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Adorno Source: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 2 (Summer, 1994), pp. 325-377 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/742547 Accessed: 21/08/2008 13:20
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of the NBC Analytical Study Music AppreciationHour
Theodor W. Adorno
Page INTRODUCTION I. PEDAGOGICAL AND MUSICAL ANALYSIS (1) The Procedurefrom Outside to Inside (2) The PedagogicalProcedure (3) Explanation and Example in the Music Appreciation Hour (4) The Question of CharacteristicExamplesand Scientific Explanations (5) Misstatementsin the Music Appreciation Hour of the Music Appreciation Hour's (6) The "Background" Explanations II. THE MUSIC APPRECIATION HOUR AS PROMOTER OF MUSICAL PSEUDO-CULTURE (1) "Appreciation"and "Fun" (2) Recognition and the Musical Spelling Bee (3) Categories of Musical Babbittry (4) The "Tests" NOTES 326 327 329 335 339 340 344 350
352 353 358 360 370 373
326 TheMusical Quarterly
The purposeof the present study is to point out that radio, at its "benevolent"best, in a nation-wide, sustainingprogramof purely educational character, fails to achieve its aim-namely, to bring people into an actual life relation with music. This will be demonstrated by an investigation into the printed materialfor 1939-40, issuedby the broadcastingnetwork itself. This materialbears the title, "NBC Music Appreciation Hour Conducted by Walter Damrosch,"and Guide1and four Student's includes the Teacher's Worksheets,2 published the New Columbia 1939. York, by University Press, Although the broadcastsdo not follow the printed text in every little detail, the texts still provide a definite and authoritativestatement of the viewpoint and method of the Hour, and a judgmentof the Hour may be based upon them as representativeof the broadcasts. It will be shown that not only is the purely musical part of this programinsufficientmusicallyand pedagogically,but that it also leads to a fictitious musical world ruled by names of personalities, stylistic labels, and pre-digestedvalues which cannot possiblybe "experienced" by the audience of the Music Appreciation Hour, since the program presents the material in a way designed, wittingly or unwittingly, to foster conventional, stereotypedattitudes, instead of leading to concrete understandingof musical sense. We are aware that this analysis may be taken as petulant annoyance of musical expertise and as hypercritical. We are not, however, imperviousto certain excellent ideas which the Music Appreciation Hour contains. We may mention here the following passagein Charles B. Farsworth's "Introductionto Series C": The basisof all musicis the feelingof movement that the rapid passing in us, called'ideal fromone tone, or chord,to anotherproduces motion.'The waythis idealmotionis put together,produces whatwe call formin music.In otherwords,it givessenseto music.The mind musttie up, as it were,that we have heardwith whatwe arehearing. The four series of the Hour manifest some sound experience, if not alwaysof actual musical understanding,at any rate of the behavior of young people towardmusic in general, and it is beyond doubt that much energy and thinking have been expended in its preparation. But its failure is due to deeper causes. We regardas the most importantof these causes, the ideological trend mentioned in the paper on a social critique of radio music. Radio, as an economic enterprisein an ownershipculture, is forced to promote, within the
Music Hour 327 Appreciation
it offers, attitudetoward listener,a naivelyenthusiastic any material toward and thus, indirectly, biasof radiois itself.3This "promotional" obstacleto achievingan adequate a permanent relationwith material, with serious musicalmaterial. How this operates and, pre-eminently, in the followingstudy,and is not will be shownmoreconcretely mentionedexplicitly.It will be easyfor the receptivereader to always construct the linksbetweenthe generalsocialcritiqueand the findings of this specialanalysis.It shouldbe reiterated, however,that we do not blameparticular individuals for the failureof an undertaking such as the MusicAppreciation but rather the within which Hour, system it works; a system,which, in this particular a devastatcase, exercises and altruism as an by usingits own putativeunselfishness ing influence medium for selfishpurposes and vestedinterests.If, in advertising of actualmusical addition,we cannotconcealthat in certainmatters serious deficiencies here we turn do not wish, even in competence up, this circumstance, to scorethe persons involved.They fall victim to an institution of "representation" mustfirstthink which, for reasons in termsof famous namesor men in executivepositions,insteadof theirqualitydistinctfromany socialconsiderations of instiestimating tutionalaggrandizement, and which is particularly hampered by the of placingin the radiolimelightthe necessity,actualor presumed, well-known nameof a musician his meritsin the past, who, whatever cannottodaybe expectedto be sufficiently to deal with the equipped new in the of field radio musical education. totally arising questions The natureof the material itselfprescribes the followingmain I. An investigation divisions: of the purelymusicalandpedagogical of the Damrosch MusicAppreciation Hour.II. A studyof qualities its cultural from the of implications standpoint what maybe called the promotion of musicalBabbittry. these divisionsoverlap Naturally, in manycases. In general,one mayregard the cultural deficiencies as wantsand conbeingcloselylinkedwith the musicaland pedagogical versely.
I. Pedagogical and Musical Analysis The generalpedagogical aim of the fourcourses is to lead the students fromthe outsideof musicto the inside.
To sumup the musicstudyin the fourcourses: we can call the A series,dealingwith the orchestral family,the physical aspect;the B
of its accompanying ideasand series,the imaginative aspect,because C the as in it the intellectual we observe the activities; series, aspect, structure andformsof puremusic;while in the D seriesa spiritual andourattentionis focused on the meaning of musicas aspectappears life and times the the of composer.4 expressing Although much can be said against such a procedure,and of art experience is not ultimately although a mental "approximation" a firmfoundation for music education, but rather is the understanding of art work a sudden, spontaneous, and fundamentallynew attitude, nevertheless it is not essential for our criticism to call this procedure into question. It may suffice to mention that a person who is in a real life relation with music does not like music because as a child he liked to see a flute, then later because music imitated a thunder storm, and finally because he learned to listen to music as music, but that the deciding childhood experiences of music are much more like a shock. More prototypicalas stimulus is the experience of a child who lies awake in his bed while a string quartetplays in an adjoining room, and who is suddenly so overwhelmedby the excitement of the music that he forgets to sleep and listens breathlessly. Without entering upon a discussionof the psychologyof the genesis of response to music, the pragmaticvalidity of the "outsideinside"process of musical education emphasizedby the Music Appreciation Hour is here granted. Even accepting it as a learning tool, it is still necessaryto set up a numberof postulateswith which a pedagogical enterpriseof this kind must comply in order to avoid a defeat of its own purpose. These postulateswould, no doubt, be accepted by the sponsorsof the Hour, too. They may be summedup as follows: (1) If one accepts pedagogicallythe way from "outside"to inside, the principle must be qualifiedso as to provide safeguards against the means becoming substitutedfor the end. The means, in the case of the Hour, largelycoincide with the "outside"of music; for instance the musical instrumentswhich, accordingto the Teacher's Guide,5are The external featuresof to be shown on cards "for eye preparation." music must not become obstacles to real understanding. (2) If the pedagogicalpurposeis avowedly serious, that is to say, if actual musical understandingis meant to be developed, as opposed to mere disseminationof informationabout music, an education from the simple to the complex, step by step and well-planned, must be achieved. Any planless juxtapositionof divergent or non-cohering materialsis strictly to be avoided. (3) The theoretical explanations must bear a direct, clear-cut relation to the concrete musical examples. In particular,the examples
the utmosttact can combineat one and the sametime. in and since music music.MusicAppreciation Hour 329 in theirveryessence. of sense imagination has "content" only incidentally. each item of material of particular musical characteristics allowfor full articulation specififromsuch characteristics of othermaterial.erroneand inadequate or ous information. emphasis This maybe partlyaccounted for by the fact that Dr. forcedexamples are. exaggeration descriptive The dangerous of this procedure areevidentfromfour implications selectedfromtotallydifferent fields. whichcontent. (5) If.to the insideof worldor fromany given descriptive to its structure and its recommends itself music. reasons. faultyor partialexplanations. mustbe characteristic as well as specific. (4) The explanations mustbe chosenin such a wayas to That is.the visibletools areof no value in themselves. contra(6) The coursemustnot employnotionsor associations or the background of the dictingthe essenceof the musicalmaterial material. fromthingsof the external contentof music. of "program" remains someeven in manyobviousexamples music. spite has failedutterly. the psychoof programatics and the structural of logicaldesideratum requirements in The MusicAppreciation musicallanguage. This callydistinguished musical and on on the one hand. structure of musicoffers recommendable stiffresistance to the psychologically Only procedure. the essential whatambiguous and arbitrary.that is to say. underno circumstances.Otherwise the explanations mustnot contradict confusionis promoted. examples to the Teacher's Guidecontainsthe following (a) The preface statement: . for pedagogical at leastnothingbut the truthshouldbe told. musicalconceptsdefinitively correlative. distinguishable examples requires. compensating on externalobjects. "meaning. Hourcomplywith these posHow does the MusicAppreciation tulates? (1) The Procedure from Outsideto Inside The procedure fromoutside. But since. Damrosch's stemsfromthe "neudeutsche" tradition and suffers from musicianship the that school'sunbridled of side of music.namely.the whole truthcannotbe told. and not accidentally the otherhand.by its almostexclusive remarks." as in keepingwith what is knownof child psychology. justifiable. In otherwords.to achievea proportioned combination. of some Hour.
In a Haydn symphony the instruments do not talk as personalities. the overwhelming majority of orchestral music actually uses the instruments as "disembodied sounds" and not as "personalities. and Wagner. It cannot possibly be the aim of a Music Apprecia- . Liszt. it has gained headway only since the days of Berlioz. Beyond that. Hence the importanceof using large colored cards of instrumentsor even partlybringing actual instruments into the classroomwhenever possible. means to distract pedagogy from the important to the subsidiary. As a matter of fact. and not merely disembodiedsounds. The alternative is for the child to imagine that he hears the flute in Haydn in order to conform to the lesson taught by the Music Appreciation Hour. of each instrument having its own voice and speaking for itself is a late development. through his classroom teacher and the disembodied encouragement of Dr. and the child who waits for the instrumental personality which then does not appear must necessarily feel that adults talk nonsense to him and betray him. Children are particularly sensitive when they feel betrayed by adults. incidentally." Cases where instruments figure as "personalities. or as a symbol for an individual. Damrosch. the discovery of the "personality" of the instruments." either imitating something (as the E-flat clarinet may imitate a donkey). Both the feeling of betrayal and its alternate. are rare. cannot but lead either to disillusion with music and its teachers or to a life-long habit of never hearing a Haydn symphony as Haydn wrote it. In serious music the instrumental sound is a mere function of the structure of the whole with no intrinsic value as an individual sound. the fishing for the instrument. A child waiting for the individual voice of the flute and its "message" necessarily will be disappointed or will strive to hear it by eliminating all musical sound "extraneous" to the flute. This hankering for the instrument. however. The contradiction between the anticipation and the material presented makes itself felt very soon. Hence the child may very easily slough over musical activities or be content with the incidental moment when some flute plays a solo. Although instrumental characterization occurred occasionally already in Gluck's time. is an attitude largely prevailing among jitterbugs.330 TheMusical Quarterly Irrespectiveof the orderfollowed. for the flute in Haydn has no such voice and no such message in itself. To shift attention from the outset of a music education program to the personality of instruments. the attractivenessof Series A depends to a large extent on the degree to which the children can become familiarwith the variousorchestralinstrumentsas personalities. but function within the coherence of parts. random phenomena.
6 We maypoint here to the analysis containedin the studyof the the over-emphasis RadioVoice. Williams.which containsthe followingstatements: test classout on the themes. for the entranceof the flute. which latter.1931 by MissSudieL.missesthe musicitselfand becomeswhatmaybe called"technique-minded. or the kettle drums. The prevalence is a problem of "technique-mindedness" which has been posedby Thorstein VeblenandJohnDeweyin this country. the child concentrates strives to much as the adolescent everymotorcarby its very recognize This attitude.in a greatmany and gainsno overtexpression." on recognizing each instrument that is to say. concerning placeduponthe theme the habit of radio and and by general quotation atomisticlistening. the violins. of whatcan appropriately meansfor the end. Education mustattempt mindedness the hegemony of the tool.which substitutes the degreeor patternof streamlining. and musiceducation with It it.MusicAppreciation Hour 331 attitudetoward music.It mightbe argued here that this is a procedure which commends itselfto commonsense.that the extravagant development has outstripped presentinstitutional sociallyto control powers capacity and masterthem. is obscured of youngpeopleinvolved development dangerto the psychological shouldface this threatand consciously here. The themebeingthe "outside" of musicand the structure its "inside. of technicalproductive namely. cannot make concessions to techniqueinexpedient grapple withoutimpairing its socialvalue. standing ." the tendencytoward atomisticlistening(whichis a majorproblem for the socialcritique of radiomusic)is here expressedly furthered by the MusicAppreciation Hour. This is reflected by men becoming psychologically more the bound to tools themselves (the means) emotionally closely than to theirhumanfunction(the end).The ideathat the theme is the "easiest"in music. tion Hourto promotethe jitterbug serious A child who waits.when listeningto a Haydnsymphony.Supervisor of Musicin the Dallaspublicschools. and that it wouldbe a high-brow to expectelementary musicaleducation to lead to an underpostulate of a complexformfromits totalityand not fromits theme. to counterbalance Guidequotesfroma bulletinissued (b) Section 2 of the Teacher's in October. Thereis a grave cases.leadsagainto a shiftingof the attentionfromthe whole to the part. point to notes andhum (wherepossible) as themeis played. is a paradigm be termed the fetishisticattitudetoward music.Themesshouldbe frequently Occasionally Let children playedandfollowed.
whereas the unity of seriousmusic is an articulatedunity consisting in the function of parts markedby contrast or.A. The pupils should be made to feel. Then explain that a symphonic movement follows fundamentally the same line. at least. too.332 The MusicalQuarterly To this objection the reply is that the difficultycan very easily be overcome. varied. and if the similaritybetween the musical structureof the folk tune and the developed musical form between them as were made clear. That is. The following method is suggested:Play or sing some wellknown nurseryrhyme such as "LondonBridgeis Falling Down. insists only upon the articulationand overlooks the functional unity. Of course the concept of theme from the very beginning would appearhere. and show concretely how this is done. only as a mere material What must be strictly avoided is the idea that serious music fundamentally consists of important"themes"with something more or less unimportantbetween them. that a theme is a sort of "statement"which obtains its meaning only within a functional unity and not as a thing in itself. one could easily show the difference well. and so on. and that a symphonic theme basicallyplays no other role than the motif does in the nurseryrhyme. In other words. and this idea is expresslyfurtheredby the M. It probablywould never occur to them that it has a "theme"as distinguishedfrom the development.H. by testing students on themes. the symphonic theme becomes conspicuousas such. The Music Appreciation Hour. however. a unity in which the parts do not dissociate themselves from one another. but could be made clear to any child by the use of concrete examples. If this characterof the theme were demonstratedby analysisof a folk tune. although in different terms. by difference." The children are able to follow the tune as a whole and to memorizeit very easily. The next step is to analyzethe tune and show that it is developed out of one fundamental motif which is repeated. one could demonstratethat the unity of the folk tune is an "immediate"unity. while this is not true in the case of the motif of the folk tune. but of the movement and not as its aim or essence. This would explain the fact that while the theme in the symphonyplays fundamentallythe same role as that played by the motif in the folk song. In this way the articulationceases to be an articulationat all and becomes a . and to build out of them a unity by becoming awareof their functional interrelationship. as soon as higher art forms are involved. The notion of theme should not disappear.but ought to be given its rightfulplace and thereby gain its true significance.All this sounds fairly involved when explained in wordsonly. the analysisshould lead to a dual postulate: that in listening to articulatedmusic one ought to be able to distinguish the parts.
