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AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 - PARTS A, B, & C - SECTION 6. INSPECTION pg.

201

Part C Acceptance Criteria


6.7 Scope
Acceptance criteria for visual and NDT inspection of tubular connections and statically and cyclically loaded nontubular connections are described in Part C. The extent of examination and the acceptance criteria shall be specified in the contract documents on information furnished to the bidder.

6.8 Engineers Approval for Alternate Acceptance Criteria

The fundamental premise of the code is to provide general stipulations applicable to most situations. Acceptance criteria for production welds different from those described in the code may be used for a particular application provided they are suitably documented by the proposer and approved by the Engineer. These alternate acceptance criteria may be based upon evaluation of suitability for service using past experience, experimental evidence or engineering analysis considering material type, service load effects, and environmental factors.

6.9 Visual Inspection

All welds shall be visually inspected and shall be acceptable if the criteria of Table 6.1 are satisfied. 6.10 PT and MT Welds that are subject to MT and PT, in addition to visual inspection, shall be evaluated on the basis of the applicable requirements for visual inspection. The testing shall be performed in conformance with 6.14.4 or 6.14.5, whichever is applicable.

PARTE C CRITERIOS DE ACEPTACION


6.7 Alcance Los criterios de aprobacin para visual y inspeccin de NDT de conexiones tubulares y estticamente y en ciclos cargados a conexiones no tubulares son descritas en la Parte C. El Tipo de examen y la aprobacin los criterios debern ser especificados en los documentos de contrato sobre la informacin suministrada al postor. 6.8 La Aprobacin del Ingeniero para los Criterios de aprobacin alternativos La premisa fundamental de este Cdigo es proveer condiciones generales aplicables a la mayora de las situaciones. La Aprobacin de Criterios para soldaduras de produccin diferentes de los descritos en este Cdigo puede ser usado en aplicaciones especiales, suministrar adecuadamente los documentados por el Proponente (Contratista) y aprobados por el Ingeniero. La aceptacin de estos criterios sern alternados podran estar basados en la evaluacin de la conveniencia para el servicio utilizando la experiencia pasada, el anlisis experimental o de ingeniera deber considerar el tipo de material, los efectos de carga del servicio, y los factores ambientales. 6.9 Inspeccin Visual Todas las soldaduras sern inspeccionadas visualmente y debern ser aceptables si los criterios del Tabla 6.1 son satisfechos.

6.10 PT y MT Soldaduras que estn sujetos a MT y PT, adems de Inspeccin Visual, debern evaluarse en base a los requerimientos aplicables para la Inspeccin Visual. Las pruebas debern ser llevadas a cabo en conformidad con 6.14.4 o 6.14.5, cualquiera sea aplicable. 6.11 NDT
Except as provided for in 6.18, all NDT methods including equipment requirements and qualifications, personnel qualifications, and operating methods shall be in conformance with Section 6, Inspection. Acceptance criteria shall be as described in this section. Welds subject to NDT shall have been found acceptable by visual inspection in conformance with 6.9. For welds subject to NDT in conformance with 6.10, 6.11, 6.12.3, and 6.13.3, the testing may begin immediately after the completed welds have cooled to ambient temperature. Acceptance criteria for ASTM A 514 A 517, and A 709 Grade 100 and 100W steels shall be based on NDT performed not less than 48 hours after completion of the welds. 6.11.1 Tubular Connection Requirements. For CJP groove butt welds welded from one side without backing, the entire length of all completed tubular production welds shall be examined by either RT or UT. The acceptance criteria shall conform to 6.12.3 or 6.13.3 as applicable.

6.11 NDT Excepto lo suministrado por el 6.18, todos mtodos de NDT incluyendo requisitos de equipo y las calificaciones, personal calificado, y los mtodos operativos debern estar de conformidad con la Seccin 6, Inspeccin. Los criterios de aprobacin debern estar descritos en esta seccin. Las soldaduras sujetas a NDT habrn sido encontradas aceptables por la inspeccin visual de conformidad con 6.9. Para soldaduras sujetas a NDT de conformidad con 6.10, 6.11, 6.12.3, y 6.13.3, el hacer pruebas podra comenzar apenas las soldaduras sean completadas y se hayan enfriado a la temperatura ambiente. Los criterios de aprobacin para los aceros ASTM A514, A517, y A 709 grado 100W debern estar basados en NDT efectuado no menor a las 48 horas despus de terminadas las soldaduras. 6.11.1 Requisitos de Conexiones Tubulares. Para CJP los canales en soldaduras a Tope soldar de un lado con respaldo, la longitud total de todas soldaduras de produccin tubulares completadas debern ser examinadas revisadas por RT o UT. Los criterios de aprobacin se ajustarn a 6.12.3 o 6.13.3 tan aplicable.
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 PART E, SECTION 6. INSPECTION, PG.205

