayaditya :II in +'A* AD.#. which ruled over the :engi%-a>ah%mundry region till late in the eleventh century. (halukya $hima II "HA1%+''/ AD. Pallavas. :i>ayaditya II "&'*%&0* AD.#.the Fastern (halukyan dynasty.#. -a>a%ra>a "+'+H0'*+ AD. :ishnuvardhana III "A+&%A.#. :imaladitya "+'++0'+& AD. The important rulers who succeeded !u >a :ishnuvardhana I were Cayasimha I "*0+%*A1 A.#. the (halukyas of :engi had fre9uently wars with the -ashtoa%kutas.#. :i>ayaditya I "A. :i>ayaditya :II "+'*+0'A* AD. 7angas and the =aga%vamsi kings of (hakrakuta. Andhra Pradesh#. :i>ayaditya III "&0&%&H/ AD. Ammara>a I "H0.#. (holas. The capital of the kingdom was at Pedda :egi near Fllore "<est 7odavari district.1%AA' AD.#.#.%HA& AD. )aktivarman "HHH0''/0'++ AD.#. After the fall of the (halukyan kingdom of $adami.D. (halukya $hima I "&H/%H/+ AD.

The Telugu language and literature developed under the patronage of the Fastern (halukyas. The capital of the :engi kingdom was shifted from Pedda :egi to -a>amahendrapura . who was put to death. !ulottunga sent his sons as :iceroys to the :engi kingdom. The :engi territory was ultimately con9uered y the !akatiya king 7anapatideva. <hen the last of these :iceroys departed from :engi the territory was left in charge of a local family of (hieftains. The Fnd of Puiakesin II The Pallavas of !anchi attacked the (halukyan kingdom and defeated Puiakesin II. The fortunes of the (halukyas were retrieved for a rief period y the son of Puiakesin II."-a>ahmundry# y M Amntara>a I. ut the last of . =annaya $hat was rendered the first two and half cantos of Maha haratha into Telugu was in the court of -a>ara>a.who ecame the (hola Fmperor assuming the title !ulottunga.

is great achievement was the construction of the famous rock%cut !ailas temple at Fllora. The territory occupied y them was originally known as -attavadi6 they had two capitals. There are 10 caves divided into $uddhistic. !ali# iga and )risailam.cept the southern portion. all famous for their sculpture. $rahmanical and Cain caves. The first impo rtant !ing was Dantidurga. had een in the Deccan from very early times.1 A.D. who superseded the (halukyas./%HA1 + he -ashtrakutas. .the (halukyas was overthrown y the -ashtrakutas. ! rishna I succeeded Dantidurga. The -ashtrakutas. one at Mayurkhandi "in the =asik district of Maharashtra# and the other after the Hth century at Manyakheta "Malkhed in the Mysore )tate#. A out the same time he completed his con9uests y forcing into su mission the rulers of !anchi. . he had taken possession of all the (halukyan dominions e. A. which is situated near Auranga ad in the Maharashtra )tate. $y A.

?nder 7ovinda III the -ashtrakutas verily ecame invinci le.is dominions e. The ne.e checked the southern progress of $ho>a I of !anau>. HA1% ++H& The <estern (halukyan line was revived a out the last 9uarter of the tenth .e had to carry on a war with the (halukyas of :engi. .t great king Amoghavarsha I removed his capital to Manyakheta.tended from Cura in $aghelkhand to Tan>ore in the south.interest of -ashtrakuta history in the days of !rishna IBs successors centres round the struggle with the Pratiharas of !anau>. The <estern (halukyas of !alyani. The chief . Indra III inflicted a (rushing defeat on Mahipaia. the Pratihara king of !anau>.acted tri ute from the Pallavas of !anchi and installed one of their +/ princes on the throne of south 7u>arat. . . They e.All the caves are nearly a thousand years old. !rishna III was the last great king of the line.

$il%hana. The !akatiyas of <arangBal. This later (halukyan kingdom disappeared a out ++H& A.D. Mysore )tate#. The (halukyas of !alyani had a distinguished line of kings after )atyasraya.treme tolerance towards other faiths. +'''%+1/1 The !akatiyas of <arangal were a feudatory family that rose out of the ruins of the (hola and the later (halukyan empires. he practised e. who ac9uired the whole of the -ashtrakuta dominion with the e. of their rise and early growth are very meagre8 One of the .indu Eaw were patronised y :ikramaditya.D. Of these. y one Tailapa. The (hola king -a>a -a>a I pillaged the (halukyas country a out +''A AD#. however.century A. the author of the Mitakshara system of . The details.ception of southern 7u>arat and ruled from !alyani "7ul arga district. =onetheless. :ikramaditya :I "+'A*%++/*# is known as a great patron of learning. the famous !ashmiri poet and :i >nyaneshwara.

.D. The is name !akatiya is derived from !akati.inscriptions of the dynasty gives a correct genealogy upto 7anapati. .e was succeeded y his son Prolara>a II "or Prodara>a# a out +++A A. . . After Prolara>a II.D.#.anumakonda a out ++'' A.e was a very powerful king. came his son the famous Pratapa%rudradeva I "circa ++.anumakonda. who was the reigning king at .e uilt the temple of thousand pillars at . The !akatiya dynasty was reigning in the eastern Deccan for the last two centuries efore the capture of their capital city <arangal y Muhammad in Tugla9 in +1/1.D.& A. the goddess whom they worshipped. The first important ruler was Tri huvanamalla $eta%ra>a II. <ithin this temple was discovered a long )anskrit inscription in the Telugu characters from which our knowledge of the !akatiyas is mainly derived.plain the origin of this dynasty. There are various legends which e.

7anapati. and his inscriptions are found in !anchi and !alahasti.e was followed y his daug%ter -udramma in +/*+. who assumed the male title of -udra Mahara>a. . .e claimed a victory over the (holas.is dominion e. who touched the (oromandel (oast during her reign.e had to capitulate and agreed to send an annual tri ute and give up all his . . Jueen -udramma ruled the country wisely and well. It was during his time that Malik !afur. the general of Ala%ud%din !hil>i entered Telangana and attacked <aran%gal. ascended the throne in ++H& A. Prataparudra II. the ne. . Prataparudra II offered the most desperate resistance.tended as far as -aichur in the west and !anchi in the south.t important ruler. Trade was in a flourishing condition under him. According to Marco Polo. . )he finally a dicated the throne in +H/+ in favour of a grandson. This king was the last great !akatiya.e also overcame the Telugu (hoda chiefs of =ellore.D.e was a nephew of Prataparudra. .

!ing Prataparudra II successfully resisted the invasion6 ut in a later attack <arangal was captured and the king was taken prisoner and sent to . a splendid specimen of a monolith. which was taken to Delhi Malik !afur. )iva. )pecimens of the eautiful decorative art of these temples can e seen in the . In +1/1 Prince Cuna or Cauna !han "later styled Muhammad in Tughla9#.cavations at <arangal.ydera ad Museum. the founder of the Tughla9 dynasty. :ishnu and )urya. was entrusted with the military viceroyalty of the Deccan and led an e. where a pavilion has een e>ected using the pillars and ceiling sla s unearthed during the e.treasure.pedition against <arangal. y +0 Temples were constructed on a most magnificent scale in the !akatiya period. The thousand%pillared temple is dedicated to the Triad. In front of the temple is the sacred ull. the heir%apparent of 7hiyas%ud%din Tughla9.

rule of the !akatiyas came to an end.Delhi. After this. )everal minor principalities rose on the ruins of the !akatiya dominions and flourished for a time. The maladministration and the tyrannical rule to which the Deccan was su >ected during the reign of Muhammad in Tughla96 led the =ayakas of the Andhra country to unite under the leadership of Prolaya =ayaka. A rief account of them is given elow. on the anks of the =armada river. +1/. The Activities of the =ayakas. !apaya =ayaka ecame the leader and completed the li eration of the east coast . he appears to have committed suicide on his way in the year +1/1. ?na le to endure the itterness of his humiliations. <ith the defeat and death of Prataparudra II the.pedition to <arangal captured -a>ahmundry where a Muslim 7overnor was appointed.% +1*& Prince Cauna !han after his e. They invaded -a>ahmundry and drove away the Muslim 7overno8% of the place.

