Published in: Writing Ulster: Northern Narratives, edited by Bill Lazenbatt, Number 6, 1999, pages 49-67.

Seamus Heaney’s Prose: Preoccupying Questions

! say that "eamus #eaney$s %!r& is a'ademi'ally p!pular %!uld be an understatement. here are, t! date, s!me thirty b!!&s '!mpletely de(!ted t! the study

and analysis !) his %riting, and t! list the number !) arti'les and 'hapters !n #eaney %!uld pr!bably be a b!!&-length enterprise in itsel). *i(en that #eaney is a N!bel Prize %inner, as %ell as being !ne !) the m!st p!pular p!ets 'urrently %riting in +nglish, and gi(en that he rea'hes a gl!bal audien'e, then this pr!)usi!n !) a'ademi' attenti!n sh!uld '!me as n! surprise. #!%e(er, %hat is surprising is that, in all !) these b!!&s, there is n!t !ne %hi'h is de(!ted t! the study !) his pr!se %ritings, and this is remar&able as these !))er an insight int! many !) his 'entral '!n'erns.

,n terms !) reading #eaney$s essays in this light, , %!uld !))er his !%n pra'ti'e as a use)ul paradigm. ,n The Government of the Tongue, he dis'usses the %!r& !) the P!lish p!et -bignie% #erbert, and as be)its !ne %h!se a'ademi' rite !) passage %as underg!ne %hen .pra'ti'al 'riti'ism held great s%ay$,1 there is a 'l!se, in pla'es line-byline, e/aminati!n !) passages )r!m three %!r&s by #erbert. hese are Barbarian in the

Garden, Selected Poems and Report from the Besieged Cit and !ther Poems. 0hat is interesting, in the '!nte/t !) this dis'ussi!n, is that Barbarian in the Garden is a '!lle'ti!n !) pr!se %ritings, .ten meditati!ns !n art and hist!ry %hi'h mas1uerade as tra(el %riting$.2 #eaney d!es n!t see these essays as a metalinguisti' gl!ss !n the p!etry3 n!r d!es he see them as separate in terms !) themati' '!n'erns )r!m #erbert$s


p!etry3 rather d!es he see them as an!ther enun'iati!n !) the themati', aestheti' and ethi'al imperati(es that gr!und #erbert$s %!r&.

he same standards 'an be applied t! #eaney$s !%n beginnings as a pr!se %riter. ,n the )!re%!rd t! Preoccupations, he ma&es the )!ll!%ing p!ints:

4ll that , really &ne% ab!ut the art %as deri(ed )r!m %hate(er p!etry , had %ritten, and )r!m th!se p!ets %h! had helped me t! %rite it. , had a hal)-'lari)ied desire t! '!me t! p!eti' terms %ith mysel) by '!nsidering the e/ample !) !thers, and t! try t! bring int! )!'us the little , &ne%5., h!pe it is 'lear that the essays sele'ted here are held t!gether by sear'hes )!r ans%ers t! 'entral pre!''upying 1uesti!ns: h!% sh!uld a p!et pr!perly li(e and %rite6 0hat is his relati!nship t! be t! his !%n (!i'e, his !%n pla'e, his literary heritage and his '!ntemp!rary %!rld67

,n this 1u!tati!n, #eaney !utlines the raison d"#tre !) the essays in the b!!&. , %!uld ma&e t%! p!ints ab!ut this asserti!n. 8irstly, it dem!nstrates the 'entrality that #eaney as'ribes t! his pr!se %riting, seeing it as a meditati!n !n art and p!etry, as a '!ming t! terms %ith his !%n (!i'e thr!ugh a '!nsiderati!n !) !ther p!ets, %hat he terms, b!rr!%ing )r!m 4uden, .brea&ing bread %ith the dead$.4 8r!m the !utset, this is n! pie'emeal series !) disparate essays and re(ie%s3 instead it is a bringing .int! )!'us$ !) his '!n'erns ab!ut the n!ti!n !) .art$. ,n sh!rt, he is attempting t! de(el!p s!me the!reti'al pre'epts ab!ut art and p!etry, %hat !ne might tentati(ely term, an aestheti' the!ry.

"e'!ndly, this 1u!tati!n attests t! the tele!l!gy !) his pr!9e't, namely the .sear'hes )!r ans%ers$ t! th!se 'entral pre!''upying 1uesti!ns %hi'h are 'ited ab!(e. #e begins using the pers!nal pr!n!un, )irst pers!n singular: .:a;ll that $ really &ne% ab!ut the art %as deri(ed )r!m %hate(er p!etry $ had %ritten and )r!m th!se p!ets %h! had helped me t! %rite it. $ had a hal)-'lari)ied desire t! '!me t! p!eti' terms %ith m self $ :m 2

?nder%riting all !) these '!n'erns. is the !ng!ing attempt t! bring int! )!'us s!me )!rm !) the!rizati!n !) p!etry.. is !perati(e thr!ugh p!etry in terms !) the s!'i!p!liti'al sphere.@ 7 . pla'e. 6 and its '!n'!mitants . but %hi'h at the same time dem!nstrates a gr!%ing a%areness !) the need t! re'!n'ile %hat he terms . %ith the tele!l!gi'al !b9e't !) the sear'hes )!r ans%ers n!% be'!ming . and his :sic.> . #is %riting %ill )!'us !n his !%n %!r&. 0hat emerges in these essays is a s!phisti'ated appr!a'h t! p!etry.7 %ith the demands !) an ethi'al imperati(e %hi'h . . %hat is attempted in his (ari!us pr!se pie'es is n!thing less then a the!ry.lyri' 'elebrati!n$..the p!et may )ind as he e/er'ises his )ree gi)t in the presen'e !) the un)ree and the hurt$. the se'!nd part !) the 1u!tati!n dem!nstrates the dei'ti'al pr!gressi!n )r!m the pers!nal t! the general. relati!nship %ith (!i'e. an appr!a'h %hi'h grants the internal la%s !) language and aestheti's %hi'h are appli'able %ithin the d!main !) p!etry.. are b!th the sub9e't and !b9e't !) this sear'h )!r ans%ers. literature and s!'iety: . #eaney$s ars poetica. !r pre!''upati!ns. and !n the %!r& !) !thers in terms !) h!% they ha(e helped him t! '!me t! p!eti' terms %ith himsel). .sear'hes )!r ans%ers$ that ha(e set in m!ti!n his pr!se %ritings in the )irst pla'e. %hat Bernard <$=!n!ghue 'alls. th!ugh. !r epistem!l!gy !) p!etry in parti'ular and %riting in general.n sh!rt.nterestingly.italics. t! ta&e up s!me )!rm !) 'riti'al distan'e s! as t! better understand the m!de !) &n!%ledge that is !perati(e %ithin p!etry and %hi'h. spea&ing spe'i)i'ally !) The Government of the Tongue.h!% sh!uld a poet pr!perly li(e and %rite6 0hat is his relati!nship t! be t! his !%n (!i'e. .the phrase !r 'aden'e %hi'h haunts the ear and the eager parts !) the mind.the poet$. his !%n pla'e. %!uld argue that su'h a pr!9e't is the result !) the . by e/tensi!n.t is 'lear that #eaney himsel). and his %!r&. his literary heritage and his '!ntemp!rary %!rld6$ :m italics.

