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COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

From the earliest times people have needed some idea of what a new building was going to cost before they started work on it. The New English Bible says Would any of you think of building a tower without first sitting down and calculating the cost, to see whether he could afford to finish it? Otherwise, if he has laid its foundations and then is not able to complete it, all the onlookers will laugh at him. There is the man man they will say who started to build and could not finish finish. (St Luke, Ch 14.)

STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

by

K.L.S. SAHABANDU
Additional General Manager (Designs)

Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau (CECB)


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PARTICIPANTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


DECISION MAKERS - Policy Makers - Planners - Developers - Owner - Project Managers - Architects - Engineers - Quantity Surveyors

ENGINEERS
GEOTECHNICAL / FOUNDATION STRUCTURAL BUILDING SERVICES

CONSULTANTS

- Electrical
- Mechanical - Water Supply & Drainage - Acoustic

CONTRACTORS
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OWNER / DEVELOPER / DECISION MAKER

PLANNING / DESIGN / CONSTRUCTION

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
- Building Size - Comfort - Prestige - Low running cost

BUDGETARY CONSTRAINS
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FEASIBILITY, OUTLINE & SCHEMATIC DESIGNS DETAIL DESIGNS SPECIFICATIONS BILL OF QUANTITIES PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE
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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

COST INDICATORS
COST /SQUARE FOOT (METRE) COST / BED, COST / PUPIL, COST / ROOM

LIFELIFE-CYCLE COSTING
CAPITAL COST RUNNING COST

TYPE OF BUILDING

- Functional Category - Form

LOCATION SUBSOIL CONDITIONS - Foundation Type MATERIALS - Architectural - Structural SYSTEMS - Ventilation - Lighting - Conveyance
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- Maintenance - Repairs - Cleaning - Replacements - Painting - (Interest on Capital Cost)

REASONS FOR ACCEPTING LESSER CAPITAL COSTS Where the building is to be disposed of by sale, maintenance charges will fall upon the purchaser, which would be of little importance to the developer, who is responsible for the construction cost. Where the building is to be let, or used commercially, the initial cost comes out of capital, while the repairs and maintenance are deducted from the commercial receipts in calculating profit for the year.
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BuiltBuilt-in Obsolescence Although a building may be perfectly sound after the passage of years it may become oldold-fashioned in design. The future could not really be forecasted. - Maintenance policy - Interest rates - Inflation

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REASONS FOR ACCEPTING HIGHER CAPITAL COSTS


For prestige reasons. The client may consider that his building is too important to have cheap and inferior materials and workmanship. Expensive materials are generally more durable and aesthetically pleasant. Replacement or repair may be inconvenient or difficult. Saving of money on a specific item may involve repairs out of all proportion to the saving. Obsolescence may not be a factor of any importance

LIFELIFE-CYCLE COST OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS


The conflict between capital outlay and running costs occurs in a pronounced form in the evaluation of energyenergy-consuming systems, because considerable economy in daily energy costs can be achieved by additional capital expenditure. EXAMPLES: Thermal insulation of the building, double glazing etc. AirAir-conditioning systems(Capital cost, running cost, life time, replacement cost etc.) Additional lift cost for a tall building
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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

BASIC DESIGN AND COST RELATIONSHIPS


SIZE

DESIGN & COST PROCEDURE


(PRE(PRE-TENDER)

COST

FORM & SPECIFICATIONS

STAGE 1 - INCEPTION Appointment of a design team and defining the general approach. STAGE 2 - FEASIBILITY Testing to see whether client clients requirements can be met in terms of planning, accommodation, cost, etc. STAGE 3 OUTLINE PROPOSALS General approach identified together with critical dimensions, main space locations and uses.
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COST PLANNING METHODS


STAGE 4 - SCHEME DESIGN Basic form determined and cost plan (budget) determined. STAGE 5 - DETAIL DESIGN Design developed to the point where detailing is complete and the building works works. STAGE 6 - TENDER INFORMATION Working drawings prepared for the tender documents. STAGE 7 BILL OF QUANTITIES Bill of Quantities prepared based on tender drawings and specifications.