the :elamas and $ukkaraya I of :i>ayanagar.+. Andhra Pradesh#.e was one of the generals of the last !akatiya king Pratapa%rudra IE . .1%*0 #. .istence.e took possession of the coastal region etween the !rishna river in the north and the Pennar river in the south and the wide tract of land comprising )risailam and Aho ilam in the !urnool district. . who elonged to Panta family of -eddis. +1/. This king successfully defended his territory against attacks y the 7anga king of !alinga.e ruled over it from Addanki "Ongole taluk. .e was a patron of Telugu literature.%.e was followed y his son Anapota -eddi "+1.%+0/0 Prolaya :ema -eddi "+1/. The -eddis of !ondavidu.. founded this kingdom in +1/. 7untur district. The =ayakas ecame independent thereafter in their respective provinces and a num er of small principalities came into e.. .e shifted the capital . This was accomplished in +1/.1 #.

from Addanki to !ondavidu "=arasaraopet taluk.e was succeeded y h6. Eater on. This -eddi king was a great scholar and wrote several works on music and rhetoric. !umaragiri -eddi himself was displaced y his cousin Peddakomati :ema -eddi.s rother Anavema -eddi "+1*0%+1&*#. The :elamas attacked his kingdom in +0/' and he was killed in an encounter.e was succeeded y his nephew !umaragiri -eddi "+1&*%+0'1#. . . Andhra Pradesh# and fortified the hill fortress. .arihara IE !ataya :ema -eddi also made fresh con9uests in the north for which he was rewarded y eing made :iceroy of the con9uered territories with -a>ahmundry as head9uarters. This king con9uered the 7anga kingdom upto )imhachalam in the :isakhapatnam district. The administration of this kingdom was in the hands of his a le rother%in% law !ataya :ema -eddi who had to defend the kingdom against the attack of the :i>ayanagar king . who ruled from +0'1 to +0/'. 7untur district. !ataya :ema -eddi ecame independent in -a>ahmundry.

. and +0+A.e died in +0/' and the administration was taken over y his elder son :ema -eddi as regent. :ema -eddi invaded !alinga.e was followed y his son -achavema -eddi "+0/'%+0/0# who was an oppressive ruler and was assassinated y his su ordinates. +0'1%+00& This kingdom originated as a fief granted y the !onda%vidu king !umaragiri -eddi to his 7eneral !ataya :ema -eddi. his su ordinate Allada -eddi carried on the administration as regent in the name of his son for sometime and !ataya :ema -eddfs daughter for sometime. con9uered numerous places in it and re%esta lished the frontier at . .+* . . The -eddis of -a>ahmundry.e was a patron of the cele rated Telugu poet )rinadha. After the death of the latter. <ith him ended the -eddi kingdom of !onda% vidu.e took a leading part in repelling the $ahmani invasion etween +0+. which was soon a sor ed y :i>ayanagar.

who ecame the ruler of <arangal and Telan%gana from +11. .e killed !apaya =ayaka..is son Anapota%nayaka "+1*+%+1&0# e. the king of <arangal. . . The :elamas of =algonda.e proclaimed his independence like all other =ayakas in +1/.. con9uered this kingdom in +00&. )in%gama I of this family was a =ayaka under !akatiya. occupied all his territory and ecame ruler of Telanagna.e was a contemporary of the famous !apaya =ayaka.)imhachalam. Prataparudradeva and governed the =algonda district. in +1*&. .%+0A0 The :elama chieftains played a prominent part in the politics of the Deccan for over a century after the fall of <arangaE They elonged to the Padmanayaka section of the :elama community and the -echerla family. )ingama resisted !apayaBs attempts at su >ugation of the :elama territory.e had KK lights with the $ahLani +A .panded his territory considera ly . +1/. the ruler of Orissa. 7a>apati.

In the later period the $ahmani )ultans made repeated attacks against their kingdoms.tinct y the year +0A0. the wealthy capital of the .)ultans in the west./. They >oined hands with the :i>ayanagar kings in their attacks against the $ahmani )ultans. A gradual disintegration of the two kingdoms took place on account of these incessant wan and they ecame e. . The :elamas were inveterate enemies of the -eddis and carried on fre9uent attacks against the -eddi kingdoms.e attacked Devagiri "modern Daulata ad in Maharashtra )tate#. Muslim Penetration into the Deccan Ala%ud%din. yias the first Muslim invader who entered the Deccan in the year +/H0. the nephew of the !hil>i king Calal%iid%din. . Anapota retaining the northern half with -a>akonda as capital and Mada o taining the southern half which he governed from Devarakonda. the -eddis of !ondavidu in the east and the -ayas of :i>ayanagar in the south. The :elama kingdom split into two in the time of Ana%pdta.

thus opened to the north. Malik !afur reduced Devagiri to su mission in +1'A. reduced the kingdoms of <arangal and Madura.@adava king.peditions as far south as Madura.. were never again closed. The new% . After Ala%ud%din !hil>i ecame the )ultan of Delhi. during his viceroyalty of the Deccan in +1/1. The kingdom of <arangal was reduced to su mission in +1'H%+' . The siege lasted for sometime ut in the end -a>a -am Dev had to sue for peace..oyasala kingdom of Dwara%samudra and conducted his e. The gates of the Deccan. )P2. he sent his general Malik !afur to invade the Deccan.5/ % Muhammad in Tughla9. In +1/A the )ultan decided to shift his capital from Delhi to Devagiri "Daulata ad# in the Deccan. Ala%ud%din stipulated for the payment of a large sum of money and for the cession of the territory of Fllichpur and returned to Malwa through !handesh. Malik !afur also invaded the .

the conse9uences of which were again tragic.periment. and a regular post etween Delhi and Daulata ad.odus.owever. shady trees on oth sides of it. . the city of Daulata ad gained some prominence as a result of this e. $ut the whole e.periment failed misera ly as a very large proportion of the people on their march from Delhi to Daulata ad perished on account of fatigue. The )ultan also did his est to make the new capital a suita le a ode for his officers and the people y providing it with eautiful uildings and all facilities for the immigrants from Delhi. such as a spacious road.e was much impressed with the . The )ultan himself could not remain at Daulata ad for long as trou les roke out in the north and he had to rush ack to Delhi.capital occupied a central and strategic situation. I n $atuta. came to India and en>oyed the patronage of Muhammad in Tugh%la9. . hunger or illness. The people who had come to Daulata ad were ordered a second e. a devout Muslim orn in Africa.

The story goes that he was employed as a field la ourer in the house of a $rahmin y name 7angu who predicted that he )P2.5/8 : would ecome a 4king.impregna le fortress of Daulata ad.e took .asan 7angu $ahmani.. Moundation of the $ahmani !ingdom The $ahmani kingdom was founded y Ala%ud%din Nafar !han $ahmani a out the middle of the +0th century. the wealth of the country.4ygO9 is sai9l to have styled himself )ultan Ala%ud%din . . . Other historians elieve that he ac9uired his name as he claimed descent from a Persian prince named $ahman !aikaus. .asan 7angu $ahmani to keep alive the name of his master.e is more popularly known as .. its flourishing agriculture and the a undance of fruits grown in the region.e was one of those who had to change their residence from Delhi to Devagiri "Daulata adB# during the reign of Muhammad in Tugh%la9.

