General Knowledge India Economy Industries in India


Cotton Textile

Most important industry in terms of employment and production of export goods. In Maharashtra (Mumbai, Sholapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara, Wardha, Hajipur), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Rajkot, Surat, Bhavnagar), Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore Manchestor of South India). Tamil Nadu has the largest number of cotton textile mills in India India manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world. Mainly located in West Bengal, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, UP, MP The location of silk industry is governed by two factors - prevalence of sericulture practices and availability of skilled labour. Karnataka is the leading producer, followed by West Bengal, Bihar, etc In Punjab (Dhariwal, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozpur), Maharashtra (Mumbai), UP (Kanpur, Mirzapur, Agra, Tanakpur), etc Located near the sources of raw materials and fuel (coal). In Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Durgapur, Burnpur (W.B.), Bhadrwati (Karnataka), Bokaro (Jharkhand), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhilai (Chhatisgarh), Salem (T.N.), Vishakhapatnam (A.P.)




Silk Textile


Woollen Textiles


Iron and steel


Located mainly near the sources of raw materials, means of transport and cheap electricity. In Hirakud, Koraput (Orissa), Aluminium Smelting Renukoot (UP), Korba (MP), Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Mettur (TN), Alwaye Copper Smelting In Khetri, Alwar, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Agnigundala (A.P.) In Ranchi, Vishakapattnam, Durgapur, Tiruchirapalli, Mumbai, Naini it forms the basis for the manufacturing of industrial, defence equipments, automobiles, railway engines and electrical machinery. In Bangalore, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery (Kerala), Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Srinagar, Ajmer. Power generation equipments. In Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Jammu, Ramchandrapuram (Hyderabad), Hardwar, Bangalore, and Jagdishpur (UP).



Heavy Machinery Machine Tools Industry


Heavy Electrical Equipments

Locomotives: In Chittaranjan (WB), Varanasi, Jamshedpur, Bhopal. 10 Railway Equipments Coaches: Perambur(TN), Kapurthala (Punjab), also at Bangalore and Kolkata. 11 Ship Building Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam, Cochin Shipyard, Mumbai (Mazgaon Dock) and Kolkata (Garden Reach Workshop). For Indian Navy, only at Mazgaon In Mumbai, Asansol, Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana At Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai The location of fertilizer industry is closely related to petrochemicals. About 70% of the plants producing nitrogenous fertilizers use naphtha as raw material Naphtha is a by-product of oil refiners. Phosphate plants are dependent on mineral phosphate found in UP and MP. Now natural gas based fertilizer plants are also being set up. The Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCL) was setup up in 1961. National Fertilizer Limited (NFL) was set up in 1974. In Sindri (Bihar), Nangal, Trombay, Gorakhpur, Durgapur, Namrup, Cochin,

12 Cycles 13 Tractors

14 Fertilizers

Five Year Plans


First Plan (1951 - 56)

It was based on Harrod-Domar Model. Community Development Program was launched in 1952. Emphasized on agriculture, price stability, power & transport. It was more than a success, because of good harvests in the last two years. Also called Mahalanobis Plan after its chief architect. Its objective was rapid industrialization. Advocated huge imports which led to emptying of funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon. During this plan, price level increased by 30%, against a decline of 13% during the First Plan. At its conception time, it was felt that Indian economy has entered a take-off stage. Therefore, its aim was to make India a 'self-reliant' and 'self-generating' economy. Also, it was realized from the experience of first two plans that agriculture should be given the top priority to suffice the requirement of export and industry. Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes, viz. Chinese aggression (1962), Indo-Pak war (1965), severest drought in 100 years (1965-66). Plan holiday for 3years. The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emhasis on agriculture during the Annual Plans. During these plans a whole new agricultural strategy involving widespread distribution of High-Yielding Varieties of seeds, the extensive use of fertilizers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was put into action to tide-over the crisis in agricultural production. During the Annual Plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the Third Plan, making way for a planned growth. Main emphasis on agriculture's growth rate so that a chain reaction can start. Fared well in the first two years with record production, last three years failure because of poor monsoon. Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo-Pak war. The fifth plan prepared and launched by D.D. Dhar proposed to achieve two main objectives viz, 'removal of poverty' (Garibi Hatao) and 'attainment of self reliance', through promotion of high rate of growth, better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of savings. The plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979) when Janta Govt.came to power. There were 2 Sixth Plans. One by Janta Govt. (for 78-83) which was in operation for 2 years only and the other by the Congress Govt. when it returned to power in 1980. Objectives: Increase in national income, modernization of technology, ensuring continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment, population control through family planning, etc. The Seventh plan emphasized policies and programs which aimed at rapid growth in food-grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning. It was a great success, the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%.


Second Plan (1956 - 61)


Third Plan (1961 - 66)


Three Annual Plans (196669)


Fourth Plan (1969 - 74)


Fifth Plan(1974-79)


Rolling Plan (1978 - 80) Sixth Plan (1980 - 85)



Seventh Plan (1985 - 90)

Growth During Five Year Plans
Plan First Plan (1951 - 56) Second Plan (1956 - 61) Third Plan (1961 - 66) Fourth Plan (1969 - 1974) Fifth Plan (1974 - 79) Sixth Plan (1980 - 85) Seventh Plan (1985 - 90) Eighth Plan (1992 - 97) Ninth Plan (1997 - 2002) Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007) Target 2.9% 4.5% 5.6% 5.7% 4.4% 5.2% 5.0% 5.6% 6.5% 8.0% Actual 3.6% 4.3% 2.8% 3.3% 4.8% 6.0% 6.0% 6.8% 5.4% -

Important Antipoverty Employment Generation Programs

Swaranjayanti 1 Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGRY)

Started on April 1, 1999. It has replaced the following programs: Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) : Started in 1978 79). Training Rural Youth for Self -Employment (TRYSEM): Started in 1978-79. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA): Started in 1978 -79. Ganga Kalyan Yojana (GKY): Started in 1997. Million Wells Scheme (MWS): Started in 1989. Supply of Improved Tool-kits to Rural Artisans (SITRA). The yojana takes into account all the strengths and weaknesses of the earlier self-employment programs. Every assisted family will be brought above the poverty line. It is proposed to cover 30% of the rural poor in each block. To Target at atleast 50% Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, 40% women and 3% disabled. It was introduced in 2000-01 with the objective of focusing on village level development in five critical areas I.e., primary health, primary education, housing, rural roads and drinking water and nutrition with the overall objective of improving the quality of life of people in rural areas. Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001-02. It has the following components: Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Gramin Awas). Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (Rural Drinking Water Project).

Pradhan Mantri 2 Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)

It was started on Sept. 25,2001, with the mergence of the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and the Jawahar Gram Sampoorna Gramin Samriddhi Yojana (JGSY). Earlier Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, which 3 Rozgar Yojana started in 1989, was merged with Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana. (SGRY) The objective of the program is to provide additional wage employment in rural areas and also to provide food security. The SJSRY came into operation in Dec, 1997, through a restructuring and streamlining of the earlier urban poverty alleviation programs, the Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), the Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP) and the Prime Minister's Integrated Urban Poverty alleviation Program (PMIUPEP). It seeks to provide employment to the urban employed or underemployed living below poverty line and educated up to IX standard through encouraging the setting up of self-employment ventures or provision of wage employment. Launched on Dec. 25,2000. The scheme aims at providing food security to poor families. The scheme contemplates identification of 10 million 'poorest of the poor' families and providing the \m with 25kg of food grains per family per month at a low price of Rs.2 per Kg for wheat and Rs.3 per Kg for rice. Inaugurated on March 19, 1999. Initially the scheme provided 10 kg food grains to senior citizens who were eligible fore old age pension but could not get it due to one reason or the other. Later on, it was extended to cover those people who get old age pensions. Food grains are provided to the beneficiaries at subsidized rates of Rs.2 per kg of wheat and Rs.3 per kg of rice.

Swarna Jayanti 4 Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)


Antyodaya Anna Yojana

6 Annapurna Yojana

General Knowledge Indian Geography Indian States International Boundaries
1 Bordering Pakistan 2 Bordering China 3 Bordering Nepal 4 Bordering Bangladesh Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh. Bihar, Uttaranchal, UP, Sikkim, West Bengal West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Assam West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan - occupied area)

5 Bordering Bhutan 6 Bordering Myanmar 7 Bordering Afghanistan

Moon Important Facts
Average distance from Earth Diameter Ratio of diameter of moon to that of earth Rotation speed Revolution Speed Time taken by moonlight to reach earth Percent of surface visible from earth First man to reach moon 3,84,365 km 3,476 km 1 : 3.7 27 days, 2hrs, 43 min & 11.47Sec. 27 days, 7hrs, 43 min & 11.47 Sec. 1.3 Sec 59% Neil Armstrong and Edvin Aldrin on Apollo XI (1969)

Heights of Some Important Indian Peaks

SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 K2


Height in metres above mean Sea Level 8,611 8,598 8,126 8,068 8,047 7,885 7,821 7,817 7,806 7,788 7,756 7,672 7,544 7,422

Kanchen Junga Nanga Parvat Gasher Brum Broad Peak Disteghil Sar Masher Brum E Nanda Devi Masher Brum W Rakaposhi Kamet Saser Kangri Skyang Kangri Sia Kangri

Chaukhamba (Badrinath Peak) 7,138 Trisul West Nunkun Pauhunri Kangto Dunagiri 7,138 7,135 7,128 7,090 7,066

Important Crops India

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rice Wheat Maize Bajra Jowar

West Bengal, Punjab, UP UP, Punjab, Haryana Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Rajasthan, Gujarat, UP Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP, AP

TOTAL COARSE Maharashtra, Karnataka, UP CEREALS TOTAL PULSES TOTAL FOOD GRAINS Groundnut Rapeseed And Mustard MP, UP, Maharashtra UP, Punjab, West Bengal Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan, UP, Haryana Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra MP, Maharashtra, Rajasthan UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh WB, Bihar, Assam Assam, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh. In India all 4 varieties of silk are available; Mulberry, tussar, eri and muga. Mulberry is the main variety, while tussar is mainly found in Bihar. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

11 Soyabean 12 Sunflower 13 TOTAL OIL SEEDS

14 Sugarcane 15 Cotton 16 Jute and Mesta 17 Tea 18 Coffee 19 Rubber 20 Silk 21 Tobacco

Important Indian Town Rivers

SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Town Allahabad Patna Varanasi Kanpur Hardwar Badrinath Agra Delhi Mathura Ferozpur Ludhiana Srinagar Lucknow Jaunpur Ayodhya Bareilly Ahmedabad Kota Jabalpur Panji Ujjain Surat Jamshedpur Dibrugarh Guwahati Kolkata Sambalpur Cuttack Serirangapatnam Hyderabad Nasik Vijayvada

River At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna Ganga Ganga Ganga Ganga Alaknanda Yamuna Yamuna Yamuna Satluj Satluj Jhelum Gomti Gomti Saryu Ram Ganga Sabarmati Chambal Narmada Mandavi Kshipra Tapti Swarnarekha Brahmaputra Brahmaputra Hooghly Mahanadi Mahanadi Cauvery Musi Godavari Krishna

