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Review of Human

Spaceflight Plans

Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

July 28, 2009

www.nasa.gov
Orion is Moving Forward!

Constellation LEO/Lunar mission objectives


drove integrated Orion System Design

Completing Preliminary Design Review

Successfully completed rigorous, extensive engineering


and development testing

Optimizing the details of our schedule to launch in 2015

Utilizing risk informed design to build a safe


vehicle and assure mission success

Started production

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Agenda
Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

Preliminary Design Review

Orion Progress

Schedule

Mass Management

Human Rating

Summary

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Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

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Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

♦ Design maximizes the performance of the integrated spacecraft


dividing critical functions among modules
♦ Provides safe transport for 4 crew from launch to and from
the International Space Station and lunar orbit

Crew Module
• Provides safe habitat for crew
• Allows reentry and landing as
a stand alone module Launch Abort System
• Docks and transfers crew
• Safely removes the crew from
launch vehicle in an emergency
• Protects crew module from
atmospheric loads and heating
• Jettisons after successful pad
operations and first stage flight

Spacecraft Adapter Service Module


• Provides connection to • Supports crew module from launch
launch vehicle through separation
• Protects Service • Accommodates ISS
Module components un-pressurized cargo and Lunar
mission science equipment

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Constellation Systems: LEO/Lunar Missions

Earth Departure Stage

Altair
Lunar Lander

Orion
Crew Exploration Vehicle

Ares I Ares V
Crew Launch Vehicle Cargo Launch Vehicle

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Current Development
Future Exploration Capabilities
Deep Space
Robotics Asteroids and
Near-Earth Objects

Low Earth Orbit:


Commercial and Science Mars Surface,
Phobos, Deimos

ISS and Other LEO Destinations/Servicing

Lunar Orbit,
Lunar Surface (global)

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Orion Crew Module

♦ Provides a safe habitat from launch


through landing and recovery

♦ Re-enters and lands as a stand


alone module

♦ Docks and transfers crew with


constellation elements

♦ Seats 4 crew to the International


Space Station and Moon

Pad Abort 1 Crew Module Tow Pad Abort 1 Crew Module Testing Adapter Cone Fit Check

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Crew Module Primary Structure
♦ Carries launch, abort, pressure and landing loads
♦ Supports secondary structure and subsystem components

TLI
Abort Ignition
Internal Press
Water Landing
Abort Ignition &
Drogue Chute
Flower Pot

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Loads & Structures Integration
Mass Properties
Master Equip List

System Design Finite Element Models Mission Design


System Configuration Loads Trajectories
CAD Models Stress

Propulsion
Engine/Motor Forces

Loads Analysis Aero Sciences


Liftoff/Ascent Aero Loads
Aborts Aero Coefficients
On-orbit Plume Pressures
Chute deploy Ignition Overpressure
Landing

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Integrated Power and Thermal Analysis Closes

Power Dissipations

Heater Power

MDT

Power Analysis

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Thermal Protection System
♦ Defines outer mold line aero shape
♦ Dissipates and isolates crew module from reentry heat

Backshell Heatshield

Forward Bay Cover

Arcjet test of Avcoat

Honeycomb cell fill

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Low Impact Docking System
♦ Low impact to minimize loads
♦ Common interface with International Space Station
and Constellation

Low Impact Docking Capture Ring

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Crew Module Console

Provides:
♦ Situational awareness, control
and communications

♦ Spacecraft state, caution/warning, system


health, and electronic procedures data

♦ Input interface through control panel


switches, display bezel keys, rotational
and translational hand controllers,
key pad and cursor control devices

♦ Communications with ground control


and other constellation elements

♦ Exterior views through hatch, side


and forward windows

♦ Backup display modes

♦ Manual backup control of power, ECLSS


and communications functions

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Orion Service Module

♦ Supports crew module from launch through separation

♦ Maneuvers vehicle to the ISS or Lunar orbit and back


♦ High altitude ascent abort propulsion after Launch
Abort System jettison

♦ Provides orbital maintenance and attitude control

♦ Supplies power, storage, and consumables


♦ Primary thermal control while mated with crew module

♦ Accommodates ISS un-pressurized cargo and Lunar


mission science equipment

Attitude Control RCS


Auxiliary Translational Thruster Solar Array Testing Thruster Propellant Tank

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Orion Launch Abort System

♦ Launch Abort System


• Safely removes the crew from launch
vehicle on the pad through first stage flight
• Jettisons after successful operations
Nose Cone
♦ Nose cone
• Aero fairing for control motor
Attitude Control
♦ Attitude control motor
• Provides active control during flight
• Performs reorientation prior to jettison
• Solid rocket motor with 8 nozzles Jettison

