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KHON KAEN AGR. J. 41 SUPPL. 1 : (2013). 75
Effect of eucalyptus leaf meal supplementation on feed intake ruminal ecology and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes
Nguyen The Thao1 and Metha Wanapat1*
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation on voluntary feed intake, ruminal ecology and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes fed with rice straw. In this, ruminally fistulated swamp buffaloes with initial body weight of 321± 23 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were different levels of ELM supplementation and were as follows: T1= 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens, concentrates were offered at 0.3%BW and rice straw was fed ad libitum. These results revealed that voluntary feed intake were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature were not significantly affected; however, ELM supplementation resulted in significantly lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Population of bacteria and fungal zoospores were not different (P>0.05) among treatments while population of protozoa was decreased (P<0.05) when buffaloes received ELM supplementation. Nitrogen utilization and purine derivatives were not affected by ELM supplementation. Based on these findings, it can be suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potential as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen performances. Keywords: eucalyptus leaf meal, rumen ecology, rumen enhancer, swamp buffalo
Introduction Methane production through ruminant
interest in exploiting natural products feed
Recently, there has been an increasing
additive that would improve the efficiency of
enteric fermentation is of concern worldwide for gases in the atmosphere, as well as its waste of
nutrient use in animal. Eucalyptus is one of
its contribution to the accumulation of greenhouse fed energy for the animal (Boadi et al., 2004).
the world’s important and most widely planted genera. Among its main uses is the production of essential oils, which are used for meCamaldulensis essential oil from the leaves
There is an interest in decreasing CH4 emission increasing the efficiency of feed energy utilization
dicinal and pharmaceutical purposes. Eucalyptus ranges from less than 1 to over 2%. The quantity compounds in the leaves include: betulinic acid, ursolic acid (Di Stefano, 2001).
by inhibition of ruminal methanogens thus for the ruminants and would have significant economic and environmental benefits (Wanapat et al., 2012). Therefore, developing feeding strategies are desirable and inhibition of methanogensis improve animal productivity.
of 1.8-cineole in the oil ranges from 15-78%. Other eucalyptic and eucalyptolic acid, oleanolic acid, Eucalyptus oils have potential biological
of ruminants with the methane suppressing impact has long been considered as a strategy to
activities such as bacteriostatic, fungistatic, anti-inflommatory, modifying ruminal fermentation
Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Feeds and fecal samples were collected by total dry mater intake and nutrient digestibility are presented in Table 1. T3 = supplementation at 120 g ELM/day. 2. (2005).05 were accepted as representing statistically significant differences. During the ﬁrst 14 days. µ: the overall mean. especially in swam buffaloes. 2009). 1969). N (AOAC. Eucalyptus leaves were conducted in in vivo objective of this study was to evaluate the effects แก่นเกษตร 41 ฉบับพิเศษ 1 : (2556). on dry mater of swamp buffaloes. supplementation at 80 g MUP/day. Results and Discussion The effects of ELM supplementation on means were determined by Duncan’s New Multiple and each lasted for 21 days. ash and CP content (AOAC. to the model: Yijk = µ+ Mi + Aj + Pk + εijk. 4). measured for pH and temperature by using ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) analyzed by micro count of protozoa and fungal zoospores were determined by using the method of Galyean (1989) and group of bacteria (total viable. Ruminal Kjeldahl methods (AOAC. Feeds and refusals samples analyzed for DM. 1995). Aj: the effect of steer (j = 1. all animals were fed respective diets. respectively. anti-protozoa and methane there are few experimental data on effects of the mitigration (Sallam et al. 2. whereas during the last 7 days. Total direct Materials and Methods Four. 4). Therefore. Pk: the effect of period (k = 1. ruminal ﬁstulated buffaloes with initial body weight (BW) of 420 ± 15 kg. 1990). Difference between treatment Rang Test (DMRT) with P<0. Urine samples were analyzed for total supplemented dietary with low level of essential . and rice straw was offered ad libitum. they were moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection. the of eucalyptus leaf meal supplementation on feed intake and rumen ecology and microbial protein synthesis of swamp buffaloes. The experiment was conducted for four periods using the SAS(1998) GLM procedure according Yijk: observation from animal j. Rumen ﬂuid was immediately trials. total collection of each individual buffaloes during the last 7 days of each period at the morning and afternoon feeding.. All experimental animals were kept in individual pens with clean fresh water and mineral blocks were available at all times. (1993). 4 and 6 h. Concentrate (14. T4 = T2 = supplementation at 40 g ELM/day. (2006) and Trinh et al. However. 3. 3. rumen ﬂuid samples were collected immediately post feeding at 2. a portable pH temperature meter. 1995) and allantonin in urine was determined by HPLC as describes by Chen et al. 4). roll-tube technique (Hungate. where in period k.3% of BW/day. (2011) when oil or their constituents. receiving diet i. proteolytic and amylolytic) were measured using All data from the experiment were analyzed by assigned to receive four dietary treatments The dietary treatments were as follow: T1 = supplementation at 0 g ELM/day (control). 3. Mi: effect of the different level of ELM supplementation (i = 1.2% CP) was fed daily to animals at 0. This result was Benchaar et al. cellulolytic. were randomly according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. It was found that ELM supplementation up to 120 g/hd/d did not affected similar with observed by and Hosoda et al. At the end of each period.76 characteristics. and εijk: the residual effect. 2.