Important National Highways
SNo National Highways 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NH 1 NH 2 NH 3 NH 4 NH 5 NH 6 NH 7 NH 8 NH 9 NH 10 Connects New Delhi - Ambala - Jalandhar - Amritsar. Delhi - Mathura - Agra - Kanpur - Allahabad - Varanasi - Kolkata Agra - Gwalior - Nasik - Mumbai Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaun. Kolkata - Chennai Kolkata - Dhule Varanasi - Kanyakumari Delhi - Mumbai (Via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad) Mumbai - Vijaywada Delhi - Fazilka

Important Rivers India

SNo 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22


Origin From

Falls into Krishna river Bay of Bengal Chenab Arabian Sea Chenab Satluj Chenab Ganga Yamuna Ganga Ganga Yamuna Ganga Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambat Gulf of Khambat Bay of Bengal

Length (km) 640 2525 1050 2880 720 470 725 1375 1050 1080 730 480 780 2900 1057 724 858

Tungabhadra Western Ghats Ganges Satluj Indus Ravi Beas Jhelum Yamuna Chambal Ghagra Kosi Betwa Son Combined Sources Mansarovar Rakas Lakes Near Mansarovar Lake Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass Near Rohtang Pass Verinag in Kashmir Yamunotri M.P. Matsatung Glacier Near Gosain Dham Peak Vindhyanchal Amarkantak

Brahmaputra Near Mansarovar Lake Narmada Tapti Mahanadi Luni Ghaggar Sabarmati Krishna Godavari Cauvery Amarkantak Betul Distt. In M.P. Raipur Distt. In Chhatisgarh Aravallis Himalayas Aravallis Western Ghats Nasik Distt. In Maharashtra

Rann of Kuchchh 450 Near Fatehabad Gulf of Khambat Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal 494 416 0 1465 805

Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats Bay of Bengal

Important River Valley Projects

Sno 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Project Name Bhakra Nangal Project Mandi Project Chambal Valley Project Damodar Valley Project Hirakud Project Rihand Project Kosi Project Mayurkashi Project Kakrapara Project Nizamsagar Project Nagarjuna Sagar Project Tungabhadra Project Shivasamudram Project Tata Hydel Scheme Sharavathi Hydel Project Kundah & Periyar Project Farakka Project Ukai Project Mahi Project Salal Project

River Name On Sutlaj in Punjab. Highest in India. Ht 226 m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake. On Beas in HP On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan. 3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam. On Damodar in Bihar. Based on Tennessee Valley Project, USA. On Mahanadi in Orissa. World's longest dam: 4801m On Son in Mirzapur, Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir. On Kosi in N.Bihar. On Mayrukashi in WB. On Tapi in Gujarat. On Manjra in AP. On Krishna in AP On Tungabhadra in AP & Karnataka On Cauvery in Karnataka. It is the oldest river valley project of India. On Bhima in Maharashtra On Jog Falls in Karnataka In TN On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation. On Tapti in Gujarat On Mahi in Gujarat On Chenab in J & K

Mata Tila Multipurpose On Betwa in UP & MP Project Thein Project Pong Dam Tehri Project On Ravi, Punjab On Beas, Punjab On Bhgirathi, Uttaranchal

Sardar Sarovar Project On Narmada, Gujarat/MP.

Lengths of Some Important Indian Rivers
SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Indus Brahmaputra Ganga Godavari Narmada Krishna Mahanadi Cauvery River 3,000 2,900 2,510 1,450 1,290 1,290 890 760 Length (km)

Major Ports in India
SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 Western Coast Kandla (Child of partition) Mumbai (busiest and biggest) Jawahar Lal Nehru (fastest growing) Marmugao (naval base also) Eastern Coast Kolkata - Haldia (riverine port) Paradip (exports raw iron into Japan) Vishakhapatnam (deepest port) Chennai (oldest and artificial)

Mangalore (exports Kudremukh iron-ore) Ennore (most modern in private hands) Cochin (natural Harbour) Tuticorin (southernmost)

Mineral Resources of India



West Bengal (Raniganj, Burdwan, Bankura, Purulia, Birbhum, Jalpaigudi, Darjeeling) Jharkhand (Jharia, Giridih, Kharhawadi, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Karnapura, Rampur, Palamau), Orissa (Rampur, Hindgir, Talcher, Sambhal), Madhya Pradesh and Chhatisgarh (Rewa, Pench valley, Umaria, Korba, Sohagpur, Mand river area, Kanha valley, Betul), etc. Power sector is the largest consumer of coal in India followed by steel industry, cement industry, etc. Orissa, Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Chhindawara), Karnataka (Keonjhar, Bonai, Kalahandi), Andhra Pradesh (Kadur, Garibadi). Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Rajasthan (Khetri), Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Masobani, Surda), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Hussan) Jharkhand (Hazaribagh, Giridih, Kodarma, Bihar (Gaya, Bhagalpur), Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Vizag, Kurnool), Rajasthan (Bhilwara, Udaipur, Jaipur) Assam (Digboi, Naharkatiya, Badarpur, Masinpur and Pallharia), Gujarat (Ankleshwar, Khambat, Kalol), Mumbai High, Bassein (south of Mumbai High), etc. Recently oil has been discovered in Cauvery basin, Krishna and Godawari basin, Kharmbat basin, etc.



3 4

Copper Mica




There are 18 refineries in India, 16 in public sector, one in joint sector and one in private sector. Public sector refineries are located at Digboi, Guwahati, Bongaigaon, Barauni, Haldia, Koyali, Mathura, Kochi, Chennai, Oil Refineries Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai (2), Panipat, Narimanam, Numanigarh and Tatipaka. Joint sector refinery is at Mangalore. The private sector refinery of Reliance Limited is at Jamnagar. India possesses Haematite, a very high-grade iron ore. In Madhya Pradesh (Bailadila, Jabalpur), Goa (North Goa), Karnataka (Bababudan hills, Chikmagalur, Hospet), Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Naomundi), Andhra Pradesh, Orissa India is the fifth largest exporter of Iron ore in the world. Japan is the biggest buyer accounting for about 3/4th of India's total exports. Major ports handling iron ore export are Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Marmagao and Mangalore. Chief ore for producing aluminium. In Orissa (Kalahandi, Koraput, Sundargarh, Bolangir, Sambalpur), Jharkhand (Lohardaga, Gumla), Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Mandla, Shahdol, Katni, Balaghat), Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu Karnataka (Kolar, Hutti, Raichur), Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri and Yeppamanna goldfields in Chittor and Anantapur districts Rajasthan (Zawar mines near Udaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Mysore, Chitradurg), Karnataka (Kolar mines) Jharkhand (Jaduguda), Rajasthan (Ajmer), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore, Nalgonda), Karnataka (Gulbarga) Kerala coast (From Monazite sand), rocks of Aravallis in Rajasthan





9 10

Gold Silver, Zinc and Lead

11 Uranium 12 Thorium

Earth Some Important Facts

Age Mass Volume Mean Density Total Surface Area Land Area Water Area Equatorial Diameter Polar Diameter Escape Velocity Highest Land Point Lowest Land Point Greatest Ocean Depth Equatorial Circumference Polar Circumference Mean Surface Temperature Maximum distance from sun (Aphelion)

4,550 million years 5.976 x 10kg 1.083 x 10 litres 5.518 kg/lt 510 million 29.2% of the total surface area 70.8% of the total surface area 12,755 km 12,712 km 11.2 km/sec Mount Everest (8,852 m) Dead Sea (396 m) Mariana Trench (11,033 m) 40,076 km 40,024 km 14C About 152 million km

Minimum distance from sun (Perihelion) About 147 million km Rotation Speed Revolution Speed Dates when days & nights are equal Dates of longest days and shortest nights 23 hrs, 56 min & 40.91 sec 365 days, 5hrs & 45.51 sec Mar,21 (Vernal Equinox); Sept. 23 (Autumnal Equinox) June 21 (Summer Solstice); Dec, 22 (Winter Solstice)

National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Gir Forests Kaziranga Sanctuary Manas Sanctuary Chandraprabha Sanctuary Ghana of Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Dachigam Sanctuary Corbett National Park Kanha National Park Shiv Puri National Park

Home of Asiatic lion. In Gujarat One horned rhino. In Assam One horned rhino. In Assam II home of Asiatic Lion. In UP In Bharatpur, Rajasthan For Hangul. In Kashmir In Uttaranchal. Home of tiger In MP In MP in Jharkhand In Kerala In UP In TN In Meghalaya In Rajasthan In Rajasthan In Arunachal Pradesh

10 Hazaribagh National Park 11 Periyar Game Sanctuary 12 Dudhwa National Park 13 Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary 14 Nokrek National Park 15 Sariska Sanctuary 16 Ranthambhor National Park 17 Namdapha National Park

18 Keibul Lamjo Floating National Park In Manipur 19 Palamau Tiger Project 20 Simlipal National Park 21 Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary 22 Nagarhole National Park 23 Mudumalai Sanctuary 24 Balpakram Sanctuary 25 Bandipur Sanctuary 26 Jaldapara Sanctuary 27 Wild Ass Sanctuary In Bihar In Orissa In Mysore, Karnataka In Karnataka In TN In Meghalaya Along the Karnataka - Tamil Nadu border In West Bengal. For rhinos In Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. For wild ass.

Nuclear Power Stations

1 Tarapur 2 Kalpakkam 3 Rawatbhata 4 Narora 5 Kaiga 6 Kakrapara

In Maharashtra - India's oldest and biggest In Tamil Nadu, called Indira Gandhi Nuclear Power Station In Kota, Rajasthan In Uttar Pradesh In Karnataka In Gujarat

7 Kudankulam In Tamil Nadu, under construction with the assistance of Russia

Railway Zones
SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Central Eastern Northern North Eastern North-East Frontier Southern South Central South Eastern Western East Coast East Central North Central North Western South Western West Central SouthEast Central Railway Zones Mumbai VT Kolkata New Delhi Gorakhpur Maligaon - Guwahati Chennai Secunderabad Kolkata Mumbai Churchgate Bhubaneshwar Hajipur Allahabad Jaipur Bangalore (Hubli) Jabalpur Bilaspur Head Quarters

Sanctuaries and Parks in India

Name Achanakmar Sanctuary Bandhavgarh National Park Bandipur Sanctuary Banarghatta National Park Bhadra Sancturary Bhimabandh Sanctuary Bori Sanctuary Borivli National Park Chandraprabha Sanctuary Corbett National Park named in memory of Jim Corbett, famous sportsman Dachigam Sanctuary Datma Sanctuary Dandeli Sanctuary Dudhwa National Park Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary Garampani Sanctuary Ghana Bird Sanctuary

Location Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh Border of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Bangalore Karnataka Chikmagalur, Karnataka Monghyr, Bihar

Reserves for Tiger, bear, chital, sambar, bison Tiger, panther, chital, nilgai, wild bear Elephant, tigers, panther, sambar, deer, birds Elephant, chital, deer, gray Partridges, green pigeon Elephant, chital, panther, sambar, wild bear Tiger, leopard, sambar, wild bear, chital, water birds

Hoshangabad, Madhya Tiger, panther, sambar, chital, Pradesh wild boar, barking deer Mumbai Near Varanasi Uttar Pradesh Nainital, Uttaranchal Dachigam, Kashmir Singbhum, Uttaranchal Dharwar, Karnataka Lakhimpurkheri U.P. Mandsaur, M.P. Diphu, Assam Bharatpur, Rajasthan Panther, sambar, langur, wild boar, chinkara Famous for Gir lions, chital and sambar Tiger, leopards, elephants, sambar Kashmiri stag Elephants, leopard, wild bear, barking deer Tiger, panther, elephant, chital, sambar, wild bear Tiger, panther, sambar, chital, nilgai, barking deer Chital, sambar, chinkara, barking deer, wild birds Elephant, leopard, wild buffalo, langur Water birds, black-buck, chital, sambar India's biggest wild life sanctuary famous for Gir lions Tiger, leopard, sambar, chital, barking deer Tiger, leopard, chital, nilgai, sambar, wild cat

Gir Forest

Junagarh, Gujarat

Gautam Buddha Sanctuary Hazaribagh Sanctuary

Gaya, Bihar Hazaribagh, Jharkhand

General Knowledge Indian History Buddhism
The Buddha:

The Buddha also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.

