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# StructuralAnalysisI UnderstandingStaticAnalysesLecture UnderstandingStaticAnalyses.

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## Understanding Static Analyses

Static Analyses are used to calculate deformations, stresses, and strains in a model in response to specified loads and constraints.

Steady state only; no time varying Loads Can be Structural, Thermal, or Prescribed Displacement Multiple Load sets permitted

Input: Constraints

Output: Values

Output: Formats

## Results of Static Analysis LectureNotes Static Analyses

Static Analyses can be used to calculate deformations, stresses, and strains in a Pro/ENGINEER part or assembly model in response to specified steady loads and constraints. This type of structural analysis does not account for any structural damping effects or time-varying loads. The Static Analysis can also be used to check for large deformations or stresses due to contact between structural components. Static Analysis Input In general, an analysis is the calculation of a models response to loading and boundary conditions. Structural analyses are performed on a product in order to find the stress and displacement distribution over the entire structure. Mechanicas Static Analysis is a structural analysis enabling the evaluation of these quantities in different forms, either fringe plots or graphs. The input for a Static Analysis can be a combination of loading conditions (and/or enforced displacement constraints) and constraints:

Loads can be either structural (geometry or steady-state inertia forces) and/or thermal (Global Temperature or Mechanica Thermal). An enforced or prescribed displacement can also act as a loading condition. The loads can vary geometrically in 3D space, but they cannot be varied with respect to time. The loads can be combined in multiple load sets and their structural effects can be examined individually or cumulatively. Constraints can be any structural constraints applied directly to the geometry (surfaces, edge/curves, or points). If no boundary conditions are specified, the model can be analyzed structurally by imposing inertia relief. This option enables Mechanica to analyze the model as if it was floating freely in space but with the loads applied.

Static Analysis Output The results from a Static Analysis are stresses, strains and deformations (including rotations). You can also evaluate force reactions. These results can be single numerical values (if youre looking for maximum/minimum values) or can be values computed at any location in the model (fringe plots or graphs). You can also create probes at certain locations in the model (also known as Mechanicas Measures) and make readings of the quantities of interest at those locations. All these values can be found either in the Static Analysis summary report or by creating result windows. By default, all these quantities are evaluated in binary format but can be exported to ASCII format as well. Graphs can be easily exported to MSExcel or in tabulated text forms as well. Best Practices

Your model's loading condition determines the type of analysis you should use. For a Static Analysis with inertia relief, ensure that the model does not contain unconnected bodies. If multiple bodies exist in your model and they are not

connected to one another, the analysis will fail with an under-constrained error. To run an inertia relief analysis with multiple bodies, ensure that all the bodies are connected in such a way that there is no relative motion between the bodies. You can combine more than one constraint set into a new single set, or calculate results for any one constraint set.

## Procedure: Creating Static Analyses

Scenario
In this procedure, you will define a Static Analysis in a Pro/ENGINEER assembly model for which loads and constraints were already created and defined. CreateStatic flanges.asm

Task 1. Open the Mechanica Application, investigate the model and existing Mechanica Simulation Features, and define a Static Analysis.
1. Click Applications > Mechanica. 2. Explore and examine the model. From the top of the model tree, click Show Expand All. >

## Note the existing Mechanica simulation features including:

Internal and External Pressure Loads Cyclic and Mirror Symmetry Constraints A Translation Constraint A Fastener and its associated Measures from the main toolbar.

## 3. Click Mechanica Analyses/Studies 4. Click File > New Static...

5. In the Name field type FLANGES_STATIC. Providing a short description of the analysis is not a required step, but it can be beneficial for other users who would access this data in order to understand your analysis.

6. Select the Combine Constraint Sets check box and click each of the constraint sets defined in the model. 7. If necessary, select the Pressure load from the Loads section of the dialog box.

This is an educational example in which we have defined a constraint set for each of the constraints in the model. In everyday examples, these constraints could be added to single or multiple constraint sets.

8. Select the Output tab and verify that the Stresses, Rotations, and Reactions check boxes are selected, and that Plotting Grid is set to 4 as shown in the figure.

The value you specify for Plotting Grid determines the number of intervals along each edge of each element that Mechanica uses to create plotting grids. Mechanica calculates quantity values at the intersections of grid lines and reports precise results for each grid intersection point and interpolates these values to show results elsewhere.