♦ Jettison motor
• Separates the Launch Abort System
from the crew module Abort
• 1 solid rocket motor, 4 nozzles
♦ Abort motor
• Pulls the crew module and crew away from hazards
during a pad or mode 1 ascent abort
• Solid rocket motor with 4 reverse flow nozzles

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Flight and Ground Crew Safety
Foundation for all Orion Engineering Decisions

Lunar Sortie LOC Top Drivers Typical Abort Mode Coverage Capability

♦ Abort system Aero/GNC


(95% of Total Risk)
1.2E-03 DAC-3 Closure
LAS UAS ATO
1.0E-03
Lunar
LAS

Risk Driver Failure Probability


8.0E-04
UAS

♦ Abort Aerothermal heating


6.0E-04
RTAL

ISS
4.0E-04
TAL
2.0E-04
ATO


0.0E+00
AOA

Abort coverage/gap analysis

BP PR
PR
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0 100 200 300 400 500 600

CM

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Ba

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tter
Do
Mission Elapsed Time (sec)

♦ Trajectory planning/debris disposal

Heat Load (j/cm2)


♦ Landing accuracy analysis 100
50

♦ Crew loads (ascent, entry, 0

water/land landing)

♦ Crew rescue/recovery planning

♦ Failure modes effects/analysis

♦ Hazard analysis & control

♦ PRA LOC/LOM analysis

♦ MMOD analysis/protection

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Preliminary Design Review

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Orion’s Preliminary Design Review
Demonstrates High Level Maturity of Design

♦ 200+ analysis reports and design descriptions


delivered for review

♦ 500+ drawings released for broad review

♦ Preliminary Design Review verifies technical


plans, subsystem designs, Constellation’s
concept of operations and processes meet
system requirements with acceptable risk
within cost and schedule

184 Technical Reviews Completed


104 Peer Reviews Completed
10 Combined Tech/Peer Reviews Completed
18 Subsystem Design Reviews Completed

System and Module Review Completed


Screening & Disposition Teams July 22 - August 3
PDR Pre-Board August 17-20
PDR Board August 21

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Orion
Apollo/Orion Progress
Comparisons

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Human Factors Crew Evaluations

Since April 2009


• 47 days of testing
• 20 vehicle assessments and tests
• 19 familiarization sessions for Constellation
and Orion teams
• 13 human engineering evaluations

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Post-Landing Orion Recovery Tests

Naval Surface Warfare Center Water Egress Survival Trainer


Carderock Division – Bethesda, Maryland Aberdeen Proving Ground – Aberdeen, Maryland

Atlantic Ocean
Kennedy Space Center - Florida
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Landing System Development Tests

♦ 8 retro rocket heatshield penetrator tests


♦ 5 sets soil type properties characterization
test sequences
♦ Fabricated numerous test article units
♦ 129 Drop Tests
• Airbag system demonstration
• Crew seat attenuation
• Crushable structures demonstrations
• Heatshield friction testing

Crew Impact Attenuation System Test Article


Langley Research Center – Hampton, Virginia

Crew Module Boilerplate Drop Test


Langley Research Center – Hampton, Virginia

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Parachute Drop Tests
♦ Component tests completed
• 3 Single Drogue only test
• 3 Single Main chute tests (MDT)
• 4 Pilot drop test
• 2 single main test, 1 cluster of mains
♦ Assembly Tests
• 3 Cluster Drop Tests (CDT)

U.S. Army Proving Grounds


Yuma, Arizona
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Solar Array Deployment Testing

Testing and Deployment of 5.5m (18ft)-Diameter UltraFlex Solar Arrays


Goleta, California
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Launch Abort System – Successful Motor Tests

Attitude Control Motor Jettison Motor

Abort Motor
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Integration and Testing
Crew Module Flight Test Article

Dryden Flight Research Center - California


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Progress Toward Pad Abort 1 Flight Test

Crew Module and Adapter Cone Acoustic Test

Launch Abort System Motors Delivery Adapter Cone Fit Check Center of Gravity Test

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Installation of Integrated Avionics Pallet

Dryden Flight Research Center - California

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Orion Launch Complex Facility
White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

Ascent Abort Gantry

Flight Integration and Test Facility Mobile Operations Flight Test Control Room
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Spacecraft Environmental Test Facility
A National Asset