The Valkyriesand horses are the mythical entities in which music tries to transfigure clouds. there lies again a fetishistic concept of music. song (trumpets and their weird battle trombones). and a child who would try to notice the neighing of the . so that they may win music appreciationcontests. called "Animals in Music. phenomena of nature such as the rainbow."like all the corresponding parts of the Ring. There is a strong suspicion that music by some children are drilled on themes in order to "recognize" outside sign. (c) The second concert of Series B. one of the composition's tools among others. in spite of many and enthusiastic words about music. Only on this level.Music Appreciation Hour 333 disintegrationof the work: the elements of articulationactually degenerate into mere atoms.H. The theme is one element of the composition and an importantone. but when this element is hypostasized as the composition's "content. after all.A. appearsto us to illustratemost concretely what is meant by the "reification" of music. not as straightforwardelements of a narrative.We heartheirgalloping hoof-beats (hor and 'cello). their the battle of the maidens and neighing(wood-winds). by the way. it is disastrousto promote "that's it" responsesto symphonic music whenever the theme occurs. the thunder storm. the cultural implications of which will be considered later. It should be noted that behind this urging of the atom or theme. is a piece of "naturesymbolism. The "Ride of the Valkyries"is what may be called a musical mythologizingof a thunder storm. but only in the sense in which elements of waking life appearin dreams. Here again the psychological approachclashes with the structure of the music."about which it has to say: The 'Rideof the Valkyries' describes the flightof the horsesthrough the clouds. cry (strings). Although the instigatorsof the M. does the "Ride of the Valkyries"have meaning." includes Wagner's"Ride of the Valkyries. it cannot escape attention that. do not mention this idea as a leading force in their approach. and not as a primitive naturalisticdescription. The "Ride of the Valkyries. Therefore it is very difficult to identify them. and lightning. as it were. the drill and contest idea plays a large part in the Hour's activities. This example." the stream of music is destroyed and replacedby the automatic recognition of what is. victory in which is considered the acme of success in schools throughoutthe land. The naturalisticfeatureshinted at in the Hour appearcontinually in the composition. In any case. storm."an attempt to translate. into the languageof the myth. fire.
such as knights. at any cost. would at once be at a loss. it should be noted that the idea that Wagner'saim approximatesthat of a musical circus director. the nature of which is entirely incompatiblewith the matter-of-factanticipation. as evidently the authorsof the Hour and the do. and now the Valkyries'cry. In attempting to make this more concrete and to interpretit in terms of "outside. to associate certain prescribedpictures with the music. shining armor. The artificialnaivete of such an approachis likely to annoy children rather than please them.' " Here again is the attempt to make the approachmore concrete by some outside reference. but also raising a conflict between what they were told and what they are actually hearing."only the opposite is achieved. purelyfortuitousand has no basis within the music of either composer. he laid the foundationsof all modem music. If the reference is to be of any assistance in understandingBach's music. but has the contraryeffect. Germany. "Bach was born in the little town of Eisenach." There is a fettering of the child's imaginationwhich is forced. that the pupil knows something about "Tannhauser" he must assume that has certain associations we also then Wartburg. descriptiveexplanation. While characterizinghim very aptly as "both at the end of one era and the beginning of another. . and beautifulmaidens. The link. in the very shadow of the WartburgCastle.7 (d) The second concert of Series D presents a Bach program precededby a short biographicalsketch of the composer. It would suffice to tell them something about the Valkyriesin general and the ride rhythm. linked with the Wartburg. and it would not be surprisingif the more alert and less conformingchildren were to call any such attempt to interpretmusic in circus terms stupid. it might be too difficult to explain to children the actual implications of a piece like the ValkyrieRide. If we assume. creates an atmosphereof workadaymatterof-factnesswhich necessarilyaffects. most unfavorably. and the attempt is is perilous. "Now come the horses.the whole complex of the child's experience of the music. He will. but by giving them the primitive. for he was the last great composerof the polyphonic school and. at the same time. mediaeval glamourand might. they are misled in a way not only jeopardizing the meaning of the music. which is also known to us as the setting for one of the great scenes in Wagner's'Tannhiuser. thereforeit does not help the student to understandanything. Bach-Eisenach-Wartburg-Tannhauser-Wagner. the pupil will approachthe music with these associations. of course.334 TheMusical Quarterly horses in any naturalisticsense. Of course." it goes on. Moreover. be bitterly disappointedas there is absolutelynothing in Bach's music to suggest any of these features.
9 instead of merely assertingthat it does. in a definite sense. which confuse the issue. But they contain them in the form of statements which are. First. but it fails for two reasons. the Platonic pattern. remains totally obscure. and basicallysound statement.muchas formsand colorsarethe realstuffout of which and sculpture the beautyin the artsof painting.8 The practical issue for pedagogyis to show precisely in what way this occurs. Incidentally.Music Hour 335 Appreciation There again the expectation of something which is not forthcoming may easily lead to disillusionment and to distrustof the whole approach. but within their peculiar sphere of structuredsound." the transition from this obvious notion to the "go"of music in general." as it stands. in terms. They all sleep in the same pantheon of greatness. the most valuable ideas of the Hour. as suggestedbefore. Farnsworth stating the fundamentalconcepts of the section. indiscriminately adoredfrom outside. the term "ideal motion. Second. it betraysan astonishing lack of taste to introduce Bach. These introductionscontain. The term "ideal"carrieswith it totally different associations. ought to be explained. It is very difficult for a child. This. appears to confuse the boundariesbetween the composer and his creatures. This We often saywe do or we do not remember It is of is called motion. Procedure (2) The Pedagogical Each series has an introductionby Charles H. such as the perfect. musical formsis reserved This is an attempt to describe music as a structuralunity. as we tried to sketch above. Instance the following from the Introductionto Series B: how a melodygoes. or even an adolescent. The hero-worshipfostered by the Music Appreciation Hour. Probablywhat is meant here is that musical motions are motions taking place not indiscriminatelyin the external world.' the realstuffout of which music 'ideal 'go' musicis made. so to speak. of all people. though it is very effective to start with "how a melody goes. The obscurityof this fundamental. the most complex symphonic form "goes"in the same way in which one says that a melody goes. aremade. The studyof how this idealmotionof musicis turnedinto artistic for SeriesC. to graspthat. for anyone not thoroughly familiarwith musical structures. proves doubly disastrousbecause the thesis about ideal motion . does not convey any clear meaning even to an adult readerand cannot possibly be understoodby a youngster. of an operatic hero.absolutely incomprehensible. however.architecture.
one may go on to the symphony and seek to explain it as dramawithout any external plot such as in an overture-as a purely musical dramain itself. (b) The lack of pedagogicalconsistency is evident. Insufficientas such an explanation would necessarilybe in the light of a full and mature understanding. in structurally simple Beethoven overture to "Coriolanus" form.336 TheMusical Quarterly is made the leading hypothesis of Series C. which deals with the symphony. in terms of the plot. particularly the preceding case and remainsvague in itself. After this has been achieved. and finally. It is also pedagogicallyunsound to make reference. is pedagogicallyunsound. and the explanation is postponed to a later date without the relation between symphony and overturebeing shown. as it is precisely the relation between the overture and the first movement of the symphonyof the Beethoven type that offers one of the rare opportunities for making good use of the outside-insideapproach. to an explanation that is to when the later explanation does not refer to follow later. This is the more astonishing. young people are confronted with a musical form which is not explained to them as such. The approachfrom the overture to the symphonyfalls into three distinct pedagogicalsteps: first. translationof these terms into the specifically musical terms of the structureof the composition. A procedurewhich uses technical terms without even roughly explaining them. on which all the explanations of musical forms depend. then.H..it does lead along the right track in the early musical education of children and adolescents. descriptionof an overture in terms of its dramaticplot. but also in the actual explanation of music.introducedin the first concert of Series D. explanation of a symphonic movement in the structuralterms gained from . The worksheetfor the ninth concert of Series C ("The Overture") reads:"The sonata form will be treated fully in the work-sheetfor the next concert of this series. It would underscorethe dynamic characterof the symphony. This applies to the discussionof the relation between the overture and the sonata form. Although the Introductionsmay be sufficientlyclear to the functionariesof the M. It is comparativelyeasy to explain. when something is to be explained. not only in the conceptual foundation. Then one can point to the dramaticcontrast between the two main subjects in an overture such as the well-known and which. the dramaticcharacter of the overture.A. the task of conveying fundamentalnotions by pellucid terms has not even been begun. in the overture concert. coincides perfectlywith the structureof a symphonic movement."In other words. Specific examples of this are the use of the terms motet and madrigal.
but presents rather involved or uncharacteristic fugues. The second concert of Series D is a Bach program. the Two-Part Fugue in E-Minorfrom Bach's Well-TemperedClavichord). as the guide-line for pedagogicaldevelopment of the young. therefore. and the layman finds it a hard task to understanda fugue. light could be thrown upon both the fugue and the sonata forms. step by step. evolutionary development of music serially in time.This idea." None of the elements necessaryfor an understandingof the fugue is provided by such antecedents. It is evidently based upon the assumptionthat. and the sonata a fundamentally dynamic form.incidentally a very uncharacteristicone. the comparatively old form of the fugue is one of the most difficult. and which could be shown very easily by comparinga simple Bach fugue or one of the short fuguesby his immediatepredecessors such as Fischer. (d) The same type of pedagogicalineptitude is in evidence in the Hour's discussionof composersin Series D. Thus. (c) Even more sorely trying to sound musical education is the sequel on musical forms as presented in Series C. and that. unilateral.MusicAppreciation Hour 337 this musical analysisof the overture. This deficiency becomes aggravatedin that the whole fugue concert itself is a distortion. that the fugue is a fundamentallystatic. The pedagogical insufficiencyof the fugue concert. It is scarcelygoing too far to assert that no pupil who wants to learn something about the fugue is capable of getting any clear-cut idea about the form from a concert at such an early stage of the whole course. "integral"musical forms. for instance. It presumesan artificial. At that point it can lead only to academic talk and not to any true understanding. however. by and large.10The correct procedureis to discuss the form of the fugue in contrast to its counterpart. becomes the more striking because this concert does not present the fugue in its elementary and characteristicform (say. It could be made clear. the fugue as a lesson topic appearsas early as the third concert. preceded only by "Folk Melodies in Great Music" and "Roundand Canon. as they may well be called. This opportunityis completely fumbled by the Music Appreciation Hour. is palpably absurd. to actual understanding. an historical review of musical forms leads.the sonata form.The third concert is devoted to Handel. with a simple Beethoven sonata. consisting only of arrangements. the historical development of music coincides with the development from the simple to the complex.From the standpoint of pedagogicalinculcation. In Series C. a point which is totally missed in the section about the sonata form. then to elaborate the similaritiesand particularlythe contrasts between the two most elaborate and. At such an early stage Bach is .
the one closest to the "normal"consciousnessof the youngsterundoubtedly is Schubert. One has to show how these formswork within Haydn. On the other hand. Three concerts such as these are sufficientpreparationfor a Beethoven concert. It is also very easy in these pieces. So far as serious music is concerned. The pupils will have comparativelylittle difficultyin following the streamof this music. therefore. late romantic music. such as the first movement of the B-Minor Symphony or of the big C-Major Symphony. be given a Schubert concert at the beginning. as against the straightforward type of development exemplified in Haydn. Mozart'sconsists mainly of minimal contrasts.338 TheMusical Quarterly too difficult. his more complex structureis not difficult to graspbecause of the simplicity of the harmonic and melodic elements involved. unfortunatelyto the exclusion of much else). He should. If one does not want to take this approach-and we are cognizant of the grave objections that can be offeredfrom an aesthetic point of view to such a procedure-then of the great composers. say. His looking-backward demonstratedby some of the more polyphonic devices of his late period which constitute a good pedagogicaltransition to a discussion of Bach. the first movement of Schubert'sC-Major Symphony. this "normal"musical consciousnessof the mass of pupils is centred in a certain type of emotional. attains a higher degree of thematic density than we find in. and the differencesin their respective methods of composition can now be shown and understood. and at the same time that Haydn. His tendency to simplicity should be noted and related to Handel as in the famousreligioussong. From this point it is easy to approachHaydn. considersas his "normal"musical language. with their markedcontrastsof themes. and a concert devoted solely to Handel will bore the pupils. while harmonicallymore primitive than Schubert. The discussionof Haydn leads smoothly into Mozart. It is far more fruitfulto start from what is known to be the actual standardof musical consciousnesswithin the pupil-from what he. and ought to be demonstratedby referencesfirst to Weber and . to illustratetheir skeletal structure. such as is representedby the works of Tchaikowskyand Rachmaninoff. himself. A none too difficult example of this is the last movement of the piano sonata Opus 110. "Die Himmel ruhmen des Ewigen Ehre. one which would include certain symphonic Schubert pieces. Beethoven should be treated as the centre of can be musical history with good conscience. of very small elements." whereas his expressiveelements can be interpretedas being related to romanticism(and this is actually done by the Hour but.