Born in 563 BC on the Vaishakha Poornima Day at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in Nepal.

His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler.

His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala dynastry) died after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.

Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13years and had a son named Rahula.

After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a wanderer.

Left his palace at 29 in search of truth (also called ‘Mahabhinishkramana’ or The Great Renunication) and wandered for 6 years.

Attained ‘Enlightenment’ at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.

• •

Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had settled. His first sermon is called ‘Dharmachakrapracartan’ or ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’. Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla republic.

Buddhist Councils:

First Council: At Rajgriha, in 483 BC under the Chairmanship of Mehakassaapa (king was Ajatshatru). Divided the teachings of Buddha into two Pitakas-Vinaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka.

Second Council: At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was Kalasoka).Followers divided into Sthavirmadins and Mahasanghikas.

Third Council: At Pataliputra, in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa (King was Ashoka) In this, the third part of the Tripitaka was coded in the Pali language.

Fourth council: At Kashmir (Kundalvan), in 72 AD under Vasumitra (King was Kanishka, Vice-Chairman was Ashwaghosha). Divided Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.

Buddist Literature: In Pali language. Vinaya Pitaka: Rules of discipline in the Buddhist monasteries. Sutta Pitaka: Largest, contains collection of Buddha’s sermons. Abhidhamma Pitaka: Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion

Constitutional Development
Regulating Act, 1773:

End of Dual govt.

Governor of Bengal to be the Governor – General of British territories of India.

Establishment of Supreme Court in Calcutta.

Pitts Act of 1784: This Act gave the British Government a measure of control over the company’s affairs. In fact, the company became a subordinate department of the State. Act of 1786:

Governor General given the power to over-ride the Council and was made the Commander-in-chief also.

Charter Act of 1793:

• •

Company given monopoly of trade for 20 more years. It laid the foundation of govt. by written laws, interpreted by courts.

Charter Act of 1813:

Company deprived of its trade monopoly in India except in tea and trade with China.

Charter Act of 1833:

• •

End of Company’s monopoly even in tea and trade with China. Company was asked to close its business at the earliest. Governor General of Bengal to be Governor General of India (1st Governor General of India was Lord William Bentinck).

Charter Act of 1853:

The Act renewed the powers of the Company and allowed it to retain the possession of Indian territories in trust of the British crown.

Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual competition examination (excluding Indians).

Government of India Act, 1858:

Rule of Company in India ended and that of the Crown began.

A post of Secretary of State (a member of the British cabinet) for India created. He was to exercise the powers of the Crown.

Secretary of State governed India through the Governor General.

Governor General received the title of Viceroy. He represented Secretary of State and was assisted by an Executive Council, which consisted of high officials of the Govt.

Indian Council Act, 1861:

The Executive Council was now to be called Central Legislative Council.

Indian Council Act, 1892:

Indians found their way in the Provincial Legislative Councils.

Indian Council Act, 1909 or Morley-Minto Act: It envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims. Government of India Act, 1919 Or Montague-Chelmsford Reforms:

Dyarchy system introduced in the provinces. The Provincial subjects of administration were to be divided into 2 categories: Transferred and Reserved. The Transferred subjects were to be administrated by the Governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council. The Governor and the Executive Council were to administer the reserved subjects without any responsibility to the legislature. Indian legislature became bicameral for the first time, it actually happened after 1935 Act.

Government of India Act, 1935:

Provided for the establishment of All-India Federation consisting of the British Provinces and the Princely States. The joining of Princely States was voluntary and as a result the federation did not come into existence.

Dyarchy was introduced at the Centre (Eg, Department of Foreign Affairs and Defence were reserved for the Governor General). Provincial autonomy replaced Dyarchy in provinces. They were granted separate legal identify.

Burma (now Myanmar) separated from India.

Governor Generals of India
Lord William Bentinck (1828 – 1835):

Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sati (1829) and elimination of thugs (1830).

Made English the Medium of higher education in the country (After the recommendations of Macaulay).

Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice.

Charter Act of 1833 was passed; made him the first Governor General of India. Before him, the designation was Governor General of Bengal.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 1836): Abolished all restrictions on vernacular press (called Liberator of the Press). Lord Auckland (1836 – 1842): The most important event of his reign was the First Afghan War, which proved to be a disaster for the English. Lord Ellenborough (1842 – 1844) Lord Hardinge I (1844 – 1848) Lord Dalhousie (1848 – 1856):

Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to Thane).

Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 (First was from Calcutta to Agra).

Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854).

Established the postal system on the modern lines through the length and breadth of the country, which made communication easier.

Started the Public Works Department. Many bridges were constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. The harbors of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were also developed.

Made Shimla the summer capital.

Started Engineering College at Roorkee.

Encouraged science, forestry, commerce, mineralogy and industry.

In 1854, “Wood’s Dispatch’ was passed, which provided for the properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the university.

Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s efforts, remarriage of widows was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act, 1856).

Newspaper Journals
Newspaper/Journal Bengal Gazette(1780) (India’s first newspaper) Kesari Maharatta Sudharak Amrita Bazar Patrika Vande Mataram Native Opinion Kavivachan Sudha Rast Goftar (First newspaper in Gujarati) New India (Weekly) Statesman Hindu Sandhya Vichar Lahiri Hindu Patriot Som Prakash Yugantar Bombay Chronicle Hindustan Mooknayak Comrade Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq Al-Hilal Al-Balagh J.K.Hikki B.G.Tilak B.G.Tilak G.K.Gokhale Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh Aurobindo Ghosh V.N.Mandalik Bhartendu Harishchandra Dadabhai Naoroji Bipin Chandra Pal Robert Knight Vir Raghavacharya and G.S.Aiyar B.B.Upadhyaya Krishnashastri Chiplunkar Girish Chandra Ghosh (later Harish Chandra Mukherji) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Bhupendranath Datta and Barinder Kumar Ghosh Firoze Shah Mehta M.M.Malviya B.R.Ambedkar Mohammed Ali Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan Abdul Kalam Azad Abdul Kalam Azad Founder/Editor

Independent Punjabi New India (Daily) Commonweal Pratap Essays in Indian Economics Samvad Kaumudi (Bengali) Mirat-ul-Akhbar Indian Mirror Nav Jeevan Young India Harijan Prabudha Bharat Udbodhana Indian Socialist Talwar (in Berlin) Free Hindustan (in Vancouver) Hindustan Times Kranti

Motilal Nehru Lala Lajpat Rai Annie Besant Annie Besant Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi M.G.Ranade Ram Mohan Roy Ram Mohan Roy (first Persian newspaper) Devendra Nath Tagore M.K.Gandhi M.K.Gandhi M.K.Gandhi Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda Shyamji Krishna Verma Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaya Tarak Nath Das K.M.Pannikar Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate


Jainism founded by Rishabha.

There were 24 Tirthankaras (Prophets or Gurus), all Kshatriyas. First was Rishabhnath (Emblem: Bull).

The 23rd Tirthankar Parshwanath (Emblem: Snake) was the son of King Ashvasena of Banaras.

The 24th and the last Tirthankar was Vardhman Mahavira (Emblem: Lion). He was born

in kundagram (Distt Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 599 BC.

His father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan.

His mother was Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of Vaishali.

Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.

Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his first disciple.

At 30, after the death of his parents, he became an ascetic.

In the 13th year of his asceticism (on the 10th of Vaishakha), outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama, he attained supreme knowledge (kaivalya).

From now on he was called Jaina or Jitendriya and Mahavira, and his followers were named Jains. He also got the title of Arihant, i.e., worthy.

At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527 BC.

Mahavira preached almost the same message as Parshvanath and added one more, Brahmcharya (celibacy) to it.

Social and Cultural Uprising
Brahmo Samaj:

Founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828.

• • •

Criticized Sati Pratha, casteism and advocated widow remarriage. He was opposed to Sanskrit system of education, because he thought it would keep the country in darkness. Other important leaders were Devendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore) and Keshap Chandra Sen.

Arya Samaj:

• • •

Founded by Swami Dayanand (or, Moolshankar) in 1875. His motto was ‘Go back to the vedas’ & ‘India for the Indians’. He disregarded Puranas, idol worship, casteism and untouchability. He advocated widow remarriage. Dayanand’s views were published in his famous work, Satyarth Prakash. He also wrote Veda Bhashya Bhumika and Veda Bhashya.

Ramakrishna Mission:

• • •

Founded by Vivekanand (earlier, Narendranath Dutta) (1863 – 1902) in 1897, 11 years after the death of his guru Ram Krishna Paramhans. Vivekanand attended the Parliament of Religion at Chicago in 1893. Irish woman Margaret Nobel (Known as sister Nivedita) popularized it.

Young Bengal Movement:

• •

Founded by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (1809-31). He was a teacher in Hindu College in Calcutta. He urged the students to live and die for truth. He also supported women’s education and their rights.

Veda Samaj:

• •

Veda Samaj called Brahmo Samaj of South. Started by Sridharalu Naidu. He translated books of Brahmo Dharma into Tamil and Telegu.

Dharma Sabha:

• •

Initiated by Radhakant Deb in 1830. Was opposed to reforms and protected orthodoxy, but played an active role in promoting western education even to girls.


• •

Started by Gopal Hari Deshmukh. Advocated western education and a rational outlook. He advocated female education for the upliftment of women. As a votary of national self-reliance, he attended Delhi durbar in 1876, wearing handspun khadi cloth.

Servants of India Society:

Formed by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1915.

It did notable work in providing famine relief and in improving the condition of the tribal.

Radhaswami Movement:

• •

Founded in 1861 by a banker of Agra, Tulsi Ram, popularly known as Shiv Dayal Saheb or Swami Maharaj. The sect preached belief in one supreme being, the Guru’s supreme position and a simple social life for the believers (the Satsangis).

Theosophical Society:

• • • •

Founded by Westerners who drew inspiration from Indian thought and culture. Madam H P Blavatsky laid the foundation of the movement in US in 1875. Later, Col.M.S. Olcott of the US Army joined her. In 1882, it was shifted to India at Adyar (Tamil Nadu). Annie Besant was elected its president in 1907. She founded the Central Hindu College in 1898, which became Banaras Hindu University in 1916.