Renovations at the Spacecraft Environmental Test Facility


Plumbrook Station – Sandusky, Ohio

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Activation of Orion Production Facilities
♦ Operations & Checkout Facility (O&C)
• 100% of construction complete below cost, ahead of schedule
• Installation of assembly, integration & production tooling in work
• Steady progress on tooling, training, systems and processes

♦ Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF)


• 85% of construction complete on cost and on schedule
• Currently supporting Orion production
♦ Canister Rotation Facility
• Minor modifications in work to support Orion Launch
Abort System (LAS) assembly, integration and production Test Systems Activation
Operations & Checkout Facility

O&C Tools Designed

GTA Tooling Complete, Operational Completed Operations & Checkout Facility


Michoud Assembly Facility, Louisiana Kennedy Space Center, Florida
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Production Facilities Now Online
♦ Orion Crew Module Ground Test Article in Fabrication
• Manufacturing of the Orion Ground test Article (GTA) in progress

♦ Launch Abort System for Pad Abort 1 in Final Assembly


♦ Orion Service Module
• Facility, tooling, supply chain, etc. and support ready for Orion production

Ground Test Article Weld Barrel Panel Forming


Michoud Assembly Facility Michoud Assembly Facility

Window Bulkhead for Ground Test Article


Michoud Assembly Facility – New Orleans, Louisiana

Launch Abort System Motor integration


White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico
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Early Program Production Improvements
Enables Significant Risk Reductions in Production and Resulting Life Cycle Costs

Improvements Incorporated into Orion Vehicle

Significant Structured Improvement Activities

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Orion Production Has Started !

Ground Test Article Friction Stir Welding


Michoud Assembly Facility – New Orleans, Louisiana

Ground Test Article Panel Fabrication


AMRO Fabricating Corporation - El Monte, California
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3100 Orion Team Members Nationwide
Nevada Nebraska Colorado Connecticut
• Arcata Associates • General Dynamics ATP • Lockheed Martin – Space Systems Company • EMA • SEAKR Engineering • Hamilton Sunstrand Space
• Advanced Solutions Inc. • Glass Parametric • Syzygyx Systems International
Utah Minnesota • Cullimore & Ring Technologies, Inc. • ISYS Technologies • TTJ&B Inc • Ensign Bickford Aerospace &
• Utah State • Goodrich Sensor Systems • Deep Space Systems • Instar • VTT Defense
University • Denver Research Institute • Miller Technology Group • Pioneer
• Eagle Aerospace • Red Canyon • Yardney Technical Products
Washington New York
• Corsair WA
• Alliance Space Systems
• Safeware New Hampshire
Engineering • Haigh-Farr
Wisconsin Massachusetts
• Strohwig MN NH
• Textron
Indiana WI NY MA
CT Pennsylvania
• Major Tool • Teletronics Corp
Kansas PA Maryland
• Benecor, Inc. NE IN • Lockheed Martin
NV Glenn MD • Jackson & Tull
UT OH • Emergent Space
Ames LM Goddard
CA CO KS VA Langley
MO
Dryden Virginia
• Orbital Sciences Corporation
• Alion
JPL AZ NM Ohio
California Marshall • University of Dayton
• Aerojet White Sands • Sierra Lobo
• Alejo Engineering, Inc. AL
• ATA Engineering, Inc. Arizona Florida
LA
• ATK • Honeywell TX FL
• Brevard Canvas and Marine
• Hi Shear • General Dynamics AIS LM • Productivity Apex
• JFA Avionics Systems • Paragon Space
• Midcom Development Corp LM Kennedy
• Specialty Devices, Inc.
Texas Johnson
• Stellar Solutions, Inc • United Space Alliance Louisiana Alabama
• Lockheed Martin Orion • Infinity Technologies
Project • Lockheed Martin
• Draper
• Cimarron Management
• GHG Corporation
Missouri
• Eagle Pichers
• MEI Technologies
• MRI Technologies
National Aeronautics
National Aeronautics and
and Space
Space Administration
Administration • Odyssey Research (UT El Paso) 36
Schedule

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Orion Baseline Schedule
FY-2006 FY-2007 FY-2008 FY-2009 FY-2010 FY-2011 FY-2012 FY-2013 FY-2014 FY-2015
A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M AM J J A S O N D J F M A M J J AS O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M