)aints and scholars from all parts of Asia were welcomed kt the court of the $ahmani kings.e made himself master of a very large kingdom which e. The eastern and western oundaries of the $ahmani kingdom varied from time to time. Architects were invited from Persia to plan and superintend the construction of mos9ues and one of the most remarka le uildings in the Deccan is the great mos9ue at 7ul arga. .tended as far as the river Tapti on the north and the Tunga hadra and the !rishna rivers on the south.tended from sea to sea. It was only a out the close of the fifteenth century that the kingdom e. <ithin a few years )ultan Ala%ud%din moved to 7ul% arga and made it his capital.advantage of the disorder prevailing in the Deccan and overthrew one Ismail Makh who was ruling at Daulata ad in +10A. called . In that year he ascended the throne at Daulata ad and styled himself Ala%ud%din $ahman )hah. Ala%ud%din $ahman )hah divided his kingdom into four provinces.

Mu>ahid )hah./*. =iIam )hah..pedition into%Telan%gana. a process which was completed y the year +. . Daulata ad.e was assisted y an a le minister% named )aifuddin 7hori. Ahmad )hah. The )ultan made an unsuccessful attempt to capture 7oa and other places on the west coastB elonging to. m . y a out the time India was invaded y $a ar The important rulers who succeeded )ultan Ala%ud%din were Muhammad )hah. An important event which marked the entire history of the greater $ahmani . each of which was placed under a 7overnor. the kingdom of :i>ayanagar and also led an e. and $idar. Ala% ud%din II. Muhammad )hah III and Muhammad )hah I:. MeroI )hah. $erar..e.istory of the !ingdom The kingdom thus founded y )ultan Ala%ud%din flourished till a out +0H'.%7ul arga. i. . This year marks the eginning of the gradual distintegration of the greater $ahmani kingdom. Muhammad )hah II.umayun )hah. viI.Tarafs.

& onwards. This territory changed hands from time to time. The one of contention etween the two )tates was the -aichur Doa . Pertal. . which contained the important forts of -aichur and Mudki or Mudkal. with the neigh ouring . was su se9uently married to the son of Peross )hah. which went on from the year +1. The capital of the greater $ahmani kingdom was transferred from 7ul arga to $idBa: in the year +0/.indu king Devaraya provoked a war in an effort to seiIe a eautiful daughter of a goldsmith named Pertal.cellent fortifications and its strategic position. The huge gates and massive astions of the fort of $idar are an imposing spectacle of the city8s military defences. during the reign of Ahmad )hah <ali. the cause of the war. its e.kingdom was the intermittent war. "the territory etween the !rishna and tho Tunga hadra rivers#. $idar was chosen ecause of its etter climate. The .indu kings of :i>ayanagar.

In the reign of Muhammad )hah II "+0*1001/ # the $ahmani kingdom attained its Ienith. Muhammad )hah captured $elgaum and 7oa from the .indu ruler of :f>aya%nagar and also su >ugated the feudal lord of !ondapallE /+ $ut he was tyrannical and caused many atrocities against the .indus, a policy which was not relished y the Dec%cani Muslims, who saw in it a fore oding of the coming evil to the integrity of the $ahmani kingdom. $ut the foulest deed of this )ultan was the murder of his own aged minister !hwa>a Mahmud 7awan, a conse9uence of palace intrigues. The rutal murder of 7awan, who more than any one else was responsi le for administrative progress in the $ahmani kingdom, sent a wave of indignation through the )ultanBs dominions and paved the way for its reak%up. The ne;t reign, that of Mahmud )hah II "+0&/0,+& #, son of the murderer of 7awan, was an unceasing tale of murder

and intrigue. During his time the various provincial governors ecame practically independent and each contrived to set up a separate government in his >urisdiction. @usuf Adil !han asserted his independence in $i>a%pur in the year +0H' and founded the Adil )hahi dynasty there. The rulers of Ahmadnagar and $erar are said to have formally assumed independence in the same year, +0H'. The governor of Telangana Jut ul%mulk founded the Jut )hahi line of 7olconda a out the same time ut not styled himself as independent king until +,+/ A.D. The truncated $ahmani kingdom survived for some time at $idar, ut y a out the year +,/* it was usurped y Amir Ali $arid, a minister of the last $ahmani )ultan. Thus the process of the dismem erment of the greater $ahmani kingdom was completed on the eve of the con9uest of .industan y $a ar. Deccan under the $ahmani !ings The following is an assessment of the $ahmani rule in the Deccan84 5

3The history of the $ahmani dynasty in the Deccan on the whole offers no pleasant reading. Most of its )ulP 5 An Advanced .istory of India y Ma>undar, -oy (haudhari 5md !a!kmCw pp. 1*K1*1. // tans employed themselves chiefly in terri le wars, and its internal politics were severely distracted y court intrigues and civil strife. Among the eighteen kings of this dynasty, five were murdered, two died of intemperance, and three were deposed, two of them eing linded. The $ahmani )ultans should, however, e credited with patronage of learning and education, erection of fortresses and uildings, and construction of irrigation works in the eastern provinces, which enefited the peasantry while securing more revenue to the )tate. 3<e get a glimpse of the condition of the common people in the $ahmani kingdom from certain o servations made y the -ussian traveller, Athanasius

=ikitin, who travelled in this kingdom during the years +0A' to +0A0 in the reign of Muhammad )hah III .e writes4 Bthe )ultan is a little man, twenty years old, in the power of the no les. The )ultan goes out with 1'',''' men of his own troops. The land is overstocked with people6 ut those in the country are very misera le, whilst the no les are e;tremely opulent and delight in lu;ury. They are wont to e carried on their silver eds, preceded y some /' chargers caparisoned in gold and followed y 1'' men on horse ack and y ,'' on foot, and y hornmen, ten torch% earers, and ten musicians. 3 BThe )ultan goes out hunting with his mother and his lady, and a train of +',''' men on horse ack, ,',''' on foot6 /'' elephants adorned in gilded armour, and in front +'' horsemen, +'' dancers and 1'' common horses in golden clothing6 +'' monkeys and +'' concu ines, all foreign2 3Thus the testimony of a foreign traveller tells us that the lot of the

$ut there is no other positive evidence to ena le us to form an accu% rate picture of the condition of the mass of the people during the whole of the $ahmani period. The accounts of the Muslim chroniclers are full of details regarding military%campaigns and wars against infidels. The history of these dynasties is riefly summarised elow.common people was hard as compared with the lu.A0 The Imad )hahi dynasty was founded y Mathullah Imad )hah in a out +0H'. ' The Imad )hahi Dynasty of $erar. +0H'% +.# the $arid )hahi dynasty of $idar. "1# the Adil )hahi dynasty of $i>apur. "/# the =iIam )hahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar.3 The five new )ultanates formed after the reak%up of the $ahmani kingdom were4 "+# the Imad )hahi dynasty of $erar. and ".urious standard of living of the no ility. "0# the Jut )hahi dynasty of 7olconda. . without any reference to the history of the people.

em ittered the delations etween $erar on the one hand and Ahmadnagar and the other Deccan )ultanates on the other. its governor in +. which $urhan =iIam )hah of Ahmadnagar claimed as his patrimony. . $erar had cause for 9uarrel with Ahmadnagar.A0. however. . Ala%ud%din Imad )hah of $erar invoked the aid of $ahadur )hah of 7u>arat against Ahmadnagar. During the regency of (hand $i i. The =iIam )hahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar +0H'%+*1A The =iIam )hahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar was founded y =iIam%ul%Mulk in +0H'. At one stage "+. naturally.H*. $erar passed under the control of the Mughal Fmperor Ak ar. )ultan Murad.e also captured the .is a le son Malik Ahmad founded the city of Ahmadnagar. This. <ithin the orders of $erar there were the town and district of Pathri.Mrom the eginning. Minally $erar was a sor ed into Ahmadnagar in the year +. This led to war etween $erar and Ahmadnagar. who made his second son./H#.