Traditional cost planning methods do very little to contribute to the prepre-sketch design dialogue, where all the major decisions of form and quality tend to be taken. Current research suggests that there is a heavy commitment of cost prior to a sketch design being formalised. This may amount to over 70% of the final potential building cost, leaving perhaps only 30% to actual control control.
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COST PLANNING METHODS


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ACCUMULATED COMMITMENT TO EXPENDITURE

DESIGN TECHNIQUES What are the Constraints? What are the priorities? How much space is required? What arrangement of space is required? What form should the building take? What is the level of specifications?
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80 60 40 20 0
DESIGN TIME

Completion of sketch designs Tender

Minimum possible expenditure

by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

WHAT ARE THE CONSTRAINTS?


PHYSICAL FACTOR EXTERNAL BODIES & INSTITUTIONS CLIENT AND HIS ADVISERS / DESIGN TEAM

PHYSICAL FACTORS
RELATE TO THE SITE - Boundaries - Easements (Right of way) - Method of access - Nearness of service supplier - Visual aspects & views - Soil conditions - Adjacent Structures - Material availability
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EXTERNAL BODIES & INSTITUTIONS Building Regulations Planning Requirements Local Authorities Regulations

CLIENT AND HIS ADVISERS


COST LIMITS SPECIFIC DEMANDS TIME CONSTRAINS

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WHAT ARE THE PRIORITIES? Definitions of the constraints is of enormous assistance in containing the design solution. They help in narrowing down the range of possible solutions, which are for practical purposes almost infinity without them. Ignorance of these issues will possibly result in abortive effort and a less than satisfactory service to the client.
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If priorities can be ranked and given their due importance in solving the design problem then it should be possible to spend the client clients money in accordance with these requirements. Examples: 1. Insulation for noise 2. Maintenance free building elements
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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

HOW MUCH SPACE IS REQUIRED? CLIENT CLIENTS BRIEF - Usable area required - Circulation Areas not given - Multiple use of space

ARRANGEMENT OF SPACE
(Optimise the positioning of Space)

DESIGN METHOD ASSOCIATION MATRIX - Identify the relationship between spaces - Weighting system BUBBLE DIAGRAM - Identify the Spaces & Links - Strength of association

SPACE

COST
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FORM OF BUILDING Translate the functional spatial arrangement of the bubble diagram into a building form that will reflect the relationships determined. Constrains - Site - Planning Requirements - Cost Limits

SPACE ARRANGEMENT EFFECT ON ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

BANQUET HALL / AUDITORIUM

TRANSVERSE BEAM

BANQUET HALL / AUDITORIUM

BANQUET HALL / AUDITORIUM

OPTION 1
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OPTION 2

OPTION 3
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LEVEL OF SPECIFICATION
FINISHES ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT DURABILITY MAINTENANCE OPERATIONAL COST PRESTIGE
1.

COST PLANNING STRATEGY


COST PLANNING & CONTROL OF THE DESIGN PROCESS COST CONTROL AT CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT STAGE

2.

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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

COST PLANNING & CONTROL OF THE DESIGN PROCESS


1. Cost planning the Brief 2. Cost Planning at Schematic Stage 3. Cost Planning at Detail Design Stage

COST PLANNING THE BRIEF


Preliminary estimate based on floor area

1. Market conditions 2. Size, number of storeys, etc. 3. Specification level 4. Inclusions and exclusions 5. Services 6. Site and foundation conditions 7. Other factors
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SITE CONDITIONS

SITE CONDITIONS
ADJOINING BUILDINGS / INFRAINFRA-STRUCTURE - Location w.r.t the site / proposed building - Substructure / foundation details

SITE BOUNDARIES / BASEMENTS / WATER TABLE / TEMPO TEMPORARY ARY WORKS

EGL

SITE TOPOGRAPHY
W.T.