'!nsensus and settlement !) a meaning %hi'h the audien'e )astens !n li&e a se'urity blan&et$. his be'!mes 'lear %hen %e l!!& at the primal 4 . . as !pp!sed t! stati'ally. it must a(!id the . as e(iden'ed in his p!lygl!ssi' enun'iati!n !) di))erent (!i'es in North. t! inhabit s!me )!rm !) binarism. ! %rite ab!ut the e/perien'e !) N!rthern . but instead. 8!r #eaney. 9!ins and inter)usi!ns that 'reate the blan&et in 1uesti!n. 9 he pr!blems %ith su'h a (ie% !) p!etry are that the (ery '!mple/ity and ambiguity that are part !) the )!r'e !) p!etry are denied and eti!lated. is the un'!(ering !) binary !pp!siti!ns. the diale'ti'al 'ut and thrust !) p!etry is a ma9!r theme. are used dynami'ally and '!nstru'ti(ely. . t! 'reate the '!mple/ %ea(e !) inter'!nne'ti!ns and interse'ti!ns %hi'h are the results !) his sear'hes )!r ans%ers. "u'h binarisms h!%e(er. )!r e/ample. %ith!ut su''umbing t! se'tarian ata(ism is. h!%e(er.. t! e/amine m!re 'l!sely the %e)t and %ea(e !) the te/tile !) the blan&et s! as t! bring !ut the interse'ti!ns. .) the se'urity blan&et !) a '!nsensual meaning is seen as s!mething t! be a(!ided.) p!etry is t! be !) (alue. the m!de !) its 'reati!n is that !) a l!!m %ith a shuttle %hi'h m!(es ba'& and )!rth 'reating the s!lidity !) the blan&et thr!ugh the intermeshing !) the s&eins !) threads. the n!ti!n !) p!etry as a m!de !) &n!%ledge is !ne %hi'h parta&es !) multiple perspe'ti(es. he n!tes.n terms !) su'h a %ea(e. his metaph!r is rele(ant t! #eaney$s !%n the!reti'al pr!'esses as in his earlier %riting.tenden'y t! !(er-s'hemati' !r e(en spe'i!us binary thin&ing$.reland. perhaps the best %ay t! pr!'eed is n!t by thr!%ing !)) the blan&et alt!gether. Neil A!r'!ran n!tes %hat he 'alls a .1B and seems t! see it as a type !) de)e't in #eaney$s %riting. !ne !) the main dis'ursi(e strategies that #eaney underta&es in his dis'ussi!n !) te/ts !r their s!'i!-p!liti'al '!nte/ts. !) ne'essity.n Preoccupations.

t! a'ting %ith the > . ! put it an!ther %ay. )r!m 1@47.!ught$ t! be.binarisms that de)ine N!rthern .11 #ere the pre(alen'e !) binarisms in #eaney$s th!ught is emb!died !n a pie'e !) ?lster linen. as signi)ied by the rubri' . .reland C Aath!li' and Pr!testant3 nati!nalist and uni!nist3 republi'an and l!yalist3 .s the imperati(e here.sampler$: his in'luded the . ennys!n and La%ren'e and )r!m attending sherry parties at the h!use !) a pr!)ess!r in Dueens ?ni(ersity %h! hailed )r!m </)!rd. in'lining t! the n!ti!n !) being )ree !) British in)luen'e. . )!ll!%ing (erse.reland.reland . %hat A!r'!ran is des'ribing may be imagined as the se'urity blan&et %hi'h %as addu'ed earlier in !ur dis'ussi!n3 a simple '!(ering de(i'e %ith little '!mple/ity atta'hed. #eaney stresses the bi)ur'ati!n !) ide!l!gies and identities that ha(e mar&ed his gr!%th.*!d "a(e the Dueen$. and ab!ut an e/ample !) her s'h!!l needle%!r&. but .s1ueezed t! the right !) the (erse$ %ere the %!rds . stressing h!% . as signi)ied by the shamr!'&. the traditi!nal symb!l !) . Aatherine Bradley.*!d "a(e the Dueen6$ hr!ugh!ut this pamphlet. #!%e(er. !n )irst sight. embr!idered !n her .reland as she !ught t! be *reat gl!ri!us and )ree 8irst )l!%er !) the earth 8irst gem !) the sea he embr!idery beneath this (erse %as !) a shamr!'&.rish and British.reland. !r else !) being )ree as part !) the uni!n bet%een *reat Britain and . and in Place %nd &isplacement. 8r!m learning ab!ut Eane 4usten. #eaney %ill dem!nstrate that %!(en material 'an als! emb!dy the '!mple/ities !) identity and diale'ti'al th!ught.n %mong Schoolchildren #eaney sp!&e ab!ut a great-aunt !) his.