6.18 Supplementary RT Requirements for Tubular Connections 6.18 Requisitos de RT adicionales para conexiones tubulares
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, PRTAS A, B &C, SECTION 6. INSPECTION

6.10 PT and MT
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, PART C, SECTION 6. INSPECTION, PG.203

6.12.3 Acceptance Criteria for Tubular Connections- RT 6.12.3 Criterios de Aprobacin para Conexiones Tubulares - RT
SECTION 6. INSPECTION, PARTS C &D, AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, PG.204

6.13.3 Acceptance Criteria for Tubular Connections. Acceptance criteria for UT shall be as provided in contract documents. 6.13.3Criterios de Aprobacin para Conexiones Tubulares.

La aprobacin como la que los criterios para UT sern estipulados en los documentos de contrato.
SECTION 6/ INSPECTION - AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 pg. 218

Table 6.1 Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria (see 6.9)


Discontinuity Category and Inspection Criteria (1) Crack Prohibition Any crack shall be unacceptable, regardless of size or location. (2) Weld/Base-Metal Fusion Thorough fusion shall exist between adjacent layers of weld metal and between weld metal and base metal. (3) Crater Cross Section All craters shall be filled to provide the specified weld size, except for the ends of intermittent fillet welds outside of their effective length. (4) Weld Profiles Weld profiles shall be in conformance with 5.24. (5) Time of Inspection Visual inspection of welds in all steels may begin immediately after the completed welds have cooled to ambient temperature. Acceptance criteria for ASTM A 514, A 517, and A 709 Grade 100 and 100 W steels shall be based on visual inspection performed not less than 48 hours after completion of the weld. (6) Undersized Welds The size of a fillet weld in any continuous weld may be less than the specified nominal size (L) without correction by the following amounts (U): L, U, Specified nominal weld size, in. [mm] Allowable decrease from L, in. [mm] 3/16 (5) 1/16 (2) (6) 3/32 (2.5) 5/16 (8) 1/8 (3) In all cases, the undersize portion of the weld shall not exceed 10% of the weld length. On web-to-flange welds on girders, under run shall be prohibited at the ends for a length equal to twice the width of the flange. (7) Undercut (A) For material less than 1 in. [25 mm] thick, undercut shall not exceed 1/32 in. [1 mm], with the following exception: undercut shall not exceed 1/16 in. [2 mm] for any accumulated length up to 2 in. [50 mm] in any 12 in. [300 mm]. For material equal to or greater than 1 in. thick, undercut shall not exceed 1/16 in. [2 mm] for any length of weld. (B) In primary members, undercut shall be no more than 0.01 in. [0.25 mm] deep when the weld is transverse to tensile stress under any design loading condition. Undercut shall be no more than 1/32 in. [1 mm] deep for all other cases. 8) Porosity (A) CJP groove welds in butt joints transverse to the direction of computed tensile stress shall have no visible piping porosity. For all other groove welds and for fillet welds, the sum of the visible piping porosity 1/32 in. [1 mm] or greater in diameter shall not exceed 3/8 in. [10 mm] in any linear inch of weld and shall not exceed 3/4 in. [20 mm] in any 12 in. [300 mm] length of weld. (B) The frequency of piping porosity in fillet welds shall not exceed one in each 4 in. [100 mm] of weld length and the maximum diameter shall not exceed 3/32 in. [2.5 mm]. Exception: for fillet welds connecting stiffeners to web, the sum of the diameters of piping porosity shall not exceed 3/8 in. [10 mm] in any linear inch of weld and shall not exceed 3/4 in. [20 mm] in any 12 in. [300 mm] length of weld. (C) CJP groove welds in butt joints transverse to the direction of computed tensile stress shall have no piping porosity. For all other groove welds, the frequency of piping porosity shall not exceed one in 4 in. [100 mm] of length and the maximum diameter shall not exceed 3/32 in. [2.5 mm].

Statically Loaded Nontubular Connections

Cyclically Loaded Nontubular Connections

Tubular Connections (All Loads)

X X

X X

X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

General Note: An X indicates applicability for the connection type; a shaded area indicates non-applicability.