H*. The last ruler was MurtuIa =iIam )hah. ./* ut later managed to recover )holapur and the neigh ouring districts from $i>apur.ed to the Mughal Fmpire y )hah Cahan in +*1A. In his time the dowager Jueen (hand $i i offered a gallant and successful resistance to Ak arBs son prince Murad in +.. however.# was fought and -ama -aya of :i>ayanagar was captured in the field of attle and eheaded. .is son .e./0 fortress of Daulata ad in +0HH.1#. succeeded in reaking up the alliance and turning the Mus%salman rulers against :i>ayanagar as a result of which the attle of Talikota "+.+'%+.e was defeated in a.ussain =iIam )aha was for some time esieged in his own capital y a com ination of the rulers of :i>ayanagar. . purchasing peace y the cession of $erar. Ahmadnagar was finally anne. . $i>apur and 7olconda.*. war with $i>apur in +. Malik Ahmad was followed y his son $urhan =iIam )hah "+.

+0H'%+*&* The annals of $i>apur and the Adil )hahi dynasty that ruled over it are of great interest to the student of Deccan history.e was a popular ruler and admitted . .e made an attempt to recover 7oa. . . came I rahim Adil )hah I whose vices and follies rought nothing ut . . After him /. ut failed.e made Marathi the language of accounts and local usiness.e endeavoured with considera le success to esta lish the )hia faith against great opposition.+'#.The Adil )hahi Dynasty of $i>apur.e uilt the fort and citadel of $i>apur. which was then under the Portuguese. It was the seat of a governorship under the $ahmanis. The founder of this line was @usuf Adil )hah "+0H'%+.+'%10 # ne.is son Ismail Adil )hah "+.indus to offices of trust.t came to the throne. and he followed the policy of his father. . $i>apur stands on the crest of the watershed of the Deccan and the !arnatak. .

t )ultan was Ali Adil )hah. .tent.e died in +.e died in +*/*.AH. In his time there were party factions at :i>aya%nagar and at the invitation of one of the parties.e restored the )unni faith aQd made Persian the language of the administration. Though a )unni.. Mor some time he was friendly with -ama -aya of :i>ayanagar ut eventually he >oined the other Muslim )ultans in a com ination against -ama -aya.t ruler was I rahim Adil )hah II.e was. the greatest of the Adil )hahi kings. . The ne. .e appears to have made a secret treaty with the Mughal Fmperor. .A. perhaps. Thus $i>apur was left in peace in the time of Ak ar and that of his son.discredit to the $i>apur )tate. . . The ne.e greatly improved the land revenue and settlement and seems to have followed the system of -a>a Todar Mai to a great e. Ali Adil )hah completed the walls of $i>apur and erected the spacious Cuma Mas>id. he was tolerant of all . I rahim marched on that city and returned with large presents.e died in +. .

. are .ydera ad also employed Maratha karkuns and even Maratha daftardars "-ecord%keepers# to ensure efficient administration. In fact the revenue administration in the kingdom of $i>apur and the other Deccan )ultanates was almost entirely in the charge of Maratha karkuns "clerks# who were e.tensively employed $rahmins for administration and Marathas in his military service.faiths and e. ulit y the Adil )hahi kings. of which the 7ol 7um aI is well%known.perts in dealing with pro lems of survey and settlement of lands and in preparing administrative orders and other documents relating to revenue administration. The Asaf Cahi rulers of . I rahim Adil )hah was friendly with the Portuguese and protected (hristian missions.e adorned his capital with many new uildings. After his death the importance of the dynasty ceased6 In +*&* $i>apur was anne.ed y /* AurangIe . The $i>apur uildings.

+. who had taken possession of <aran%gaE <arangal was permanently anne. The fort was surrounded y a strong wall within which the city of 7olconda once stood8 Juli Jut ul Mulk.'% +. Muhammad Jasim.+/ and styled himself )ultan Juli Jut )hah. The Jut )hahi Dynasty of 7olconda.remarka le from an architectural point of view..A'%+*++#. which constitute one of the important sources for this period.+/%+*&A The kingdom of 7olconda was e. The fort of 7olconda stands on a rocky hill on the northern ank of the Musi a out seven miles from the city of . has left accounts of the Adil )hahs and the =iIam )hahs. asserted his inde%pndenc in +.ydera ad.e uilt a strong fort at 7olconda and fought against )hita !han. surnamed Mirishta "+. .tensive and rich in resources. the 7overnor of 7olconda.&'#6 I rahim Jut )hah proposed the com ination of the Dec%can )ultans . The period also encouraged the chronicling spirit.ed to the kingdom of 7olconda in the reign of I rahim Jut )hah "+.

I rahim Jut )hahBs son.% power%B Minister% Mir Curala. who appealed. against his master. 55$eautiful edifices like% theB(har Minar were also constructed during this period. AurangIe invaded 7olconda.. The )ultan 4grewB >ealous of his. .&'%+*+/# made large additions to the 7olconda fort and uilt as his residential capital the city of . which led to the attle of Talikota. which he is said to have called $haganagar after his favouriteB.indu mistress $hagmati. resulting in the rout of the :i>ayanagar forces.ydera ad. in +*. Muhammad Juli Jut )hah "+.e accepted Mughal 55 suIerainty in4 +*1. . A dulla Jut )hah "+*/*%A/ # devoted much care to the improvement of the 7olconda fort...against the -ayas of :i>ayanagar.ydera ad was plundered and A dulla made peace y paying all arrears of tri ute. . to AurangIe B "the% /A Mughal :iceroy of the Deccan#. B.

asan.asan against AurangIe in Me ruary. The dissoluteness of his private life was alleged as another reason for treating him with the utmost severity. +*AA#.asan Tana )hah gallantly defended the fort with the aid of a rave and faithful lieutenant named A dur -aIIa9 and it seemed as if the Fmperor would never e a le to take . During the reign of A ul . Akkanna and Madanna arranged a reception to )hiva>i at .In +*10 A dullah issued 3the 7olden Mirman3 or -oyal Fdict granting trade privileges to the Fnglish on the east coast. The fort of 7olconda was esieged y AurangIe in +*&A.ydera ad and an interview with A dul . Pralhad Pant was then the resident envoy of )hiva>i at 7olconda.asan Tana )hah. the son of )hiva>i. a su sidiary alliance was entered into etween )hiva>i and A ul . +*AA.e incurred AurangIe Bs wrath in a special measure as he employed $rahmin ministers and had sent money to )am ha>i.asan Tana )hah "March 0. A dullah was followed y his nephew A ul . A ul . .

In +. The $arid )hahi Dynasty of $idar.the fort. The )ultans of the $arid )hahi dynasty were a le to maintain their independence till +*+H./*%+*+H <hen the distant provinces of the $ahmani kingdom declared their independence. +. The fall of 7olconda in Octo er +*&A closed the story of the Jut )hahi dynasty. covered with severe wounds all over his ody. Their policy . A dur -aIIa9 fought ravely ut fell senseless. AurangIe at last had recourse to ri ery and gained admittance through the treachery of one of the officers of the garrison. the remnant of it survived only in name under the descendants of the $arids. Tana )hah was captured and made a prisoner and kept in the fortress of Daulata ad. who opened a gate./* Amir All $arid formally dispensed with the rule of /& the puppet $ahmani )ultan and founded the $arid )hahi dynasty of $idar.