e/tending mysel) !r brea&ing mysel) apart6 0as . he !s'illated bet%een 'ity and '!untry. ser(es as a paradigm )!r the psy'hi'al and '!gniti(e m!ti!n !) %hat !ne might term #eaney$s epistem!l!gy !) p!etry. nati!nalist s!'ial and 'ultural mores.sherry parties !n the Ial!ne F!ad$. Bel)ast and Bellaghy. 4t . br!ught ab!ut an un'ertainty in terms !) 'ultural and ide!l!gi'al identi)i'ati!n. his physi'al m!(ement. #eaney as&s: 0as .17 he pre'!nditi!ns %hi'h set up this 1uesti!ning are de)ined in terms !) spatial and temp!ral !s'illati!ns. . !r us and them.rish and +nglish aspe'ts !) ?lster 'ulture.n many 'ases. he spent the %ee&days !) term at Dueens ?ni(ersity studying +nglish literature and be'!ming en'ulturated int! the middle-'lass. "patially. *aeli'. '!nstituted in time and spa'e. %as at h!me. t%! pers!ns !r !ne6 0as .rishman and F!bert +mmett.Bellaghy =ramati' "!'iety. literary. %ith its religi!us de(!ti!ns in the 'hapel. )ailing t! li(e up t! the aspiring literary intelle'tual e))!rt %hen . emp!rally. playing a ?nited . rural. the a'ademy and the parish. betraying the 'ulture !) the parish %hen . 8!r #eaney. . %as at the uni(ersity. %as .%ee&ends and during the h!lidays$ he %as immersed in Aath!li'. %e see s!me!ne %h! is being in)luen'ed by b!th the .the elegan'es !) <s'ar 0ilde and the pr!)undities !) "ha&espeare$. 'ultured eth!s that is '!nn!tated by . and a'ting as fear a" tigh Gmaster !) 'erem!niesH at the *44 ceilidhs has its psy'hi'al and identi)i'at!ry e))e't in a number !) 1uesti!ns %hi'h are br!adly '!termin!us %ith th!se pre!''upying 1uesti!ns %ith %hi'h %e began !ur dis'ussi!n. as he puts it. being led !ut !r led a%ay6 0as . the e/p!sure t! aspe'ts !) b!th 'ultures.t in)!rms statements %hi'h see the 6 .12 and the %ee&end. he physi'al !s'illati!n bet%een %ee&ly e/p!sure t! . su'h binarisms %ere e/pressed in antag!nisti' t!nes !) sel) and !ther.

16 in the sense that t! spea& is t! spea& t! s!me!ne else. Ea'1ues =errida has made the p!int. negati(ely rather than p!siti(ely 'apable$. . the !pening p!em !) &eath of a Naturalist and the )irst p!em %here he )elt his . en(isi!ns a sense !) resp!nsibility t! the !ther. as %e %ill see.!pened gr!und$.n a binary !pp!siti!n. t! )!rms !) alterity %hi'h are !utside the sel) as a primary )a'et !) human dis'!urse. t! assume a resp!nsibility !) addressing s!me !ther pers!n. . +thi's.14 his pr!gressi!n )r!m physi'al m!(ement t! diale'ti'al '!gniti!n is a )eature !) &igging.)eelings had g!t int! %!rds$. and as su'h. 'an be pla'ed in an ethi'al '!nte/t by ta&ing n!te !) the di))eren'es and '!nne'ti!ns bet%een sel) and !ther.nstead.t is %hat #eaney terms the n!ti!n !) . s!mething is de)ined in terms !) the !ther.needing t! 7 . in !f Spirit. and als! that !ne has s!me )!rm !) ethi'al resp!nsibility t! this !ther3 it in(!l(es a resp!nsibility t! the th!ught !) the !ther. su'h binarisms. that the !rigin !) language is resp!nsibility.displa'ed )r!m a '!n)iden'e in a single p!siti!n by his disp!siti!n t! be a))e'ted by all p!siti!ns.p!et as being . his diale'ti'al relati!nship is the de)ining )a't!r in his epistem!l!gy !) p!etry in that it all!%s him t! set up trans)!rmati(e and transgressi(e stru'tures %hi'h he sees as ans%ering his !%n '!mple/ p!siti!n in terms !) the &n!%ledge !r truth-'laims !) p!etry. a'1uire s!me )!rm !) negati(e &n!%ledge inasmu'h as !ne 'an see that neither p!siti!n has a m!n!p!ly !n truth !r right. in terms !) ideas and %!rld (ie%s. in the sense !) the %!rd as used by +mmanuel Le(inas.1> #ere the e/periential pra'ti'e !) digging int! earth be'!mes trans)!rmed int! an epistem!l!gi'al paradigm !) an artesian imaginati!n as %ell as !) an unearthing !) ne% e/perien'es thr!ugh the pr!'ess !) upturning the gi(ens !) the sur)a'e s! as t! 'reate . #en'e. . are part !) a diale'ti'al m!de !) ! be a))e'ted by ea'h p!siti!n is t! th!ught %hi'h is ethi'al in its m!de !) !perati!n.

and the sampler is a mimeti' e/ample !) this pr!'ess in #eaney$s epistem!l!gy !) %riting.mystery !) li(ing in t%! pla'es at !ne time$. %here . #eaney ma&es it 'lear that t! be a %riter in ?lster is t! be (ery mu'h in t%! minds.t is %!rth &eeping in mind that the term .2B ! de)ine the identi)i'at!ry parameters.!ther$ in a pla'e %here the %h!le p!pulati!n are . %hi'h n!% e/pl!de daily. an !s'illati!n that parallels his physi'al !s'illati!n he under%ent at uni(ersity.muniti!n$ as b!th a )!rti)i'ati!n G. meaning a d!'ument entailing rights !r pri(ileges. meaning dis'!urse !r '!n(ersati!n. By disl!dging these )!rti)i'ati!ns. deli(ered in 19@4.adepts$ in the .1@ .diale(tos$. t! be a%are that he !r she bel!ngs t! a pla'e . . #eaney is. .a''!mm!date t%! !pp!sing n!ti!ns !) truth)ulness simultane!usly$. %!uld suggest that #eaney$s %riting %ill disl!dge these p!siti!ns s! as t! bring !ut the etym!l!gi'al sense !) . the @ .t%! (alue systems. %! sets !) )!rti)ied rights and pri(ileges are e/a'tly %hat is signi)ied by the shamr!'& and the sl!gan !n the sampler. p!liti'al and 'ultural C !) his !%n gr!uping Gsel)H and that !) the .that is patently ri(en bet%een n!ti!ns !) bel!nging t! !ther pla'es$. munitio'onis$H but als! its '!gnate term .diale'ti'$ !riginates )r!m the *ree& .muniment$.17 the (ery '!nditi!n %hi'h has been emblemati'ally rendered in Aatherine Bradley$s embr!idery t%! pla'es at !n'e$.n Place and &isplacement: Recent Poetr in Northern $reland. he pr!per ad9e'ti(e . bringing these d!'uments int! diale'ti'al intera'ti!n. !r resp!nsibility !n the %riter t! delineate the p!siti!ns C ide!l!gi'al.?lster$ in that pie'e !) ?lster linen. s!'ial. as he sets up an !s'illati!n bet%een the t%! p!siti!ns )!und !n this pie'e !) ?lster linen.?lster$ is signi)i'ant here. t! be . are l!dged li&e d!rmant muniti!ns$ !n !ne pie'e !) ?lster linen.19 his (ie% !) pla'e as inhabited by !pp!siti!ns pulling in di))erent dire'ti!ns pla'es an !bligati!n. and b!th ha(e munimental designs !n the n!ti!n !) . symb!li'ally.

