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OS 203: Skin, Muscles and Bones


JULY8, 2011

Dr. Rafael Bundoc

Functions of the Skeletal System
1. Provides and Intricate Flexible Network o The adult human is composed of 306 bones but still manages to be very flexible 2. Protects Vital Organs o Skull protects the brain o Ribs protect the lungs and heart o Pelvis protects the reproductive organs 3. Produces Blood 4. Primary Repository of Calcium o Big refrigerator of calcium 5. Provides Lever Arms o Discussed in Biomechanics portion 6. Provides Efficient Locomotory Mechanism 7. Provides Efficient Energy Absorbing Mechanisms o Shock is distributed to throughout the skin, muscles, and bone 8. Enhances Energy Dissipation

I. History of Anatomy II. Architecture of the Musculoskeletal System A. Axial and Appendicular Skeleton B. Functions of the Skeletal System C. Components of the Musculoskeletal system D. Joint Stabilization E. Planes and Action Class Movements of the Body III. Biomechanics A. What is Biomechanics? B. The Body is a Set of Lever Mechanisms C. Biochemical Factors Affecting Musculoskeletal System D. Afflictions of the Human Body

9th Century o Anatomy being practiced by priests in catacombs o Ironic because the Catholic Church had condemned dissection o Sick people would go to priests to be healed Several priests though to study human anatomy to understand the condition of the sick. 10th to 11th Century o Proliferation of anatomy studies by Arab Muslims, which were much more advanced than anything seen in the west at the time o The Holy War during the time of Pope Urban III destroyed many anatomical documents produced by the Arab Muslims 15th to 16th Century o Leonardo di ser Pieroda Vinci (1452-1519) One of the greatest anatomists of his time Studied anatomy to improve the quality of his drawings of the human form Was interested primarily in the kinematics of bone and muscle Understood that there were several groups of muscles that were more important than others o Andres Vesalius (1514-1564) A doctor by training De HumanisCorporisFabrica in 1543 First human atlas of the western world 4 copies remain today th Early 20 century o Up until early 1900s, the mark of a good doctor was the number of dissections you were able to perform o Became more difficult to maintain because of the lack of cadavers Grave robbing became widespread o There were calls to minimize the role of anatomy in the study of medicine o 1916: Sir John Bechtold It is better to have forgotten everything about anatomy than never having to learn it at all


Components of the Musculoskeletal System

1. Bone 2. Muscle o The origin of the muscle must be in a different bone than the insertion o This allows movement to occur o Exception: Subclavius Muscle which originates and inserts into the clavicle because it is only used as a cushion to protect the branchial plexus from the clavicular bone. o Tendons attach muscles to bones 3. Ligaments o Attach bones together in joints (various degrees of freedom) o 2 Types of Ligaments found in a Ginglymus joint (Ex: Elbow) Capsule and Collateral ligaments o Capsule Found covering the articular surfaces of bones in the joint Composed of hyaline cartilage Contains synovial fluid (hyaluronic acid) for lubrication o Collateral ligaments Stabilizes the joint by providing support to the lateral and medial sides of the joint Medial Collateral Ligament: Resists Valgus (from outside) stress. Lateral Collateral Ligament: Resists Varus (from inside) stress.
Types of Joints (1 Degree: According to Movement, 2 Degree: According to Structure) joints_module/joints_21.html o Synarthroses : Immovable joints Sutures: fibrous joint that connect the flat bones of the skull o Amphiarthroses: Slightly movable joints Gomphoses: fibrous joint that keeps teeth in sockets Syndesmoses: fibrous joint that connect apposed bones to each other through an interosseus membrane between the radius and the ulna Synchondroses: temporary cartilaginous joint found in epiphyseal plates. Eventually these joints harden to become immovable in adults. Symphyses: permanent cartilaginous joints in the pubic symphisis and in the vertebral column o Diarthroses (Synovial Joints): Freely movable joints Arthrodial joint (plane joint): Allow gliding or sliding motions only (Ex: Intercarpal joints)
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Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
1. Axial Skeleton o Bones of the skull, neck, spinal column, and ribcage 2. Appendicular Skeleton o Bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and their respective appendages



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Continuation: Types of Joints Ginglymus joint (hinge joint): Allow flexion and extension only (Ex: elbow and knee) Trochoidal joint (pivot joint): uniaxial rotary joint (Ex: Atlasaxis joint) Ellipsoidal joint (condyloid joint): allows flexion, abduction, adduction and circumduction (Ex: Wrist joint) Sellar joint (saddle joint): biaxial joint with concavoconvex articulating surfaces (Ex: carpometacarpal joint of thumb) Spheroidal joint (ball and socket joint): multiaxial joints (Ex: hip and shoulder)

BIOMECHANICS What is Biomechanics?