The .indu empire of :i>ayanagar. The result was indecisive. the military general of Ala%ud% din !hil>i. college and other uildings said to have een constructed y the a le $ahmani statesman. It was promptly anne. 1. The :i>ayanagar Fmpire The invasion of the Deccan y Malik !afur.indu kingdoms of the Deccan. took captive its ruler Ali $arid II and formally anne. In +*+H I rahim Adil )hah II of $i>apur marched against $idar. In +*.ed to the Mughal empire.A AurangIe laid siege to the fortress of $idar and after a strenuous campaign succeeded in reducing it. Mahmud 7awan.ed $idar to $i>apur. including the mos9ues. The greatest struggle against $i>apur was in the time of Amir Ali $arid. In this task they did not hesitate to take even the help of the .was to >oin other Muslim states against $i>apur. Today the chief interest of $idar consists in the magnificent tom s of the $ahmanis and the $arid )hahis and other structures of great architectural eauty. had shaken foundations of the .

su se9uent tyranny of Muhammad in Tughla9 increased further a sense of insecurity.arihara. Mour .induism appeared to e in danger of e. Minding his position insecure. They pro a ly fled from <arangal which was esieged y the Muslims in +1/1. The site selected for the new capital was an e. crossed the river and founded in +11* a new city which was named :i>ayanagar. the sons of one )angama. together with his rother $ukka. a contemporary Portuguese traveller and merchant. According to =uniI. . a strong fort on the northern ank of the Tunga hadra y Muhammad in Tughla9. .induism. .arihara had een appointed as the (hief of Anagundi.cellent one. In the task of founding this new kingdom the two rothers were assisted y their preceptor Madhava alias :idyaranya )wami The history of :i>ayanagar covers a period of nearly /1' years.tinction. successfully resisted this onslaught against . .arihara and $ukka.

arihara II. the founders.is con9uests include the capture of the fortresses of )hivasamudram and )rirangapattanam. .'. viI. .dynasties ruled over this kingdom in succession. It was founded y one =arasa =ayaka.A'. who ruled from +.'H%+.. The third dynasty was the Tuluva dynasty which lasted from +. Devaraya II.e restored order throughout the empire and improved the finances of the state. . to +.. :ira :i>aya.'H# who usurped the throne in +.e was succeeded y :eera =arsimha "+. .'. reduction of ?dayagiri and !ondavidu.1'.arihara and $ukka. . The second dynasty was the )aluva. and was succeeded y the great !rishna Devaraya. There were only two kings of this dynasty. $ukka II. Mallikar>una and :irupaksha. The first of these was the )angama dynasty which lasted from +11* till a out the close of +0&. =arasimha )aluva and Immadi =arasimha. which lasted from +0&. The chief rulers of this dynasty were .'1%+. who ruled from +0H'%+.. Devaraya I.'1 as -egent.'. to +.

. was the recovery in +. is attri% 1' uted to him.e encouraged Portuguese and Ara traders in horses. .e uilt and endowed several temples. . The statue of !rishna Devaraya. however.e laid siege to !ondapalli and captured it. a !avya of great literary merit.is greatest achievement. with his two 9ueens on either side rendering homage to the Eord :enkateswara at Tirupati. It is valua le for our knowledge of medieval Andhra history and culture. Amukta Malyada. is placed at the entrance of the Tirupati shrine.. .+1. !rishna Devaraya followed a policy of universal tolerance. !rishna Devaraya was a great patron of )anskrit. !annada and Telugu literature./' from the $ah%mani kings of the much disputed fortresses of -aichur and Mudkal situated in the doa etween the !rishna and the Tunga hadra rivers. All these con9uests were a out the year +.

&# $i>apur and :i>ayanagar com ined to attack Ahmadnagar. The king was of a violent temper and alienated his est friends. )adBasiva -aya was king only in name. The territory of that state was so cruelly ravaged y the . Mifteen years later "+. The real power in the state was wielded y his minister -ama -aya along with his rothers Tirumala -aya and :enkatadrE -ama -aya actively interfered in the confused politics of the Deccan )ultanates. In +. however. saved from destruction y the a ilities of the Minister Asad !han.e was succeeded in +.!rishna Devaraya was succeeded y his rother Achyuta -aya who ruled from +. ..1'%+.01 -ama -aya made an alliance with Ahmadnagar and 7olconda in order to effect a com ined attack on $i>apur.indu army and -ama -aya treated his Muslim allies with such open contempt that the )ultans were convinced of the necessity for dropping their private 9uarrels and com ining against -ama . which was.0/.0/ y his nephew )adasiva -aya.

citement of the attle. $efore he could effect his escape. )eeing that their chief was cfeadl m the65i>ayanagar forces roke up and fled. he was taken prisoner.*. All of a sudden. suddenly rushed forward e. They were hotly pursued until the Muslim forces entered the city of :iCLC5R5 nagar.indu forces with their guns which were loaded with copper coins.actly towards the spot where the aged warrior -ama -aya was viewing the scene from a litter.. After an initial set% ack the Muslim forces attacked the . mad with the e. The city was plundered and almost raIed to the ground during a span of nearly five months y the invading forces.-aya8 The result was the attle of Talikota. This had a deadly effect. . Fnormous forces were employed on oth sides. Taken to the camp of =iIam )hah. It was fought on /1rd Canuary +. he was forthwith decapitated. an elephant elonging to =iIam )hah of Ahmadnagar.

Tiru%mala. The latter had his head9uarters at 7handragiri "(hittoor .The Aravidu Dynasty.B% 5 B55 3 334B 5B% 5%RBR5% The victorious )ultanates did not ultimately gain much as a result of the attle of Talikota.. ut after a short stay there.. .. and the fall of the yi>ayanagar K5B 355%55 5B %55%55% 5 yi%i c K !ingdom. . In a out +.5446 5.is sons -anga I and :enkata II maintained the kingdom intact.dissolved and there was recrudescence of mutual >ealousy....tent as to e a le to interfere in the affairs of the Muslim kingdoms..e returned to :i>ayanagar after the Muslims had left it.. Their alliance was soon . went to Penugonda "Anantapur district# and restored the prestige and power of the empire to such an e.A' Tirumala dispensed with the nominal ruler )adasiva -ay a and usurped the throne for the Aravidu dynasty to which he elonged. This afforded the :i>ayanagar Fmpire the opportunity for recuperation under -ama -ayaBs rother.

tinction of the viceroyalty of )riranga%pattanam under the old :i>ayanagar Fmpire.district#. selfishness. In +*+/ -a>a <odeyar founded with ig permission the knigdom of Mysore. It was followed6 y a war of succession and the conse9uent rise of disintegrating forces. like the (hiefs of )rirangapattanam and $ednur "!eladi Ikkeri# and the =ayaks of Madura and Tan>ore. Pride. These could not e checked y -anga III. in spite of his est attempts. disloyalty and mutual dissensions largely facilitated the con9uest of the . .indu Deccan y the Muslim states of $i>apur and 7olconda. Murther. The death of :enkata II in +*+0 was the signal for the dismem erment of the empire. on the e. owing to the selfish attitude of the re el vassals of the empire and the am ition of the Muslim states of $i>apur and 7olconda. carved out independent kingdoms for themselves. the last important ruler of :i>ayanagar. su ordinate viceroys.

ed revenue to the state and undertook to furnish troops when called upon to do so. The criminal code was not severe ut the method of punishment was cruel and almost ar arous. The village panchayats looked after the interests of the villages. The :i>ayanagar kings maintained an army on a large scale. Eand was the chief source of the royal revenue. Patronage to Eearning The :i>ayanagar kings were great patrons of )anskrit and Telugu literature. These provinces were in charge of governors. !rishna Devaraya. $ut as an organised force it does not seem to have een efficient. -ent was paya le in cash rather than in kind.The Pattern of Administration The ig empire was divided into provinces not unlike the circars of Mughal days. was called the Andhra $ho>a and patronised the famous . Custice was administered according to local custom and no hardship seemed to have een felt y the inha itants. They paid a fi. who were de facto sovereigns in their respective areas. himself a poet.

like the palaces of the kings and several temples. the most famous of whom was Alasani Peddanna. Tolerant )pirit of the -ulers Fpigraphic and literary evidence clearly shows that the irulers of :i>ayanagar were of pious disposition and devoted to Dharma. the Portuguese chroniclers =uniI and Paes and the Persian traveller A diIr -aIIa9.hi ited considera le originality in their uildings. 11 . Their attitude towards .55B8 )everal irrigation works were also constructed y the :i>ayanagar kings.Ashtadigga>as or the eight poets. The Italian traveller =icolo 7onti.4. $uildings The :i>ayanagar sovereigns e. have left glowing accounts of the splendour and wealth of %Le 4city%of 5 :i>ayaitiagar. The city of :i>ayanagar itself contained no le monuments. $ut they were not fanatics. They evolved a distinct school of architecture.