This could be done by some examples which are as striking as they are simple.One ought to play an instrumental piece such as the famous "Air"from Bach's Third Suite for the Orchestrain D-Major. Some mention should be made. is a canonic fugue. Here we suggest."These chorals are entirely non-contrapuntaland cannot fail to impressanybodysensitive to music. we need offer but one typical case. a fugue where. that is."where he treats one choral tune ("O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden") in different ways. the first thesis of the introduction reads:"The subject (that is to say. It should be noted that in none of these suggestionshere is the fugue mentioned. This fugue. refutes the idea that Bach has "no melody. They could be taken from Bach's "Passion After SaintMatthew. as particularlyappropriate." arranged(for some abstrusereason) for string orchestraby Dr. "Wennich einmalsoil scheiden. which. throughoutthe whole movement. each part begins with the subject beforeit has been played in the preceding In other words. Whereas the explanation ." Then Bach's power of expressionshould be demonstrated. It is particularly striking and shows the confusion which necessarilymust be created if the relationshipbetween text and example is not stringently controlled. the theme of the fugue) is given out in full before the second voice enters. Finally.Hour 339 Music Appreciation Schumann (who are omitted in the composersseries). selected again from the fugue concert. at this point. which combines the utmost melodic intensity with rich polyphonic work.the first movement of the B-Minor sonata for flute and piano. The use of a choir in a Bach concert would be a good means of varying the presentation. not in an inadequateorchestralsetting but in its original clarity and economy of through "arrangement. however. Damrosch. (3) Explanation and Example in the Music AppreciationHour As to the adequacyof explanation and example. from the outset. except for the very beginning." means. Particularemphasisshould be placed upon the strophe. of the presentation of a pedagogicallysuitable Bach program. The soundness of this procedureis moot. it precisely contradicts the part (Engfuehrungsfuge). The introduction to the fugue concert places its main emphasis upon the differencebetween the fugue and the canon. one ought to offer one of Bach's largerinstrumentalpieces. first thesis of the explanation of the concert. In any case." The first example is the "FugueNumber One" from Bach's "Well-TemperedClavichord. according to the expressionof the poetry in each verse. and then to Wagner.
About the terms "moreelaborate"and "moremature"nothing is said. which is a more or less regularsequence of certain types of stylizeddance forms.340 TheMusical Quarterly tries. the main example of the variation form is the Preludeto "L'Arlesianne. namely. Series C). also." by Bizet. with the "classicsuite" (seventh concert." only incidentally presents a syncopatedpiece and thereforefails to bring out what every American boy and girl certainly would like to know. stronglyremindsone of the famouspamphlet issued by an imperialAustrian government about ." by a moreelaborate andsubtleuse of the orchestra.A. has no specific form-ideaat all and is. the very first example it presentsdestroysit. the principle of syncopation in American dance music. taken from the Verdi program.the sixth concert of Series D: for eightmoreoperas. since it is a hybridform between fugue and canon. A clear and simple example would be the variation movement of the Symphony"by Haydn.the "modem suite" (eighth "Surprise concert. with much ceremony.endingwith The next twentyyearsaccounted the farmoreimposing and is marked whichis musically "Aida. (b) The explanations are unspecific. Then aftera gapof sixteenyears. "Dances of America. in the fifth concert of Series C. the eleventh concert of Series B.H. not at all suited for contrast. and Specific (4) The Questionof Characteristic Examples Explanations As to the necessity of using characteristicexamples and specific explanations: (a) The material itself is very often uncharacteristicand. Thus. therefore. does not permit of any specific explanation. Moreover.'and 'Falstaff.camehis last two masterpieces. in the case of historical featuressuch as the development of a composer. Series C). Further.' whichreveala still moremature andcomplexidiom. to make clear the differencebetween the canon and fugue and sacrificesevery other considerationto this distinction. being canonic in its details and fugal in its total setting. that is. Naturally. Any attentive pupil must wonder what the changes in Verdi's style actually consisted of. which is only partly variations and is very for the unspecific purposeof making clear the variation principle. therefore. 'Otello. the pupil becomes confused and unable to distinguishwhich is which. as a form type. The explanation of the M. the shrinkingof the flowing tunes to their very nucleus by elimination of any cheap repetition or continuation. We offer the following example.
but even a formwhichhas nothing to do with the rondo. The literalmeaningof the is rounddance. interrupted by can explain. and the idealbehindthe formis that of term"rondo" or chorusinterrupted a refrain or alternative by "couplets.on different levels.' This is a typicalexampleof whatwe meanby unspecific explanation. it is sad and hydrophobia its tail betweenits legs.It is obviousthat a schemethat can be apforms.such as the fugue. in itself.it has the passing . insofar as musical formsareconmainpoint of musicaleducation cernedis missed. the dog becomesstill draws betweenits legs even more.does not help to explainanything.The pliedto suchdivergent of the rondo.which consistsof sections in different wherethe samethemeappears parts. but one A.B.in this way. wrong. C.and of interludes betweenthese sections. callythe formof the rondointo the repetitions alternative sections.is that the specificcharacteristic different sectionsof the rondoareessentially different in themselves and are. so to speak. D.[!] Thereareseveraltypesof rondo. practically everyform. and The fourthconcertof SeriesC dealswith "Three-Part The explanation startswith a conceptof structural RondoForms.Wheneverthe themereappears in a rondo. and so on.Forexample: 'A-B-A-C-A''A-B-A-C-A-B-A'-'A-B-A-C-A-B-A.the three-part symmetry The or form rondo formis explained as a form (A-B-A). extension of three-part logical in patternto the If we shouldthinkof two-part formas beingsimilar form cross-section of a piece of bread(A) with jam (B). and its tail droops sadder is that not only in all these severalfailures (c) Highlysignificant but the explanations of the most arethe examples uncharacteristic. ternary song form." themes. musical forms a framework so individual employ conceptual important as to make it to understand and undifferentiated impossible unspecific Thus the betweenformswhich are actually the differences divergent. one can breakdownscholastiof one mainsection." and develops.the secondday.which has been missed.not only the sonata calledby the MusicAppreciation form(whichis actually Houran "elaboration of three-part form").as its mostelementary form. It is not.that is.MusicAppreciation Hour 341 amongdogs:The firstday the dog is ill.then rondoformmaybe likenedto double-decker and in whichslicesof breadareseparated sandwiches by varitriple-decker ous kindsof filling. and three-part the fillingandA the enclosing as beinglike a sandwich (B representing slicesof bread).but in each musicalideawhichreappears againand again type thereis a principal in alternation with othercontrasted ideas." "Gange.
the recurrenceof the refrain-is quite slack in order to emphasizethe re-entranceof the refrain. in what sense present-day marketmusic is primitive and undeveloped as against seriousmusic. as comparedwith "closed. in which field Dr. and of what may be called "definitiveness. were there not the apparatusof the social critique to explain the fundamentalcauses for this and other shortcomings. As the sonata is again explained in terms of the three-partsong form. It would be astonishing from the viewpoint of educational psychology (which is today so much to the fore in American normal schools and teachers'colleges).that no such attempt has been made by the Music Appreciation Hour. The music educator can play any hit on the piano and point to the differenceof weight. the rondo form may be called an "open"form. there exists."which exists between the chorus and the verse. Thus the instructorcan reach a point where it is possible for him to demonstrateto pupils. Then he could proceed to the rondo and point out that between the rondo theme and alternate themes. while. It is this looseness which accounts for the comparativeease with which the structureof rondos can be taught. the sonata." integral forms such as the fugue and the sonata.is primarilybased upon the difference between the verse and refrain. and particularly . is made with any other musical form.the same relationshipas between the chorus and verse in the jazztune.342 The MusicalQuarterly effect of a distinct refrainagainst which the other musical events are more or less incidental. Damroschand his collaboratorsare held to be pathfinders. articulation. He could go on to explain that in the hit the relationshipbetween chorus and verse is mechanical and rigid. The formal structureof all American jazzhits. no specific contrast with the rondo. particularly school age. particularlyin the sheet versions for piano. which are well known to youngsters. and the interconnection between the main events-namely. It is astonishing that the Music Appreciation Hour has failed to perceive this. fundamentally. at the same time there is nothing learned or scholarly in serious music which cannot be developed by a keen understandingof even the most trivial musical events of everydaylife. The devastatingeffect of the unspecificexplanation of the rondo becomes even more obvious when the Hour has to deal with the most importanttype of musical form. step by step. as well as of musical education. In this way one fosters real insight into the essential structure of the main musical forms. since the rondo recommends of highitself as easy to convey to young Americans. Insofaras structuralunity in the rondo form is not the main essential. whereas in the rondo form it is highly flexible and yields to the necessities of the concrete composition.
It is underscored ment"mustbe particularly with the secondmovement of the symphonic formwhich contrasted to ourhearts. sonatais something essentially cepts. and recapitulation.no themehas a definitepreponderance over any othertheme. the slightestbits of motifical areused.impelsthem to talk aboutthe sonataformin a generalwaywhich explainslittle and is apt only to frighten pupils. is than more to nothing perilous Pedagogically. Number2."Theintellectual the greatest amountof thinkingon the listener's 11requiring ment.development. One by the alteration shouldclearlyshowthe functionof the appearance of the second in the mainkey and not in the dominant theme in the recapitulation.such as Beethoven's pianoin G-Major. Opus49. it maybe added.The "intellectual" Mr.whatwe musical and by no meansin any areto hear.On the otherhand. It shouldbe demonstrated forcesof the development harmonic and to establish an harmonic . The recapitulation shouldnot be explained in mechanical terms of the exposition's schemeof modulation. necessity ing up. One can showthat whereas is marked in the rondothe refrain and distinctfromthe otherparts. here in the sonataall the partsarecloselylinked. help to fostersuch ing The sonataformis explained by the Hourin totallyschelistening? matictermssuch as. exposition. he will judgemusicto be muchado aboutnothing. that it servesto counterbalance the key. employin explathat the subjectmatterin questionis difficult." have heardwith whatwe arehearingand. nothmore and nothingless. yet characteristic little sonatafor exampleof the sonataform.A. the to "tie as Farnsworth has what we but it."The dangerin the use of the term"the intellectual laterwhen it is noted. nation the warning moveThis is what is done in the case of the sonata.H. and nothingappears material the piece throughout out of these smallmotifical that has not been developed units. This of the principle wouldlead to a coherentunderstanding of "development"whichgovernsthe whole sonataformand not only the middle sectionofficially calleddevelopment. How does the M. The instructor simplyoughtto takesomeeasy. however. To understand the sonatameansto listen in the rightway. amountof ingenuity and skill on the compospart-and the greatest moveer'spart. in immediate perception reflection "intellectual" conceptual uponthe music. One can only expectthat when the high-school boy who firsthears that the sonataformis so veryintellectual. the sponsors Their lackof specificcondifferent." Thereis no such "givesourheadsa restand appeals is noththing as a "head" partand a "heart" part.is told that its formis simplyA-B-A.Music Hour 343 Appreciation of the Hourfeel that the evident.
is not merely unspecific. leads the Hour into misstatements which necessarilypromote an effect opposite to what it is intended to achieve. the whole truth cannot be told. The principle of general development." stemming from the older opera form. as underlyingthe sonata form. of course. The sonata as the attempt to achieve musicallycomplete unity within the manifoldness."The pedagoguesof the Hour cannot resist giving a brief . Instead of such insights. and thus achieve a real understandingof the sonata. which must either repel him or spurhim on to erudite babbling. "O sink hernieder. and Beethoven must remain closed books to him." from Act Two of "Tristan and Isolde. It has been here postulatedthat if. Mozart." The term "love duet. After such an analysis. one could introducewithout any difficultythe notion of "dynamic"forms as against static forms. which sounds much more complicated in theory then it actually is in practice. is a symbol of an operatic world against which Wagner struggled all his life and is a travestyon Wagner'sconception of the music Nacht drama. at the same time.it contains gross errorsand misstatementswhich jeopardizeany value it might otherwise have. der Liebe. for pedagogicreasons. The ninth concert of Series D is devoted to Wagner. then at least nothing but the truth should be told. fed empty phrasesabout intellectual effort and skill. At least three points ought to be made perfectly clear in order to give the pupil a real understandingof this form. 3. the pupil is bored by the formalistic scheme and. however. The following example shows how the idea that there are certain things one should not tell children. The closeness and complete motifical economy of the sonata form (which it has in common with the fugue but from which it differs in its fundamentallydynamic character). without which Haydn. 12 (5) Misstatements in the Music AppreciationHour (a) So far we have dealt with uncharacteristicand unspecificexplanations within the materialof the Music Appreciation Hour.Quarterly 344 TheMusical equilibriumwhich has been destroyedby the modulatoryelements from the very beginning. 1. 2. or the dynamic principle.The part in question is. The instruction given by the Hour. The third item on the programis the "Love Duet.
that an adolescent would not suspect the true story when faced with the plot of "Tristan. oldmaidish manner.andhersas Mark's queen.Brangine. This is "Tristan"ad usumdelphini-a purged"Tristan. If one is afraidto speak about adultery." The Music Appreciation Hour voices the idea that they simply suffer."The lovers neither "seek brief moments of joy in each other's presence. The introduction to the fourth concert there states: "The piano is not often used as a part of the orchestra.But even suchmomentary by happiness that night conveysonly fleetingoblivion. necessarilycreates an atmosphereof giggling and dark stair-cases. The sound of the piano is no more alien to the "regular" orchestralsound than the sound of certain other orchestralinstrumentssuch as the kettle-drums. (b) One can ascribemisstatementssuch as those about "Tristan" to a misconception of pedagogicalfunction.But talking about "Tristan"in a coy.The idea that young people would be "corrupted" by "Tristan"when they can get Film Fun at any newsstand. As a matter of fact."is absurd.that the stark the knowledge realityof daywill soon return. guard is marred watch-tower above.MusicAppreciation Hour 345 account of the plot of "Tristan. one should not speak about "Tristan. but there are a great many points within the Hour which can be attributedonly to inadequate knowledge in the field of music. But this is only one consequence of the gerontocraticattitude which does not recognizechildren and adolescents as people. because for reasons of conventional morality they cannot get together. was discoveredby Berliozwho treated it extensively in this category in ." nor have they any twinges of conscience about "breakingthese nowhateful bonds.and certainly the big drum which cannot give any definite tone. The assumption. and adulteryis the presuppositionof the whole "Tristan"plot. 13 Every musical scholar knows that the function of the piano as an actual part of the orchestrarather than a solo instrument. Misinformationbegins in the elementarySeries A. since its tone is quite differentfrom that of the other instruments. they do get together."Neither statement nor reason is valid. is preposterous as well as hypocritical.while Isolde's maid." One had better not even play it.however."The principalpassageabout the second act reads as follows: of joy in each Therethe unhappy pairmeet to seekbriefmoments in the stands other'spresence.and that deathalonecan bringthem fromthesenow-hateful bondswhichthey cannothonorably liberation break-his as loyalliege of KingMark.
