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Environmental Engineering-I

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zulfiqar Ali Khan Engr. Muhammad Aboubakar Farooq

Department of Civil Engineering The University of Lahore


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Water Demand and Supply


Water Consumption and Water uses.
Types of Variation in Demand Fire Demand

Population Forecast
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Water Consumption & Water Uses

Water Consumption
It is the total amount of water consumed
by a community in one day. Per Capita Consumption: It is the total water consumption divided by population and number of days in the year. It is usual to express Water Consumption in litres per capita per day or lpcd.
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Water Consumption
Formulae: Water Consumption can be calculated as:
W.C. (lpcd) =

Or
W.C. (lpcd) =

Average Water Consumption = 150 to 600 lpcd


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Classification of Water Consumed according to its Ultimate Use


1. DOMESTIC: Water supplied to Houses, Private Buildings (Hotels) Purpose: Sanitary, Drinking, Desert Coolers, Washing, Bathing, Cooking, Gardening, etc. Quantity:=30 to 40% of total water supplied.* = 50 to 250 lpcd (Range) = 135 lpcd (Standard in INDIA)
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1. DOMESTIC: (contd..)
Details of Water Requirement for Domestic Purposes Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description Bathing Washing of Clothes Drinking Cooking Washing of Utensils Washing of House Flushing Grand Total W.C. ( lpcd) 55 20 5 5 10 10 30 135 Litres
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Classification of Water Consumed according to its Ultimate Use


2. COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL:
Commercial
Markets, Office Building, Dental Clinics, Workshops, Private Schools, Garages
Quantity Range = 10 to 20%

Industrial
Quantity relates to Floor Area = 12.2 m3 / 1000m2 of Floor Area / day
Quantity Range = 20 to 30%

An average of about 20 to 25% may be allowed in design.


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2. COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL: (contd..) Water Demand for Factories


Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Factory Products Sugar Oil Refining Butter Steel Glass Paper Synthetic Fibres Litres/Kg of Products 10 12 13 5 75 170 225
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Classification of Water Consumed according to its Ultimate Use


3. PUBLIC USE: for Public buildings i.e. Town Halls, Jails, Schools, Hospitals, Gardens, Public Toilets, Street Washing + FIRE FIGHTING Quantity: = 10 to 20% of total Water Supplied Pipe lines must be capable of giving discharge of water for FIRE FIGHTING.
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3. PUBLIC USE: Water Requirements for Public Use:


Sr. No. Purpose 1. Public Parks 2. Street Washing 3. Sewer Cleaning Water Requirements 1.5 litres/m2 /day 1.0-1.5 litres/m2/day 5 lpcd

Water Requirements for Irrigation Purposes in Towns/Cities:


Sr. No. Purpose 1. Public Parks 2. Private Gardens 3. Roadside Trees Water Requirements 17000 litres/hectare /day 17000 litres/hectare/day 28000 litres/km/day
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Water Supply Requirements for Public Buildings other than Residences:


Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Type of Building W.C. ( lpcd) Factories (no , with bathrooms) 30, 45 Hospitals ( <100 beds, >100 beds) 340, 455 Nurses Homes & Medical Quarters 135 Hostels 135 Restaurants (per seat) 68 Hotels (per seat) 180 Offices 45 Cinemas, theatres 15 School ( Day , Boarding) 45, 135
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Water Requirements for Live Stock


Sr. No. 1. 2. Live Stock Water Requirements (litre /animal/day)

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4. 5. 6.

Cows Horses Dogs Sheep Goats Chickens

70 40 16 12 12 0.1
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Classification of Water Consumed according to its Ultimate Use


4. UNACCOUNTED FOR: Loss of Water through
LEAKS, UNAUTHORIZED Connections.

Remedial Measures: Proper Maintenance & Universal Metering. Quantity: = 10 to 15% of total Water Supplied
For LAHORE, this loss and wastage is >50%
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Definitions
1. AVERAGE DAILY CONSUMPTION:
It is the average amount of water consumed by a community in one day divided by the number of people served.
Av. Daily W.C.=

Units: Litre per Capita per Day (or lpcd)

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Definitions
2. MAXIMUM DAILY CONSUMPTION:
It is the maximum Water Consumption during ANY ONE DAY in the year. It is about 150 to 180% average daily consumption.