the prevailing four sects.H. Mughal con9uest of the Deccan Ak ar "+. The Deccan )ultanates had grown weak after the attle of Talikota "/1rd Canuary. Ahmadnagar was esieged in +. .. $ar osa writes4 3The !ing allows such freedom that every man may come and go and live according to his own creed without suffering any annoyance. sent his son prince Murad to capture Ahmadriagar. $uddha.. (hristian. Cewish and Muslim.# on account of internecine warfare. whether he is a (hristian. The Mughal Fmperor.*.# was the first Mughal Fmperor who attempted the con9uest of the Deccan. +. son of $airam !han. Moor or .indu.tort from them a formal acknowledgment of his suIerainty over the Deccan y sending am assadors to their respective courts in +. and even to alien creeds. was li eral.Cew. and without en9uiry. therefore. Ak ar first tried to e. $ut they returned evasive answers to his overtures. :aish%nava and Caina.H+. )aiva.*%+*'.3 0. BThe Mughal army was commanded y A dur -ahim. The .

city was defended with splendid courage y (hand $i i. The peace did not last long and a faction at Ahmadnagar renewed the war with the Mughals. captured $urhanpur and took possession of the very strong fortress of Asirgarh y stratagem.. the dowager Jueen and daughter of . ut the kingdom was not finally anne. Ahmadnagar was successfully attacked a second time in )P2.ed to the Mughal Fmpire till the reign of )hah Cehan. The ruler of !handesh Mian $ahadur )hah. In +..HH Ak ar marched to !handesh "a principality in the valley of the Tapti river which was a governorship under MeroI )hah Tugla9 ut which ecame independent later#. who was made a prisoner.51 10 +*''.H* where y $erar was ceded to the Mughal Fmpire and the oy king of Ahmadnagar promised to recogniIe the over%lordship of Ak ar. . The esiegers concluded a treaty with (hand $i i in +.ussain =iIam )hah.

d one of the greatest statesmen that mediaeval India produced% . Ak ar organised the newly con9uered territories into the three su as of Ahmadnagar.%+*/A#. The war against Ahmadnagar continued throughout the reign of Cehangir "+*'. $erar and !handesh and appointed Prince Daniyal as :iceroy. Only a partial . in the guerilla method of warfare ena led them to cope successfully with the imperialists.was compelled to accept Mughal suIerainty. mostly Marathas. $efore returning to the north. $ut the civil government esta lished could not keep its hold firmly over the con9uered territory.is re% organisation of the revenue system of the kingdom on sound lines contri uted to its financial sta ility and his training of soldiers. The kingdom of Ahmadnagar was then a ly served y its A yssinian Minister Malik Am ar1 a orn leader of men ai. The Deccan campaign of Ak ar resulted in pushing the Mughal frontier from the =armada river to the upper courses of the !rishna river.

%18 1. played fast and loose with the Mughals. when the rulers of . The independence of the )hia states of 7olconda and $i>apur was resented y )hah Cehan. .ussain )hah was confined to lifelong imprisonment in the fort of 7walior. ut was soon won over y them with a ri e of over +' lakhs of rupees and surrendered the fortress. he first fought against the invaders. <hen the Mughals esieged the fortress of Daulata ad in +*1+.&# ecame the Fmperor he continued the war against Ahmadnagar. Ahmadnagar was finally anne. <hen )hah Cehan "+*/&%+*.1. when prince !hurram captured Ahmadnagar.success was gained y the Mughals in +*+*. Mateh !han. In +*1..ed to the Mughal Fmpire in +*1A and the nominal king ... father with the title of )hah Cehan "the !ing of the <orld# and various gifts. Mor this victory he was rewarded 3 y his. this time. the unworthy son of Malik Am ar who was the Minister6 at )P. .

which was concluded in May. . who made an attempt to revive =iIam%shahi rule in Ahmadnagar.those states secretly helped )haha>i $honsle "the father of )hiva>i#.paying an annual tri ute to the Fmperor. the Mughal Fmperor called upon them to a stain from helping )haha>i and to accept his suIerainty y paying a regular tri ute to him. The $i>apur soldiers ravely defended the capital city ut the rest of their kingdom was devastated y the Mughals. striking coins in the name of the Fmperor and having the khut a read in his name. .e marched in person to the Deccan in +*1* and made vigorous preparations to attack the kingdoms of 7olconda and $i>apur. Three Mughal armies then attacked his kingdom from three sides. A dulla Jut )hah was overawed and acknowledged the suIerainty of )hah Cehan y complying with all the demands of the latter such as. The )ultan was compelled to sue for peace. $ut the Adil )hahi king of $i>apur refused to su mit to the imperial ehest and made a old stand to defend his rights.

The Fmperor left the Deccan on ++th Culy.e captured the district of $aga%iana lying etween !handesh and the )urat coast and compelled )haha>i $honsle to su mit to him and surrender certain forts. $ut he was much em arrassed in his administration for lack of finance and also y the influence of a hostile party under his rother Dara )hukoh. Telangana and Daulata ad and estimated to yield an income of . +*1* and sent his third son AurangIe . $erar. . crores of rupees a year.e acknowledged the suIerainty of the Mughal Fmperor and was re9uired not to molest the kingdom of 7olconda which was now a dependency of the Mughal Fmperor. It was then a fairly e. . as m :iceroy of the Mughal Deccan. !handesh. then a youth of eighteen. The Mirst :iceroy alty of AurangIe in the Deccan The young :iceroy engaged himself in suppressing the enemies of the empire.+*1*.tensive territory comprising four provinces. .

is )econd :iceroyalty In +*.is wife Dilras $anu died in +*.peditions to $alkh. Mrom =ovem er +*.is later years were spent in e. called the $i ika Ma9 ara. $adakshan and Jandahar. . . he resigned his position in the Decean and lived a retired life for some time. in imitation of the Ta> Mahal. .1 either Daulata ad or Auranga ad was the head9uarters of his government. The name Auranga ad was given to the city after the name of AurangIe . The Pattern of Provincial 7overnment under Mughal -ule The administrative agency in the provinces of the Mughal Fmpire was a miniature version of the (entral 7pyernment The head of a province was styled the . who had een severely urnt.1 he was sent as :iceroy of the Deccan for a second time. Moi4 reasons which are not clearly known.In +*00 he had to go to Agra to see his sister Cahanara.A and to her memory was uilt the finest architectural monument of the city.

The JaIi meted out >ustice. The Amal%guIar or -evenue collector in charge of a district was assisted y a large su ordinate staff. who was in charge of the revenue administration of the province. there were measurers and !arkuns who prepared the seasonal crop statistics6 the Janungo. The <a9ai%i%navis "the official chronicler# kept a diary of all important developments.e was assisted y a Diwan. who kept records of the revenue paya le y the villages6 the $itikchi or accountant6 .1A )u adar and he was in charge of the entire civil and military administration of the province. A province was divided into several circars. Apart from the village Mu9addam "headman# and the village Patwari who were servants of the village community and not of the state. Fach pargana was a union of several villages. The !otwal was the Police Officer and the Mau>dar was in charge of the army. . each of which in turn consisted of a num er of parganas.

e not only took steps to promote agriculture in the interests of the peasantry ut also adopted certain revenue measures.and the Potdar or district treasurer. AurangIe Bs first concern. These officers were instructed to collect revenue with due care and caution.che9uer. which considera ly improved the economic condition of his territory and have made his second :iceroy alty famous in the history of land settlements in the Deccan. . The administration of the Deccan su as was modelled more or less on the same pattern.e fortunately . . The administration ran on a constant financial deficit. To improve the finances of the Deccan was. the administration of the Deccan had fallen into utter confusion and its financial condition had ecome deplora le. Administration of the Deccan under AurangIe During the few years following his resignation. therefore. which had to e made good y draining the imperial e.

ruined villages and help the agriculturists with advance payments. G5atGa Todar MaiBs system of survey and assessment. On the whole the wise8 measures of Murshid Juli !han contri uted to the restoration nf prosperity in the DJecan though the accumulated evils of several years+ ad government were too numerous to e removed completely within a short time. The Mall of $i>apnr und 7olconda AurangIe came to the Deccan again in +*&/ us emperor with the determination to crush the Maratha power and to overthrow the kingdoms of $i>apur and 7oleonda8 As in the case of )hah . Murshid Juli !haa applud to .8. AurangIe Bs second :icoroyalty in the Deccan ended I5 the year +*.1& received valua assistance MKoK an a le Persian revenue officer named Murshid Jull ! .A.. vrth sonu changes suited to local conditions8 )teps were also taken to improve tho condition of the . . 58 resides reorganising the iS4 t %5s nf the Deccan su as.