Viceroys Of India
Lord Canning (1856 – 1862):

• • • • • •

The last Governor General and the first Viceroy. Mutiny took place in his time. On Nov, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown. Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse. The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857. Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.

Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863) Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869):

• • • •

Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe. High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865. Expanded canal works and railways. Created the Indian Forest department.

Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872):

• • • • •

Started the process of financial decentralization in India. Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes. For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871. Organised the Statistical Survey of India. Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.

Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876): Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880):

• • • •

Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters. Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser – I – Hind’. Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms. Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).

Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884):

• • • • • •

Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians. Repeated the Vernacular Press Act (1882) Passed the local self – government Act (1882) Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations). The I Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour. Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888):

Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.

Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894):

• • • •

II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men. Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate. Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed. Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899):

Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed.

Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905):

• • • • •

Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased. Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal (proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam. Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province. The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP). Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.

• •

Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard. Extended railways to a great extent.

Lord Minto (1905 – 1910):

• •

There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma. The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley – Minto Reforms was passed.

Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916):

• • • • •

Held a durbar in dec, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V. Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911). A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912). Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915). Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921):

• • • • • • •

August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people. The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague – Chelmsford reforms) was passed. Rowlatt Act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919). Non – Cooperation Movement. An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal. A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916. Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.

Lord Reading (1921 – 1926):

• • • • • • • • • • •

Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910. Suppressed non-cooperation movement. Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921. Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala. Ahmedabad session of 1921. Formation of Swaraj Party. Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy. Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925. Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc. Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.

Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931):

• • •

Simon Commission visited India in 1928. Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929. Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930).

• • • •

Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. Gandhi – Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn. Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).

Lord Willington (1931 – 1936):

• • • • • •

Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932. Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division. Third Round Table conference in 1932. Poona Pact was signed. Government of India Act (1935) was passed.

Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944):

• • • •

Govt. of India Act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till Oct 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December) Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. Outbreak of World War II in 1939. Cripps Mission in 1942. Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).

Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947):

• • • •

Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed. Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946). Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Govt. was appointed under Nehru. First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946.

Lord Mountbatten (Mar.1947 – Aug.1947):

• • • •

Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India. Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan. Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947. Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C.Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India).

Important National Activities
The Indian National Congress:

• • • •

Formed in 1885 by A.O.Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant. First session in Bombay under W.C.Banerjee in 1885 (72 delegates attended it). In the first two decades (1885 – 1905), quite moderate in its approach and confided in British justice and generosity. But the repressive measures of the British gave rise to extremists within Congress like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai (Lal, Bal, Pal).

Partition of Bengal:

• • •

By Lord Curzon on Oct 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal. The objective was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims. A mighty upsurge swept the country against the partition. National movement found real expression in the movement against the partition of Bengal in 1905.

Swadeshi Movement (1905):

• • •

Lal, Bal, Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role. INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session, 1905 presided over by G.K.Gokhale. Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places.

Formation of Muslim League (1906):

• •

Setup in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. It was a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization which supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi movement, demanded special safeguards to its community and a separate electorate for Muslims.

Demand for Swaraj:

In Dec 1906 at Calcutta, the INC under Dadabhai Naoroji adopted ‘Swaraj’ (Self-govt) as the goal of Indian people.

Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907):

The INC split into two groups – The extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907. Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lal while the moderates by G.K.Gokhale.

Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909):

• •

Besides other constitutional measures, it envisaged a separate electorate for Muslims. Aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims to the Government’s side.

Ghadar Party (1913):

• •

Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna. HQ was at San Francisco.

Home Rule Movement (1916):

• • •

Started by B.G.Tilak(April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S.Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (Sept, 1916). Objective: Self – government for India in the British Empire. Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the formation of Linguistic States and education in vernacular language. He gave the slogan: Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.

Lucknow Pact (1916):

• •

Happened following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims. Both INC and Muslim League concluded this (Congress accepted the separate electorates and both jointly demanded for a representative government and dominion status for the country).

August Declaration (1917):

After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy was announced which aimed at “increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire”. This came to be called the August Declaration.

Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919):

• •

This gave unbridled powers to the govt. to arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two years maximum. This law enabled the Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus, which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain. Caused a wave of anger in all sections. It was the first country-wide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of the Non Cooperation Movement.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919):

• • • • • •

People were agitated over the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal on April 10, 1919. General O’ Dyer fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar. As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and thousands injured. Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood in protest. Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy’s Executive Council after this. Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it. On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London.

Khilafat Movement (1920):

• •

Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War. Two brothers, Mohd.Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement.

Non-cooperation Movement (1920):

It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.

Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in Sept 1920.

Chauri –Chaura Incident (1922):

• •

A mob of people at Chauri – Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with police and burnt 22 policemen on February 5, 1922. This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation movement on Feb.12, 1922.

Simon Commission (1927):

• • •

Constituted under John Simon, to review the political situation in India and to introduce further reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy. Indian leaders opposed the commission, as there were no Indians in it. The Government used brutal repression and police attacks to break the popular opposition. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in a lathi-charge. He succumbed to his injuries on Oct.30, 1928.

Lahore Session (1929):

• •

On Dec.19, 1929 under the President ship of J.L.Nehru, the INC, at its Lahore Session, declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete independence) as its ultimate goal. On Dec.31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and an.26, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, was to be celebrated every year.

Revolutionary Activities:

• • • • • • • • •

• • •

The first political murder of a European was committed in 1897 at Poona by the Chapekar brothers, Damodar and Balkishan. Their target was Mr.Rand, President of the Plague Commission, but Lt.Ayerst was accidentally shot. In 1907, Madam Bhikaiji Cama, a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the flag of India at Stuttgart Congress (of Second international). In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of kingford, the unpopular judge of Muzaffapur. Khudiram, Kanhaiyalal Dutt and Satyendranath Bose were hanged. (Alipur Case). In 1909, M L Dhingra shot dead Col.William Curzon Whyllie, the political advisor of “India Office” in London. In 1912, Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal threw a bomb and Lord Hardinge at Delhi. (Delhi Conspiracy Case). In Oct, 1924, a meeting of revolutionaries from all parts of India was called at Kanpur. They setup Hindustan Socialist Republic Association/Army (HSRA). They carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train on the Saharanpur-Lucknow railway line on Aug. 9, 1925. Bhagat Singh, with his colleagues, shot dead Saunders (Asst. S.P. of Lahore, who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai) on Dec.17, 1928. Then Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly on Apr 8, 1929. Thus, he, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged on March. 23,1931 at Lahore Jall (Lahore Conspiracy Case) and their bodies cremated at Hussainiwala near Ferozepur. In 1929 only Jatin Das died in Lahore jail after 63 days fast to protest against horrible conditions in jail. Surya Sen, a revolutionary of Bengal, formed the Indian Republic Army in Bengal. In 1930, he masterminded the raid on Chittagong armoury. He was hanged in 1933. In 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad shot himself at Alfred Park in Allahabad.

Dandi March (1930):

• • • •

Also called the Salt Satyagraha. Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break the salt law. He reached the seashore on Apr.6, 1930. He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement.

First Round Table conference (1930):

• •

It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. It was held on Nov.12, 1930 in London to discuss Simon commission. Boycotted by INC, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there.

Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931):

• • • •

Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government. The two (government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji) signed a pact on March 5, 1931. In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference. The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast.

Second Round Table Conference (1931):

• •

Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald. However, the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo – Indians.

The Communal Award (Aug 16,1932):

• • •

Announced by Ramsay McDonald. It showed divide and rule policy of the British. Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and even Backward classes. Gandhiji, who was in Yeravada jail at that time, started a fast unto death against it.

Poona Pact (September 25, 1932):

• • • •

After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere. Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B.R.Ambedkar and M.C.Rajah became active. Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fact on the sixth day (Sept 25, 1932). In this, the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature were increased.

Third Round Table Conference (1932):

Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.

Demand For Pakistan:

• • • •

In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim State within the federation. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923. Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality. Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940.

The Cripps Mission – 1942:

• • • • •

In Dec. 1941, Japan entered the World War – II and advanced towards Indian borders. By March 7, 1942, Rangoon fell and Japan occupied the entire S E Asia. The British govt. with a view to getting co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to settle terms with the Indian leaders. He offered a draft which proposed dominion status to be granted after the war. Rejected by the Congress as it didn’t want to rely upon future promises. Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque in a crashing bank.

The Revolt of 1942 & The Quit India Movement:

• • • • • • • • • •

Called the Vardha Proposal and Leaderless Revolt. The resolution was passed on Aug.8, 1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’. On Aug 9, the Congress was banned and its important leaders were arrested. The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and, there being no program of action, the movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country. The movement was however crushed. The Indian National Army: Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh. S.C.Bose secretly escaped from India in Jain 1941, and reached Berlin. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There, Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him. The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S.E.Asia. Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore). INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force.

The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946):

The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The new Labour Party PM.Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V.Alexander) will visit India.

• • •

The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about acceptance of their proposals. On May 16, 1946, the mission put towards its proposals. It rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested. Both Congress and Muslims League accepted it.

Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2, 1946):

Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sept.2, 1946. J.L.Nehru was its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President.

Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16, 1946):

• • • •

Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent assembly. Therefore, Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on July 29, 1946. It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (Aug 16, 1946). It resulted in heavy communal riots. Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27, 1947.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9, 1946):

The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9, 1946 and Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president.

Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947):

• • • • • • •

On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. The outlines of the Plan were: India to be divided into India and Pakistan. Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP and Sylhet district of Assam would be held. There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution. The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent. Aug.15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan. The British govt. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947, which contained the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan.

Partition and Independence (Aug 1947):

• • •

All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan. At the time of independence, there were 562 small and big Princely States in India. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, used iron hand in this regard. By August 15, 1947, all the States, with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession. Goa was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry with the French.

Venue, Year and Presidents of India National Congress (INC)
Year 1885, 1882 1886 1893 1906 1887 1888 1889 1890 1895, 1902 1905 1907, 1908 1909 1916 1917 1919 1920 1921,1922 1923 1924 1925 1928 1929 1931 1932, 1933 1934 1936 Venue Bombay, Allahabad Calcutta Lahore Calcutta Madras Allahabad Bombay Calcutta Poona, Ahmedabad Banaras Surat, Madras Lahore Lucknow Calcutta Amritsar Calcutta (sp.session) Ahmedabad, Gaya Delhi (sp.session) Belgaon Kanpur Calcutta Lahore Karachi Delhi, Calcutta Bombay Lucknow W.C.Bannerji Dadabhai Naoroji " " Badruddin Tyyabji (fist Muslim President) George Yule (first English President) Sir William Wedderburn Sir Feroze S.Mehta S.N.Banerjee G.K.Gokhale Rasbehari Ghosh M.M.Malviya A.C.Majumdar (Re-union of the Congress) Annie Besant (first woman President) Motilal Nehru Lala Lajpat Rai C.R.Das Abdul Kalam Azad (youngest President) M.K.Gandhi Sarojini Naidu (first Indian woman President) Motilal Nehru (first All India Youth Congress Formed) J.L.Nehru (Poorna Swaraj resolution was passed) Vallabhbhai Patel (Here, resolution on Fundamental rightsand the National Economic Program was passed) (Session Banned) Rajendra Prasad J.L.Nehru President

1937 1938 1939 1940 1946 1948

Faizpur Haripura Tripuri Ramgarh Meerut Jaipur

J.L.Nehru (first session in a village) S.C.Bose (a National Planning Committed set-up underJ.L.Nehru). S.C.Bose was re-elected but had to resign due to protestby Gandhiji (as Gandhiji supported Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya). Rajendra Prasadwas appointed in his place. Abdul Kalam Azad Acharya J.B.Kriplani Dr.Pattabhi Sitaramayya.