3. PEAK HOURLY CONSUMPTION: The peak consumption during ANY HOUR of the year, EXCLUDING FIRE DEMAND, is called peak hourly consumption. It is around 150% of the maximum daily consumption.
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Where Max. Daily Consumption and Peak Hourly Consumption and Monthly Average Consumption is used????
Maximum Daily Demand is used to design Service Reservoirs (Overhead Tanks etc). Peak Hourly Demand is used to design Water Distribution System (Pumps etc).
Monthly Average Demand is used for main Reservoirs (Dams etc).

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Ratios used in Lahore (WASA)


Maximum Daily Consumption Peak Hourly Consumption Peak Hourly Consumption : : : Average Daily Consumption Maximum Daily Consumption Average Daily Consumption 1.5 1.5 2.25 : 1 : 1 : 1

For Design of WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM, Consider: PEAK HOUR FLOW WHICH EVER MAX. DAY+FIRE DEMAND IS GREATER..
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. CLIMATE STANDARD OF LIVING COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY EXTENT OF SEWERAGE METERING/COST OF WATER QUALITY OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PRESSURE SIZE OF CITY EFFICIENCY OF THE SYSTEM TYPE OF SUPPLY (CONTINUOUS, INTERMITTANT) LEVEL OF SERVICE (Stand post, Yard Connection, Full Plumbing)
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


1. Climate:
When temperature is high then water consumption will be high. In domestic use, there is more water consumption for bathing during summer and in public places more water will be used for lawn and street sprinkling. During summer everybody takes bath twice or thrice and washes clothes, more water is used for drinking purpose and more water is consumed in running desert coolers for air conditioning .
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


2. Standard of Living:
People having better standards of living and high economic status would consume more water as compared to low standard of living.

3. Commercial and Industrial Activity:


Water consumption is usually higher to accommodate commercial and industrial activities.
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


4. Extent of Sewerage: When there is large sewerage system, then more water is required by the community for sanitary utilizations and for efficient drainage through pipes, drains and sewers. 5. Metering/Cost of Water: A metered and costly supply ensures minimum wastage of water as the consumer knows that he has to pay money for water used by him and thus he is more careful in use. Meters also help in reducing/eliminating the losses through leaks and illegal connections.
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


6. Quality of Water: When quality of water is wholesome then people will use more water as compared to that of unhygienic quality. 7. Distribution Pressure of the system:
This factor is of great importance in case of multistorey buildings. Adequate Pressure mean an continuous and constant supply of water.
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


8. Size of City:
With the increase in size of city, population increases and thus per capita water consumption is found to be increased. In small town and the private resources may remain in use even after the introduction of public water supply. But in large cities, public water supply is a necessity so more per capita water consumption is there. Also in large cities a lot of water is required to maintain clean and healthy environments while in small town it is not required.
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


8. Size of City: (contd) Effect of Population on Rate of Consumption
Population Upto 5000 5000 - 20000 20000 - 50000 50000 - 200000 Over 200000 W.C. (LPCD) 90 110 135 180 200

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Factors affecting Water Consumption


9. Efficiency of the System:*
If a water supply system is efficient means no leakage is there then water losses will be low and consequently less water consumption. 10. Type of Supply: ( Continuous, Intermittent) Continuous Supply: Water is supplied continuously throughout 24 hours a day. Thus more water consumption. Intermittent Supply: Water is supplied for specific or fixed hours during the day only, resulting in reduction of Water Consumption.
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Factors affecting Water Consumption


11.Level of Service:*
Stand Post: One water tab in a town (usually in backward areas). Yard Connection: One Water point at a home (in under-developed Areas). Full Plumbing: Whole plumbing in the houses, buildings is fabricated and based on public water supply (in developed Area).
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One of the important parameters required in the design of Water Supply System is to set an estimate giving the total quantity of water that will be required after the completion of supply works. This estimation helps in determination of sizes and capacities of the constituents (pipes, pumps etc.) of water supply system. Estimation is based on following aspects: I. Design Population (Population at the end of design period) II. Rate of per Capita per day Water supply.
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Why Estimation of Water Consumption is Necessary???

Design Period
This is the period into the future for which estimation is to be made. The Design period should neither be too long so that overall cost of project should be appropriate and financial burden is not thrown on the present population, nor too short so as to avoid the design becoming uneconomical. Practically, the design period is kept from 20 to 30 years and considered as sufficient for design purposes.
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