The siege of $i>apur commenced on ++th April.. Auranpw Bs altitude towards the )hia )ultanates of the Deccan was influenced partly y imperial interests and partly y religious considerations.stages. +&&. and the Fmperor himself went there in Culy +&&*.Cehan.indu Minister Madanna also played a . The Fmperor personally supervised the operations in the later . The esieged garrison held out ravely. 7olconda was a ly defended for more than eight months y the )ultan A ul . Prince )hah Alam laid siege to the fort of 7olconda on /&th Cune.asan Tana )hah and his famed 1H lieutenant A dur -aIIak !han EarE The . ut had to capitulate in )eptem er +*&* on account of lack of provisions and the Bdeath of countless men and horses caused y the out reak of a famine. )ikandar.ist. surrendered to the Fmperor and the dynasty founded y @usuf Adil )hah ceased to e. the last of the Adil )hahs. +&&.

ussain Ali strengthened Asaf CahBs position. 7olconda fell in Octo er.great part in the defence of 7ol% conda6 ut all efforts were of no avail. and defeated two armies sent y the )yed rothers.ydera ad. where they were interred in a simple grave. According to his wishes his remains were carried to -oIa at !hulda ad "near Auranga ad#. The Deccan ecame his grave and he died a roken%hearted man at Ahmadnagar on the /'th of Me ruary. as he wanted it for himself. +A'A. under Dilawar Ali !han and Alam Ali !han. The assassination of )yed . Death of AurangIe After the fall of 7olconda the Fmperor AurangIe carried on a ruthless war against the Marathas for nearly /' years ut he did not succeed in overthrowing them. he captured the fort of Asirgarh and the town of $urhanpur. On the way to 7olconda and . and on the defeat of his . 0/ to vacate the province of Malwa. +*&A.

This tradition he passed on to his successors in his last will. and cherish the people. In +A/0. punish the re els.rother )yed A dullah y the imperial forces in +A/+.3 Although Asaf Cah had o tained a hereditary vice%royalty al>nost entirely y his own efforts. +A/0 marks the esta lishment of his sovereignty in the Deccan. confronted y intrigues against him in Delhi and a revolt y Mu ariI !han. The Fmperor accepted with a good grace the fait accompli. . in which he claims to have refused an offer of the empire of . in the Deccan. sent him >ewels and presents with the title of Asaf Cah. and grasp the su stance of power in the Deccan.is victory. rather than its shadow in the imperial capital. =iIam%ul%Mulk was invited to accept the post of Minister at the imperial court which he did. repress the tur ulent. and directions 3to settle the country. he never ceased to acknowledge the overlordship of the Mughal Fmperor. at )hakar !heda in )eptem er. he chose to march against the latter.

Arcot. a num er of su ordinate rulers. The right to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi had een sanctioned y an imperial order during the viceroyalty of )yed . on ehalf of the emperor. consisting of one%fourth of the land revenue. The areas in which his military activity was undertaken were primarily the territory of Arcot "in the present Madras state# and the <estern Deccar 5tow 01 the state of Maharashtra.ussain Ali in +A+0%+A+H. including those of . Asaf Cah fought the Marathas in +A/A and +A/H. -a>ahmundry and (hicacole ")rikakulam#. on the ground that it would e a reach of faith. =adir )hah.India from the Persian invader. a kind of ta. "The last three are now in Andhra Pradesh#. . and in oth cases was a le to profit from the dissensions amongst the Maratha . 5 !urnool.is conflict with the Marathas arose out of their claim to levy chauth. As )u adar of the Deccan. Asaf Cah controlled.

. The former province he had lost to $a>i -ao Peshwa. In +A1A the Fmperor persuaded Asaf Cah I to return to the court at Delhi. forced to acknowledge )hahu (hatrapati.e appointed Anwar%ud% din !han as the =awa of Arcot and egan friendly relations with the Fnglish at Madras which ena led the latter to estai lsh their power. in +A1&. . .e was. . and estowed the provinces of Malwa and 7u>arat on his eldest son 7haIiuddin. .e now turned his attention to affairs in the (arnatic. and to accept the MarathasB right to levy chauth. In +A1+ he was defeated ut the Marathas did not interfere with his affairs for some time owing to their preoccupations in the north. and after four years of comparative 9uiet. The invasion of =adir )hah in +A1H must have convinced Asaf Cah of the futility of upholding the emperorBs authority. in place of )am ha>i. however.chiefs.ydera ad in +A00.e returned to . where the Marathas had threatened Trichinopoly. after the attle of $hopal.

which had roken out in Furope on the 9uestion of the succession of Maria Theresa in the year +A0'. was the 7overnor of Pondicherry. The Mirst Anglo%Mrench )truggle. he sought the intervention of Anwar%ud%din !han.passed away at $urhanpur "!handesh# at the age of AA years. in whose territory .t% ook writers call it the Mirst (arnatic <ar# came a out during the last vears of Asaf Cah I 00 Mrance and Fngland were in opposite camps in the war of Austrian succession. the =awa of A8cot. In the meantime. +A0*% +A0& The first Anglo%Mrench struggle "some te. Apprehending an attack on Pondicherry y the Fnglish. This war had its repercussions in India. Duplei.ostilities started etween the Fnglish and the Mrench in India a out +A0*. . it was ecoming gradually clear that the real struggle for power in )outh India was etween the Mrench at Pondicherry and the Fnglish at Madras.

The =awa persuaded+ the Fnglish to maintain peace for the time eing. Ea $ourdonnais restored Madras to the Fnglish. Duplei. and captured it. Mau>dar of =ellore. The =awa of Arcot sent an army to take Madras. the grandson of )aadatul%la !han. A out the middle of +A0* a Mrench fleet from Mauritius commanded y Ea $ourdonnais reached the (oroman%dal coast and later laid siege to Madras. The status 9uo was reesta lished in India y the treaty of Ai. ut it was defeated y the Mrench at the attle of )an Thome./ Asaf Cah. intrigued . had agreed to hand over Madras to the =awa of Arcot ut did not keep the promise. The Fnglish later attacked Pondicherry without success. +A0&%+A. The )econd Anglo%Mrench )truggle. and his grandson MuIaffar Cang. =iIam%ul%Mulk died in May +A0&. A out this time (handa )ahi .Pondicherry and Madras were situated. The succession was disputed etween his second son =asir Cang who had $ritish support.%la%(hapelle concluded in Furope in +A0&.

who had een enthroned as )u adar of the Deccan and (arnatic at Pondicherry y Duplei. was now confronted with all the forces of =asir Cang. who spent most of +A. and receiving in return large grants and a vague title as ruler of India south of .ydera ad and (handa )ahi in the (arnatic.e provided help which secured the defeat and death of Anwar% ud%din !han at Am ur near :ellore in August +A0H.o tain the post of =awa of Arcot. Duplei.with the Mrench to . Duplei.ydera ad.is son Muhammad 0.. MuIaffar Cang. secured the recognition of MuIaffar Cang as =iIam. Ali retired to Trichinopoly where in Octo er the $ritish egan to send him help. supported oth the claimants. MuIaffar Cang in . (leverly turning these events to his advantage. sending $ussy with a Mrench force to support him in . . MuIaffar Cang su mitted6 Duplei. when =asir Cang was assassinated. .' in the (arnatic. prepared to make an agreement.

and without having had the chance of even entering his capital city of . The Mrench arrived efore Trichinopoly in +A. The Third Anglo%Mrench )truggle. $ussyBs force promptly secured the succession of )ala at Cang. Meanwhile Ma>or )tringer Eawrence rescued Muhammad Ali from Trichinopoly and helped him to return to Arcot.ydera ad under the influence of the Mrench./.ecuted y Muhammad All Thus the second Anglo% Mrench struggle rought Arcot under the influence of the Fnglish and . only si. weeks after his accession. The siege lasted for . +A.+. (handa )ahi was e. MuIaffar Cang was shortly afterwards assassinated.&% +A*1 .the river !rishna. the third son of Asaf Cah I.' days. ut meanwhile -o ert (live had created a diversion y seiIing the capital city of Arcot in August. and maintained him in power. (handa )ahi was forced to surrender to Ma>or Eawrence in the island of )rirangam in Cune +A.ydera ad.