although the sum total of errorsof this sort means a considerabledistortion of the . The introductionstates: "The trombone is the tenor instrument. but by the fact that the sound of the bass trombone does not merge with that of the other orchestralinstrumentsand has thereforebeen replaced." After this.The authorsof this introduction apparently do not know that the piano plays a vast role in the modem orchestra. because they offer even less coloristic contrasts than the string orchestra. By the omission of the up-beat. any work for string orchestrasuch as."Since then the double bassoon is to be found in every orchestralscore. the trombonesthemselves are what Dr. This held good a hundredyears ago. (c) All these items might be called minor points. As a matter of fact. and the tuba is the bass"of the brasssection. for instance. "In listening to orchestralmusic. since the 'voices' sound so nearly alike. Damroschcalls a family. In this context it should be mentioned that in the Beethoven concert of Series D." FranzSchreker's"Die Gezeichneten."would provide Dr. functioning within the wood-wind family which otherwise has no deep bass instrumentat its disposal. In the sixth concert of Series A it is said that the double bassoon is used only for special effects. that determines the rhythmicalstructureof the whole theme. B-flat. it would be dull if all the playing were done by instrumentsof the violin family. in "Fidelio. Mention here may be made of three famous contemporary operatic works in which it fulfills this function: Richard Strauss'"Ariand Alban Berg's"Lulu. the theme becomes totally meaningless. the theme of the last movement of the E-Flat Major Piano Concerto. Damroschand his assistantswith sufficient informationabout the existence and function of the bass trombone." The fifth concert of Series A contains the statement that. Nachtmusik." and string quartetsas the most contemptible form of music. is incorrectlyquoted by the Hour. Mozart's"Kleine must be regardedas exceedingly dull.346 TheMusical Quarterly his book on instrumentation. The tuba'sfunction as the bass of the brasssection cannot be accounted for by the trombone'sbeing a tenor instrument. The theme has an up-beat which is noted by Beethoven before the double bar that separatesthe slow movement from the last movement which immediatelyfollows it. A glimpse into the score of Wagner's"Ring. This fact has been overlooked by the Music Appreciation Hour. from the viewpoint of orchestralmixture. The eighth concert of Series A deals with the trombone and the tuba. by the less obtrusivesound of the tuba." adne. with a bass of its own having a very definite characterquite distinct from the tuba.
It is characteristic meanscoincideswith the principle in such as Mozart.the slow movement Above all.using only upon sufficeto makeclearthat the pair maticeffects.where German. of imitationis largely the principle that arepurely and entirelydevoid we findvast structures polyphonic of contrast of imitation. Wagner. the principle by no of homophony.The classical employed is more than Vienneseschool certainly and homophonic polyphonic the techniqueof imitation. thereis a secondwayin whichmusicis comIn this we completewhatwe binedto forma completecomposition.as in the round. Every counterpoint. necessity usingimitationin phony. in what is calledin and introduces moder music.supply paniment. his whole is based the of and transition.Continuous Thesedefinitions repetition.On the otherhand. Again.or.after entirelynew or contrasting as 'alternating whichwe repeatwhatwe firstheard. repetition' In contrast to this. as it is calledin musicalterminology.This is described one voice has and is called'homophonic' music. Number2). areuntenable. 59.firstwithoutreference to imitation. fications however. polyphonic teachesone to treatseveralsimultaneous partsmelodically developed of one another.because repetition' the accomthe essentialmelodywhile the othervoices.Thesefew references .It is well and is called'polyphonic' described as 'continuous music. and independent the principle of imitationlater. who certainly wasa homophonic defined musicas the artof composer. with and then introduce started music. whereas of certainhomophonic composers with practically no considerable conBeethovenwe findcompositions of the StringQuartet.Music Hour 347 Appreciation Butgrossfaultsare to be foundeven wherebasic material presented.Choralbearbeitung. readsas notionsof polyphony passage follows: This methodof combining melodiesis moreoften usedwhere.as in the followingexamples: to SeriesC attempts to developthe basic (1) The Introduction The principal and homophony. technique upon principle contrasts rare occasions for decisive dramediation. imitation. are concepts concerned.as is obviousin the still largely employs of Beethoven's FifthSymsuch as the beginning examples simplest is no On the other there for hand. or parts.is one of the means in homophonic as well as in polyphonic music.Opus trast(forinstance.instead of repeating exactlywhathas been heardbefore. in advanced excludedas beingtoo mechanical.modiare introduced. course style. as well as worksfull of contrasts.is the same. in on the contrary. The principle.
The artof combining music.calledharmony. musicis also calledcontrapuntal Polyphonic means'one-voiced. andfirst dence. Homophonic music.wouldreadcorrectly .polyphony andhomophony.' anddenotesmusicwhichis Polyphonic-which melodies formed goingon at the sametime. answer.showinghow subof the openingmeasures ple illustration arerelated. by two or moredifferent melodiesin this manneris calledcounterpoint. musicis alsospoken whichone melodyalonestandsout.which. of as harmonic created It is doubtful. occurin the program aboutthe (2) The worstmisstatements is the most of all. or theirsubstitutes.They merelyexamples which a student of of the of a fugue. subject mentary requirement learnsin his firstlessonon the fugue. any point inadequate fugue. however.that it helpsmuchafterthe confusion by the generalintroduction.the fourth.fifth.' anddenotesmusicin which Homophonic-which the different above partsareblendedinto a singlemass.however."employing The examplegiven of the key. as it is asserted. the "opening" barsof a Thesebarscouldnot be. In the introduction to the secondconcertof SeriesC.and countersubject Subject CounterSubject 7 G I _ IIr V I NB: No IV or II step.348 TheMusical Quarterly and "alternating of conceptsarising from"continuous repetition" repeas respectively of tition"can by no meansbe considered descriptive the pair.is as follows: ject. are fugue. insteadof a full cadence grossly offered The beginning of a fuguebaseduponthe material by the as follows: MusicAppreciation Hour.that a fuguetheme composition camustend with a "complete as statedin the openingmeasures as its harmonic basis. from of view. "An simcontainsthe following The introduction extremely passage: of a fugue.14 steps("Stufe") contains Music the Hour. only the firstand by Appreciation in error. is and therefore the fifth. is It the mosteleof free imitation. a much of polyphony is given: and homophony betterexplanation means'many-voiced.
makea cantus the serenade firmus counterpointed by the other parts. It is often incorrectly calleda it with a If one insistsupon whereas. who says: One wordmoreaboutthe riot scene. . but it is also musically senseless with regardto what it is supposedto show. it could be answeredliterally.as in a Bachchorale. There is a final gross errorin the fugue concert that leads to wrong expectation and therefore to confusion. in cases where the fugue theme begins with the fifth step. In other words. It is all the more necessaryto handle them correctly. The alternationsfulfill the function of avoiding. namely." famous scene. however. Wagner has woven a fugue which admirablysuggests the complexity of the action on the stage. Alfred Lorenz.15 . the fifth step could not be brought together with the first step of the old key with which the theme must end. These two ways of answeringthe theme of a fugue. obtain their meaning only from the harmonic implications of the fugue theme. This. however. Our counterexample shows that the literal answerwould be entirely adequate.it oughtto be subsumedunderthe formof a choralfantasy." The fugue referredto is no fugue. only opens fugato. is the riot scene of Wagner's "Die MeisThe Music Appreciation Hour says. for the lines of the melodyof . If it were answeredcorrectly. and not in the free way there given. actually.Music Hour 349 Appreciation Subject 1':r' LLrf G I '^r IV (II) V 'r llw rLr1ri. We content ourselveshere with quoting the greatest living authorityon Wagnerianforms. of its formwith polyphonous a comparison forms. as the Hour itself introduces the differencebetween a literally faithful ("real")and "free"("tonal") answer to the subject of a fugue.OT"CJ' GI = DIV ! I II Counter Subject V I It must be emphasizedthat these are not subtleties which are fundamentalfacts about the fugue only for the expert. "Into the music of this tersinger. in certain cases. . The last example presented in the fugue concert. the example is not only wrong. As the answer begins in the dominant key. fugue. the overlappingof the cadence of fugue themes upon melodic events which do not fit. is not the case in the example given by the Music Appreciation Hour.
both means of appraisal. "Schubertwas incrediblygifted as a writerof songs. (b) The fourth concert of Series D is a Haydn program. sufficefor illustration. but as far as the general educational effect is concerned. they are more decisive than any examined so far. and that his achievement can be measuredby the "average" he reaches.The introductioncommits the following atrocity among others: . is liable to annihilate every notion of musical "giants. the pupils. discussedin the course. some Tin Pan Alley composers could outnumberhim very easily at an age as comparativelyyouthful for this day as Schubert'swas for his. These failuresare mainly a matter of formulation. (a) The sixth concert of Series B is concerned with "Motion in Music.He speaksof Schubert'ssongs in terms of the output of a factory. There is much talk about the fugue. but nothing is done which actually helps them to understanda fugue in its concrete musical logic. a great song composer. whereasMahler. when listening. The notion of average is completely antagonistic to art." Although these statements are not incorrect. As this does not occur in the "choralfantasy. and for the rest of his life." they will be at a loss. which necessarily Particularly provocative is the term "averaged. As a matter of fact. in his entire lifetime." carriesthe implication that it is a composer'sduty to write as much as possible. Three extreme examples of a trend of thinking which virtuallyundermines the whole course."musical sublimity. The fact that the young Schubert had already written 150 songs means nothing. One passagelike the one about Schubert'saverage. and so on.Failuresin this field are not quite so simple to spot as those alreadydealt with. their tone is such as to promote an attitude towardmusic which can only be called barbaric. and the riotous confusion portrayedby the music will become their own.350 TheMusical Quarterly After the explanation of the fugue that the Hour gives at the beginning. he averagedforty songs a year.the quantitative way and the empty enthusiasm. will look for a fugue-likerecurrence of the theme." The commentatorsays. stressingthe quantitative element. no more than sixty songs. wrote." One of the examples presented is Schubert's"CradleSong. Hour'sExplanations (6) The "Background" of the MusicAppreciation The last postulate concerning pedagogicaltactics was that the course must not employ notions or associationscontradictingthe essence of the material and its background. are all too compatible. when he was eighteen he had composed almost 150 of them.
" which could be occupied by another person as well. Haydnis often referred and more. a mythical notion such as that of a national hero is distortedwhen it is treated as a professionleading to "social position. In the introduction's treatment of the text.Music Hour 351 Appreciation to as 'the Father of the symphony. Musical development is not like gadgeteering. certainly a good selection for presentation. . (c) The sixth concert of Series D presents a performanceof the entire second act of Verdi's "Aida"by the MetropolitanOpera Company. tos. one finds the suggestion that Rhadames "placeshis love for Aida above his social position as a national hero. it became more difficult after Haydn to write symphonies. the sonata form. The standardized to be a living form. Standardizationis a term applied to industrialmass production and not to works of art. and would become nothing more than a schoolmaster'sset of prescriptions. actually and fortunately. The conventionality and stuffinessof the term kills the very "imagination"which the course so often attempts to summon. he is a mythical figuresymbolizing a general human conflict. however. quartets.further. As long as the idea of making things easier prevails in musical education. not as a rigid standard." The term "social position" carrieswith it associationsof the Social Register.' He is that.Haydn crystallizedthe sonata form.but as a highly dynamic frameworkrespondingto any impulse of the composer in the sonata form would cease specific work he is writing. is a The allegation that Haydn "standardized" fatal blow to the life of musical forms. has no more "social position" than Lohengrinor Tristan. Such understandingconsists in the very spontaneity of the listener'sresponse that is jeopardizedby the feeling that everything the has been settled for him by other people who have standardized forms." as if it were Haydn'smerit that after him it was easier to compose. In the first place. Rhadames.The real danger in such statements is that they promote the idea that it is the task of a composer to "make things easier. no actual musical understandingcan be expected to develop. trios. only to learn that even there it is social position that matters.He developed and standardized the formwhichhas been in formfor symphonies. in the opera. what good would it be for a youngster to dream about the Pyramidsand the mysteriesof Egypt. constantuse eversince. as the accepted concerand sonatas. but apparentlythe commentator is under the spell of the industrialage to such an extent that he does not even notice its inadequacy.