Science on the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces

1. 1st Class Lever Mechanisms o Fulcrum between the load and the force


The Body is a Set of Lever Mechanisms

Joint Stabilization
1. Static Stabilizers o Joint Capsule o Ligaments o Osseous Architecture The more surface area between bones, the more stable the joint should be. Knee Joint VS Ankle Joint: Knee bones are larger, but the ankle joint is more stable because there is more surface area between the bones of the ankle. This view of stability does not take into consideration other stabilizers o Negative Intra-articular pressure Synovial fluid was a net negative pressure If you stab someone in the knee you will hear a soft hiss 2. Dynamic Stabilizers o Muscles o Tendons

Figure 2. First Class Lever 2. 2nd Class Lever Mechanisms o Load between fulcrum and force

Figure 3. Second Class Lever 3. 3rd Class Lever Mechanisms o Force between fulcrum and load

Planes and Action Class Movements of the Body

1. Coronal Plane o Orientation: Anterior/Ventral or Posterior/Dorsal o Flexion: Anterior/Ventral Movement o Extension: Posterior/Dorsal Movement o Pronation: Internal rotation o Supination: External rotation o Abduction: Moves away from the plane o Adduction: Moves towards the plane 2. Sagittal Plane o Orientation: Lateral or Medial and Left or Right o Abduction: Moving away from the median plane o Adduction: Moving towards the median plane o Elevation: Raising a part superiorly (Ex: elevating shoulders) o Depression: Inferior movement (Ex: slumping shoulders) o Inversion: Turning medially (Ex: turning the sole towards the middle) o Eversion: Turning laterally (Ex: turning the sole outwards) 3. Axial/Cross Sectional/Transverse Plane o Orientation Up/Superior or Down/Inferior o External Rotation* o Internal Rotation* o *Must indicate point of reference

Figure 4. Third Class Lever See last page for some examples of the lever mechanisms in the body.

Biochemical Factors Affecting Musculoskeletal System

1. Object: Material Property o Bone Composition Mineral (70%) Inorganic Phase Hydroxyapatite (95%) and Impurities (5%) Matrix (25%) Organic Phase Collage/proteins (98%) and Bone cells (2%) Water (5 to 8%) 2. Object: Structural Property o Osteon Histological unit of bone Haversian canals and hydroxyapatite crystal lamellae Volkmanns canals connect Haversian canals o Osteocytes: Found within lacunae o Osteoblasts Responsible for the formation of bone Active in the bone borders o Osteoclasts Receive signals from osteoblasts to resorb bone when levels of blood calcium are low Active in the bone borders o Osteoprogenitor cells Give rise to osteoblasts o Acellular components Calcium Hydroxyapatite alone is very brittle, which is why organic matter (collagen and proteins) are required to reinforce it. o Osteoporosis: Due to the decalcification of bone Hallmarks: Stooping and Vertebral Compression Fractures

Figure 1. Planes of the Body



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Figure 5. Vertebral Compression Fractures


4. Load: Load Rate o Refers to the speed of the application of the load o Ex: If someone shoots you, the load rate of the bullet overcomes the relatively low load magnitude. 5. Load: Magnitude of Load o The greater the load, the more difficult to counteract it Calcium Hydroxyapatite alone is very brittle, which is why organic matter (collagen and proteins) are required to reinforce it. o Osteoporosis: Due to the decalcification of bone Hallmarks: Stooping and Vertebral Compression Fractures

Afflictions of the Human Body

1. Trauma 2. Congenital Deformities 3. Infection 4. Neoplasm 5. Degeneration END OF TRANSCRIPTION REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. A flexion usually involves a movement in the anterior or ventral side of the body. Give one joint that does flexion on the posterior or dorsal side. 2. Differentiate the structure (as viewed under the light microscope) and function of osteoblast and osteoclast. 3. The ankle joint is a _____ class lever while the shoulder joint is _____ class lever. 4. Maglista ng hindi bababa sa 15 katao na kilala mong nalate sa lecture na ito.

Figure 6. Stooping 3. Load: Type of Load o The amount of load is measured by Force Force = mass x acceleration o Newtons Third Law: For every force there is an equal and opposite force o This opposite force is called STRESS Exemplified in the body by the synergistic and antagonistic muscle forces Reason for why you never have to worry about keeping your arm in place o Fractures occur when LOAD > STRESS

Figure 7. Types of Load

Table 2. Examples of Lever Mechanisms in the Body JOINT FULCRUM WEIGHT FIRST CLASS LEVERS Hip Joint Acetabulo-femoral joint Weight of the body superior to lever Elbow Extension Elbow Weight being lifted Spine Dorsal end of vertebral Weight of body anterior to bodies spinal column Knee Knee joint Weight of the body SECOND CLASS LEVERS Ankle Joint Ball of the foot THIRD CLASS LEVERS Shoulder Joint Shoulder Joint Elbow Flexion Phalanges Elbow Joint Inter-phalangeal joint

FORCE Trochanter Biceps Postural muscles Leg abduction

LEVER End of greater trochanter to midline Forearm Across the joint Edge of tibia to center of the body Length of foot

Body weight

Action of gastrocnemius muscle Action of deltoid and abductor muscles Biceps Tendons of flexor muscles

Hand Hand Phalanges

Humerus Radius and Ulna Phalanges



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