Mort )t. (ount de Eally.&. (ount de Eally recalled $ussy from . in spite of his critical position in $engal. knowing all too well that he could never recover his influence there. and stormed Masulipatam in the following April.&.& sent (olonel Morde to intervene in the =orthern (ircars.& on the out reak of the )even @ears <ar in Furope in +A..ydera ad.*. . -o ert (live. was watching events in )outhern India closely and in Octo er +A. arrived at Pofl0iP 0* cherry in April8 +A. $ussy o eyed with reluctance. David was om arded and taken y the Mrench.ostilities recommenced in India etween the Mrench and the Fnglish in +A. who was appointed L5 the 7overnor of the Mrench (ompany. at the re9uest of the -a>a of :iIianagaram.is fore odings were soon >ustified. Morde defeated $ussyBs successor at !ondur in Decem er +A. Mrench influence at the court of .

peace was re%esta lished etween the Fnglish and the Mrench. It was a decisive attle and sealed the fate of the Mrench. !arikal and @anam. $ussy was taken prisoner. .ydera ad disappeared.e was forced to retire to Pondicherry and was defeated y )ir Fyre (oote in the attle of <andiwash in Canuary +A*'.. Mahe. (ount de Eally was recalled and. (ount de Eally tried to capture Madras ut failed. and undertook to have no more dealings with the Mrench. !arikal fell in April +A*'. y the treaty of Paris "Me ruary +A*1#. viI. The Mrench in India lost all their power and were allowed to retain only four settlements in )outh India. Pondicherry. (handranagore in $engal also continued to e under the Mrench. Of these Mahe was captured y the Fnglish in a out +A&'. (ount de Eally surrendered at Pondicherry in Canuary +A*+. . )ala at Cang ceded Masulipatam to the $ritish.. with a territory eighty miles long and twenty miles wide.

istory. The =orthern (ircars came under the sway of the Fnglish and in +A** -o ert (live o tained an imperial decree ratifying the regularising the Fnglish title. )ala at Cang was deposed y his rother =awa =iIam Ali !han in +A*/ and was put to death y him fifteen months later. and. y his personal attention to the welfare of the peasantry and the pu lic. /. Administrative . +A/'%+A*/ The administrative system which characterised the first period of Asaf Cahi rule is a su >ect deserving serious study. and )ala at CangBs title to the )u adarship of the 0A Deccan was acknowledged. was a le to .The other effects of the third Anglo% Mrench struggle were that Muhammad Ali. was recognised as the =awa of Arcot y the Fnglish. the son of the deceased Anwar%ud% din. The Mrench lost their influence at his court. It appears that Asaf Cah I was a good administrator in the Mughal tradition.

"/# Auranga ad4 comprising twelve districts. they seem to have served the purpose.indu and Muslim. "0# $idar4 comprising seven districts. The latter were granted >agirs or estates on military tenure and employed as generals. su as4 "+# !handesh4 comprising si. The former he employed principally in administrative work in the departments of revenue and+ finance. . Although the armies raised in this way were inferior to the smaller and highly disciplined forces of later time. as . districts. ".# $i>apur4 comprising twenty%three districts and "*# . 7ri le8 descri es the circumstances in which Asaf Cah I rought with him from Malwa a num er of no les. .ydera ad4 comprising thirty% eight districts.esta lish a comparatively efficient and sta le government. "1# $erar4 comprising twelve districts.is territory was divided into the following si.

the second Asaf Cah. the revenues of which were devoted to the e.penses of administration. thirdly.ydera ad territory. consisting first of these feudal >agirs6 secondly of scattered portions of territory reserved for the =iIamBs privy purse. . was divided into 3three distinct portions. now known as )arf%i%!has lands6 and. e. All the three ecame hereditary. II. 8 . The >agirs were of three kinds4 "+# those deriving from ancient territorial control. =iIam Ali !han.. . 0& The whole of the . p.istory afR the Deccan. of the so%called Diwani or 7overnment lands. :ol. 8 .the other armies of the day were e9ually primitive and unwieldy.. called )amasthans6 "/# the >agirs given for military services.ercised y -a>as and (hiefs. In course of time. directly administered y him. and "1# >agirs granted for civil services. who accepted Mughal suIerainty.1.

Peshkar of )adarat%i%Mau>. from a revolt y his own military feudatories. The second work is MasifA%=iIamE In the first ook. which are known to have e.The earliest offices.. the method of work and the devices for eon%trolling pu lic disorder in the time of the first Asaf Cah...isted are . the Paigah Cagir.. There are two contemporary accounts of the administration of the first Asaf Cah.e mentions that $rahmin vakils were preferred. who accompanied him from Malwa# in order to protect the ruler. which was given to the family of A ul !hair !han Tegh Cang... while government offices were run y !hatris and !ayasthaa . The -iTala%i% Dar ar%i%ATafi. .created a fourth category of >agir. "a trusted lieutenant of the first Asaf Cah. oth y Eala Mansa -am. deals mostly with the rules and regulations laid down y =iIam%ul% Mulk. This was written in +A*+. Eala Mansa -am gives a vivid picture of the functionaries. which has een pu lished...

which prepared and preserved duplicate copies of sanads and ahkams originating from the a ove Daftars6 and the Darul%Insha. accuse the daftardars of usurping administrative functions when . . The other two early offices were the Daftar%i% Istifa. which were responsi le for civil administration in the su as allotted to them. It is not yet clear whether the functions of the Daftar%i%Diwani and Daftar%i%Mal were always as comprehensive as they ecame during =iIam Ali !hanBs reign and later.5hQ Daftar%iCDiwani and the. )ome hold that the Daftar%i%Diwani was actually the Daftar%i%Diwan "Prime MinisterBs Office#6 others like )alar Cang I. which attended to the official correspondence of the ruler and the Minister.Daftar% i%Mal. including military service. They also supervised the maintenance of the records regarding the grant of lands including various >agirs under 0H various conditions of service.

=ot all the Diwans are known to us y name.+ # and )yed Eashkar !han. two of the first Asaf CahBs Diwans are well known4 Anwarullah !han in +A1*. and Puran (hand in +A0A. Other Diwans who served successive rulers are )hah =awaI !han "+A0& and +A. appears to have een unremitting in his devotion to his masterBs interests. worked against his father.ydera ad for a long time. )ala at CangBs dismissal of $ussy.their original function was merely to keep the records. -aghunath Das "+A.owever. however. take effect.. could not. Puran (hand had the honour of eing mentioned in the will of Asaf Cah I and recommended to his successor. The former resigned regretfully when =asir Cang.#.. while the latter was away in Delhi.'% . who had esta lished himself at . . even to the point of turning against $ussy. a litterateur and historian of repute. as he was a le . The administration was carried on primarily through the office of Diwan. Asaf CahBs second son. and dates do not always tally. Of these )hah =awaI !han.

. Eittle is known of administration in the chaotic times etween the death of Asaf Cah I and the accession of =iIam Ali !han.50 . however. It is. evident that administration must )P2..to command military aid from Masulipatam.

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