here is a 'are)ul %eighing !) the nuan'es !) ea'h p!siti!n. is 9ust su'h a '!mple/ series !) threads in this %ea(e.muniments. 4s he puts it. but )!r the uni!nist. 9ust as the ?ni!nist 'an a))irm the reality !) p!liti'al realm !) the ?nited Mingd!m e(en as he re'!gnizes the ge!graphi'al )a't that . Let %hile he has t! '!n'ede that he is a 'itizen !) the partiti!ned British state. but he has t! h!ld his !%n in the island !) .be)!re %h!m %e stand helps t! brea& up !ur !%n bias and narr!%ness$. but he t!! li(es in an e/ile )r!m his ideal pla'e.rish island.n *ossba+n. springs in the Ar!%n !) +ngland.reland. the presen'e !) the !ther . mutually intert%ined. these emblems ha(e . hese n!ti!ns )!rm parts !) the %ea(e that his diale'ti'al ?lster.reland is his insular h!me.reland: he )!untainhead !) the ?ni!nist$s myth. the Nati!nalist 'an h!ld t! the physi'al )a't !) his presen'e up!n the . mentalite) %ill !utline. !) ea'h gr!up is n!t as simple as it might )irst seem. .21 #eaney g!es !n t! dem!nstrate the )urther '!mple/ imbri'ati!ns and dualities !) identity in N!rthern .22 #ere %e d!n$t see A!r'!ran$s n!ti!n !) s'hemati' binaries at %!r&3 instead %e see the 'are)ul delineati!n !) a '!mple/ series !) !pp!siti!ns %hi'h are pla'ed in an e(!l(ing stru'ture %hi'h attempts t! set up s!me )!rm !) diale'ti'al '!n(ersati!n bet%een them.reland. 4s #ans-*e!rg *adamer puts it.27 and this 'an be seen as part !) #eaney$s sear'hes )!r ans%ers. an early essay in Preoccupations. as there are '!mple/ e1uati!ns and interse'ti!ns %hi'h are b!th mutually e/'lusi(e and at the same time. beginning %ith rhymes )r!m 9 . he )!untainhead !) the Nati!nalist$s myth lies in the idea !) an integral . he p!ints !ut the genesis !) his a%areness !) di))erent types !) p!etry that in)luen'ed him. the nati!nalist %ill .%in'e at the ?ni!n Ea'& and J*!d "a(e the DueenK as t!&ens !) his pla'e in the %!rld$. as he n!tes. %ith %h!m the nati!nalist '!ndu'ts his daily li)e.pi!us and passi!nate )!r'e$. seen in terms !) its similarity %ith the !ther side !) the e1uati!n.

and the mem!ry !) the p!et !s'illating bet%een them. agree %ith A!r'!ran$s 'riti'ism !) the )latness !) the binary !pp!siti!n.his s'h!!ldays )eaturing a 'hara'ter 'alled Neddy I'*uigan !r =irty-8a'ed I'*uigan %h! .?p the l!ng ladder and d!%n the sh!rt r!peN ! hell %ith Ming Billy and *!d bless the P!pe$ Gthe ans%er t! this being .$ des'ribing these p!ems is n!t in(!l(ed in any !) them3 they are remembered )r!m a distan'e.. he same mutuality !) de)initi!n is 'lear )r!m the !ther t%! p!ems 1u! %!r&ing m!del !) in'lusi(e '!ns'i!usness$3 here. here is n! sense !) resp!nsibility !r ad9udi'ati!n bet%een the p!siti!ns3 ea'h set !) rhymes delineates the se'urity blan&et !) ea'h traditi!n.'ut in t%!$ %ith the ans%ering (erse suggesting that it is . %hite and blue$ %hi'h sh!uld be . ! paraphrase an earlier '!mment )r!m The Redress of Poetr . but interestingly b!th traditi!ns are set d!%n t!gether. and (i'e (ersa. and ser(e as signi)iers !) a 'hildish sense !) rhyme. and the !(er s'hemati' nature !) the (erses. #ere.t!rn up in t%!$. as %ell as m!re ide!l!gi'ally 'entred rhymes: . perhaps. . 1B .?p %ith Ming 0illiam and d!%n %ith the P!pe$H. . %hi'h merely enun'iates the sense !) the gr!up t! %hi'h the rhymester bel!nged. the rhythmi' and pr!s!di' similarity !) the t%! '!uplets sees b!th traditi!ns as pla'ed in a mutually de)ining.Paypishes$ GAath!li'sH sh!uld be . %e might. !ne suggesting that . stru'ture. this type !) p!etry does simpli)y. %ith the binarisms being s&et'hed !ut in b!ld lines !) di))eren'e.ndeed. 24 0e seem t! be ba'& in the %ea(e !) Aatherine Bradley$s sampler here. #ere. i) antag!nisti'. the se'tarian di(ide is 'aptured in %hat might be termed sub'ultural p!etry. he .n this 'ase. his is be'ause these rhymes are separate )r!m the present tense !) the (!i'e !) the essay. this type !) p!etry is not . %ith Ming 0illiam being de)ined in '!ntradistin'ti!n t! the P!pe. there seems t! be n! sense !) diale'ti'al intera'ti!n bet%een the t%!.pissed in the DuiganN he Duigan %as h!tN "! he pissed in the p!t$.