Tabla 6.1 Los criterios de Aceptacin en Inspeccin Visual (ver 6.9)


Categora de Discontinuidades y Criterios de Inspeccin Estticamente Carga No-tubular Conexiones X En ciclos Carga No-tubular Conexiones X Tubular Conexiones (Todas las Cargas) X

(1) Prohibicin de Rajaduras Cualquier rajadura ser inaceptable, sin considerar el tamao o la ubicacin. (2) Soldadura/Base En la fusin del metal Una fusin minuciosa deber existir entre las capas adyacentes de metal de soldadura y entre metal de soldadura y metal base. (3) Seccin de Crter Todos crteres debern llenarse de acuerdo al tamao de soldadura especificado, menos los finales de Soldaduras de filete intermitentes fuera de su longitud. (4) Perfiles de Soldadura Los Perfiles de Soldadura debern estar en conformidad con 5.24. (5) Tiempo de la Inspeccin La inspeccin visual de soldaduras en todos los aceros puede empezar inmediatamente despus de completadas las soldaduras y haberse enfriado a la temperatura ambiental. Los criterios de aprobacin para aceros ASTM A 514, A 517, y A 709 grado 100 y 100W debern basarse en la inspeccin visual efectuado no menor a las 48 horas despus de terminadas las soldaduras. (6) Soldaduras Cncavas El tamao de una soldadura de filete en cualquier soldadura ininterrumpida no puede ser menor del tamao especificado (L) sin la correccin de las siguientes cantidades (U): L, U, Tamao de Soldadura Especificacin Disminucin Permisible de L, Nominal, pulgadas [mm] pulgadas [mm] 3/16 (5) 1/16 (2) (6) 3/32 (2.5) 5/16 (8) 1/8 (3) En todos los casos, las concavidades en la soldadura no debern exceder al 10 % de la longitud de la soldadura. Sobre la costura a los bordes (pestaas) soldados sobre vigas, la concavidad deber ser prohibida en el final para una longitud igual a dos veces el ancho del borde (pestaa). (7) Socavado (A) Para materiales menores de 1 [25 mm] de espesor, la socavadura no deber exceder de 1/32. [1 mm], co n las siguientes excepciones: la socavadura no deber exceder a 1/16 [2 mm] para ninguna longitud acumulada sobre 2 [50 mm] en 12 [300 mm]. Para un material igual o superior a 1 de espesor, la socavadura no deber exceder a 1/16 [2 mm] para cualquier longitud de soldadura. (B) En Secciones principales, la socavadura no deber ser mayor que 0.01 [0.25 mm] de hondo cuando la soldadura es transversal a

la resistencia a la tensin bajo cualquier condicin de carga de X diseo. La socavadura no deber ser mayor a 1/32[1 mm] de X hondo para todos los casos. (8) Porosidad (A) En canales de soldaduras de CJP en juntas a tope transversales a la direccin de la resistencia a la tensin no tendrn porosidad tubular visible. Para todas otras soldaduras de canal y para X soldaduras de filete, la suma visible de porosidad tubular en 1/32 [1 mm] o de mayor dimetro no deber exceder a 3/8 [10 mm] en ninguna de longitud de soldadura y no deber exceder a [20 mm] en 12 [300 mm] de longitud de solda dura. (B)La cantidad de porosidad tubular en soldaduras de filete no deber exceder a uno en cada 4 [100 mm] a lo largo de la soldadura y el dimetro mximo no deber exceder a 3/32 [2.5 mm]. Excepcin: para soldaduras en filete conectadas a varillas en X X la costura (membrana), la suma de los dimetros de la porosidad tubular no deber exceder a 3/8 [10 mm] en ninguna longitud de pulgada lineal de soldadura y no deber exceder a [20 mm] en 12 [300 mm] de longitud de soldadura. (C) En canales de soldaduras de CJP en juntas a tope transversales a la direccin de la resistencia a la tensin no tendrn porosidad tubular. Para otras soldaduras de canal, la cantidad de porosidad X X tubular no exceder en uno en 4 [100 mm] de longitud y el dimetro mximo no exceder 3/32 [2.5 mm]. Nota general: una "X" demuestra la aplicabilidad para el tipo de conexin; un rea sombreada no indica aplicacin.
SECTION 6. INSPECTION, PARTS C&D, AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, PG. 204

6.14.4 MT. When MT is used, the procedure and technique shall be in conformance with ASTM E 709, and the standard of acceptance shall be in conformance with Section 6, Part C, of this code, whichever is applicable.