Actually. remain obscure. sphere and shallow in themselves. even if excusable as pedagogically expedient in inducing people to listen. It leads to the broadestcultural criticism of the entire enterprise.at least if they are handled in the way the Hour handles them. as it were.Otherwise anything profoundlynew would be excluded a priori." But this is no longer a matter of purely musicologicalinformationand education. The Music Appreciation Hour as Promoter of Musical Pseudo-Culture We have shown in Section I the failure of the Music Appreciation Hour. supposedlya principle based upon the listeners'own needs and own spontaneity. (2) The Music Appreciation Hour conceives of the "fun"one out of music as being practicallyidentical with recognition. An involuntaryslip such as that about Rhadames. The world of "Aida"remainsonly two-dimensional. lead." Appreciation Hour. to distortionsof musical sense and cultural absurdities. II. the contest winner looms large behind appreciation. spontaneousunderstandingbetween the music it offers and its pupils.it is by no means alone identical with such understanding. and the pseudo-expert explanations providedby the Hour do not help to achieve clear understanding. is implicitly super- . pedagogicallyas well as musically. is based upon the idea of music'seffect upon the or even "fun. to establish any life-relationship of actual.the principle of fun. gets Although recognition may contribute to musical understanding.What do they do instead? as employed by the Music (1) The notion of "appreciation. Even the basic concepts aroundwhich the instruction of the Hour is grouped. ciples. such as homophony and polyphony. The idea is that of the musical spelling bee. when it is linked up with the notion of "social position. to a fetishism of ownershipof musical knowledge by rote."These prinlistener. what occurs in the Hour is a shifting of the "fun"from a life-relationship with music. interpretedin terms of "pleasure" the borrowed from of commercialized entertainment. shows how shallow is of imagination and fantasy out of which the educathe "background" tors of the Music Appreciation Hour draw their categories. the rondo.352 TheMusical Quarterly There is much talk about "background" of musical education. It even fails to convey any reliable informationon musical matters. and sonata. By influencing the pupils to recognizeThe Established. fugue.
at the sametime.Indeed. in otherwords. placesan overwhelming emphasis uponthe notion of musicaleffects.the effect leadingcategory in music. and "Fun" (1) "Appreciation" in the appreciation The coursedefinesitselfas "instruction of muin the Teacher's Earhart Guide:"Torespond to rhythms and enjoy them as variedmodesof motion. applicableto concretelisteningphenomena but only to the instruction given by the teacher.the Teacher's Dr. as a whole."Theperfection of the artworkin itselfis the eternal and indispensable postulate.whereeveryproductive poweris fettered by the necessityof marketable and of exercising somedesired effect beingpecuniarly sic. fit to promote only highly information about music and not actual undermusical questionable standing.particularly ment on SeriesC.What a pity that Aristotle. Earhart's comGuide."The (whichmeans'appreciate') of musicappreciation of is.with a market society. when he wrote. is a meansof enhancingthe prestige with the listeners of the Hour. In the promotes firstplace.MusicAppreciation Hour 353 to recognition sededby the desirefor prestige of the socially attaching recognized. wouldbe the sumtotal of musicaleffectsachieved Appreciation withinthe listener. in musicalmatters. These employa mechanical are not technique.while totallyomittingthe notion of musicalsense. musical becomesmost (4) The tendencytoward pseudo-culture at the verypoint wherethe MusicAppreciation Hourapparstriking tries to its listeners: in the "activate" tests that are to ently appended each worksheet. structure of this typeof musicaleducation.These features of the Hourvirtually reactionary profoundly a musical the ideal music from pseudo-culture: produce appreciator. the viewpointof the Hour.who always had the perfectbeforehim.It is a notion current in aesthetics since Aristotle's definition of tragedy as an art-form aimedto produce the responses of in and fear the Goethe was aware of its danger fully pity spectator."16The notion of appreciationis commented upon by Dr. (3) The authoritarian a cult of persons insteadof an understanding of facts. thereis the nameof Dr.with a rationfor the successful attitude.whoseauthorof NBC ity.wouldbe a musicalBabbitt. The conformist attitudeof venepersonalities is closelyallied.and are.The actualmeasuring rodfor musical in the Houris success. Will . at leasttoday. Damrosch himself. shouldhave thoughtof the effect!" It is not necessary here to go into any detailedrefutation of "effect-aesthetics" which is boundup.
whether the piece 'hangs together' almost to the point of monotony. however. The Teacher's The discussion may embrace . In the case of fully adequateart experience. we content ourselveswith an analysisof the inherent inconsistencies into which this aesthetics leads the Music Appreciation Hour with regardto its conceptual framework. in turn. as well as to the relationshipwhich its theoretical aspects bear to the materialpresentedby the concerts.354 TheMusical Quarterly upon a potential customer. which is the attitude. Pedagogy tries to start from this givenness of the effect.producesa furtherinsurmountable difficultywith regardto the subject upon whom the effect is supposed Guidesays: to take place.It is a basic misunderstanding that the effect of the work of art is identical with its sense and that a work is understoodas soon as it exercises a certain effect. . (b) If startingfrom the effect and. the idea of effect. the end would be nothing more than the beginning-namely. It is precisely this. Instead. But this coincidence cannot be presumedto exist at that point from which music education has to start. the effect. leads into a vicious circle. his immediate apperception and the full meaning of the work would coincide. even if taken in its utter abstractness. In other words. that is. . the process of understandingurged by the Hour would be spuriousfor understanding. (a) The psychologicaleffect of a work of art on a subject may serve to bring him into relation with the work of art. the Music Appreciation Hour must not treat its pupils as if they were ideal listenersfor whom the meaning of the work of art and the effect it has upon them coincide.or whether it has just enoughof 'same'and 'different'(unity and variety) to please us. or that it is the intention of the work to create such an effect. to nowhere in particular. something of this sort may occur. at the same time. or whether it moves on and on as fancy leads. aiming towardthe effect leads to a pedagogicalcircle. The confusion between the pedagogicaluse of the effect as a point of departureand the interpretationof the work of art itself in terms of effect. But it is never the underlyingprinciple accordingto which the work is structurally of "appreciation" to postulate organized. in order to lead up to an understandingof the matter itself. given an ideal listener. We have mentioned the anomaly of startingfrom the effect in order to lead up to the meaning of the work of art which. but how is this possible if the matter itself is defined in terms only of the effect? If one were to start from the effect.17 . is defined in terms of the effect. The effect of an art work upon the potential spectatoror listener is something given.
vary with the subject. . On the contrary. particularly entertainment.18 The Introduction to Series A asks. "What can we do to get the most fun from what the radio fairy brings?"This is a compoundedabsurdity. whatever its propermerits may be. Behind the talk of the "we"who should be pleased. Here lies the connection commercial between the categoriesof consumergoods. a fairy is supposedto be a being from a higher. who may bring elation. (c) One does not know upon whom the effect is supposedto be exercised. is totally at variance with the serious music presented by the Hour."just because he is unable to understandthe subtle relationshipswhich constitute the structureof such a piece. and the sort of practical aesthetics advocated by the Hour. and Philistine self-satisfactionand ignorance would be the judge of its aesthetic value. anguish. be forbiddento write such a work? This would mean the inaugurationof the line of least resistance as the ultimate quality of music. or the complicated pattern of its form. to nowhere in particular. and it is more essential for the listener to please the Beethoven symphony than for the Beethoven symphonyto please him. It goes without saying that not only understandingbut even pleasure. it is merely the veneer of historicallychanging attitudes.Hour 355 Music Appreciation Who are the "we"?Certainly to a youngsterwith no musical experience. pleasure. the desired effect as well as the actual one. As what does the Hour regardeffect itself. None of these questions appearswithin the categorialframework of the Music Appreciation Hour. a technical tool which is essentially scientific. and one may safely say that what is today called musically "natural"is mainly the residue of past convention. therefore. Instead the term fun appearsat different instances." This "naturalmusical feeling" does not exist. carriesa touch of humor which. and by its very historical essence opposed to any "aura" such as that suggestedby the use of the fairy-thus achieving associa19 tion through anachronism. the phrase links the fairy with radio. the work of art really raises postulates of its own. Moreover. in the primitive sense urged by the Hour. a piece of advanced modem music will appearto "move on and on as fancy leads. Finally. Should the composer. is an untenable idea of "naturalmusical feeling. spiritualworld. and vice versa. or fun. everything but fun. and that something which "pleasesus" as it is conceived by the Hour might repel a more highly developed musical consciousness. between which it does not draw any articulate distinction? The Hour's educatorsdo not hesitate to identify this effect with enjoyment.The term fun. borrowedfrom the tritest spheresof everydaylife. Something must be pleasing and worth its money to be admitted to the market. happiness.
actually makes it more obscure.may be illustratedby the following quotation from the introduction to the eleventh concert of Series C. being comparableto paintings in which a sunset or a girl as "naturalobjects"can be too beautiful. ceases to be "relaxing"and no longer brings amusement. It must be pleasing to us. be it listened to actively or passively. in its inconsistency with the materialoffered in the programs. so that we allowsus to relaxandplay. is of such a nature as not to promote fun. 22 Musical hedonism. For it is the listener'svery mental activity which dispenses with fun as visualizedby the Music Appreciation Hour. To get fun out of the slow movement of Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata or the C-Sharp Minor Quartet. But here again.It is interpretedby the Music Appreciation Hour in terms of gustatorylistening: "The materialof musical art is tone. and the fourthraisesourspirits of the or exaltedframeof mindat the conclusion are in a cheerful work. Beyond that one thing is certain: that serious music. the term fun. Every musician is familiarwith the phenomenon of the "too beautiful"tone which carrieswith it wrong associations."20Certainly it is sound to urge mental activity in music listening. with active comprehension of its context.356 TheMusical Quarterly Later the word fun is interpretedas follows: "those who use their minds most actively are the ones who get the most fun. in naturalistic terms. Besides purity and beauty. it would not work more satisfactorily. Any music which one listens to spontaneously. tone has color. would be more difficult than simply to understandthem. Even if one should take the term fun as a pedagogic exaggeration and substitute the more restrainedterm pleasure. the firstmovement the secondmovement setsus dreaming. (d) The full consequence of the Hour'steaching in terms of effect and pleasure. leads to the idea of a cafe concert gypsy violinist playing the Beethoven concerto. . that is. and the tone color affects us. makesus workin orderto keeptrackof its . It appearsdoubtful to us that this necessaryconsequence is actually the aim of the educatorsconnected with the Music Appreciation Hour." This type of attitude towardsmusic is found also in Carl Seashore'sPsychology of Music21and in Deems Taylor'sOf Men and Music. actually to fulfill the artistic intention of being structurally beautiful. . the third complicated patterns. concerned with symphony in general. . if handled in the atomistic and primitive way suggested by the Hour. while apparentlysimplifyingthe issue.
It might be objected that the elimination of terms such as "great work of art. One may listen to a highly excited piece of music very attentively and fully understandit without becoming for an understanding excited oneself. the slow movement of Brahms'Fourth Symphony. the more to enjoy its getting warm again when it is put back. then. mood of a work of art and the "naturalistic" which by no means exists. This fundamentalfact about art has escaped the attention of the Music Appreciation Hour. go to the symphony at all? This aesthetics is certainly better served by Tin Pan Alley. by its very contrast. but the Hour itself ought to follow a procedure which would not lead to a confusion of the aesthetic characterof the work of art and the empiricalreality of the pupil's life. it is the idea of a symphonyas a whole to make life more comfortablefor its listeners." and their replacementby terms supposedlydenoting the actual role of music for human beings. but it is replacedby the enchantment of the composers. and the final Passacagliaimposes a new burden upon the tired businessman."is progressivein itself. only another attempt to prepareus. then. This is reminiscent of the famous recipe for happiness given to the poor: If one sleeps in a cold room. the pattern of the second movement is no less complicated than that of the first and is by no means "relaxing. One of the main presuppositions of art is the consciousnessof the differencebetween art insofaras it is a world in itself. for instance. must the first movement "makeus work in order to keep track of its complicated patterns"?Only to make the following dreamsmore pleasant to us. namely of setting us dreaming. one has only to put one's foot outside the blankets until it is chilled. such as "fun"and "pleasure. . In a great many cases. Is Brahms'Fourth Symphony thereforea bad work? It should be added that the final reference to our "cheerfulor exalted frame of mind at the conclusion of the work"is not only contradictedby a great many works such as the Brahms'symphonymentioned. but also pre-supposesan identity between the "aesthetic" mood of its listener. As to the second movement. This very confusion is furtheredby the Hour's comments concerning effect and pleasure. for the relaxation to follow? But this relaxation does not eventuate: the rollicking Scherzo is very short."Is this movement. conductors and institutions that produce it.The illusion of the sanctity of music is shatteredby the Music Appreciation Hour. is decidedly inadequate. This question is too difficult to be discussed with the Hour's listeners. and the empiricalreality of one's own existence. But why. Why. specifically. But this progressis spurious.Hour 357 Music Appreciation According to this view. the description in terms of effect.
"25 Of course. is "ours"or er's Guidestates it characteristically "in our heads. by transposingit into the effect it has upon the listener and inculcating in him composerfetishism which becomes virtually identical with the "fun"he derives from viewing a World Series baseball game. a building. basic to the whole approach. and then teaches its pupils to adore musiciansas spiritualleaders. The Music Appreciation Hour first cheapens music. They speak about .A theme isolated solely for purposesof recognition and identification. "Musicthat is known and remembered until it can be whistled or sung or can be reviewed silently in the The reificamind. as it were. but of the thatone knowsmusic.makes any destructionof fetishes impossible. The pleasureinvolved consists of a fetishistic hoardingof informationabout music. a machine. as in all mental processes. as formulated even more recklessly. Bee and the MusicalSpelling (2) Recognition (a) To the Music Appreciation Hour. which has just at the moment come into our sensorium. but is a thing owned. to "a picture."24 tion mentioned in Section I becomes even more evident when the function of recognition of music is overemphasized. measuredquantitativelyagainst each other."is comparedby the M. its meaning. It becomes a deflected pleasure. becomes loved and is heard with appreciation. as the Teachin our last reference. Or. a person. which one enjoys as a miser enjoys the gold he has accumulated.' "23 Or." "A piece of music. not of the music itself. What is being called into question here is the emphasis. is no longer part of the living musical process. It is not loaded with inculcating maudlin respect for the composer. the pleasureof music appreciation coincides with the pleasureof recognition. "Music is not ours to enjoy until it is 'out of the air' and 'in our heads.A. evinced by the listener'spreoccupationwith its musical sense per se.358 TheMusical Quarterly Good musical education postulates respect for the work. While apparentlyurging recognition in order to help people to "enjoy"music. whose merits it judges in terms of the concrete meaning and concrete achievement of his works.H. recognition plays an important part also in musical experience. and its achievement. of the musical contest where the hoarded musical treasuresof various individualsare. This contradiction. The Music Appreciation Hour destroysrespect for the work.This is closely related to the idea given passing mention in Section I. the Music Appreciation Hour actually encouragesenjoyment. not a awareness spontaneousand immediate one.