General Knowledge India Politics The Governor

Citizen of India Completed 35 yrs of age. Shouldn't be a member of either house of parliament or the State 1 Qualification legislature. Must possess the qualification for membership of State Legislature. Mustn't hold any office of profit. Nominal executive in States. Normally each State has its own Governor, but under the Seventh Amendment Act 1956, the same person can be appointed as Governor of one or more States or Lt. Governor of the Union Territory. Appointed by the President on the recommendations of Union Council of Ministers. His usual term of office is 5 yrs but he holds office during the pleasure of the President. He can be asked to continue for more time until his successor takes the charge. 2 Status Can give his resignation or can be removed earlier by the President. The legislature of a State or a High Court has no role in the removal of a Governor. Salary from the Consolidated Fund of the State (Rs.36,000 per month) and is not subject to the vote of the State Legislature. When the same person is appointed as the Governor of two or more States, the emoluments and allowances payable to him shall be allocated among the States in such proportion as determined by the President of India. His oath is administrated by the Chief Justice of the concerned State High Court and in his absence, the senior - most of that Court. Appoints Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, Chairman & members of State Public Service Commission, Advocate General of the State and Election Commissioner of the State. Summons, Prorogues & dissolves the State Legislature. 3 Powers President consults Governor while appointing Chief Justice and other judges of High Court. Appoints judges of courts below the High Court. Reports to the President if the State Government is not running constitutionally and recommends the President's rule (Article 356). When the President's Rule is in progress, he becomes the 'Agent of the Union Government in the State'. He takes over the reigns of administration directly into his own hands and runs the State with the aid of the Civil Servants


1 Qualification

Must be a citizen of India. Completed 35 yrs in age. Eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha. Must not hold any Government post. Exceptions: President and Vice-President. Governor of any State. Minister of Union or State. Indirectly elected through 'Electoral College' consisting of Elected members of both the Houses of Parliament & Elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. (No nominated members). Security deposit - 15,000/Supreme Court inquires all disputes regarding President's election. Takes OATH in presence of Chief Justice of India, or in his absence, senior most judge of Supreme Court. 5 year term Article 57 says that there is no upper limit on the no. of times a person can ecome President. Can give resignation to Vice President before full-term. Present Salary - 50,000/month (including allowances & emoluments). Quasi-judicial procedure. Can be impeached only on the ground of violation of Constitution. The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either House of the Parliament. In case the office falls vacant due to death, resignation or removal, the Vice-President acts as President. If he is not available then Chief Justice, if not then senior-most judge of Supreme Court shall act as the President of India. The election is to be held within 6 months of the vacancy. Appoints PM, ministers, Chief Justice & Judges of Supreme Court & High courts, Chairman & members of UPSC, Comptroller and Auditor General, Attorney General, Chief Election Commissioner and other members of Election Commission, Governors, Members of Finance Commission, Ambassadors, etc. Can summon & prorogue the sessions of the 2 houses & can dissolve Lok Sabha. Appoints Finance Commission (after every 5 yrs) that recommends distribution of taxes between Union & State govts. Appoints the Chief Justice and the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. The President can promulgate 3 types of Emergencies: National Emergency (Article 352) State Emergency (President's Rule) (Article 356) Financial Emergency (Article 360) He is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces of India. President appoints Chiefs of Army, Navy & Air Force. Declares wars & concludes peace subject to the approval of the Parliament.

2 Election


Term & Emoluments

4 Impeachment

5 Vacancy

7 Powers

Prime Ministers of India

Jawahar Lal Nehru Gulzari Lal Nanda Lal Bahadur Shastri Gulzari Lal Nanda Indira Gandhi Morarji Desai Charan Singh Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi V.P.Singh Chandra Shekhar P.V.Narsimha Rao Atal Bihari Vajpayee H.D. Deve Gowda I.K.Gujral Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee Dr.Manmohan Singh

15.08.1947 27.05.1964 09.06.1964 11.01.1966 24.01.1966 24.03.1977 28.07.1979 14.01.1980 31.10.1984 02.12.1989 10.11.1990 21.06.1991 16.05.1996 01.06.1996 21.04.1997 19.03.1998 13.10.1999 22.05.2004

27.05.1964 09.06.1964 11.01.1966 24.01.1966 24.03.1977 28.07.1979 14.01.1980 31.10.1984 01.12.1989 10.11.1990 21.06.1991 16.05.1996 01.06.1996 21.04.1997 18.03.1998 12.10.1999 21.05.2004 Till Date

Strength of State Legislatures

SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

State / UTs Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Delhi Bihar Jharkhand Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Chhatisgarh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal West Bengal

Legislative Assembly 294 40 126 70 243 81 40 182 90 68 76 224 140 230 90 288 60 60 40 60 147 30 117 200 32 234 60 403 70 294 Nil Nil Nil Nil 75 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 36 75 Nil Nil Nil 78 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil

Legislative Council

104 Nil Nil

Supreme Court of India
1 Status Stands at the apex of the judicial system of India. Consists of Chief Justice & 25 other judges. The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is appointed as the Chief Justice of India. Other judges are appointed by the President after consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Court as the President may deem necessary. Citizen of India Have been a judge of High Court for 5 yrs or An advocate of High Court for 10 yrs minimum or In President's view, a distinguished jurist of the country. The Chief Justice & other judges hold office till 65 yrs of age. Can give resignation to President. Can be removed by the Parliament. After retirement, a judge of Supreme Court cannot plead or act before any authority. Salary: Chief Justice - 33,000/- per month, Other Judges 30,000/- per month A motion seeking the removal of the judge can be preferred before either House of the Parliament. The resolution should be supported by a majority of total membership of both houses & by 2/3 majority of the members present & voting. Original Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court settles all disputes between Centre - State, State - State, etc. Writ Jurisdiction: Every individual has the right to move the Supreme Court directly by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of his Fundamental Rights. Advisory Jurisdiction: If the President seeks the advice of Supreme Court, it is duty bound to give its opinion. (Its opinion isn't a binding of President). Revisory Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court under Article 137 is empowered to review any judgement or order made by it with a view to removing any mistake or error that might have crept in the Jurisdiction of The 6 judgement or order. Supreme Court It is a court of record as its decisions are of evidentiary value & cannot be questioned in any court. The Supreme Court also enjoys the power of Judicial review as it can ensure that the laws passed by legislature and orders issued by the executive do not contravene any provision of the Constitution. The Supreme Court decides disputes regarding the election of the President and the Vice President. The Supreme Court recommends the removal of members of UPSC to the President.

2 Appointment

3 Qualification

4 Term & Salary


Removal of Judges

Attorney General of India

• • • •

Highest legal officer of the Union Govt. Appointed by the President. The person should be qualified to be appointed a judge of the Supreme Court. He is entitled to audience in all courts of the country & can take part in the proceedings of the Parliament & its committees. However, he is not given the right to vote. He is also allowed to take up private practice provided the other party is not the State. Because of this, he is not paid salary but a retainer to be determined by the President. In England, the Attorney General is a member of the Cabinet, but in India he is not. It is a political appointment and therefore, whenever there is a change in the party in power, the Attorney General resigns from his post to enable the new Government to appoint a nominee of his choice. The Attorney General is assisted by two Solicitors-General and four Additional Solicitors - General. The Attorney General gets a retainer equivalent to the salary of a judge of the Supreme Court. Gives advice on all such legal matters which may be referred or assigned to him by the President. Appears before the Supreme Court and various High Courts in cases involving the govt. of India.

• •

• • • •

Vice President

Elected by both the houses (Electoral College) in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and the vote being secret. Nominated members also participate in his election.

1 Election

• •

The Supreme Court has the final and exclusive jurisdiction for resolving disputes and doubts relating to the election of the Vice-President. Citizen of India.

More than 35 yrs of age

2 Criteria

Possess the qualification for membership of Rajya Sabha.

Not hold any office of profit under union, state or local authority. However, for this purpose, the President, Vice-President, Governor of a State and a Minister of the Union or a State, are not held to be holding an office of profit. Holds office for 5 yrs. Can be re-elected.

Term can be cut short if he resigns or by a resolution of the Raja Sabha passed by a majority of all the then members of the Rajya Sabha and agreed to by the Lok Sabha.

He is the ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. Since he is not a member of Rajya Sabha, he has no right to vote.

Being the Vice President of India, he is not entitled for any salary, but he is entitled to the salary and allowances payable to the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.


Other Points

All bills, resolution, motion can be taken in Rajya Sabha after his consent.

Vice Presidents of India
SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name 1952 - 1962 1962 - 1977 1967 - 1969 1969 - 1974 1974 - 1979 1979 - 1984 1984 - 1987 1987 - 1992 1992 - 1997 1997 - 2002 2002 S. Radhakrishnan Zakir Hussain V.V.Giri G.S. Pathak B.D. Jatti Md. Hidayatullah R. Venkataraman Dr. S.D. Sharma K.R. Narayanan Krishna Kanth Bhairon Singh Shekawat Year

Parts of the Constitution

Part - I (Article 1 - 4) Part - II (Art. 5 11) Part - III (Art. 12 - 35)

Deals with territory of India formation of new states, alterations, names of existing states. Deals with various rights of citizenship. Deals with fundamental rights of Indian citizens. (Art. 31 - dealing with the right to property was deleted by 44th amendment).

Part - IV (Art. 36Deals with Directive Principles of State Policy. 51) Part - IV - A (Art. Added by 42nd amendment in 1976. Contains the duties of the citizens. 51A) Deals with govt. at the Union Level. (Duties & Function of PM, Ministers, Part - V (Art. 52 Presidents, Attorney General, Parliament - Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha, 151) Comptroller & Auditor General). Part - VI (Art. 152 - 237) Part - VII (Art. 238) Part - VIII (Art. 239 - 241) Deals with govt. at the State Level. (Duties & functions of Chief Minister & his ministers, Governor, State legislature, High Court, Advocate General of the State). Deals with States, was replaced in 1956 by the 7th amendment. Deals with Union Territories. Consists of 2 parts: 1. Added by 73rd amendment in 1992. Contains a new schedule 'SCHEDULE ELEVEN'. It contains 29 subjects related to Panchayati Raj. (They have been given administrative powers). 2. Added by 74th amendment in 1992. Contains a new schedule 'SCHEDULE TWELVE'. It contains 18 subjects related to Municipalities. (They have been given administrative powers). Deals with Scheduled & Tribal Areas. Deals with relation between Union & States. Deals with distribution of revenue between Union & States, appointment of Finance Commission (Article 280), contracts, liabilities etc. Relates to trade, commerce & intercourse within the Territory of India. Deals with UPSC and Public Service Commissions. Deals with elections (Also Election Commission) Deals with special provisions for Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribed & Anglo - Indian Representation. Relates to official language. Deals with emergency provisions.