l!ng tail$ represents the ata(isti'.Ahristmas.'!ntinu!us ad9udi'ati!n$.s%ing$ him )r!m !ne t! the !ther. he is als! Gand here %e see the se'!nd le(elH being .. #e says that he is .n an essay entitled . but n!%. %e see a )ar m!re dynami' stru'ture !) th!ught. as %ell as a m!re ethi'al '!n'ern %ith the '!rre'tness !) the 'h!i'es being made. 2> #ere. #eaney again sees the situati!n in terms !) binaries. and %ithin the p!et. he intera'ti!n !) a'ti(e and passi(e (!i'es in this passage !utlines the '!mple/ity !) the struggle that is !ng!ing %ithin the 'ulture. 0riting ab!ut the r!le !) the artist in the )a'e !) the p!liti'al '!n)r!ntati!n in Bel)ast in 1971.s%ung$ by e(ents !(er %hi'h he seems t! ha(e n! '!ntr!l. a m!re '!mple/ intera'ti!n is )!regr!unded by the (!i'e !) the p!et himsel) as the locus !) the intera'ti!n. and the nature !) the stated %eariness is that %hile attempting t! e/er'ise the '!gniti(e )a'ulty !) 9udgement.'!mm!n g!!d$.)atigued by a '!ntinu!us ad9udi'ati!n bet%een ag!ny and in9usti'e. at an!ther by the m!re a''eptable )eelings !) pity and terr!r$. Iembers !) #eaney$s !%n '!mmunity %ere slaughtering )!r the . here are t%! le(els in(!l(ed here. e(en as he %as %riting. seemingly unable t! '!ntr!l the pendular m!ti!n. and 'reati(e !). Perhaps the m!st imp!rtant %!rds in this passage are . the e/ternal p!liti'al and (i!lent a'ti!ns in Bel)ast in 1971. itsel) b!th 'aused by. a binary !pp!siti!n. he is in(!l(ed in '!ntinually ad9udi'ating bet%een ag!ny and in9usti'e. s%ung at !ne m!ment by the l!ng tail !) ra'e and resentment. as they . 1971$. (is'eral em!ti!ns that %ere ri)e in Bel)ast at this time. 8irstly.s%ung$3 the p!et is struggling t! '!ntr!l these )!r'es !) .ra'e and resentment$ as !pp!sed t! th!se !) .s%ung$ by the . the physi'ality !) the !riginal !s'illati!n bet%een 'ultural and ide!l!gi'al p!les is restated in the (erb !) m!ti!n . and this interne'ine (i!len'e.pity and terr!r$. #eaney$s metaph!r !) being . )!regr!unded 11 .

#is ad9udi'ati!n !n this issue is )irst sp!&en in an essay aptly entitled .)!rm !) entrapment$. the epistem!l!gy !) the te/ts !) p!etry be'ame 'lear and '!nsisted !) be'!ming a$ Gla%H and .8eeling int! 0!rds$. "temming )r!m the Latin . ethi'al and p!liti'al a'ti!n in the )a'e !) a (i!lent '!ntemp!rary '!nte/t. .'!n)ine the range !) !ne$s gr!%th$ and . su'h ad9udi'ati!n %ill be diale'ti'al.27 an entrapment %h!se '!nse1uen'es are enun'iated in the lines already 'ited )r!m -inship.sear'h )!r images and symb!ls ade1uate t! !ur predi'ament$. the !riginal '!mp!site %as .sear'h$ as !pp!sed t! a destinati!n.n this '!nte/t. he per)!rmati(e nature !) this a'ti(ity. #e p!ints t! a 'ru'ial peri!d %hen the .s%ung by the tail$ metaph!r.the ethni' and liturgi'al habits !) !ne$s gr!up$ is all (ery %ell. res!nates %ith his !riginal .pr!perly li(e and %rite$. the l!'ating !) !ne$s identity in .initiated again$ in the "ummer !) 1969.1uesti!ns ab!ut the nature and )un'ti!n !) art.t! ha(e !ne$s sympathies determined and !ne$s resp!nses pr!grammed$ by that gr!up.udicare$. it %ill 'reate a locus )!r the enun'iati!n !) the '!n'erns !) sel) and !ther %ith!ut ne'essarily su''umbing t! the ata(isms !) either gr!up.sear'hes )!r ans%ers$.!riginal heraldi' murder!us en'!unter bet%een Pr!testant ye!man and Aath!li' rebel$ %as . and %h!se pre(alen'e is 'lear )r!m the . <) ne'essity.say the la%$ !) pr!per aestheti'.h!% sh!uld a p!et pr!perly li(e and %rite6$. the %!rd highlights #eaney$s di))i'ulty in '!ntinually attempting t! . %here he teases !ut the di))erent r!les )!r a p!et %h! is attempting t! . he issue under ad9udi'ati!n appears t! be that seminal pre!''upying 1uesti!n: . is 'learly a . a . and is 1uali)ied dire'tly in terms !) %hat su'h symb!ls and images sh!uld not be: 12 . in Bel)ast. but )!r that gr!up t! .26 he etym!l!gy !) .ad9udi'ate$ helps t! 'lari)y the issue at this p!int. 4s he puts it.dicere$ Gt! sayH.

su'h a 17 . %here the t!ngue is g!(erned by the 1u!tidian. it is mimeti' !) !ne !) the meanings #eaney suggests )!r his res!nant title The Government of the Tongue. . 4s he puts it in The Government of the Tongue: .. %here !ne is t!ld t! g!(ern !ne$s t!ngue. 8!r a p!et !r %riter.n this sense.n b!th !) the ab!(e p!siti!ns.n the )irst !) these. %ith the impli'ati!n !) a . and !) the n!ti!n !) sear'hes )!r s!me )!rm !) intersub9e'ti(e truth.relati(ely underpri(ileged situati!n. a lamentati!n that seems t! a'hie(e a p!siti!n !) trans'enden'e %ith respe't t! the se'tarian ata(isms !) ra'e and resentment.denial !) the t!ngue$s aut!n!my and permissi!n$ :italics d!es n!t tra'e the gi(en map !) a better reality but impr!(ises an inspired s&et'h !) it$. and at %!rst. 7B 4s %e ha(e seen in the intr!du'ti!n. p!etry is attenuated in that it must maintain the n!te !) lamentati!n %hi'h pre'ludes any sp!ntane!us 9!y !r 'reati(ity !n the part !) the %riter. d! n!t mean liberal lamentati!n that 'itizens sh!uld )eel '!mpelled t! murder !ne an!ther !r depl!y their di))erent military arms !(er the matter !) n!men'latures su'h as British !r . . .+aster 1916$.29 Liberal lamentati!n is !) ne'essity. i) !ne thin&s !) Leats$s . a'tually all!%s su'h ata(isms t! di'tate the nature !) su'h liberal dis'!urse. it is dependent !n the a'tual material situati!n !) p!liti's and (i!len'e. ir!ni'ally. at best.. p!etry is (ery mu'h in the ser(i'e !) the a'tual3 it )un'ti!ns as. re1uiring it t! ta&e a p!siti!n that is se'!ndary t! religi!us truth !r state se'urity !r publi' !rder$. su'h an epistem!l!gy 'an lea(e p!etry in a .rish. 2@ he di))i'ulty #eaney has %ith b!th !) these epistem!l!gi'al p!siti!ns is that they b!th demand a suspensi!n !) the )a'ulty !) ad9udi'ati!n. . rep!rtage. post factum. liberal lamentati!n. d! n!t mean publi' 'elebrati!ns !r e/e'rati!ns !) resistan'e !r atr!'ityCalth!ugh there is n!thing ne'essarily unp!eti' ab!ut su'h a 'elebrati!n. #ere. as a s!rt !) p!eti' li'en'e )!r the barbarities !) se'tarian hatred.