" Sir GeorgeGrove. matters for the purpose a matterof ideology.has. thinking of musical the statement. of a musicalspellingbee pervade the whatextent the pedagogics the of the Hour.is morethan outweighed by the deterioration as a of which realm "facts" about one should be functioning "informed." by suggested property.on quotedin the Student's Beethoven.26 shouldalso assistin the identification shouldbe only a Identification and namingof compositions to means of the listener music. We offertwo moreexamples of this shiftingof emphasis.and that whatactually of andnaming. the Teacher's as mostsignificant regard of the bag: andobservation of theirusein a withtheprincipal themes Familiarity of the music. They present themselves but of recurrence of this metaphorically."27 One consequence of this shiftingof emphasis is that music. Worksheet of the seventhconcert.He calledthe Larghetto of Beethoven's SecondSymworld.wherechildrenare taughtthe idealsthey that they areto beoughtto followin life but areled to understand to conditions come goodbusinessmen.This ambiguity is reminiscent the Houris identification of that in generaleducation. so to speak. verycategorizing Thoughseemingly underemphasized showsto identification and namingas on a parwith understanding.the phony"theculminating point of the old pre-revolutionary . Miss the of educators author of Williams. pleasure. whichwe but they aim at identification.'s intention is to makepeople"musically richerfor life.a doublestandard morality.A. by this very although transformation the essenceof Beethoven's is distorted into dynamics its opposite.Music Hour 359 Appreciation In a passage.H. the frequency showsthat it touchesuponsomething funverymetaphor throughout the property damental: relationof men and musicwhich is the main feature of "commodity listening.is actually such as the terms "ours" and "in our heads. Guidelets the cat out of all. of practical "adjusted" living." The Introduction to SeriesA statesthat the M. leadto a better It should understanding composition andnamingof the composition. The fact that musical is fostered as a by-product knowledge by this of musicin method. insteadof being"lived" transformed into by the listener.goes so faras to presentBeethoven's revolutionary achievement-the discovery of subjectivity as a constitutive category withinthe structure of musicitself-in the smugtermsof property which is enjoyedgeneration aftergeneration. but she knowsthat it is merely She has to speakaboutunderstanding. understand helping supplementary the of here.
the M. The history of music is studdedwith complaints against this of singcult. they are actually being subjected to authority. . Formerly.particularly life not musical with an ers and virtuosi. shows scant respect for the works themselves. The Guide knows from the outset the disciplinarianfunction of Teacher's music. as is urgedby the Hour'sconception of music as pleasureor enjoyment. to be sure. .A. may of the musiccan be usedfor that purpose. but whichis now one of our dearest possessions. Again Miss Williams makes a revealing confession: "Frequentdrills on pronunciationof names should be given. the cult of personalities.not of music." for it certainly enhances the appreciation. while doing this.28 It is not clear how this "use"of music can be reconciled with the purposeof making us "musicallyricher for life.360 TheMusical Quarterly world of Haydn and Mozart"and adds that "it was the furthestpoint to which Beethoven could go before he burst into that wonderfulnew region into which no man had before penetrated. (b) This shift from spontaneousperception to recognition. makes illusorythe preoccupationwith the listener'sresponse and the apparentadjustmentof music to the listener's wants. of which no man had even dreamed. Drill plays a largerrole in the Hour than its humanitarianphraseswould have one believe.H. but exhibits continuous obeisance to composersand particularlyto the conductor. throughout if has some for school the school be used marching. but of mechanical order. Music itself is brought into terms of such order:a feeling of social conformity is conveyed by the physical regularityof musical sound vibrations. Children should look at the picturesof instruments.however. and possession. identification. The cult of personalitiesis. While children are supposedto get the fun they want. . and there is reason to suspect that the teachers aim to stress this function even more than the hedonistic one: in generous the programs." This is no longer progressiveeducation. (3) Categories of Musical Babbittry The authoritariantendencies are accentuated in the cult of personalities fostered by the Music Appreciation Hour. nothing new in music. eurhythmics. composers. was concomitant unplanned governed by an agency which held itself morallyresponsiblefor musi- . Behind the fun is the drill. As previouslymentioned." into a musical Daughterof Thus does Beethoven become transformed the French Revolution. whichappear measure Marches.
. which in turn are based on an analogy to fairy stories--"There were giants in the earth in those days"-have . The function of the personality cult in music. . the two contemporarygiants in music. This magic of radio. . All this produces a false halo. which in certain previous eras (for example. The composers also have their rounds. which presupposes a dogmatic conception of genius based on analogies to wrestling and other sports. Damrosch . is credited to the conductor. They are called giants. so far as we can yet discern. which are of vastly divergent origins.29 The same note is struck in the introduction to the twelfth concert of the same series: While America has developed. The following statement from the Introduction to Series A is characteristic of an attitude which. waves his baton like a magic wand and instantly beautiful music is heard in thousandsof schoolrooms from Maine to California. which is no magic at all. turns to the orchestra. our interest in the music of Bach and Handel. . In the Music Appreciation Hour the personality cult is not a mere concomitant auxiliary effect. The agency which prides itself as being responsible for the musical welfare of the growing generation pursues a line long considered adverse to true musical experience. by its very nature. is increasedwhen we realize the contrastingdifferences in their lives. It is highly dubious that concepts such as that of the musical giant. in the sixteenth and early seventeenth century) had a progressive aspect. (a) The Music Appreciation Hour strives to cast a spell around the conductor. must encourage a sort of advertising poetry in terms of hero-worship: Mr. and unfortunately in keeping with incorrect fundamental postulates of music education.. is today manipulated so as to fit in with a retrogressive cultural setting. but is strictly congruous with the entire approach.MusicAppreciation Hour 361 cal welfare. . partly from the seeming superaturalness of a technical tool which weaves sounds from the ether. The elements of this spell. stem partly from a witchcraft notion of the mysterious powers of personality as such. No fairy story is more wonderfulthan this. . no musical 'giant'-no Beethoven or Brahmswho stands head and shouldersabove his fellow musicians .
show what can be called Beethoven's tone. Is it merely because he put a final chorus in his Ninth Symphony. instead. But if they are to be used. we must get to know how it is realizedwithin the structureof Beethoven's work and how. or because the opera "Fidelio"is based upon humanitarianideas?Is it because he introducedsubjective expression as a basic element of music?This last is certainly his most conspicuous achievement. But none of the concerts attempts to show why any of these composersis great. and finally. see his uniqueness in its due proportionsnot only historically but also absolutely. Corelli. The entire last series. further. taking the composersmentioned in Series D: Lully. If Section D were devoted to such questions. but if we want to understandBeethoven's music. this music is superiorto other music. such as the strict economy of his compositions which utilize every bit of thematic materialand present nothing which does not have a function within the whole. is centered in great composers. which is aimed at the most maturepupils. The term greatness.362 TheMusical Quarterly any pedagogicalvalue. whose achievements are fundamentallyindividual achievements. and. in its specific elements. In this way. to a great extent. one could also arriveat an exposition of the differencesbetween composerswhose principal value lies in the fact that they adequatelyrepresenttheir time (for instance. It would be a good idea to open a programin this course by telling the pupils.One should point out the specific elements of his technique. and such a composeras Beethoven. When they have learned this. which . has a completely different meaning and requiresvery different interpretation. how this music is inherently an attack upon the musical conventions of his time. that casting off by music of the chains of convention. and this talk probablygets on your nerves. At least you must wonder just why he is great as compared with other composers. people can be made to understandwhy Beethoven really is great and that his greatnessis not an empty historical convention. If this idea were developed. it could lead to a real understanding of the decisive trend in musical history. instead of taking their position for granted. One could show. as against the qualities of other composers." Then one could compare Beethoven's music with that of his contemporaries. in the case of these two types. the rise of "subjectivity"that is. by some characteristic examples. one postulate is indispensable:it is up to the educator to show why these rather than others are the giants. It should be emphasizedthat his specific qualities are by no means imperviousto analysis in plain and concrete terms. "Youhear that Beethoven is a great composer. even Handel). they will stop calling him a giant and will.
A. tions as one of the few sustaining at the same and. Damrosch NBC creditsitselfwith shiftingthe listener's in bringing disinterestedness musicalcultureto America's children.so to speak. The Teacher's Guidecontainstwo photographs of him. indirectly. To quotethe Introduction to SeriesD: What a glorious of mountain panorama peaksthis seriesof concerts to us-heights of geniusand aspiration. programs programs exercisean advertising function.but in raspberry syrup.dwells Dr.it is devisedto showthat NBC servesthe publicinterest. brilliantin undying presents formsof beauty. and closerto the circustradition of showmanship than to "cultural for the education. as programs one of the few devotedto serious music. Damrosch is probably entirely unaware of this process. The MusicAppreciation Hour greatthinkers. but.be answered precisely valuesare acceptedthroughout and objectively. one a the otherwith the orchestra.rubber-stamp the course.in the clouds. Throughout pervades cultural veneera shrewd. withinwide limits.In the setupof radio." Hourto indulgein high-pressure for its own conductor. in the discussion the there over the worksheets.Instead. publicity By interestto Dr."Whyis this goodmusicand this even any discussion not?"a questionwhich can.H.givingus of the musical of quiet plainsthosemoments so neededin the hurry of everyday life! inspiration (b) Above the mountain peaks. than they are in the job itself.not only the commercial the sustaining as well.It is in particularly badtaste. "Yes.propagandistic the of the purpose: sponsors Houraremoreinterested in convincingthe publicof the brilliant job they aredoing. The emphasis thus largefrontispiece. Damrosch himself. A German namedRudolfEuckenonce wrotea philosopher dergrofien Denker bookcalledDie Lebensanschauungen (ThePhilosophies GeorgSimmelsaidof this book.Insightinto this process can be involvedobliviousness of advanced.which can then be interpreted music'simmanent fromBeethovenas regards consistency. in inculcating an understanding serious modemployed in termsof the inheritance em music.Music Hour 363 Appreciation to the public. Thereis not sort is the of this attempted Nothing of the question.they are of theGreatThinkers)." in of greatcomposers raspberry presents syrup(regardless nationality). An important elementin the MusicAppreciation Hourwhich the socialcritique of radiomakesmanifest is that while it funchere. to his actualachievement in placeduponhim is out of proportion . in M. time.30 Dr.
The same sort of statement is reiteratedin a somewhat modifiedand less patronizingtone in the Introductionto the series C and D for older children: Realizing that through this wonderfulnew medium he might reach millions of listeners. In music education. His musical performanceis not of outstandingvalue (which fact is not necessarilydetrimental in a prevailinglypedagogicalenterGuidenor the Student's prise)."31 It is noteworthy that even in the worksheetsfor the smaller children. With the aid of the National BroadcastingCompany. made "your"leader. Damrosch. Each series of worksheetscontains another photographof Dr. Further.by being called "your"conductor he is. whereashe had formerlyplayed to mere thousands. Damrosch.364 TheMusical Quarterly the Hour. this splendid. no one is . and for eleven years has been conducting these Fridaybroadcasts. Walter Damrosch. NBC does not forego the opportunityof advertisingitself and Dr. can best be expressedin the Tin Pan Alley jargon. evidently. Damroschsaw that through this wonderful invention he could play to practicallyall the young people of the nation. Mr. at the same time. the man whose authorityyou must follow and in whom you must believe. value judgmentsabout Dr. the attitude which may be called. this Wotan of classical music. he founded the NBC Music Appreciation Hour. accompaniedby a biographicalsketch. the "Especiallyfor You" attitude-that Dr. Moreover. as neither the Teacher's is his handiwork. We note two of them: First. Comhe organized. Damrosch: Then came radio. It is an attitude which. descends from his other-worldlyheight to the classroom-perhaps even to the cradle-and gives all his loving energy to the little children whom he suffersto come unto him. Damroschare foisted upon the pupils. again. "Two Sleepy People". "Followyour leader-Artie Shaw. Hour." The implications of this heading are virtually inexhaustible. great old man.with the cooperation of the National Broadcasting as Music of concerts known the the series broadcast Appreciation pany. "YourConductor. his actual function in the preparation Worksheets and execution of the Hour cannot be as substantialas the publicity would make it out. In this Introduction. In all four series it bears the significantheadline. as found on the back cover of the hit. in terms of a currentsong-hit.
reads: Beethoven's geniusdid not have to wait for posthumous recognition. is. (c) The criterion for accordingsignificanceto personalitieswhose merits are reiteratedbut not analyzed. This leads to false statements or to ludicrouscontradictions between terminologyand actuality. he had the satisfaction of knowingthat he wasconsidered the greatest of his time. has Because of his continuous to compose music. It may not be the task of music education to make eleomosynary studies in composerbiography. there is the comment concerning Dr. and Beethoven had to strugglethrough long and disagreeablelitigation proceedingsin order to get this money." Finally. part of the grant was cancelled. Some of them died. one of the truly great figuresin the musical life of America. In 1821 or 1822 (the year is not definitely established) Beethoven was arrestedby the police because of his raggedappearance. Number 7.Hour 365 Music Appreciation shocked by statements such as.Longbeforehis death." He lived on a small pension grantedhim by a group of Austrian aristocrats. Damrosch probablywould have averagedeven more songs a year than Schubert. for many years.The idea of business competition. The Introductionto the Beethoven program. Later he fell into great financial difficultiesbecause of the escapadesof his ne'er-do-wellnephew. any romanticizing about his poverty would be as reprehensibleas the glorificationof his wealth.borrowedas a standardin music. that the best man is the one who bests his competitors. Although Beethoven never actually had to starve. the criterion of public approval and remuneration. There is no composer in Series D who escapes judgment in terms of the degree of his success. he never became "well-to-do.which would seem to belie his being well-to-do.but it is certainly even less its task to spreadfalse information. the eagernessto demonstrateBeethoven's business success is not borne out by the facts. economically or occupationally. had only limitedopportunities If he hadn't given up everything for his little pupils. unashamedly. Dr. Damrosch activitiesas a conductor. "Walter Damroschhas been.Moreover. . Of course.Series D. is evidently nothing more than success. composer This satisfactionwould have made Beethoven substitutefor his criterion for estimating himself musically. He rapidly roseto fameandbecamewell-to-do. Damroschas a composer: Mr.