Part - IX

Part - X (Art. 244, 244A) Part - XI (Art. 245 - 263) Part - XII (Art. 264 - 300A) Part - XIII (Art.301 - 307) Part - XIV (Art.308 - 323) Part - XV (Art.324 - 329) Part - XVI (Art.330 - 342) Part - XVII (Art. 343 - 351) Part, XVIII (Art.352 - 360)

Parliament of India
LOK SABHA: Maximum strength - 550 + 2 nominated members. (530 - States/ 20 - Union Territories) Present strength of Lok Sabha - 545. The Eighty Fourth Amendment, 2001, extended freeze on Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026. The normal tenure of the Lok Sabha is five years, but it may be dissolved earlier by the President. The life of the Lok Sabha can be extended by the Parliament beyond the five year term, when a proclamation of emergency under Article 352 is in force. But the Parliament cannot extend the normal life of the Lok Sabha for more than one year at a time (no limit on the number of times in the Constitution). The Candidate must be: (a) Citizen of India. (b) Atleast 25 yrs of age. (c ) Mustn't hold any office of profit. (d) No unsound mind/ insolvent. (e) Has registered as voter in any Parliamentary Constituency. Oath of MPs is conducted by the Speaker. Can resign, by writing to Speaker. Presiding officer is Speaker (In his absence Deputy Speaker). The members among themselves elect him. The Speaker continues in office even after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets. Usually the Speaker, after his election cuts-off all connection with his party & acts in an impartial manner. He does not vote in the first instance, but exercises his casting vote only to remove a deadlock. Charges his salary from Consolidated Fund of India. Speaker sends his resignation to deputy Speaker. The Majority of the total membership can remove Speaker after giving a 14 days notice. (During this time, he doesn't preside over the meetings). After his removal, continues in office till his successor takes charge. RAJYA SABHA

Maximum Strength - 250 {Out of these, President nominates 12 amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in the fields of literature, science, art and social service}.

Presently, the Parliament, by law, has provided for 233 seats for the States and the Union Territories. The total membership of Rajya Sabha is thus 245.

All the States and the Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry are represented in the Rajya Sabha.

Representatives of the State are elected by members of State legislative assemblies on the basis of proportional representation through a single transferable vote.

There are no seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Rajya Sabha.

The candidate must be: (a) Citizen of India. (b) 30 yrs of age. (c ) Be a parliamentary elector in the State in which he is seeking election. (d) Others as prescribed by parliament from time-to-time.

The Rajya Sabha MPs are elected for a term of 6 years, as 1/3rd members retire every 2 years.

Vice-President is the ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. He presides over the proceedings of the Rajya Sabha as long as he does not act as the President of India during a vacancy in the office of the President of India.

Also a deputy chairman is elected from its members.

In Rajya Sabha any bill can originate, apart from money bill (including budget).

The New States Created After 1950

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Andhra Pradesh Gujarat and Maharashtra Kerala Karnataka Nagaland Haryana Himachal Pradesh

Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act, 1953 by carving out some areas from the State of Madras The State of Bombay was divided into two States, I.e., Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Bombay (Reorganisation) Act, 1960 Created by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. Te comprised Travancor and Cochin areas. Created from the Princely State of Mysore by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It was renamed Karnataka in 1973. It was carved out from the State of Assam by the State of Nagaland Act, 1962. It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966 The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of State by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970 First carved out as a sub-State within the State of Assam by 23rd Constitutional Amendment, 1969. Later in 1971, it received the status of a full-fledged State by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act. 1971 Both these States were elevated from the status of Union Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. Sikkim was first given the Status of Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1974. It got the status of a full State in 1975 by the 36th Amendment Act, 1975. It was elevated to the Status of a full State by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986. It received the status of a full State by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986. Goa was separated from the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu and was made a full-fledged State by the Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987. But Daman and Diu remained as Union Territory Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000 Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Uttar Pradesh on November 9, 2000 Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Bihar on November 15,2000.




Manipur and Tripura

10 Sikkim

11 Mizoram 12 Arunachal Pradesh

13 Goa

14 Chhattisgarh 15 Uttaranchal 16 Jharkhand

Important Constitutional Amendments


First Amendment Added Ninth Schedule. 1951 Seventh Amendment 1956 Eighth Amendment 1959 The Ninth Amendment 1960 The Tenth Amendment 1961 Twelfth Amendment 1962 Thirteenth Amendment 1962 Fourteenth Amendment 1963 Eighteenth Amendment 1966 Necessitated on account of reorganisation of States on a linguistic basis Extended special provisions for reservations of seats for SCs, STs and Anglo-Indian in Lok Sabha and Leg. Assemblies for a period of 10 years from1960 to 1970. Gave effect to transfer certain territories to Pakistan following the 1958 Indo-Pak agreement.





Incorporated Dadra & Nagar Haveli as a UT.


Incorporated Goa, Daman & Diu as a UT.


Created Nagaland as a State.


Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, the former French territories were included in the I schedules as UT of Pondicherry.


Reorganised Punjab into Punjab, Haryana and UT of Chandigarh.

Twenty first 10 Amendment 1967 Twenty second 11 Amendment 1969 Twenty third 12 Amendment 1969 Twenty sixth 13 Amendment 1971 Twenty seventh 14 Amendment 1971 Thirty first 15 Amendment 1973 Thirty sixth 16 Amendments 1975

Included Sindhi as the Fifteenth Regional language.

Created a sub-state of Meghalaya with in Assam.

Extended the reservation of seats for SC/ST and nomination of AngloIndians for a further period of 10 years (till 1980). Abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states. Established Manipur and Tripura as States and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh as UTs. Increased the elective Strength of LS from 525 to 545. The upper limit of representatives of States went up from 500 to 525.

Made Sikkim a State

Jurisdiction and Seats of High Courts
High Court Status:

Each State has a High Court; it is the highest judicial organ of the State.

However, there can be a common High Court like Punjab, Haryana & Union Territory of Chandigarh.

Presently there are 21 High Courts in India.

Consists of Chief Justice & other such judges as appointed by the President.

The Constitution, unlike in the case of the Supreme Court, does not fix any maximum number of judges for a High Court. (Allahabad High Court has 37 judges while J & K High Court has only 5).

A judge of a High Court can be transferred to another High Court without his consent by the President. In this the Chief Justice of India is also consulted. The opinion provided by him shall have primacy and is binding on the President.

Appointment of Judges: The appointment of Chief Justice is made after consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court & the Governor of the State by the President. In case of appointment of a judge, the chief justice of the High Court concerned is also consulted in addition to chief Justice of Supreme Court & Governor of the State concerned. Qualifications:

• •

Must be a citizen of India Should have been an advocate of a High Court or of two such Courts in succession for atleast 10 yrs; or should have held judicial office in India for a period of atleast 10yrs.

Term: A judge of High Court continues his office till 62 yrs of age. Term can be cut short due to

resignation or removal by the President. Removal:

• •

The President can remove a judge of High Court only if the Parliament passes the resolution by a 2/3 majority of its members present & voting in each house. The conduct of the judges of the High Court cannot be discussed in Parliament, except on a motion for the removal of a judge.

Jurisdiction Seats High Courts:

Name Allahabad Andhra Pradesh Mumbai Kolkata Delhi Guwahati Gujarat Himachal Pradesh J&K Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Chennai Orissa Patna Punjab & Haryana Rajasthan Sikkim Bilaspur Nainital Ranchi the year 1866 1954 1862 1862 1966 1948 1960 1971 1957 1884 1956 1956 1862 1948 1916 1966 1950 1975 2000 2000 2000

Territorial Jurisdiction Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Daman and Diu West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Delhi Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Gujarat Himachal Pradesh J&K Karnataka Kerala and Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Orissa Bihar

Seat Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow) Hyderabad Mumbai (Bench at Nagpur, Panaji and Aurangabad) Kolkata (Circuit Bench at Port Blair) Delhi Guwahati (Bench at Kohima and Circuit Benches at Imphal, Agartala & Shillong) Ahmedabad Shimla Srinagar and Jammu Bangalore Ernakulam Jabalpur (Benches at Gwalior and Indore) Chennai Cuttack Patna

Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh Chandigarh Rajasthan Sikkim Chhattisgarh Uttaranchal Jharkhand Jodhpur (Bench at Jaipur) Gangtok Bilaspur Nainital Ranchi

Fundamental Rights
Right to Equality

Article 14 Equality before law and equal protection of law Article 15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Article 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. Article 17 End of untouchability Article 18 Abolition of titles, Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted.

Right to Freedom of Religion
Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. Article 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs Article 27 Prohibits taxes on religious grounds Article 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions

Right Against Exploitation
Article 23 Article 24 Traffic in human beings prohibited No child below the age of 14 can be employed

Right to Freedom of Religion
Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. Article 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs Article 27 Prohibits taxes on religious grounds Article 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights
Article 29 Article 30 Article 31 Protection of interests of minorities Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act.

Right to Constitutional Remedies
Article 32 The right to move the Supreme Court in case of their violation (called Soul and heart of the Constitution by DR Ambedkar).

Election Commission (Article 324)


The Constitution provides for an independent election commission to ensure free and fair election to the Parliament, the State legislature and the offices of President and Vice-President.

Consists of Chief Election Commissioner +2 Election Commissioners. They all enjoy equal powers.

The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President and the other Election Commissioners are appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Election Commissioner. Article 324 also provides for the appointment of Regional Commissioners at the time of General Elections after consultation with the Election Commission.

Election Commissioners are appointed for a term of 5yrs.

They are not eligible for re-appointment. Also, they cannot hold any office of profit after their retirement.

The term of 5yrs can by cut short by resignation or removal by President on recommendation of the Parliament (Same as that of Judge of the Supreme Court).


Preparation of electoral rolls & keeping voters list updated.

Preparation of code of conductor for all political parties.

Recognition of various political parties & allotment of election symbols.

Appointment of election officers to look into disputes concerning election arrangements.

To examine the returns of election expenses filed by the candidate.

Comptroller Auditor General India CAG

• • • •

Appointed by the President. A person with long administrative experience & knowledge of accounts is appointed. Holds office for 6 yrs or till 65 yrs of age. The President can remove him only on the recommendation of the 2 houses of Parliament (as in case of judge of Supreme Court).


He is the guardian of the public purse. His duties are to audit the accounts of the Union and the States and to ensure that nothing is spent out of the Consolidated Fund of India or of the States without the sanction of the Parliament or the respective State Legislature. He submits an audit report of the Union to the President who shall lay it before the Parliamentary and the audit reports of the States to the respective Governors who shall lay it before the respective State Legislature. In short the CAG acts as the custodian & trustee of public money.

Chief Minister

• • • • •

Real executive head of the Govt at the State level. The position of Chief Minister at the State level is analogous to the position of the Prime Minister at the Centre. Appointed by Governor. Other Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. If CM resigns. Entire ministry resigns. Generally, the leader of the majority party is appointed.

A person who is not a member of State Legislature can be appointed, but he has to get himself elected within 6 months otherwise he is removed.