#ere the h!rtat!ry !r e/e'rat!ry r!le !) the p!et '!nsists in arti'ulating the m!n!l!gi'al (isi!n !) the tribe !r gr!up. 14 . de)ine a n!ti!n !) sub9e'ti(ity that is 'entral t! #eaney$s n!ti!n !) the )un'ti!n !) art. "u'h a p!siti!n !) immanen'e rem!(es any p!%er !) 'riti1ue )r!m the %riter. "u'h a p!siti!n pla'es the p!et )irmly %ithin his !r her gr!up !r myth!s. his m!n!'ular (isi!n. "he n!tes that the relati!nship bet%een the . and als! attenuates the '!mple/ity !) any p!liti'al !r identi)i'at!ry '!n)li't. su'h an p!siti!n e/'ludes any myth!l!gi'al dimensi!n t! p!etry.$ yet als! '!nne'ted t! it.simpli)i'ati!n !) %riting and reading are the (ery attenuati!ns that #eaney %ishes t! a(!id.y!u$.$ is diale'ti'al and )luid: :t. %hi'h is at the '!re !) -inship. %ill be di'tated by th!se e(ents. the . 4s #eaney dem!nstrated in North. as they in n! %ay )a'ilitate any '!mple/ sear'hes a)ter ans%ers. %ith!ut any n!ti!n !) di))erent perspe'ti(es !r di))erent standp!ints. is 'reati(e !) the sub9e'ti(ities !) the gr!up. .. the '!mmunity. as the gr!%th !) the indi(idual is 'analized by the ethni' and liturgi'al (isi!n !) the gr!up. and hen'e.$ t! the . an e/pl!rati!n !) the myth!s that under%rites se'tarian '!nstituti!ns !) identity 'an be a p!%er)ul t!!l in the unpa'&ing !) su'h identities.71 hese dimensi!ns e/ternal t! the . %ritten by his %i)e Nadezhda. #eaney 'ites her (ie%s !n the n!ti!n !) the ..%e$.. he se'!nd p!siti!n %ith %hi'h he ta&es issue is that !) p!etry as a 'elebrati!n !r e/e'rati!n !) resistan'e !r atr!'ity. and the mem!ir !) his li)e.t denies any n!ti!n !) diale'ti'al '!mple/ity in terms !) the relati!nship !) the . .%e$ and the .%e$ and C i) it is )!rtunate C .%e$.ope %bandoned.. #eaney sees the r!le !) %riting as m!re than su'h an e(ent-dri(en resp!nse %hi'h must be belated %ith respe't t! a'tuality. "imilarly. his attenuated (ie% !) p!etry suggests that ans%ers must be in resp!nse t! e(ents.! )ind its )ul)ilment.$ needs at lest t%! '!mplementary dimensi!ns: . 0riting ab!ut the p!etry !) <sip Iandelstam.t is a (isi!n %hi'h a'hie(es the entrapment !) '!ns'i!usness already n!ted. .

eaven.relati!n %ith the !ther$.$ and . the 'reati!n !) an e))e't thr!ugh a rem!te 'ause.n this sense.sense !) ans%erability. and sees in this p!em a . in turn.the J. he re)uses t! all!% the )!rmer t! be'!me either dependent !n.E!y !r Night: Last hings in the P!etry !) 0.images and symb!ls ade1uate t! !ur predi'ament$ is an e/ample !) lit!tes in that thr!ugh des'ribing %hat these images and symb!ls sh!uld n!t be. is t! ad!pt a m!n!'ularity !) (isi!n %hi'h. ! . B.p!eti' te'hni1ue$ and .see$ is t! see the !ther. a sel)-&n!%ing '!ns'i!usness. is brilliantly and '!n'retely at !ne %ith the eye !) the p!et as a retina !(er%helmed by the (isual e(iden'e !) in)inity and s!litude$. he is gesturing (ery mu'h in the dire'ti!n !) %hat he sees as the '!rre't !r pr!per images and symb!ls. he is %riting ab!ut Leats$s p!em The Cold . #en'e. 77 #en'e. . leads t! a m!n!l!gi'al n!ti!n !) sub9e'ti(ity. t! spea& )!r !ne$s !%n gr!up.$ %ith these !b9e'ts !) (isi!n in mind is t! a't ethi'ally. .eye$ in The Redress of Poetr ..K !) the p!et as a )irst pers!n singular.eye$ is an e/ample !) the rhet!ri'al )igure !) a metalepsis.hist!ri'al situati!n$. #eaney$s n!ti!n !) art is br!adly similar t! that !) +mmanuel Le(inas %h! sees art as a . #e agrees that there is a pr!)!und relati!n bet%een .74 #!%e(er. 4ns%erability and resp!nsibility t! the !ther are 'entral t! his n!ti!n !) the '!nstituti(e (isi!n !) p!etry. !) resp!nsibility$ and g!es !n t! add that . 8!r #eaney this metalepti' stru'ture all!%s him t! e/press the '!mple/ity !) (isi!n that p!etry 'an bring ab!ut.72 #ere again. the '!n)lati!n !) the sub9e't %ith (isi!n is 'entral t! #eaney$s aestheti' epistem!l!gy. #eaney$s denial !) the (alidity !) these t%! di))erent meth!ds !) pr!(iding . t! 'reate the . 1> . 4s . his diale'ti' bet%een . Leats and Philip Lar&in$.he imp!rtan'e !) this '!mple/ity and plurality !) (isi!n that #eaney ass!'iates %ith p!etry is underlined by his return t! this image !) the .n an essay entitled . su'h an epistem!l!gy is the (ery antithesis !) simplisti' and attenuating n!ti!ns !) sub9e'ti(ity..$ and the . ha(e already n!ted..