05) in this study. (2008) suggested that a protozoa With regards to N utilization and purine derivatives amino acids and production of NH3-N.1 2. However. ELM such secondary compounds may bind with count was decreased with essential oils addition.KHON KAEN AGR.05 0.52 0. there were no differences of N balance confirmed by a reduction of proteolytic bacteria contained approximately 9% of condensed tannin. The decreased in ruminal supplemented diets.05) when increasing level of bacterial population and fungal zoospores did not affected by ELM supplementation. 41 SUPPL. (2003) and that was explained by essential oils impact on hyper-ammonia producing bacteria resulting in reduced de-amination of (2012) suggested that the numbers of holotrics increasing level of Eucalyptus oil on in vitro study. (Table 3). protein sources in the rumen formed tannin-protein and allatonin in urine among treatments.8 SEM 0.3 1.8 0.9 40 5. 1 : (2013). kg/d .3 1. and spirotrichs protozoa decreased (P<0.4 1. these affect on N metabolism in buffaloes. protozoa population (P<0.05) by NH 3-N concentration was in agreement with McIntosh et al. it was also group (P<0. (2009) and Thao et al. temperature (Table 2) and those values were in normal ranges as reported for optimal microbial digestion of fiber by Wanapat nitrogen concentration was significantly and Pimpa (1999).0 120 5. Kumar et al.3 2. Supplementation of ELM did not affect on 77 complexes hence preventing the excessive microbial degradation of proteins. results indicated that ELM supplementation did not Table 1 Effects of Eucalyptus leaf meal supplementation on voluntary feed intake.2 1.05) was reduced by ELM supplementation.0 80 5. Total viable bacteria.26 0. ELM (g/hd/d) Item Rice straw intake % BW Dry matter intake.6 0.9 6. kg/d 0 5.05 Concentrate intake Total intake % BW Dry matter intake. cellulolytic ruminant pH. Moreover. Tatsuoka et al. amylolytic.9 6.7 0.30 0. ruminal ammonia decreased (P<0.9 6. However.5 1. J.8 0.4 1.9 6.
1 Viable bacteria.0 15.3 5. Ruminal temperature.1 7.5 9.0 4.5 38. 0C NH3-N. x 10 Total.7 0.98 11. mmol/d Allantoin excretion Allantoin absorption Microbial nitrogen supply. mg/dL Total direct count.0b 1.5 ab 6.40 1.1b 4.8 b 6.4 5.51 0. x 105 Fungi zoospores.8 5.7 140.99 0.1 3.7 31.7 9. x 107 Cellulolytic.5 78.8 42. x10 8 a.7ab 1.1 120.3 29.4 7.33 9.93 0.1 14.6 7.3 38.9 27.13 0.5 28.6 a 10.4 Proteolytic.6 ab 8. Table 3 Effect of ELM on Nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis.5 40 แก่นเกษตร 41 ฉบับพิเศษ 1 : (2556).05 0. x 108 5 11. (ELM. Items N utilization.7 87.45 0.1a 3.6 145.5 14.0 34.7 PD.95 N balance Absorption Retention 14.05). Faculty of Agriculture. Ministry of . CFU/ml Amylolytic. g/hd/d 80 120 42.1 5.8 26.9 14.28 0.2 0.b Values on the same row with different superscripts differed (P<0. gN/d EMPS.70 Conclusions Based on this study.4 105.06 0. Animal Science.91 0.7 5. g/day N intake N excretion Feces Urine 0 40.8a 2.3 27.5 SEM 0. cell/ml Protozoa.4 80 120 38. x10 7 0.8 37.72 6.2 SEM 41.9 8.5 1.0 101. Thailand and the Vietnam International Education Development (VIED).6ab 3. Department of additive source to modify the rumen fermentation and is potential as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation.05 0. g/hd/d) Items Ruminal pH 6.80 1. Khon Kaen University. gN/kg OMDR 108.6 0 6.9 32.1c 1.3 41.4 5.1 3.8 38. it could be concluded Acknowledgements Tropical Feed Resources Research and that Eucalyptus leaf meal could be used as feed Development Center (TROFREC).78 Table 2 Effects of Eucalyptus leaf meal on rumen fermentation characteristics.62 4.1 26.6ab 3.76 5.7 44.2 3.4 40 ELM.9 9.4 8.4 1.52 0.
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