Presidents of India
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Dr. Rajendra Prasad Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Dr. Zakir Hussain V.V.Giri (Vice President)# Justice M. Hidayatullah*# V.V. Giri F. Ali Ahmed B.D. Jatti# N. Sanjiva Reddy Gaini Jail Singh R. Venkataraman Dr.S.D. Sharma K.R. Narayanan Dr.A.P. J. Abdul Kalam 26.01.1950 13.05.1962 13.05.1967 03.05.1969 20.07.1969 24.08.1969 24.08.1974 11.02.1977 25.07.1977 25.07.1982 25.07.1987 25.07.1992 25.07.1997 25.07.2002 13.05.1962 13.05.1967 03.05.1969 20.07.1969 24.08.1969 24.08.1974 11.02.1977 25.07.1977 25.07.1982 25.07.1987 25.071992 25.07.1997 25.07.2002 Till Date

General Knowledge Science Common and Chemical Names of Some Compounds

Common Name Dry Ice slaked Lime Bleaching Powder Nausadar Caustic Soda Rock Salt Caustic Potash Potash Alum Epsom Quick Lime Plaster of Paris Gypsum Green Vitriol Mohr's Salt Blue Vitriol White Vitriol Marsh Gas Vinegar Potash Ash Hypo Baking Powder Washing Soda Magnesia Chalk (Marble) Lunar Caustic Laughing Gas Chloroform Vermelium Borax Alcohol Sugar Heavy Water

Chemical Name Solid Carbondioxide Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Oxychloride Ammonium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chloride Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Aluminium Sulphate Magnesium Sulphate Calcium Oxide Calcium Sulphate Calcium Sulphate Ferrous Sulphate Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate Copper Sulphate Zinc Sulphate Methane Acetic Acid Potassium Carbonate Sodium Thiosulphate Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Carbonate Magnesium Oxide Calcium Carbonate Silver Nitrate Nitrous Oxide Tricholoro Methane Mercuric Sulphide Borax Ethyl Alcohol Sucrose Duterium Oxide CO2

Chemical Formulae

Ca (OH)2 CaOCl2 NH4Cl NaOH NaCl KOH K2SO4 Al2 (SO4)3.24H2O MgSO4.7H2O CaO (CaSO4) ½ H2O (CaSO4) .2H2O FeSO4.7H2O FeSO4 (NH4)2 SO4.6H2O CuSO4.5H2O ZnSO4.7H2O CH4 CH3COOH K2CO3 Na2S2O3.5H2O NaHCO3 Na2CO3.10H2O MgO CaCO3 AgNO3 N2O CHCl3 HgS Na2B4O7.10H2O C2H5OH C12H22O11 D2O

Elements Symbols and Atomic Numbers

Name Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Flourine Neon Sodium (Natrium) Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorous Sulphur Chlorine Argon Potassium (Kalium) Calcium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron (Ferum) Cobalt Nickel Copper (Cuprum) Zinc Germenium Bromine Krypton H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ge Br Kr

Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 35 36

Atomic Number

Different Branches of Science

Branch Aeronautics Astronomy Agronomy angiology Anthology Anthropology Apiculture Araneology Batracology Biochemistry Biotechnology Cardiology Craniology Cryptography Cryogenics Cytology Dermatology Ecology Entomology Etiology Eugenics Evolution Exbiology Floriculture Geology Genetics Gerontology Gynaecology Horticulture Haematology Hepatology Science of flight of airplanes Study of heavenly bodies

Concerning Field

Science dealing with crop plants Deals with the study of blood vascular system Study of flowers Study of apes and man Honey industry (Bee Keeping) Study of spiders Study of frogs Deals with the study of chemical reactions in relation to life activities Deals with the use of micro-organism in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs, vaccines, hormones, etc, on a large scale Study of heart Study of skulls Study of secret writing Study concerning with the application and uses of very low temperature Study of cells Study of skin The study of relationship between organisms and environment Study of insects Study of cause of disease Study of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity. It is related with future generations Deals with the study of origin of new from old Deals with life or possibilities of life beyond the earth Study of flower yielding plants Study of condition and structure of the earth Study of heredity and variations Study of growing old Study of female reproductive organ Study of garden cultivation Study of blood Study of liver

Human Endocrine System


Hormone Releasing and inhibiting hormones and factors Posterior pituitary hormones produced here Receives hormones from hypothalamus no hormones synthesised here stores and secretes the following: Oxytocin Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin)



Control of another pituitary hormones

Posterior pituitary gland

Ejection of milk from mammary gland, contraction of uterus during birth Reduction of urine secretion by kidney

Anterior pituitary gland

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinising hormone (LH) Prolactin Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH or corticotrophin) Growth hormone (GH)

In male, stimulate spermatogenesis In female, growth of ovarian follicles In male testosterone secretion In female secretion of oestrogen and progesterone, ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum Stimulates milk production and secretion Synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones growth of thyroid glands. Synthesis and secretion of adrenal cortex hormones growth of gland Protein synthesis, growth, especially of bone of limbs Increases blood calcium level Decreases blood phosphate level Regulation of basal metabolic rate, growth and development Decreases blood calcium level Protein breakdown, glucose/glycogen synthesis,adaptation to stress, antiinflammatory/allergy effects Na+ retention in kidney, Na+ and K+ ratios in extracellular and intracellular fluids, raises blood pressure Increase rate and force of heartbeat, constriction of skin and gut capillaries Dilation of arterioles of heart and skeletal muscles, raising blood glucose level General constriction of small arteries, raising of blood pressure Decreases blood glucose level, increases glucose and amino acid uptake and utilisation by cells Increases blood glucose level, breakdown of glucogen to glucose in liver Secretion of gastric juices Secretion of pancreatic juice Inhibits gastric secretion Emptying of gall bladder and release of

Parathyroid gland Thyroid gland

Parathormone Triiodothyronine (T3)and thyroxine (T4) Calcitonin

Adrenal cortex

Glucocorticoids (cortisol) Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

Adrenal medulla

Adrenaline (epinephrine) Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

Islets of Langerhans

Insulin (beta cells) Glucagon (alpha cells)

stomach Duodenum

Gastrin Secretin Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin)

Medical Inventions and Discoveries
SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Name Ronald Rose Salk, Jonas E. Simpson and Harrison Waksman Banting Barnard, Christian Brahmachari, U.N. Davy Domagk Eijkman Finsen Fleming, Alexander Harvey Hahnemann Hopkins, Frederick Gowland Jenner Koch Lainnec Lister, Lord Pasteur, Louis Malaria Parasite Anti-polio Vaccine Chloroform Streptomycin Insulin ( as a palliative for diabetes) Replacing the human heart Cure of Kala-a-zar fever Isolation of metals by electricity; studied properties of chlorine Sulpha drugs as bactericides Cause of Beri-Beri Discovered curative effect of ultra violet rays; photography Penicillin (in 1929) Circulation of blood Homoeopathy (founder) Vitamin D Smallpox Vaccination Tubercle Bacillus Stethoscope Antiseptic treatment Treatment of rabies; cure of hydrophobia Medical Inventions

Milestones in Medicine

SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Discovery / Invention Adrenaline Anesthesia, Local Anesthesia, Spinal Anti-toxins (Science of Immunity) Aspirin Ayurveda Bacteria Bacteriology Biochemistry Blood Plasma storage (Blood bank) Blood Transfusion Cardiac Pacemaker CAT Scanner Chemotherapy Chloroform as anaesthetic Chloromycetin Cholera T.B germs Circulation of blood Cryo-Surgery Diphtheria germs Electro-Cardiograph Electro-encephalogram Embryology Endocrinology First Test Tube Baby Gene Therapy on humans

Year 1894 1885 1898 1890 1889 2000-1000 BC 1683 1872 1648 1940 1625 1932 1968 1493-1541 1847 1947 1877 1628 1953 1883-84 1903 1929 1792-1896 1902 1978 1980

Discoverer / Inventor Schafer and Oliver Koller Bier Behring and Kitasato Dreser

Country Britain Austria Germany Germany, Japan Germany India

Leeuwenhock Ferdinand Cohn Jan Baptista Van Helmont Drew Jean-Baptiste Denys A.S Hyman Godfrey Hounsfield Paracelsus James Simpson Burkholder Robert Koch William Harvey Henry Swan Klebs and Loffler Willem Einthoven Hand Berger Kari Ernest Van Baer Bayliss and Starling Steptoe and Edwards Martin Clive Robert Weinberg and others Christian Barnard Marie Bichat Alexander wood

Netherlands Germany Belgium U.S.A France U.S.A Britain Switzerland Britain U.S.A Germany Britain U.S.A Germany Netherlands Germany Estonia Britain Britain U.S.A U.S.A S. Africa France Britain

Genes associated with cancer 1982 Heart Transplant Surgery Histology Hypodermic syringe 1967 1771-1802 1853

National Laboratories and Research Institutions

SNo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Name Central Building Research Institute Central Drug Research Institute Central Electro-Chemical Research Institute Central Electronics Engineering research institute Central Food Technological Research Institute Central Fuel Research Institute Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Central Leather Research Institute Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Central Mining Research Station Central Road Research Institute Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute Central Scientific Instruments Organisation Indian Institute of Chemical Biology Indian Institute of Petroleum Industrial Texicology Central Centre National Aeronautical Laboratory Roorkee, Uttaranchal Lucknow, U.P Karaikudi, T.N Pilani, Rajasthan Mysore, Karnataka Dhanbad, Jharkhand Jadhavpur, W.B Lucknow, U.P Chennai, T.N Durgapur, W.B Dhanbad, Jharkhand New Delhi, Delhi Bhavnagar, Gujarat


Chandigarh, Chandigarh Kolkatta, W.B Dehradun, Uttaranchal Lucknow, U.P Bangalore, Karnataka

National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow, U.P National Chemical Laboratory National Environment Engineering Institute National Geophysical Research Institute National Institute of Oceanography Bose Research Institute National Metallurgical Laboratory National Physical Laboratory Pune, Maharashtra Napery, Maharashtra Hyderabad, A.P Panjim, Goa Kolkata, W.B Jamshedpur, Jharkhand New Delhi, Delhi Bhubaneshwer, Orissa; Jorhat, Assam; Jammu, J

Some Important Alloys
Name Brass Bronze Composition Cu(60% to 80%), Zn (40 to 20%) Cu (75 to 90%), Sn (25 to 10%) Use For making household utencils For making coins, idols, utencils For making utencils For making aircraft frame For making cheap ornaments For making alkali resistant containers For making bells Used for engineering purpose Soldering of metals In aircraft manufacturing For making nails, screws, bridges for making cooking utencils, knives

German Silver Cu (60%), Zn (25%), Ni (15%) Magnelium Rolled Gold Monel metal Bell metals Gun metal Solder Duralium Steel Stainless Steel Mg (5%), Al (95%) Cu(90%), Ni (10%) Cu (70%), Ni (30%) Cu (80%), Sn (20%) Cu (85%), Zn (10%), Sn(5%) Sn(50-75%), Pb (50-25%) Al (95%), Cu (4%), Mg (0.5%), Mn (0.5%) Fe (98%), C (2%) Fe (82%) Cr, Ni (18%)