is hinted at in his essay !n <sip Iandelstam. he similarity %ith =errida$s arti'ulati!n !) all '!mmuni'ati!n being a'hie(ed thr!ugh di))eren'e and the tra'e is 'lear.7> he shape !) his )ield !) )!r'e. (ia =errida. . 4s already n!ted.simply present !r absent$. )elt it imperati(e t! dis'!(er a )ield !) )!r'e in %hi'h. %here he 'ites appr!(ingly Iandelstam$s n!ti!n !) the purity !) p!etry as being li&e ma&ing Brussels la'e.te/t$.real %!r&$ but %h!se .ne% '!n'ept !) %riting$ %herein . and the !s'illat!ry imagery !) the l!!m as it 'reates the ?lster linen !) her sampler. the imp!rtan'e !) the shad!% as %ell as the substan'e. the elements !) the system are stru'turally dependent !n elements %hi'h are ne(er . and in an inter(ie% %ith Eulia Mriste(a. it %!uld be p!ssible t! en'!mpass the perspe'ti(es !) a humane reas!n and at the same time t! grant the religi!us intensity !) the (i!len'e its depl!rable authenti'ity and '!mple/ity. this te/tile$. %e are n!% ba'& in the realm !) Aatherine Bradley$s sampler. #eaney$s epistem!l!gy !) p!etry %ill attempt t! a(!id these attenuati!ns and entrapments: . mean that . are stressed. this te/tGileH is red!lent !) the diale'ti'al stru'ture %hi'h he has been '!nstru'ting.t is ir!ni' that. . %ith!ut aband!ning )idelity t! the pr!'esses and e/perien'e !) p!etry as . and are the results !) an inter%ea(ing bet%een presen'e and absen'e. #en'e.inter%ea(ing. an a'ti(ity %hi'h in(!l(es .76 #ere. per)!rati!ns and truan'y$.n !ther %!rds. this is )ar )r!m the se'urity blan&et !) !(er-simplisti' meaning3 this %ea(ing. !r '!nstellati!n. 77 . =errida sees language as )un'ti!ning thr!ugh an .ma9!r '!mp!nents. g!es !n t! e/plain his (ie% !) a .n! element 'an )un'ti!n as a sign %ith!ut re)erring t! an!ther element %hi'h itsel) is n!t simply present$. #eaney$s Brussels la'e des'ribes a similar e'!n!my in that %hat is present is supp!rted 16 . ha(e !utlined them. the latter. th!se supp!rting the design. the diale'ti' !) presen'e and absen'e. are air.e'!n!my !) tra'es$. %hi'h pr!du'es the .!r subser(ient t!.t is this .

but parallel statements ab!ut the )ield !) )!r'e. 0riting at the '!n'lusi!n !) the title essay !) The Government of the Tongue. #e says in !ne sense.brea& %ith the usual li)e but n!t an abs'!nding )r!m it$. )un'ti!ns n!t as distra'ti!n but as pure '!n'entrati!n. he 'ites Eesus$ %riting.t is in the intersti'es !) this e'!n!my. in the ri)t bet%een %hat is g!ing t! happen and %hate(er %e %!uld %ish t! happen. #e sees p!etry as anal!g!us t! this %riting. in the )a'e !) the s'ribes and Pharisees %h! %ere a''using the %!man 'aught in adultery.7@ and muses !n the e))i'a'y !) p!etry. his n!ti!n !) a brea& brings us ba'& t! the intersti'es !) the )ield !) )!r'e. #eaney spea&s !) the epistem!l!gy !) p!etry as paralleling the %riting in the sand %hi'h is ephemeral in the e/treme. this )ield !) )!r'e.nil C n! lyri' has e(er st!pped a tan&$3 h!%e( the )a'e !) %hi'h a''users and a''used are le)t spee'hless and rene%ed$ C as an e/ample !) the status !r )!r'e !) p!etry. the e))i'a'y is .a''using 'r!%d$ !r . that #eaney sees the )!r'e and e))i'a'y !) p!etry.n terms red!lent !) =errida$s n!ti!ns !) di))eren'e and the tra'e. 4s he puts it.helpless a''used$: .nstead. but in terms !) in)luen'ing the %riter and the reader3 he g!es !n t! des'ribe 17 . t! h!ld in a single th!ught reality and 9usti'e. in Leats$s . 4t its greatest m!ments it %!uld attempt. . a . . %e see di))erent. p!etry d!es n!t pr!mise a s!luti!n t! either . his is %hat gi(es p!etry its g!(erning p!%er. #eaney is dis'ussing the .parad!/ !) p!etry and !) the imaginati(e arts in general$. per)!rati!ns and truan'y$. 79 #ere. th!se airy truan'ies !) Brussels la'e %hi'h %ere 9ust as imp!rtant as the designs %hi'h they supp!rted. Du!ting )r!m Ahapter +ight !) E!hn$s *!spel.unlimited$ and g!es !n t! 'ite the metaph!r !) Eesus$ %riting in the sand C . n!t !(ertly in the p!liti'al sphere. in an!ther sense he sees its e))i'a'y as .air. P!etry 'an be the spa'e thr!ugh %hi'h reality and 9usti'e 'an !perate. a )!'us %here !ur p!%er t! '!n'entrate is '!n'entrated ba'& !n !ursel(es. p!etry h!lds attenti!n )!r a spa'e.

#eaney %as dis'ussing these (ery n!ti!ns !) e))i'a'y and ine))i'a'y3 !n the !ne hand.n his .the mas&ed men %ere Pr!testant paramilitaries ab!ut t! 'arry !ut a tit)!r-tat se'tarian &illing$. the presumpti!n must ha(e been that . sin'e the ma9!rity !) the gr!up %ere Pr!testants. and %ere as&ed .%riting in the sand$ metaph!r. #eaney n!tes that. in 1976. near Bessbr!!& in A!unty 4rmagh at a b!gus 'he'&p!int. step !ut here$. .the guarantee !) a '!mmitment %hi'h need n!t ap!l!gize )!r n!t ta&ing up the 'udgels sin'e it is raising a bat!n t! attune dis'!rds %hi'h the 'udgels are 'reating$. #eaney e/empli)ies this p!int by re'alling h!%. and %hi'h e))e'ts reader and %riter by the e/perien'e !) being .r!ni'ally. 4B he !s'illat!ry nature !) this diale'ti'al m!(ement dem!nstrates the '!mple/ity !) the )!r'es a'ting !n b!th reader and %riter.p!etry as .41 #!%e(er.47 #e g!es !n: 1@ . it is the (ery ephemerality !) p!etry. the )!r'e is mi'r!'!smi' as !pp!sed t! ma'r!'!smi'3 it has n! dire't e))e't !n the p!liti'al. a minibus )ull !) %!r&ers %as st!pped at Mingsmills. %ith a single e/'epti!n.n Crediting Poetr .at the same time summ!ned and released$.42 . it is . his N!bel le'ture.n terms !) the relati!nship bet%een %riting and p!liti's. that gi(es it any sense !) lasting )!r'e. . he sees the . he !''upants %ere lined up at the side !) the r!ad.m!re a thresh!ld than a path$ and sees it as !ne %hi'h is .any Aath!li's am!ng y!u. .the imaginati!n pressing ba'& against the pressure !) reality$. but it has the e))e't !) altering the indi(idual '!ns'i!usness !) b!th %riter and reader. the %riting in the sand. it may alter the mindset that is sending in th!se tan&s.'!nstantly appr!a'hed and '!nstantly departed )r!m$. he sees that p!etry d!esn$t st!p tan&s3 !n the !ther.purely p!eti' )!r'e !) %!rds$ as .