6.14.4 MT. Cuando el MT sea usado, el procedimiento y la tcnica sern de conformidad con el ASTM E 709, y la norma de aprobacin ser de conformidad con la Seccin 6, Parte C, de esta clave, cualesquiera sea aplicable.
6.14.5 PT. For detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface, PT may be used. The standard methods set forth in ASTM E 165 shall be used for PT inspection, and the standards of acceptance shall be in conformance with Section 6, Part C, of this code, whichever is applicable.

6.14.5 PT. Para detectar las discontinuidades que estn expuestas a la superficie, PT puede ser usado. Los Mtodos de la a Norma fijan en ASTM E 165 como deber ser usada la inspeccin por PT, y los criterios de aprobacin sern de conformidad con la Seccin 6, Parte C, de este cdigo, para lo que sea aplicable.
SECTION 5/FABRICATION - AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 pg. 190

5.24 Weld Profiles

All welds, except as otherwise allowed below, shall be free from cracks, overlaps, and the unacceptable profile discontinuities exhibited in Figure 5.4. 5.24.1 Fillet Welds. The faces of fillet welds may be slightly convex, flat, or slightly concave as shown in Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4(C) shows typically unacceptable fillet weld profiles.

5.24.2 Intermittent Fillet Welds. Except for undercut, as allowed by the code, the profile requirements of Figure 5.4 shall not apply to the ends of intermittent fillet welds outside their effective length. 5.24.3 Convexity. Except at outside welds in corner joints, the convexity C of a weld or individual surface bead shall not exceed the values given in Figure 5.4. 5.24.4 Groove or Butt Welds. Groove welds shall be made with minimum face reinforcement unless otherwise specified. In the case of butt and corner joints, face reinforcement shall not exceed 1/8 in. [3 mm] in height. All welds shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base-metal surfaces with transition areas free from undercut except as allowed by this code. Figure 5.4(D) shows typically acceptable groove weld profiles in butt joints. Figure 5.4(E) shows typically unacceptable weld profiles for groove weld butt joints. 5.24.4.1 Flush Surfaces. Butt welds required to be flush shall be finished so as to not reduce the thicknesses of the thinner base metal or weld metal by more than 1/32 in. [1 mm], or 5% of the material thickness, whichever is less. Remaining reinforcement shall not exceed 1/32 in. [1 mm] in height. However, all reinforcement shall be removed where the weld forms part of a faying or contact surface. All reinforcement shall blend smoothly into the plate surfaces with transition areas free from undercut. 5.24.4.2 Finish Methods and Values. Chipping and gouging may be used provided these are followed by grinding. Where surface finishing is required, roughness values (see ASME B46.1) shall not exceed 250 microinches [6.3 micrometers]. Surfaces finished to values of over 125 microinches [3.2 micrometers] through 250 microinches [6.3 micrometers] shall be finished parallel to the direction of primary stress. Surfaces finished to values of 125 microinches [3.2 micrometers] or less may be finished in any direction.

5.24 Perfiles de Soldadura


Todas las soldaduras, excepto que por dems admitidas abajo, debern estar libres de grietas, sobremontas, y los perfiles inaceptables de las discontinuidades mostradas en Fig. 5.4. 5.24.1 Soldadura de Filete. Las caras de soldaduras de filete podran ser ligeramente convexas, planas, o ligeramente cncavo como se muestra en la Figura 5.4. La Figura 5.4 (C) una muestra tpicamente inaceptable de perfiles de soldadura en filete. 5.24.2 Soldaduras en Filete Intermitentes. Excepto para socavaduras, como las admitidas por el cdigo, los requerimientos del perfil de la Figura 5.4 no debern aplicar a los finales de soldaduras de filete intermitentes fuera de su longitud eficaz. 5.24.3 Convexidad. Excepto en soldaduras exteriores en juntas de esquina, la convexidad C de una soldadura o un cordn de superficie individual no deber superar los valores dados en Figure 5.4. 5.24.4 Soldaduras a Tope o de Canal. Las soldaduras de canal (surco) debern ser hechas con un refuerzo de cara mnimo menor que por lo dems especificada. En el caso de juntas a tope o esquina, el refuerzo de cara no deber exceder a 1/8. [3 mm] en altura. Todas las soldaduras debern tener una transicin gradual al plano en la superficie del metal base surge con reas de transicin libres de socavaduras excepto como las admitidas por este cdigo. La Figure 5.4 (D) indica perfiles de soldadura tpicamente aceptables en juntas de canal y a tope. La Figura 5.4 (E) indica perfiles (muestras) de soldadura tpicamente inaceptables para juntas de canal y a tope.