Some Important Facts of Human Body

Length of alimentary canal BMR (Basal metabolic rate) Number calls in body Longest bone Smallest bone Weight of brain Blood volume Normal B.P Number of R.B.C Life span of R.B.C Normal W.B.C count Life span of W.B.C

Approximately 8 meters 1600 75 trillion Femur (thigh bone) Ear ossicle, stapes 1400 gms 6.8 litres (in 70 kg body) 120/80 mm Hg (a) In male: 4.5-5.0 million/cubic mm (b) In female: 4.0-4.5 million/cubic mm 120 days 5000-10000/cubic mm 3-4 days (a) Basophils-0.5-1% (b) Eosinophils-1-3% (c) Monocytes-3-8% (d) Neutrophils-40-70% (e) Lymphocytes-2-25% 2,00,000-4,00,000/cubic mm (a) In male: 14-15.6 gm/100 c.c of blood (b) In female: 11-14 gm/100 c.c of blood 500-700 gm O Rh-ve AB 2-5 minutes 70 kg 98.4.F or 37.C 16-20 minutes adult:2123/2123=32 child: 2120/2120=22 milk teeth 12 pairs 31 pairs Thyroid 9 months (253-266 days) 72-75/ minutes Liver

D.L.C (Differential leucocyte count)

Blood platelets count Haemoglobin Hb content in body Universal blood donor Universal blood recipient Blood clotting time Average body weight Normal body temperature Breathing rate Dental formula Number of cranial nerves Number of spinal nerves Largest endocrine gland Gestation period Normal heart beat Largest gland

Units of Measurement

Ampere Angstrom Bar Becquerel Bel Calorie Candela Candle power Celsius (Centigrade) Coulomb Decibel Dyne Electron-volt Erg Fahrenheit Farad Faraday Fathom Foot Candle Gauss Henry Hertz Horse-power Joule Kelvin Kilogram Knot Lambert Light Year Lumen Maxwell Metre Mole

Electric current Wave-length and also lengths of atomic dimensions Atmospheric pressure Radioactivity Intensity of Sound Quantity of Heat Luminous intensity Illuminating power of source of light Temperature Electric Charge Intensity of sound (1/10th of Bel) Force Energy Work or Energy Temperature Electric Capacitance Electric Charge Depth of water Brightness Magnetic Induction Inductance Frequency Power Work or Energy Thermodynamic temperature Mass Speed of Ship and Aircraft Brightness Stellar Distance Luminous flux Magnetic flux Length Amount of Substance

Well Known Indian Scientists
Aryabhatta: He lived between 476 and 520 A.D. He was a great mathematician and an astronomer. His contributions include about the movement of earth around the Sun, determination of various physical parameters of various celestial bodies, such as diameter of Earth and Moon. He laid foundations of algebra and pointed out the importance of zero. The first Indian satellite was named after him. Bhagavantam: His contribution to radio astronomy and cosmic rays in noteworthy. An associate of Sir C.V.Raman, Dr.S.Bhagavantam was scientific adviser in the Ministry of Defence and Director General of Defence Research Development Organisation. Bhaskaracharya: Born in 1114 A.D., bhaskaracharya was a great Hindu mathematician and Astronomer. His work 'Sidhanta Siromain' consists of two parts of mathematics and two parts of astronomy. He had a foresight on the modern theory of conventions. S.S. Bhatnagar: A great Indian Scientist who lived between 1895 and 1955. He was the first Director General of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Under his directorship, many research laboratories were established throughout India. J.C.Bose: He was an eminent Physicist and Botanist. He founded Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. He invented Crescograph and lived between 1858 and 1937. S.N. Bose: He became well-known when he expounded the Bose Einstein theory which deals with the detection of a group of nuclear particles - named after him 'Boson'. His contribution to Planck's Law is laudable. He died in 1974. Dr. S.Chandrasekhar: An Indian-born American, who won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. He is an Astrophysicist. His theory of Stellar Evolution - the birth and death of stars is 35 years old. His first discovery was laughed at. After three decades, it was recognised and today he is a Nobel Laureate. According to his theory, the old stars just collapse and disappear in the light of denser stars of low light popularly called Chandrasekhar Limit. Charaka: He lived between 80 and 180 A.D. He was a court physician of King Kanishka. His writings on Hindu Medicine are invaluable Dhanvantri: He was a great physician during the period of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. His period was between 375 and 413 A.D. Hargobind Khorana: He created an artificial gene and deciphered genetic code. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968. Homi J.Bhaba: He largely contributed to the development of Atomic Physics and he was primarily responsible for setting up of Nuclear reactors in India. He published important papers on Quantum Theory, Cosmic Rays, Structure of atom, etc. He was the first Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission. He died in a plane crash in 1966 over Alps. Joshi: Prof. S.S.Joshi's works on physical and chemical reaction under electrical discharge on active nitrogen, colloids, hydrogen peroxide are noteworthy Nagarjuna: A great Buddhist Philosopher and Chemist. He mentioned about crecibles, sublimation, colouring process etc. His works are still available in China and Tibet. His theory

on extraction of copper and metallic oxides are mention-worthy. Nag Chowdhury B.D: An eminent Indian Nuclear Physicist known all over the world. Narlikar: J.V.Narlikar was the co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar theory of continuous creation which supplies missing links in Einstein's theory of Relativity. Hoyle and Narlikar have shown that the gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsions. Raja Ramanna: A great nuclear scientist, who was instrumental to stage India's first Nuclear explosion at Pokharan range in 1974. Sir C.V. Raman: First Indian Scientist to receive Nobel prize for physics in 1929 for his invention 'Raman Effect'. His study of crystal structure is of unique importance. He founded Raman Research Institute at Bangalore. Sir C.P.Roy: Author of 'Hindu Chemistry'. He founded Indian Chemical Society and Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. He has done good work on nitrous acid and its salts. He lived between 1861- 1944 AD. Prof. V.Ramachandra Rao: Direction of Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) at Peenya near Bangalore Saha Dr.Maghnad: Late Palit Prof.of Physics, University College of Scientific and Technology, Calcutta University well-known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical physics. He lived from 1893 to 1956. Srinivas Ramanujam: A mathematical wizard, contributed much to number theory, theory of partitions and theory of continuous fractions. He lived between 1887 to 1920 AD. His birth centenary was celebrated in 1987. Satish Dhavan: He was chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation. He was instrumental to take India into space age by launching Aryabhatta in 1975. Susruta: A fourth century Hindu Surgeon and Physician. He had written an important book on medicine and on medical properties of garlic. Varahamihira: An Indian astronomer and astrologer of 6th Century A.D. He was a mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems of Vikramaditya.

General Knowledge Sports Sports

Field The first Indian woman to swim across the English Channel The first Indian to win world Billiards Trophy The first to cross the Damelles by swimming The first to conquer Everest The first to sail round the world The first person to win Wimbledon title five times The first woman who conquered Everest The first person to reach North Pole First woman Olympic Medallist (Weight Lifting) The first person to reach South Pole The first Indian to win All England Badminton Championship The first Indian woman to conquer Everest The first an to climb Everest twice

Person Miss. Arati Shah Wilson Jones Mihir Sen Sherpa Tenzing (1953) Megellan Bjorn Borg Jungo Table (Japan) Robert Peary Karnam Malleswari (2000) Amundsen Prakash Padukone Bichendri Pal Nawang Gombu

The first person to complete solo walk to magnetic North pole David Hempleman Adam (UK) The first woman to reach North pole The first woman to sail non stop around the world alone The first deaf & dumb to cross the strait of Gibraltar The first woman to climb Mt. Everest twice Ann Bancroft Kaycottee Taranath Shenoy (India) Santosh Yadav (India)

The first black player to win the Wimbledon men's singles title Arthur Ashe (US) The first person to win the Palk Strait ocean swimming contest Baidyanath

World Athletics Records Men

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Athlete Name Tim Montgomery Michael Johnson Michael Johnson Wilson Kipketer Hicham El Guerrouj Kenenisa Bekele Kenenisa Bekele Saif Saaeed Shaheen Colin Jackson Xiang Liu Kevin Young Javier Sotomayor Sergey Bubka Mike Powell



Time 9.78 19.32 43.18 Paris


Date 9/14/2002 1/8/1996 8/26/1999 8/24/1997 7/14/1998 5/31/2004 8/6/2004 3/9/2004 8/20/1993 8/27/2004 6/8/1992 7/27/1993 7/31/1994 8/30/1991 7/8/1996 5/20/1990 6/6/1986 8/30/1986 5/25/1996 5/27/2001 7/5/1994 9/29/1996 9/28/2003

Atlanta, Ga Sevilla

01:41.1 Koln 03:26.0 Roma 12:37.4 Hengelo 26.20.3 Ostrava

1500m 5000m 10,000m 3000m Steeple Chase 110m Hurdles 110m Hurdles 400m Hurdles High Jump Pole Vault Long Jump Triple Jump Short Put Discus Hammer Javelin Decathlon 20 km Race Walking 50 km Race Walking Marathon

07:53.6 Bruxelles 12.91 12.91 46.78 2.45 6.14 8.95 18.29 23.12 74.08 86.74 98.48 9026 Stuttgart Athina Barcelona Salamanca Sestriere Tokyo Goteborg Westwood Neubranden Burg Stuttgart Jena Gotzis

Jonathan Edwards GBR Randy Barnes Jurgen Schult Yuriy Sedykh Jan Zelezny Roman Sebrle Bernardo Segura Thierry Toutain Paul Tergat USA GDR RUS CZE CZE MEX FRA KEN

17:25.6 Bergen 40:57.9 Hericourt 2:04:55 Berlin

World Athletics Records Women

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Athlete Name

Nation 100M 200M 400M 800M 1500M 5000M


Time 10.49 21.34 47.6

Place Indianapolis Seoul Canberra

Date 7/16/1988 9/29/1988 6/10/1985 7/26/1983 11/9/1993 11/6/2004 8/9/1993 4/7/2004 8/20/1988 8/8/2003 8/30/1987 3/9/2004 11/6/1988 10/8/1995 7/6/1987 9/7/1988 8/29/1999 1/7/2001 9/24/1988 7/24/1990 6/9/2001

Florence G.Joyner USA Florence G.Joyner USA Marita Koch Jarmila Kratochvilova Yunxia Qu Elvan Abeylegesse Junxia Wang GDR TCH CHN TUR CHN

01:53.3 Munchen 03:50.5 Beijing 14:24.7 Bergen 29:31.8 Beijing 09:01.6 Iraklio 12.21 52.34 2.09 4.92 752 15.5 22.63 76.8 76.07 71.54 7291 Stara Zagora Tula Roma Bruxelles Leningrad Goteborg Moskva Neubran denburg Rudlingen Rethimno Seoul


Gulnara Samitova RUS Yordanka Donkova BUL

Yuliya Pechenkina RUS Stefka Kostadinova BUL

Yelena Isinbayeva RUS Galina Chistyakova Inessa Kravets Natalya Lisovskaya Gabriele Reinsch Mihaela Melinte Osleidys Menendez Jackie JoynerKersee Nadezhda Ryashkina Olimpiada Ivanova URS UKR URS GDR ROM CUB USA URS RUS

41:56.2 Seattle, WA 26:52.3 Brisbane

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