9. Select the Convergence tab and select Single-Pass Adaptive from the Method drop-down menu, if necessary. Note the existence (but do not select) the check boxes for Nonlinear and Inertia Relief.

10. The dialog box should now appear as shown in the figure. Click OK to complete the Static Analysis Definition and close the dialog box. 11. Close any open dialog boxes.

## Task 2. Save the model and erase it from memory.

1. Return to the Standard Pro/ENGINEER mode by clicking Applications > Standard. 2. Click Save from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model. > OK to erase the models from

3. Click File > Erase > Current > Select All memory. This completes the procedure. UnderstandingStaticAnalysesExercise

## Exercise: Static Analysis

Objectives
After successfully completing this exercise, you will be able to:

Configure and Run Mechanica Static Analyses. Examine and set up the proper Mechanica Model Type based on the input and material properties. Compare the results from 3D, 2D Axisymmetric, and 3D with Cyclic Symmetry model types and identify the benefits of using each of these model types.

Scenario
In this exercise, you will use Mechanica to evaluate the stresses and deformations in a supporting component made out of Brass. The loads exerted on this component are internal pressure and external loads. The model is fully constrained and you will evaluate and compare the stresses and deformations for this component using the following model types:

3D

2D Axisymmetric

## 3D with Cyclic Symmetry

3D

2D Axisymmetric

3D with Cyclic Symmetry The model is a revolved feature with stiffeners placed transversely along the length of the cylinder. There are two loads in the model: an external surface load of 50 N and an internal pressure of 30 MPa. The model is held fully constrained at the bottom of the support housing. The material is isotropic (BRASS) with Youngs Modulus (E) of 103 GPa. The material is a rather soft, ductile material with a Yield Strength of about 190 MPa. Since the material is isotropic, the model has the same properties in all three directions. You will start by running an analysis for this geometry using the 3D (default) Model Type. That is, were going to apply the load and constraints in the model in its current geometrical configuration. However, you may wish to reduce the number of finite elements by using the advantage that the model exhibits the same properties in the 3D domain. There are two possible solutions:

Imagine youre slicing a sheet of paper-like sliver surface from this 3D model. Next, revolve this sliver surface 360 around its axis of revolution. The outcome is the same, geometry-wise, as the full 3D model. But, by using this idealization approach, we can reduce the number of elements (since we are now working in 2D) and be able to provide the same results as a 3D model. This model type is called in Mechanica: 2D Axisymmetric. Another possibility is to cut the model (like a slice of pie) and use a special type of constraints (Cyclic Symmetry) to simulate the fact that the remaining model is still there. Its still going to be a 3D model type, but the finite element count will dramatically drop.

Although each one of these design and analysis approaches are interesting to examine, we will concentrate our attention to the 2D Axisymmetric model type. In the end, we will examine the results from all these three model types and discuss the benefits of using any of these idealizations. StaticHousing housing_support.prt

Task 1. Resume the Cut Feature in the Pro/ENGINEER 3D Model and open the Mechanica application.
You need to create a 3D cut in the original model in order for you to select the surface(s) for the 2D Axisymmetric model.

1. From the main menu, click Edit > Resume > Resume All. Note that the AXISYMMETRY_CUT and AXIS_CSYS were resumed.

For a 2D Axisymmetric model, the angle of the pie-like cut is not of critical importance (it can be 2, 45, or 359). However, you must be able to select the surface of that cut which is revolved about the axis to give us the same final 3D shape.

2. Click Applications > Mechanica. 3. From the main menu, click Edit > Mechanica Model Setup... > Advanced. 4. Select the 2D Axisymmetric radio button. Before proceeding, note that the AXIS_CSYS coordinate system is oriented such that the X and Y axes lie in the plane of the geometry you are going to select (shown in red) for the 2D axisymmetric model. If this were not the case, you would need to create a coordinate system that was oriented in this way before continuing.

5. Select AXIS_CSYS from the model tree as the Coordinate System reference. 6. Select the surface shown under the mouse cursor in the figure as the Geometry Reference. 7. Click OK to complete the Mechanica Model Setup and close the dialog box. Click Confirm to acknowledge the deletion of all simulation modeling entities. Note: Once you enter Mechanica with the 2D Axisymmetric model type, Mechanica will add a blue color line to the perimeter of the surfaces you have selected for the model. This is a visual aid used in order to differentiate between a 2D Axisymmetric and a 3D model type.