5.24.4.1 Superficies Llanas Niveladas. Las soldaduras a tope que requiera estar nivelada debern estar terminadas para no reducir el espesor de la capa del metal base o el metal de soldadura por ms de 1/32 [1 mm], 5 % del espesor del material, cualquiera sea menor. El refuerzo faltante no deber sobrepasar 1/32 [1 mm] en altura. Sin embargo, todo refuerzo deber ser retirado donde la soldadura constituye parte de un empalme o superficie de contacto. Todo el refuerzo deber mezclarse fcilmente (suavemente) en la superficie de la placa con las reas de transicin libres de socavaduras. 5.24.4.2 Mtodos al Final y Valores. Fragmentos pueden ser aceptados siempre que stos sean amolados. Donde el acabado de superficie es requerido, valores de aspereza (ver ASME B46.1) no exceder de 250 micropulgadas [6.3 micrmetros]. Las superficies terminaran con valores de ms de 125 micropulgadas [3.2 micrmetros] a travs de 250 micropulgadas [6.3 micrmetros] debern terminar paralela a la direccin de la tensin principal. Las superficies terminaran con valores de 125 micropulgadas [3.2 micrmetros] menor que podran estar terminados en cualquier direccin.
SECTION 5/FABRICATION - AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 pg. 198

Figure 5.4Acceptable and Unacceptable Weld Profiles (see 5.24) Figura 5.4 Perfiles de Soldadura Aceptables e Inaceptables (ver 5.24)

(A) Perfiles de Soldadura en Filete Deseables

(B) Perfiles de Soldadura en Filete Aceptables

Nota 1: Convexo, C, de una soldadura o un cordn superficial individual con dimensin W, no deber exceder a los valores de la siguiente tabla:

ANCHO DE CARA DE SOLDADURA O CORDON INDIVIDUAL DE SUPERFICIE, W

COVEXIDAD MAX, C

W 5/16 (8mm) W > 5/16 (8mm) a W < 1 (25mm) W 1 (25mm)

1/16 (2mm) 1/8 (3mm) 3/16 (5mm)

Soldadura de Tamao bajo

Convexidad Excesiva

Socavado Excesivo

Sobretraslape

Soldadura de Tamao Bajo

Fusin Incompleta

(C) PERFILES INACEPTABLES EN SOLDADURA DE FILETE

JUNTA A TOPE PLACA DE IGUAL ESPESOR

JUNTA A TOPE (TRANSICION) PLACAS DE DIFERENTE ESPESOR

Nota 2, El Refuerzo R no deber exceder a 1/8 (3mm) ( Ver 5.24.4)

(D) PERFILES ACEPTABLES DE CANALES DE SOLDADURA EN JUNTAS A TOPE

EXCESIVA SOLDADURA DE REFUERZO

LLENADO BAJO

SOCAVADURA EXCESIVA

SOBRETRASLAPE

(E) PERFILES INACEPTABLES DE CANALES DE SOLDADURA EN JUNTAS A TOPE

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, pg. 261

8. Strengthening and Repairing Existing Structures


8.1 General
Strengthening or repairing an existing structure shall consist of modifications to meet design requirements specified by the Engineer. The Engineer shall prepare a comprehensive plan for the work. Such plans shall include, but are not limited to, design, workmanship, inspection and documentation. Except as modified in this section, all provisions of this code shall apply equally to the strengthening and repairing of existing structures, including heat straightening of distorted members.

8. Fortaleciendo (Reforzando) y Reparando Estructuras Existentes


8.1 General Reforzar o reparar una estructura existente deber consistir de las modificaciones para cubrir requisitos de diseo especificados por el ingeniero. El ingeniero deber preparar un plan exhaustivo para el trabajo. Tales planes debern incluirse, pero no ser limitado al hacerlo a diseo, mano de obra, inspeccin y documentacin. Excepto las modificaciones en esta seccin, todas las previsiones de este cdigo debern ser aplicables equitativamente al reforzar y reparar las estructuras existentes, incluyendo calor para enderezando de miembros distorsionados.
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, pg. 262

8.6 Quality

8.6.1 Visual Inspection. All members and welds affected by the work shall be visually inspected in conformance with the Engineers comprehensive plan. 8.6.2 NDT. The method, extent, and acceptance criteria of NDT shall be specified in the contract documents.