" won him somerecognition. another bit of patter is applied: that of per asperaad astra. since it is essentially belief in the justice of this world in rewardingmerit.Evenhis next two. "Lohengrin. "Rienzi" but "TheFlyingDutchman. (d) The belief in career and success. never knew any real want throughouthis life. of the man who must strugglein his youth and is remunerated in his matureyears. These distortionsare not importantin themselves.33Of all the music presented by the Music Appreciation Hour. however. by the way." but actually was a roaring success which immediatelygained him the influential and wellpaid job of conductor at the Dresden Opera House. This is patternedafter the newsboy-to-millionaire success story. his and of little musical worth. who was a genius at borrowingmoney.366 TheMusical Quarterly The notion of success appearsagain in the case of Wagner. "Canon and Round. The Hour fosters a bias against advanced moder music. "Rienzi"did not win him "some recognition. as far as we can determine. and Liszt'sfirstperformanceof in Weimar laid the foundation for the later recognition "Lohengrin" of Wagner as a reformerof the opera. They are important. the second concert of Series G. And again the patter distortsreality. in the case of the Music Appreciation Hour. an excerpt from the slow movement of Gustav Mahler'sfirst symphony." popularity. We cite three examples. however." Germanyfrom which he was exiled. in its standardof materialvalues." gives as an example of the canon. and whichfollowed.faredbadly. While Wagner lived under refugee conditions after 1849 (conditions which. without regardfor the fact that this move- . did not involve the hardshipswhich they sometimes imply today) in particular. This.32 Here.At the ageof twenty-nine. This attitude makes itself evident. Wagner. has its roots in a reactionary attitude. "Tannhaiiser" whichtodayenjoyimmense wereunsuccessful. as an index of habits of thought which are ever ready to alter the facts of history in order to establish present materialvalues as past actualities-values which re-affirm only the ideology of contemporaryownershipculture. this movement is. First. the only thing commented upon somewhat malevolently.became tremendouslypopularin the very "Tannhaiiser. The story about is a legend which has and "Lohengrin" the failure of "Tannhaiiser" been destroyedwith overwhelmingevidence by ErnestNewman in the second volume of his biographyof Wagner. failures. and adjustsits listeners to the musicaljuste milieu. His firsttwo operas weretotal Wagner's geniuswasslow in developing.
in particular. is devotedto and selects." This one greatest composers poser. Evenadvocates of Sibeliusamongserious such as Ernest musicologists Newman.as an example. or one who simplywantsto makehimselfappear interesting. eccentricwhile maintainilliterate conceptionof Mahleras a musical of the observer who merelyquotessomemusiing the mock-neutrality cians'comments.Somemusicians consider Eventodayhis musicis a subject him a greatgenius.he a satisfactory wouldbe unableto produce answerin musicalterms.. at leastthe assertion is highlydisputable. to the Introduction to the eleventhconcertof Sibelius. is the latterbelief. It is a firstand." he must tatorof the Hourcalls Sibelius"masterful be pulledup short. barbaric beliefoften foundamongnon-musical persons.well-conceived and a sincerity and eloquence..34 the commenSibelius' ought greatness in craftsmanship.If he wereaskedto show. In contrast with the eccentricMahler.and they try to justify him by reference to othercharacteristics. by phony "Hismusicis marked sentenceconcerning this workreads: by appealformal in the use of design.concedethat fromthe viewpointof techniqueof composiworkis of highlydubious tion.awkward attemptof an to mobilize the "trivial" as an expresoriginalcomposer. . so to speak.According to be not only Finland's comSeriesD. ment of the Houris: for dispute. in clear-cut musical terms." To cite a composer dissonance. Dr. in the use of dissonance. which is prompted by the linkingup . Damrosch If it is bad taste to publicize as one of the trulygreat in it is no better tasteto publicize the musicalfigures of our time. is.othersmerelya giftedeccentric. Sibelius' quality.wherethe technicalmeritsof Sibeliuscouldbe found. he is "acknowledged greatest but of the of modem times.the SymmodemAmerican composers." becausehe employs"moderation introduces a biasagainstadvanced and even fostersthe moder composition.Music Hour 367 Appreciation an excerptbut only ment cannotbe understood fragmentarily through as a whole. Anyonewho laudsSibelius' he shows that either does not knowwhatmusicalcraftscraftsmanship that he know or does not Sibelius. about acknowledgement But when to be substantiated.the last concertof SeriesD.moderation ing melodies.standsthe realgenius.that a musician who usesdiscords is one who is incapable of dealingwith consoIt nance. The mostsignificant Movement. manship The thirdexample. in One Samuel Barber. exceedingly The comsive elementwithin a highlyarticulate musicallanguage.
Musical Babbittrycelebrates its greatesttriumphswhen it enters the emotional sphere:no one is more sentimental than the tired businessman. a musician is sincere only if he speaks so-called musical common-sense. and. and Bee-zay.Bahkh. It has nothing whatsoeverto do with music itself. The pseudoculturalelement lies. Indeed. (e) The totality of these featuresof the Music Appreciation Hour is what we call the tendency to produce musical Babbitts--the promotion of a musical pseudo-culturethat actually consists of some vague and largelyerroneousinformationabout music and the recognition of stiffly conventional musical values.35 The Hour apparentlygives no considerationto the structural necessity for "discord"in modem music (a notion which is anyhow senseless by itself because advanced modem music does not employ discordsas opposed to concords. one need not pronounce Bach's name even correctly in order to understand his music. This attitude is evoked in the Music Appreciation Hour . is intended to make the student capable of discussingmusic in drawingrooms (which he has never seen except in the movies). therefore. nor to the expressivefunction of the discord. To the Music Appreciation Hour music must be as harmoniousas they want people to pretend the world is. of course. in the emphasisgiven to pronunciationof names and that. To him everything can be measuredand expressedin quantitative terms-the notion that everything can be expressedin terms of the money he spends for it. all the elements of this critical analysisfit within this musical pseudo-culture. While the Hour'sproponentsprofessa desire to educate people musically."According to this point of view. they actually reproducethe very prejudiceswhich responsiblemusical education should seek to eradicate. makes the idea of discord meaningless).368 TheMusical Quarterly of "sincerity"with "moderationin the use of discords. It gives no mention to the historical process that led to the prevalence of the discord in modem composition. and there is no one more willing to endorse such statements as "all of us are happy at times and sad at other times. here. but actually abolishes the idea of concord in the traditionalsense." This instruction. such as the "drill"on "symbols for pronunciation"on page 7 of the Teacher's Guide. instead of the promotion of a living relationshipwith music. incorrectly:"Sanh-Sawnhss. whereasone who does not bow to this requirementis virtuallycalled dishonest."36 The musical Babbitt has little forthrightfeeling for historical distance and for the inappropriateness of judging art worksproducedat a differenthistorical level in terms of contemporaryvalues.Symptomaticof this are even elements nominally extraneous.
But that is unlikely in a world where conformity is at a premium." and the Beethoven piano sonata. in many cases. Number 2.than when ."Though there were no in Bach's time. instead of playing orchestralworks. is disastrousto its structureand its musical sense.Most of these are the work of either Dr. We cannot here discuss the resultsof this sort of instruction upon the Hour's actual listeners. as it were. that any contemporarycommusic. This nouveauricheattitude is an integral part of musical pseudo-culture. then how can we hope that the musically-unaware becomebetter educated than their teachers. Damrosch'slate father or of Dr.We have cited the examples of the Bach E-Minor Fugue from the first volume of the "Well-Tempered Clavichord. in early times. much music was producedwhose artistic perfection comparesfavorably with that of the great works of recent years. had been content with most elementary representationsof these forms which cannot possibly be orchestrated. It is not inconsequential or a quirk of a composer that a composition has been written for the piano instead of for the orchestra. Behind this practice there lurksthe danger of promoting the idea that "nothing is too expensive for our children. Of course. Damroschhimself.Music Hour 369 Appreciation by benevolently patronizingstatements such as. We can only say that if such Philistinism crops up in the thinking of the musicallywill educated. A disproportionately large amount of the programsis played in arrangements." and that. not so bad. they must not content themselves with a piano piece but should have it renderedby the full orchestra. after all. This means. The difficultiesin the case of the sonata and the fugue would not have occurredif the Hour. his music was. Probably the reason for this is that the Hour insists upon presenting only orchestralmaterial. The skyscrapers complement of this idea is. Opus 49. therefore. whereas its desire to bring music which is as simple as possible excludes the bulk of actual orchestralworks and necessitates the scoring of music which is so simple that it was not conceived in orchestralterms. The presentationof such material in orchestralform means an artificialexpansion of the music which. by few instruments. Frequentlymusical structuresare most obvious to the layman when they are played in a one-color way. of course. that these works are presented largely in a form alien to their very essence. the Music Appreciation Hour may evoke a responsediametricallyopposite to what it purportsto do. One last word about the problem of pseudo-cultureas far as the materialof the Hour is concerned. therefore. is an poser who actually dares to write skyscraper intellectual ultra-modernist.These gaucheriesare characteristicof the thinking of the musical Babbitt. "Yet.
where spontaneousbehavior is everything and reflexaction nothing.single. let us say. he is forced into pre-arranged patterns and is made to follow cliches from above in order to be marked"correct"which is the counterpartof being stampedas a social conformist.370 The MusicalQuarterly they are beclouded by the orchestralapparatus. that is to say. to juxtapose the words "married. and finally with the behavior of youth who are given structuralmusic education. in the field of painting. any such procedureis absurd. the maritalstatus of the population of the city of New York. if one were to comparethe effects of music education of the type of the Hour with the behavior of non-educated youth. In music. then cross out the incorrect phrase. It makes sense on a questionnairefor a surveyof.But at no point does the dangerof promoting musical pseudo-culturemake itself felt more stronglythan in these test sheets. and educated even against proved the great superiorityof the structurally those with general Oxford and Cambridgeeducation. . Educational researchof this type would be prerequisiteto any valid plan fundamentally to improve the system of music education as followed in the Music Appreciation Hour.Any constructive positive change in the Music Appreciation Hour must take this into consideration. Most of the tests apply the standardform of multiple very choice: "Check the correct phrase. A correspondingresearchprocedure was used in England some years ago. Such an investigation would be of value only if it were carried through on a comparativescale. This researchshould be carriedon by subjectingthese differentgroupsto actual musical tests instead of to mere questions concerning their "frozen" knowledge about music. (a) There are insuperableobjections to be raised against their structure. (4) The "Tests" It is difficult to say anything definite about the Music Appreciation Hour'seffects without a large-scaleprogramof student-listener research." with the instructionsto check the correct word and cross out the incorrect ones.Instead of providing space for the child's spontaneousaction. with the behavior of youth educated through private music lessons in the old style. Each worksheetcontains a set of tests whereby the achievements of the students are supposedto be appraised. The Hour does try to overcome radio's"one-way"structureand to activate its pupils."This technique is a typical example of the transplantingof an administrativeprocedureto a field of human spontaneity to which it is essentially unsuited. divorced.
" (SeriesB.question2) "Mozart's G MinorSymphony to the listenerchiefly appeals the (descriptive realism)(sheerbeauty)(emotional through power)of the music. SecondConcert.question4) .question1) "Mozart's talent (becameevident) (beganto decline)at an unusually earlyage.question2) "Music addsto the beautyand meaningof wordsby making them (easierto pronounce) to our imagina(appealmorestrongly tion). or the break of day anywhere?" (SeriesB.question1) is called 'the Father of the Symphony' becausehe per"Haydn fectedthe (form)(mood)(style)of the modemsymphony. FirstConcert.and neverto the music introductions itselfindependently of these comments. Pupilsare testedonly on whatthey have been relationship taughtaboutmusic.question2) "Bachis famous he laid the foundation for todaychieflybecause (ourmoder music)(sonataform)(the orchestra). thus virtually and forcingthe childrento repeatpat valuejudgments.not abouttheiractualmusicalcomprehension." (influenced adversely) (Ibid." (SeriesB.question1) "His(Mozart's) with Haydn(affected association beneficially) the artof both composers. fromthe tests: (b) Examples "DoesGrieg's'Moring' suggest dawnin Egyptonly. maybe helpful in musiceducation).question1) "Music that describes fairiesis usually(light and graceful) (loud and noisy) (slowand clumsy). Ninth Concert."37 (SeriesD. to given normsinsteadof judging to adaptthemselves autonomously. FirstConcert. FifthConcert. on the questionnaires The questions arerelatedexclusively to the and comments of the Hour." (SeriesD. to a certainextent." (Ibid.MusicAppreciation Hour 371 Oursecondmainobjectionhas to do with the merespreading of information aboutmusicinsteadof bringing a lifeinto people with it. FifthConcert.question1) "Folkmelodiesare (seldom)(frequently) (invariably) employed of concert music.but also to valuejudgments fostered by them." by composers (SeriesC.This is the moredangerous since the tests applynot only to knowledge aboutcertainfactsmentionedby the commentators (which. Fourth Concert." (SeriesD.
We offer three examples of what we would regardas more sensible tests. but if there must be tests at any price. Seventh Concert. as in the case of modem music-and the concrete. that any given piece of music may be regardedas the resultantof two forces. and particularly. The students should be taught to follow up both these sides of any composition. without giving any information about these pieces. they should at least be made intelligent. question 4) "The first movement of the 'Unfinished'Symphony is notable for its (ceaseless flow of melody) (brilliant and effective use of the brasses) (strikingrhythmic effects). Then one should encourage the students to send written statements to the station concerning the formal structure of the works as well as the interrelationshipbetween this structureand the concrete musical content of this very piece. Eighth Concert. That is. question 2) "The development of his (Beethoven's) personality (had no effect on his music) (influenced the development of his art). 1." (Series D. so far as most elementary types such as cradle songs. etc. to the most elementarycourses." (Series D. question 1) his career he (Beethoven) "Throughout experiences (much sorrow and affliction) (constant happiness).. Everythingshould be done to make up for the "one-way"structureof radio which in itself tends to promote the effect which is underscoredby the rubber-stamp rubber-stamp questions and the method of the Music Appreciation Hour.. One ought to play selections which one may safely supposeare not known to the majorityof the pupils. question 3) "The 'Rosamunde'Ballet Music is (somber and cynical) (bright and cheerful) (boisterouslymerry) in mood. particularcare must be taken of one point which is totally missed by the Hour. question 5) test method is applicable (c) It is doubtful that any standardized to music." (Ibid. Sixth Concert. especially when discussingcharacteristicanswersof the students in the following session. are concerned. In this procedure. This procedurecould be applied.to understandhow closely they are interconnected and how they exercise an influence upon each other.372 TheMusical Quarterly "Verdi'scareer was notable for its (brevity) (length). some pregiven form-however sublimatedits pre-givenessmay be." (Series D." (Ibid. subjective intention of the specific composition. . namely.
