Major evolutionary events, Prokaryotes

Ch 14, 12 (time line) Ch 16 (prokaryotes)

Major steps in formation of cells

Metabolism

First Cells

First cells were prokaryotic 3.5 bya They were photosynthetic – didn’t produce O2 right away

5 bya .Early prokaryotes   Cyanobacteria modified atmosphere 2.

Eukaryotes    Origin approximately 2bya Cells more complex Theory of Endomsymbiosis .

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Endosymbiosis Theory proposed by Lynn Margulis .

DNA and ribosomes are similar to prokaryotes Replicate themselves – similar process to binary fission .Prokaryotic origins of energy organelles     They have double the number of membranes – inner membranes are like prokaryotic membranes Have their own. circular DNA RNA.

Evolution of Multicellularity  Arose 1.2 bya .

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Terrestrial organisms  ~ 400mya Origin of vascular tissue Invertebrate animals moved on land with them   .

Cambrian Explosion 500mya .

5-2 billion years  .First Cells Prokaryotes were only cells for 1.

Prokaryotic Domains   Archaea Bacteria Prokaryotic – no nucleus/organelles  .

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Prokaryotic Size Small – ~1-10 µm .

Prokaryotic cell parts      Glycocalyx The outer most layer Composed of carbohydrates and or proteins Protects bacteria from wbc phagoctytosis Enable cell to adhere to surfaces. stops dehydration .

Cell Wall    Protects contents of cell Stops nutrients leaving Keeps cell shape Domain Bacteria contain a lattice called a peptidoglycan (not found in Archaea) Peptidoglycan is part of the cell wall Amino acids and Carbohydrates    .

Peptidoglycan in Domain Bacteria monosaccharides .

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doesn’t whip like a real tail   .) = ‘tail’ Diff bacteria have different numbers Some don’t have one Structure is different to sperm tail Rotates like a boat motor.   Flagella (pl). Flagellum (sing.

Flagella .

Filament Hook Basal body .

Axial Filaments  Spiral shaped bacteria have axial filaments .

used for DNA transfer (plasmid) .Pili    Projections from the cell – shorter than flagella Role – to adhere to surfaces Sex Pili .

Horizontal Gene Transfer Sex Pili .

Reproduction – Binary Fission .

Endospore   Some bacteria can make an endospore Bacillus anthracis .Anthrax .

Endospore .

Shape  Three basic shapes Round .Bacilli Curved or Spiral – Spirilla. Spirochete. Vibrio .Cocci Rod .

Cocci    Streptococcus – in a chain Diplococcus – two Staphylococcus – clustered .

Bacilli    Solitary Diplobacilli Streptobacilli .

Curved or Spiral .

Nutrition Pg 326 .

Photoautotrophs  Cyanobacteria .

Prokaryotes  Branched off early on – very different Eukaryota (D) Archaea (D) Euryarchaeota (Phylum) Crenarchaeota (Phylum) Bacteria (D) .

Prokaryotic Domains .

Archaea Many live in extreme conditions      Phylum Euryarchaeota inc. V. Halophiles – need >9% NaCl Methanogens – anaerobic – make CH4 from CO2. Thermophiles – volcanic areas. goats stomachs Phylum Crenarchaeota inc. H2 or organic acids Present in cows. hot. >45oC . sheep.

surfaces.Where do prokaryotes live?  Everywhere! On and in all animals.Archaea    . plants…. streams Also. In extreme places ... soil.

What do prokaryotes do?       Participate in Symbiotic relationships Cause Disease Decomposers/Nutrient Cycling Environmental/Waste Clean up Cosmetic uses ………. ..

coli present in our intestine Produces Vitamin K and B vitamins in intestine Some strains are bad. cause diarrhea  .Symbiotic Relationships   E.

Disease Causing Bacteria   Pathogenic Cause disease by two mechanisms 1) Exotoxins – a secreted substance 2) Endotoxins – lipid in bacterial cell wall .

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Exotoxin     Example – tetanus (Clostridium tetani) Usually produces a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) – released when bacteria dies Toxin attaches to skeletal muscle – causes uncontrollable muscle contraction. spasms Can make vaccines using exotoxin .

chills . aches.Endotoxin    Food poisoning Salmonella All endotoxins cause fever.

Nitrogen Cycle .

Oil Slick Clean up aided by prokaryotes .

Cosmetic Industry    Botox – Clostridium botulinum Paralyzes muscles for 3-6 months Same bacteria that can cause botulism – whole body paralysis .

Molecular Organization   Amino acids may have been attracted to RNA nucleotides – formed a polymer Polymer may act as an enzyme. attracting complementary nucleotides .

Lipid Spheres (Liposomes) .

Protocell  If a sphere of lipid and the RNA/polypeptide cooperation got together Bit like a cell!!  .

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