8.6 Calidad
8.6.1 Inspeccin Visual. Todos miembros y soldaduras afectadas por el trabajo sern inspeccionados visualmente de conformidad con el plan exhaustivo del ingeniero. 8.6.2 NDT. El mtodo, la extensin, y criterios de aprobacin de NDT debern ser especificados en los documentos de contrato.
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, pg. 451

C6. Inspection
C6.1 Scope

This section of the code has been the subject of extensive revisions, which appeared for the first time in the 1980 code. The revisions are designed to clarify the separate responsibilities of the Contractor/fabricator/erector, as opposed to the Owner/Engineer, etc. The revisions clarify the basic premise of contractual obligations when providing product and services. Those who submit competitive bids or otherwise enter into a contract to provide materials and workmanship for structural weldments in conformance with the provisions of the code assume an obligation to furnish the products as specified in the contract documents and are fully responsible for product quality. In this section, the term fabrication/erection inspection is separated from verification inspection. In the original draft of this section, these separate functions were designated as quality control and quality assurance, respectively. These terms were replaced with the broader terms now contained in the code to avoid confusion with the usage in some industries (e.g., nuclear). Quality assurance means specific tasks and documentation procedures to some users of the code. It was advantageous to use more general terms that place greater emphasis on timely inspection. The Contractor shall be solely responsible for the ordering of materials, and assembly and welding of the structural weldments. Inspection by the Owner shall be planned and timely if it is to improve the quality of the construction

C6.1 Alcance Esta seccin de la clave ha sido el tema de las revisiones extensivas, que apareci for the first time in el 1980 cdigo. Las ediciones corregidas son diseadas aclarar las responsabilidades distintas del contratista / fabricator / erector, tan en contra del propietario / ingeniero, etctera. Las ediciones corregidas aclaran la premisa bsica de las obligaciones contractuales when suministran producto y servicios. sos Quien presenta los intentos competitivos o entra en un contrato de suministrar que materiales y calidad para weldments estructurales de conformidad con las previsiones de la clave asumen una obligacin para suministrar los productos como especificar en los documentos de contrato y son completamente responsable de la calidad de producto por lo dems. En esta seccin, la inspeccin de fabricacin / ereccin de perodo es separada de la inspeccin de verificacin. En el bosquejo original de esta seccin, estas funciones distintas fueron designadas como el control de calidad y la garanta de la calidad, respectively. Estos trminos fueron reemplazados con los trminos ms amplios ahora contenidos en la clave evitar la confusin con el uso en algunas industrias (por ejemplo., Nuclear). La garanta de la calidad significa las tareas especficas y los procedimientos de documentacin a algunos usuarios de la clave. Era ventajoso usar trminos ms generales que ponen el nfasis ms grande sobre la inspeccin en el momento oportuno. El contratista ser nicamente responsable del pedido de materiales, y asamblea y soldar de los weldments estructurales. La inspeccin por el propietario ser planned y en el momento oportuno si es mejorar la calidad de la construccin

C6. INSPECCIN

C6. INSPECCION
C6.1.1 Information Furnished to Bidders. It is essential that the Contractor know in advance which welds are subject to NDTs and which testing procedures will be used. Unless otherwise provided in the contract documents, the quality criteria for acceptance of welds are stated in Section 6, Part C. It is not necessary to write in the contract documents exactly which weld or what portions of specific welds will be examined by a specific test method. A general description of weld test requirements may be specified (e.g., 10% of the length of all fillet welds shall be inspected by MT, or All CJP butt joint welds in tension flanges of girders shall be radiographed). If the location of tension flange butt joint welds is not obvious, their location should be designated on the plans. When spot checking is specified (e.g., 10% of all fillet welds), it should not be taken to imply that the Contractor be notified prior to welding which specific welds or portion of welds shall be tested. It is a basic