n!b!dy need &n!% %hat )aith !r party y!u bel!ng t!.44 he man did step )!r%ard. 'aught bet%een dread and %itness.murder!us$. 19 . d!n$t m!(e. 47 but al%ays %ithin a '!nte/t that respe'ts !ur resp!nsibility t! the !ther. Ea'1ues =errida has made the p!int that literature is that genre %herein . murdered by . #eaney$s )ield !) )!r'e h!pes t! 'redit the . the st!ry g!es.46 #!%e(er.4@ 8!r #eaney. and in the relati(e '!(er !) the %inter e(ening dar&ness.presumably.present use$.. and his n!ti!n !) p!'ense is gi(en t! the %riter t! say e(erything he %ants t! !r e(erything he 'an$.F4$.being itsel) and )!r being a help$349 as %ell as redressing the s!'i!-p!liti'al.rightly suspi'i!us !) that %hi'h gi(es t!! mu'h '!ns!lati!n in these 'ir'umstan'es$. #e 'redits p!etry b!th )!r . but %as thr!%n aside t! %at'h the e/e'uti!n !) the ten Pr!testant %!r&ers. i) art is t! be !) . the Pr!(isi!nal . and ever thing he should. hen.mar(ell!us$ as %ell as the . %e '!uld perhaps add t! this: li'ense is gi(en t! the %riter t! say e(erything he %ants t! !r e(erything he 'an.4> #eaney n!tes that. in that split se'!nd !) de'isi!n. as %ell as th!se %hi'h murdered their !thers. %e$ll n!t betray y!u. then its redress must ta&e a''!unt !) b!th the hand that gripped its !ther.t %as a terrible m!ment )!r him. in the )a'e !) su'h atr!'ity. but he did ma&e a m!ti!n t! step )!r%ard. and !) p!etry t! the de(el!pment !) a )uller '!ns'i!usness !) !ur humanity. he )elt the hand !) the Pr!testant %!r&er ne/t t! him ta&e his hand and s1ueeze it in a signal that said n!. %e are . #eaney$s sear'hes )!r ans%ers %ill ta&e int! a''!unt the rest!rati(e relati!n !) p!etry t! the sel).

@. 4thl!ne. The Government of the Tongue . 21->1. 1@. p. 1@. +mmanuel Le(inas. The Government of the Tongue . Preoccupations. p.1B@. p. p. L!nd!n. Ahi'ag! ?ni(ersity Press. e/t and . p. p. *rasmere. p. 8aber. in =iane P. The Government of the Tongue . F!utledge. L!nd!n.@4. 4. p. Preoccupations. Bel)ast. The Redress of Poetr : !8ford 6ectures . 7. 71. Redress of Poetr . L!nd!n. The Government of the Tongue . translated by =ennis E. p. "eamus #eaney. p.eane and the 6anguage of Poetr . 17. pp. p.eane . Place and &isplacement . Place and &isplacement . L!nd!n. Preoccupations. p. . p. p. >6->7. "eamus #eaney. pp. /(iii. p. Preoccupations. 8aber. rustees !) =!(e A!ttage. The Government of the Tongue . Preoccupations: Selected Prose: /012'/032 . 199>. 7B. L!nd!n. 7. %cts of 6iterature4 +dited by =ere& 4ttridge. p. p. p. 8aber. Seamus . Place and &isplacement . 17>. Preoccupations. Basil Bla'&%ell. @. 147. )irst published in 19@6. Place and &isplacement . 199>. 1@. Redress of Poetr . 19@9. Ii'hel)elder. The Redress of Poetr . Ea'1ues =errida. Ne% L!r&. </)!rd. Positions. 76. pp. Place and &isplacement . 26. 19@1. 14. Redress of Poetr . Preoccupations. >. Dueen$s ?ni(ersity. "eamus #eaney. p. 17. The Government of the Tongue: The /021 T4S4 5liot *emorial 6ectures and !ther Critical Writings. 1992. p. 199@. p. p. 96. p. 6. Redress of Poetr . 77. p. 4. The Government of the Tongue . Redress of Poetr . p. p. 122. Ahi'ag!. %mong Schoolchildren .1B7. p. 19. 19@7. Redress of Poetr . 149. "tate ?ni(ersity !) Ne% L!r& Press. p. Seamus . "eamus #eaney. Place and &isplacement . #ar(ester 0heatshea). 19@>. 19@1. 19B. Redress of Poetr . translated by *e!))rey Benningt!n and Fa'hel B!%lby. 26. Ea'1ues =errida. and Fi'hard +. p. %mong Schoolchildren .nterpretati!n$. The Government of the Tongue . p. Ea'1ues =errida. 19@9. >>. The Government of the Tongue . Place and &isplacement . Preoccupations. edited by "ean #and. 8aber. p. 61. %mong Schoolchildren .eidegger and the 7uestion . 1. "eamus #eaney. Preoccupations. 41. 172. p. The Redress of Poetr : !8ford 6ectures . p. 2B. 19@9. p. 1994. Palmer GedsH &ialogue 9 &econstruction: The Gadamer'&errida 5ncounter . %mong Schoolchildren .1 Endnotes "eamus #eaney. 6-7. p. Bernard <$=!n!ghue. 4. L!nd!n. 2>. p. p. "'hmidt and Fi'hard Palmer. p. L!nd!n. Preoccupations. The 6evinas Reader . p. !f Spirit: . p. p. 7. 2 7 4 > 6 7 @ 9 1B 11 12 17 14 1> 16 17 1@ 19 2B 21 22 27 24 2> 26 27 2@ 29 7B 71 72 77 74 7> 76 77 7@ 79 4B 41 42 47 44 4> 46 47 4@ 49 . 94. #emel #empstead. 27B. The Government of the Tongue . ranslated by 4lan Bass. >6.1B@. 11. 8aber. 12. 6. #ans-*e!rg *adamer. 19@@. Preoccupations. p. Neil A!r'!ran. p.

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