EFFECTS FROM BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION

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SITE BOUNDARY

PROPOSED BUILDING
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EXISTING BUILDING
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SITE CONDITIONS
TOPOGRAPHY / ACCESS

RETAINING WALL

ACCESS ROAD EARTH FILL

ACCESS ROAD

SITE CONDITIONS
TOPOGRAPHY / ACCESS
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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

SUBSUB-SOIL CONDITIONS
LOAD BEARING CAPACITIES DEPTHS TO THE BEARING STRATA LONG TERM SETTLEMENT OF SUBSUB-SOIL WATER TABLE

SUBSOIL CONDITION Vs BUILDING SHAPE

EARTH FILL SOFT SOIL

BED ROCK LEVEL

OVERBURDEN

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COST PLANNING AT SCHEMATIC STAGE Building Shape - Perimeter / Area - Circular Shape - Constructability - Square Shape - Ventilation Problems - Rectangular Shape Preferable - HeightHeight- Cost for special arrangements

HEIGHT
Tall buildings are invariably more expensive to build than low rise rise buildings offering the same accommodation, and taller the building building the greater the comparative cost.

Special Arrangements - High speed Lifts


- Pumping Water - Fire escape arrangements - Additional spaces for services

Additional Loads
- Weights of the upper floors - Wind and Seismic loads
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Higher Standards for - Windows - Wall Panels Construction Cost for working at greater heights Additional Running Costs SingleSingle-storey buildings are economical when: - Large column or wall free area is required - Heavy loads to be supported - Low cost foundation can be adopted

COST PLANNING AT DETAIL DESIGN STAGE


FOUNDATIONS - SHALLOW - Pads - Strip - Raft - DEEP - Pile - Pile Types

SAVING LAND COST

FRAME / SUPERSUPER-STRUCTURE - Load Bearing Walls - Concrete/Steel Frame - Column Spacing - Beam Spacing

LOAD PATH
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COST
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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

SLAB SYSTEM
SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON THE COST IN MULTIMULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
REINFORCED CONCRETE Precast Insitu PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Precast Insitu

SPANS MINIMUM DEPTH


Example: 2.5m - 5.0m - OPTIMUM DESIGN

1. 2. 1. 2.

FORMWORK SYSTEM PRECAST Vs INSITU CONCRETE PRESTRESSED Vs REINFORCED CONCRETE


OPTIMISATION
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STEEL CONSTRUCTION Preferable for - Roof Construction - Single Storey Industrial Buildings - Large Spans - Aesthetical Reasons
WHERE FIRE RESISTANCE IS NOT REQUIRED

FACTORS EFFECTING THE COST


SPANS ALLOWABLE DEPTH FOR FLOOR SYSTEM SPAN / DEPTH RATIO WEIGHTS OF INTERNAL PARTITIONS/ CLADDINGS WEIGHTS OF FINISHES

OPTIMISATION
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ROOF SYSTEMS
FLAT ROOF OPTION PITCH ROOF OPTION CLADDING SYSTEMS WATER PROOFING SYSTEMS INSULATION LIFE CYCLE COST

EXTERNAL WALLS
LOAD BEARING / NONNON-LOAD BEARING (GRAVITATIONAL LOADINGS) DURABILITY MAINTENANCE CONSTRUCTABILITY WEATHER RESISTIVITY SELF WEIGHT RESISTANCE TO WIND LOADINGS LIFE CYCLE COST
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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB

COST EFFECTIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, STRUCTURAL DESIGNER'S VIEW

INTERNAL WALLS & PARTITIONS


SELF WEIGHT DURABILITY MAINTENANCE COST FIRE REQUIREMENTS SOUND INSULATIONS

DETAILING ASPECTS
WATER PROOFING INSULATIONS CLADDING / WINDOW DETAILS ROOF DETAILS INTERFACES JOINT FILLERS LIFE CYCLE COST
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LIFE CYCLE COST

ARCHITECTS

ENGINEERS

MESSAGE
Q.SURVEYORS PROJECT MANAGER

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ARCHITECTS

ENGINEERS
ARCHITECTS ENGINEERS QUANTITY SURVEYORS PROJECT MANAGER

Q.SURVEYORS

PROJECT MANAGER

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by K L S Sahabandu-CECB