premise of the specifications that if random tests or spot tests are made, there should be a sufficient number of random tests to give a reliable indication of weld quality. There are different acceptance criteria for statically loaded structures, cyclically loaded structures, and tubular structures. The basic difference in acceptance criteria for each of these structures is based upon the difference between static, and fatigue loading. When fatigue crack growth is anticipated, acceptable initial weld discontinuity sizes shall of necessity be smaller. All criteria are established in an attempt to preclude weld failure during the anticipated service life of the weldment. C6.1.2 Inspection and Contract Stipulations. This subsection describes the responsibility of the Contractor for fabrication/erection inspection and testing, which is basically the quality control responsibility described in other contract documents. The Owner has the right, but generally not the responsibility, to provide independent inspection to verify that the product meets specified requirements. This quality assurance function may be done independently by the Owner or their representative or, when provided in the contract, verification inspection may be waived or it may be stipulated that the Contractor shall perform both the inspection and the verification. When this is done, quality control and quality assurance remain separate functions. Verification inspection should be performed independently by personnel whose primary responsibility is quality assurance and not production. C6.1.3 Definition of Inspector Categories. This subsection describes the difference between the Inspector representing the Owner and the Inspector representing the Contractor. C6.1.5 Inspector Responsibility. This subsection requires that the Inspector verify that all fabrication and erection by welding is performed in conformance with the requirements of the contract documents. This includes not only welding but also materials, assembly, preheating, NDT, and all other requirements of the code and provisions of the contract documents. C6.1.6 Items to be Furnished to the Inspector. Inspectors need a complete set of approved drawings to enable them to properly do their work. They need be furnished only the portion of the contract documents describing the requirements of products that they will inspect. Much of the contract documents deal with matters that are not the responsibility of the Inspector; these portions need not be furnished. C6.1.7 Inspector Notification. If the Inspectors are not notified in advance of the start of operations, they cannot properly perform the functions required of them by the code.

C6.2 Inspection of Materials


This code provision is all-encompassing. It requires inspection of materials and review of materials certification and mill test reports. It is important that this work be done in a timely manner so that unacceptable materials are not incorporated in the work.

C6.3 Inspection of WPS Qualification and Equipment


The requirements of 6.3.1 and 6.3.2, including any qualification testing required by Section 4, should be completed before any welding is begun on any weldments required by the contract documents. Qualification should always be done before work is started, but all qualification does not have to be completed before any work can be started.

C6.4 Inspection of Welder, Welding Operator, and Tack Welder Qualifications


C6.6.4 Specified NDT Other than Visual. When NDT is specified in the information furnished to bidders, the Contractor shall take necessary steps to ensure that the NDT acceptance criteria prescribed by the code are met. When NDT other than visual inspection is not specified, the Owner shall be responsible for all associated costs of testing and surface preparation plus the repair of discontinuities not reasonably expected to be discovered during visual inspection. Since there is a limit to the defects that might reasonably be expected to be found in welds, welds that contain defects which are considered beyond reasonable weld quality standards and which appear to result from gross nonconformance to this code shall be repaired or replaced at the Contractors expense in conformance with 5.26.1

C6.4 Inspeccin de Soldador, Operador de Soldadura, y Soldador de Reparacin - Requisitos C6.6.4 Especificar el NDT otro que el visual. Cuando NDT sea especificado en la informacin suministrada a postores, el contratista tomar los pasos necesarios de asegurar que los criterios de aprobacin de los NDT prescritos por este Cdigo sean cubiertos. Cuando NDT aparte de la inspeccin visual no sea especificado, el propietario ser responsable de todos gastos asociados de la prueba y ms los preparativos de las superficies de las discontinuidades a reparar no razonablemente esperadas ser descubiertas durante la inspeccin visual. Debido a que hay un lmite razonable a los defectos que pueden ser esperados a ser encontrados en las soldaduras, las soldaduras que contienen defectos que son considerados ms all de soldadura razonables a los patrones de calidad y que parece resultar no conforme a este cdigo debern ser reparados o reemplazadas a costo del contratista de conformidad con 5.26.1
AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 SECTION 5. FABRICATION, PG.191

5.26 Repairs
The removal of weld metal or portions of the base metal may be done by machining, grinding, chipping, or gouging. It shall be done in such a manner that the adjacent weld metal or base metal is not nicked or gouged. Oxygen gouging shall not be used in quenched and tempered steel. Unacceptable portions of the weld shall be removed without substantial removal of the base metal. The surfaces shall be cleaned thoroughly before welding. Weld metal shall be deposited to compensate for any deficiency in size. 5.26.1 Contractor Options. The Contractor has the option of either repairing an unacceptable weld or removing and replacing the entire weld, except as modified by 5.26.3. The repaired or replaced weld shall be retested by the method originally used, and the same technique and quality acceptance criteria shall be applied. If the Contractor elects to repair the weld, it shall be corrected as follows: 5.26.1.1 Overlap, Excessive Convexity, or Excessive Reinforcement. Excessive weld metal shall be removed. 5.26.1.2 Excessive Concavity of Weld or Crater, Undersize Welds, Undercutting. The surfaces shall be prepared (see 5.30) and additional weld metal deposited. 5.26.1.3 Incomplete Fusion, Excessive Weld Porosity, or Slag Inclusions. Unacceptable portions shall be removed (see 5.26) and rewelded.