Task 2. Define Loads, Constraints, Materials and a Static Analysis for the 2D Axisymmetric Model.

## and select the top edge of the 2D geometry as

2. Type -50 in the Y field in the Force area of the dialog box and verify that the units for the Force are set to N as shown in the dialog box. Note: This load application is equivalent to applying the load on the entire top surface when in the original 3D model, but because you are in a 2D Axisymmetric model now, you select an edge.

Note: Notice that due to being in a 2D Axisymmetric model you are constrained in the XY plane. No forces can be applied in the Z direction and moments can be only applied about the Z-axis.

3. Click OK to complete the Force/Moment Load definition and close the dialog box. The load should now display as shown in the figure.

## and select the inside vertical edge shown in the figure.

5. Type 30 in the Value field and verify that the units field is set to MPa as shown in the figure. Note: This load application is equivalent to applying pressure load on the entire inner wall surface of the original 3D model.

6. Click OK to complete the Pressure Load definition and close the dialog box. The pressure load should now show on the model as shown in the figure.

## and select the outside short vertical edge as

8. Verify that both translational degrees of freedom are set to Fixed Translation and the single rotational degree of freedom is set to Fixed Rotation as shown in the figure. Note: This constraint is equivalent to constraining the entire outside surface that this edge is coincident within the original 3D model.

9. Click OK to complete the Constraint definition and close the dialog box. The constraint should now show on the model as shown in the figure.

10. Click Material Assignment to open the Material Assignment dialog box. Click More... next to the Material field. 11. In the Materials dialog box that appears, select brass.mtl from the list of materials and click Add Material to add it to the Materials in Model list. Click OK to close the Materials dialog box.

12. For the References, select the 2D surface you selected as part of the 2D Axisymmetric Model Type definition as shown in the figure.

13. Verify that the Material field is set to BRASS and click OK to assign BRASS to the 2D Section.

14. From the Main toolbar, click Mechanica Analyses/Studies 15. Select File > New Static... 16. In the Name field, type STATIC_AXISYMMETRIC.

17. Verify that the constraint set and load set you created are selected in the Static Analysis Definition dialog box. 18. From the Method drop-down menu, on the Convergence tab, select Multi-Pass Adaptive. 19. Type 9 in the Maximum field. 20. Type 5 in the Percent Convergence field. 21. Verify that the Local Displacement, Local Strain Energy and Global RMS Stress radio button is selected. 22. The dialog box should now appear as shown in the figure. Click OK to complete the Static Analysis Definition and close the dialog box.

23. Verify that STATIC_AXISYMMETRIC is selected in the Analyses and Design Studies dialog box and click Start Run 24. Click Display Study Status > Yes to start the design study. once the analysis is started.

The analysis should take about 1530 seconds to complete. AutoGEM has generated around 80 finite elements (2D Solids) for this model.

## Task 3. Review the STATIC_AXISYMMETRIC results.

1. When the analysis is complete, click Close to close the Run Status window, and click Close to close the Diagnostics dialog box. 2. Verify that STATIC_AXISYMMETRIC is still selected in the Analyses and Design Studies dialog box and click Results to enter Results mode.

2D Axisymmetric

290

1.396

80

12

## 3D with Cyclic Symmetry

291

1.389

396

35

3D

295

1.394

1531

61

Although this example is not intended as a verification model in Mechanica, we can easily identify that the results for each model type are close for both Von Mises stress and displacement. The conclusion is more from productivity point of view: it takes less time and elements to mesh and solve the 2D Axisymmetric model versus the 3D Mechanica default model type. The 2D Axisymmetric model type can be applied for all cases where the loads, constraints, materials are symmetrical about an axis of revolution.

3. Click File > Exit Results > No to exit the Result Window without saving any results.

Task 5. Save the open models and erase them from memory.
1. Close all open Diagnostics dialog boxes. 2. Close all open Run Status dialog boxes. 3. Click Save from the main toolbar and click OK to save the model. 4. Click File > Close Window. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all open models 6. Click File > Erase > Not Displayed > OK to erase the models from memory. This completes the exercise.