Music Hour 373 Appreciation 2. is am Main. 1939. the period. 7. (1938-40) Notes This manuscript. Play ensemble pieces and have them name the instrumentsemployed. The Student's Worksheets are the "textbooks"used by the young students (varying in age from elementarythrough high school) in the given schools. It should be noted.found in the Paul F. Ibid. provided. fits into the backward.. A fundamentalreformof the Music Appreciation Hour would be faced with totally new problemsin activating its pupils. 13. only in more advanced courses. p. 5. Ever concomitant with the musical knowledge thus inculcated is the more general frameworkin American education which accords the accolade of "brightness" to those who imbibe knowledge with an attitude of deference and obeisance. 3.non-spontaneouseducation just as a poor theme fits into a poor symphony. Ibid. corruptinginfluence of reactionary.A. publishedby kind permissionof the Theodor W. Such tests could provide a certain control for the effect of Series A. the listener actually could be activated. and are thereforenot sufficient to overcome its shortcomingsin principle. Frankfurt 1. 6. A revulsion by a youngsteragainst the M. "NBC Music Appreciation Hour Conducted by Walter Damrosch. that is to say. Teacher's Guide. the whole disposition of this basic series is not fundamentallyaltered. and have the pupils identify them. . however.H. Cantril and Allport.A. The Teacher's Guide is meant to be used by classroomteachers in schools where the Music Appreciation Hour is a lesson on Fridayafternoons. point out why they are errorsand explain what induced the student to make these specific ones.New York:Harperand Brothers Publishers. would inevitably be accompaniedby a revulsion against the educational process which is its universalsetting. answerswhich contain errorswhich recur particularly often. Adorno Archiv. the composer. In this way. 4." Worksheet. Play various instrumentsover the air without announcing them. 2. Columbia University Press. 3. the directorsof the Hour should select characteristicones. this.H. Student's "Introductionto Series D."New York. of course. 66. p. 1935.p. discuss them in the program following. Play less widely known compositions and have the students guess. 13. The Psychology of Radio. After the students' answershave come in. of course.. Lazarsfeld papersat Columbia University. to a certain degree. The M. or the style of the work. that these suggestionsstill remain within the framework of the Hour as it is. as appearsnecessaryto us. in written answers.
H." 15. Ibid. An analysisof the specific role played by the notion of fun in popularaesthetics in the United States and. p. In the age of the general bass.. In our present society. Series C. 6. 18. relaxation-in short. or. do not completely define art even if one regardsthe element of play as one of its constituents.H. the ancestorsof the modem piano were used without hesitation as re-enforcementof the orchestralharmony. That the piano. Teacher's Guide. 16. but must retrogressto childhood stages of his individualdevelopment in order to renew his adult workingcapacity. 17.under to childhood. shows it to be connected with notions such as humor. Lehrbuch 1911. however. Guide. like the organ. claims. p. Der Musikalische Wagner's'Die Meistersinger Aufbauvon Richard von Niirnberg.. 9-10. Even here. Berlin. as the M. that it must be a matter of play. 14. p. The comparisonwith painting. Confer. 1931. This idea presupposesthat art must not be "serious. makes it even more difficult to grasp. he cannot be a truly free and conscious human being. ff.A. Ibid. it postulates. has nothing to do with tone. for instance. These notions are by no means inherent in art. von Iwan Knorr. wanton boy who certainly does not exist as a musical listener. but the effect of the oppressionduring the work process makes itself felt in his leisure as well. 10. further. pp. carefree. der Fugenkomposition. The adult who professesto the name of fun. Leipzig. a second orchestrain itself. finally. to say the least. the form of a retrogression have fun is moulded after the pattern of the laughing. 108. with its line of demarcationbetween work and leisure.Alfred."Teacher's 13. p. 12."not even seriouswithin the aesthetic sphere. that of Bach and Handel. Lorenz. The notion of fun reflectsa socialprocess which mechanizesand oppressesthe individual to such a degree that in his spare time he must have relief from his responsibilities. can be accounted for by the fact that the piano. which replacesthe whole orchestrarather than functions as a memberof it.For our epoch this relief assumes.374 The MusicalQuarterly 8. Italics not in original text. as against exacting reality of actual living and. 1: "Dem Schlusse (of the theme of the fugue) miissen sich die iiblichen Kadenzakkorde unterlegen lassen. Fugue. think of musical form in general may be illustratedby the following redundantdefinition: "Formshould be analyzedas nicely FORMS ("NBC Music controlled leadingto certaincrystallized imaginative thinking. 8. p. architecture..'Max Hesses Verlag. was seldom used as an orchestral instrument. relief from boredom. also in England. the individual is oppressednot only while working. This. 12) Appreciation Hour Conducted by Walter Damrosch. during the nineteenth century. What the educatorsof the M. Ibid.and sculpturewhere no timeelement enters. it implies that the individual is not requiredto make much effort and can relax. This mutilating effect of contemporarysociety upon . can play whole harmonies and not only single tones. Student's Introductionto Third Concert. play. "The Worksheet." 11. Therefore it was regardedas a microcosm. to a certain extent. 9.A.
9. Sorrow is ended. 28.Music Appreciation Hour 375 the very spheresof life which appear. Teacher's Guide. Psychology of Music. Student'sWorksheet." Ibid. "The promotion booklets sent out by broadcastingcompanies to potential advertisers franklyregardradio as 'the solution to a sales problem. but not so silly as to offend intelligent adults." 20.'This solution. 1938. Deems Taylor. Carl Seashore. 23. 26.It can be graspedin its full implicationsonly as part of a general trend in contemporaryAmerican musical life and musical education. Ibid. and which are. 9. completely lost to any musical understanding. 22. Them." This shows what the final result of theme drill and recognition training may be. Ibid.. p. on the surface. they say. "This music has a less pathetic strain. p. 8. Inc. The importanceof this trend in the Music Appreciation Hour may appearto be overemphasized. . grief may be mended. 1936) is devoted entirely and franklyto the purposewhich serves as one of the guidelines for the more cautious Music Appreciation Hour as well. p. Inc. p. Spaeth when listening to music. How far he succeeds with this idea may be shown by the following examples. One of the most popularAmerican books on music current at the present time. is. Sigmund Spaeth's How to Recognize and Remember GreatSymphonies. "Introductionto Series B" 21. to be exempt from the capitalistic process. 1937. See the "RadioVoice. one is told to sing the words.. at the same time.. New York:McGraw-HillPublishingCompany." (p. p. Of Men and Music. New York. "Introductionto Series D. 24.. Ibid. Spaeth assumesthat "one of the chief reasonswhy people in general are not familiarwith the great symphoniesmay be found in the fact that they cannot rememberthe tunes. is corrupting. to say the least. 27. it seems Tchaikowskywill be calm again.. Mr... 30. supposedto be comments on the music-a processof simultaneouslypigeonholing and listening which. It sounds more sane and not so full of pain.. 8. Ibid. 29. It is hardly an exaggerationto say that any person who applies the tactics recommended by Mr. 25. X). Ibid. he tries to drill his readersin the recognition of themes by supportingthem upon a foundation of words which are to be sung to the music. "I am your fate! Come let me in. New York:Simon & Schuster. in the most highly industrialized of listening will necessarilyhave to anaA fully developed theory of the retrogression norm. accounts for the fact that the notion of fun becomes sacrosanctespecially countries.He advances the idea that these words "mustbe simple and direct enough to appeal to children. in itself." To the famous second theme of the first movement of Tchaikowsky'sPathetique Symphony.. 14. To the beginning of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. (Garden City Publishing PublishingCompany." Therefore. of fun as an aesthetic all the lyze implications 19. Ibid.
she gives hilarious imitations of his conducting. the fate of Mahler'smusic in this country. 34.he is a furiousperfectionistwho makes men play music as they can play it for no other man. Series D. Listenerswho are receptive and well disposed.appealingto a desired and specific consumergroup in a selective territory-at a receptive time. which do not shrink from attributingqualities to the crack conductor which are. ff."(Cantril and Allport. If a specific product is attractive programthe transferis more mentioned in associationwith a particularly intense and more certain. an unfailing memoryand the power to lash orchestrasinto frenziesof fine playing. in other countries. increasingdistribution. Introductionto the ninth concert. reservedfor dictators. sometimes even aglow with pleasurefrom the program. We cannot discusshere. issue 3. See our critical analysisof Sibelius in the Zeitschrift Jahrgang fir Sozialforschung. even supposedlypro-Mahlerstations such as WQXR (New York City). 1939. but any product lucky enough to be mentioned over the air. But it should be noted that Mahler is not representedin the most favorableway by his early symphoniesin which he had definitely not yet developed full command of his technique. p.performingunique missionarywork. Instead of representing these latter compositions. Here again the full implicationscan be understoodin the light of the total setting of certain publicity-tendenciesin contemporaryAmerican music life. 88. in any detail.New York. p.are likely to transferthis friendly attitude to the productadvertised.376 The MusicalQuarterly comes from 'creatingvaluable good-will. The issue also contains pictures and commentarydevoted exclusively to domestic scenes of Toscanini and little Sonia. Damrosch quotes. Such is the argument. associatingthis good-will definitely with the product.widening the market. Sonia. 1935."Or "When he stands. is probablythe only person alive who dares arguewith him about the technique of conducting. 32. at the piano as if he were giving her a piano-lesson. 33. . VII. The Psychology of Radio. It is a good guess that as many Americans know that Toscanini conducts an orchestraas know that Joe Di Maggio plays center field. the magazinegives a full page photographof the conductor alone at this trade-marked grandpiano with a grimaceof artistic creation from which any moment Beethoven will springfull-panoplied. The first maturework is the fourth symphony. and both are neutralizedin a revolting jelly of humor such as: "One of the few people who are not awed by Toscanini. 460. The issue of the magazineLife for November 27." His tendernessto his grandchildhas as contrastingbackgroundthe Terror. Harperand BrothersPublishers. 1938. small and silverhaired. derives some advantagefrom the benign psychologicalattitude ('good-will') of the listeners. dwell upon his first three symphonies-from the first of which Dr." Finally. although it is by far the weakest. bears a huge photographon its front cover showing Toscanini and his little granddaughter. the text does not let slip the opportunity featuresof the great musician:"The world knows Tosto emphasizethe authoritarian canini as a great conductor with a fearfultemper.' Psychologicallyphrased:by broadcastingattractiveprograms(often not paid for) the industrycreates in millions of individualsnot only habits of listening but attitudes of favor towardthe entire institution of radio.) 31. While he is shown playing hide-and-seekwith her or while she jokingly takes a lesson in conducting from him. in front of a symphonyorchestra.
It implies a mechanical levelling tendency-a mistaken ideal of democracy. The emphasislaid upon the sincere. The answercould not be the Sonata-formwhich did not exist in Bach's time. 208-9. Cf.H. This is an example of a question that is so difficult that it is impossibleto answer. the emotional patterns themselves are little more than standardized verbalizationsand actions. p. seventh concert." of cordiality. 37. 334) The remarksof some currentcommentatorsare of doubtfulvalue. Curiouslyenough. It is the very insincerity which producesa fawning cordialitybetween atomized. in order to make him forget the fundamentalalienation of men. then the comment is useless. as if one were close to him. of "human interest." One ought to talk to a strangermusically.. and on its concealed pseudo-normativecorrelate. To say that Bach 'brushed aside the narrowideas of his predecessorsand boldly strode out on new and unbrokenpaths' means little to the listener who knows neither the nature of the 'narrowideas of his predecessors' nor the characteristicas of the 'unbroken paths. This notion is a residueof past social convention and not a feature inherent in musical material itself. . (Cantril and Allport. A sociological interpretationof this cult of sincerity shows it to be founded upon attitudes such as the following: 1. this results in the desideratethat music adapt itself to the emotional conventions of listeners and be regardedas sincere only to the extent that it succeeds in this adaptationeven though the aesthetic expressionof those emotions and. particularlysince its basic notions have not been explained. When he has partiallyunderstoodthe fundamentalstructureof the composition he will appreciatethe moods for himself.. But this cult of sincerity is not restrictedto music. In the text of the M.'is extra-musicalbut plays a vast role in general listening attitudes towardmusic. . The element of "fromman to man. indeed.' If he should know them already. This general tendency is a model for understandinga much broadersocial trend-the labeling as "insincere"and "affected"of whatever speaks its own language. the fiction of sincerity is postulated as an adjustmentto the conventional standardsof the listeners. on which the question is based. As for modem music-it is arbitrary to trace it back unqualifiedly to any individual composer. op. an insincere actor is often able to create more of an impression of honest conviction than an earnest but untrainedspeaker. It implies the postulate that one should do a thing not differentlyfrom other people: that one not regardoneself as better than others." Behind this pseudo-democraticideal is actually the pervasivedesiderateof following the manipulatedpatterns of ownershipculture. cit. . The naive listener can best be aided by an elementaryanalysisof the composition to be played without too much effusion concerning the moods and emotions of the music. p. 36. as well as verbally. Series B.Whoever does not bow to the convention makes himself conspicuousas either highbrowor addicted to "village atheism. it is actually correctlyqualified (see infra p. 2. op. nor the Orchestrawhich he did not found. too sophisticated for the masses and too trite for the initiated."In other words. that is eulogisticallyacknowledgedunder the name of naturalnessor sincerity.MusicAppreciation Hour 377 35. the 'natural. 72.A. especially the statements:"Whether to sound 'sincere'must correspondto inner conviction or whether it may be opposed is another question. competing individuals. Musically. The notion of the "natural"lies behind formulationsof the Hour such as that concerning the moderateuse of dissonance. p. cit. 220) . Cantril and Allport.