5.26.1.4 Cracks in Weld or Base Metal. The extent of the crack shall be ascertained by use of acid etching, MT, PT, or other equally positive means; the crack and sound metal 2 in. [50 mm] beyond each end of the crack shall be removed, and rewelded.

5.26 REPARACIONES El retiro de soldadura que metal o porcin del metal base pueden ser hecho por maquinado, amolado, cincelado o excavado. Ser hecha de tal manera que el metal de soldadura adyacente o metal base no es cortado o excavado. La excavacin por oxgeno no ser usada en aceros apagados y templados. Las partes inaceptables de la soldadura sern removidas sin un retiro sustancial del metal base. Las superficies sern limpiadas totalmente antes de soldar. El metal de soldadura ser depositado para compensar para cualquier deficiencia en el tamao. 5.26.1 Opciones del Contratista. El contratista tampoco tiene la alternativa de reparar una soldadura inaceptable o retirar y reemplazar la soldadura entera, excepto como la modificada por 5.26.3. La reparacin reemplazo de la soldadura debern ser vueltas a examinar por el mtodo originalmente usado, y la misma tcnica y los criterios de aprobacin de calidad sern aplicados. Si el contratista elige reparar la soldadura, ser removida de la siguiente manera: 5.26.1.1 Sobremontas, Convexidad Excesiva, o Refuerzo Excesivo. El Metal de soldadura excesivo deber ser retirado. 5.26.1.2 Excesiva Concavidad de la Soldadura Crter, Soldaduras Bajomedidadas, Socavaduras. Las superficies debern ser preparadas (ver 5.30) y depositando el adicional de soldadura. 5.26.1.3 Fusin Incompleta, Excesiva Porosidad en la Soldadura, o Inclusiones de Escoria Excesivas. Las partes inaceptables debern ser removidas (ver 5.26) y resoldadas. 5.26.1.4 Rajaduras en la Soldadura o Metal Base. La extensin de la rajadura ser determinada por el uso del grabado al cido, MT, PT, u otros igualmente seguros; la rajadura y a 2 [50 mm] del metal sano. Ms all de cada final de la rajadura, sern retirados, y resoldados.
5.26.3 Engineers Approval. Prior approval of the Engineer shall be obtained for repairs to base metal (other than those required by 5.15), repair of major or delayed cracks, repairs to ESW and EGW with internal defects, or for a revised design to compensate for deficiencies. The Engineer shall be notified before welded members are cut apart.

5.26.3 La aprobacin del Ingeniero. Previa aprobacin del ingeniero deber ser obtenida para efectuarse las reparaciones del metal base (aparte de los requeridos por 5.15), la reparacin de las rajaduras mas importantes o retrasadas, reparaciones por ESW y a EGW con defectos internos, o para una revisin del diseo para compensar las deficiencias. El ingeniero ser notificado antes de que los miembros soldados sean cortados.
SECTION 5. FABRICATION AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004, PG.184

5.15 Preparation of Base Metal

Surfaces on which weld metal is to be deposited shall be smooth, uniform, and free from fins, tears, cracks, and other discontinuities which would adversely affect the quality or strength of the weld. Surfaces to be welded, and surfaces adjacent to a weld, shall also be free from loose or thick scale, slag, rust, moisture, grease, and other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes. Mill scale that can withstand vigorous wire brushing, a thin rust-inhibitive coating, or antispatter compound may remain with the following exception: for girders in cyclically loaded structures, all mill scale shall be removed from the surfaces on which flange-to-web welds are to be made.

5.15 Preparacin del Metal Base


Superficies sobre los cuales el metal de soldadura a ser depositado sern suaves, uniformes, y libres escamas, desgarros, rajaduras, y otras discontinuidades que puedan afectar la calidad o la resistencia de la soldadura adyacente. Las superficies a ser soldadas, y superficies adyacentes a una soldadura, estarn tambin libres de escamas o costras gruesas o flojas, escorias, xidos, humedad, grasa, y cualquier otro material extrao antes de soldar o producir emanaciones inadmisibles. La escala de molino que puede soportar cable vigoroso que cepillara los dientes, un color ladrillo escaso - capa de inhibitive, o compuesto de antispatter podran quedar con the following excepcin: para vigas en las estructuras en ciclos intencionadas, toda escala de molino ser retirada de las superficies sobre qu - de pestaa para - son para ser hecha las soldaduras de Web.