Major Re-Alignment Requirements Re-Alignment 2 PA 1 AA3 Orion-1 Orion-2


Milestones AA 1 PA 2
ATP NET 1/6 10/15 9/1
SRR PDR 2/08 12/1
IBR SDR SBR AA 2 5/1 3/1
8/21 CDR Block 1 DCR
12/1
607 Closeout ERB
Rqmnts/ SSDR SSDR
OVEIWG DAC 4 DAC5 VAC 1 VAC 2 VAC 3 VAC 4 VAC 5 VAC6 VAC7 VAC8
Design/ DAC 2 DAC 3
Analysis RAC 3 DAC 1 Primary Critical Path
IPT FEM Dev LA 4 Loads
LA 4 Loads
Sizing Complete
Secondary Critical Path
Loads FEM
LAS Proc/Fab
Flight Tests PA 1 AA 1 AA 2 PA 2 AA3
NET 1/6 Procurement
(PA-1, AA-1, AA-2, PA-2, AA-3) 12/1 12/1 5/1 10/15
Long Lead Procurement

Flight Software Spiral 1 Spiral 2 Spiral 3 Spiral 4 Spiral 5 Spiral 6 Spiral 7 Spiral 8 Spiral 9 Spiral 10 Spiral 11 Spiral 12 Spiral 13 (+) O&M/ DR/ Test Spt.Procurement
CAIL
Eng Rel 1 Eng Rel 2 Eng Rel 3 Sys Qual Rel Flt Rel 1 Flt Rel 2
Orion 1 Orion 2 MAF Welding
Sys Qual Rel Final Rel Final Rel
Actual (Complete)
GTA PRR

Acoustic data to CDR

Ground Test Article (GTA) CM AI&T Test Systems Flight Qualification


IVGTA Delivery
Includes LAS (Fairing)
Test
prior to Orion-2 Delivery for
SM / SA AI&T
Launch Processing

CM AI&T
Structural Test Article (STA) Test
Component Fabrication SM / SA AI&T

of Qualification Component / ILOA Qual Testing


Component Qualification Hardware Launch Dates
6 months GO
Processing
Long Lead Hardware Syst Qual Engine Systems Avail

CM
CAIL/EDL-Orion Dev RIGs (EDUs for CAIL and EDL) Proc / Fab
Systems Qualification AI&P 1 Flt Qualification
SM / SA

Assembly, Integration, & Production


Mate
of Qualification Vehicle CM GO Need
Orion-1 CAIL RIG 2 Ship Sets (FEU) Proc / Fab
AI&P ATP LS Ops
SM / SA

Mate GO Need
CM
Orion- 2 Orion 2 Delivered June 2014 LS Ops
AI&P ATP
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SM / SA
System Qualification Test
(
CM AI&P Super Guppy
1m
(O&C) Assy CEV

ESM AI&P
Ship to SPF CM, SM/SA SM/SA w/Fairing + CM
ALAS AI&P 1m (Basedrive Sine Vib Test
Vibration w/ Ti Heat Shield)*

All system Functional,


Performance, Mission CEV *Alternate Random Vibe (TBD)
Sequence and Pre-Ship 2m
Testing Complete prior
Acoustics
In Acoustics chamber @
to shipment to PBS Ambient Pressure
CEV Config. w/GSE stub LAM,
SM Qual Level, 2 test – 1st w/ 4 SM Fairing
tanks full, 2nd w/ 2 tanks filled Fairing Sep. 1st motion
Pyro Shock
LAV In Disassembly Area
Acoustics S/A. HGA Deployment

SM/SA Pyro
In Chamber: SM/SA Shock
Shock
CM, LAS Fairing, LAS Combined 1m Combined 1m
Nominal launch & Abort Level • 1 Cycle TB
• 7 Cycles TV
LAS Pyro 5.5m
TB/TV
Shock

LAS/CM In Acoustics Chamber


CM/SM 1.5m
EMI/EMC

Qual Vehicle - ATLAS Sep


EMC/EMI in TV Chamber CM/SM + LIDS Sep
Flight Like Production Article Drogue Bridgewire
– Inert ALAS Pyro Shock Fwd Bay Cover Sep
– Current exceptions are: Heat Shield
Righting System Bridgewire
• One CM RCS Thruster Ship-set CM/SM Shock
R&R (TBR)

1 Nominal Mission Complete SM Fairing CM


Separation Abort Test
1m 2m 39
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System Qualification Test (cont.)

Pyro Shock,
Separation
CM/SM Pyro Shock
In TV Chamber
Parachute
Mortar
Door Eject
SM Fairing Full Motion Fairing Sep
CM Vib
Separation Landing
1m 1m
• In vacuum
• SM under load
Pyro Shock,
Qualified Separation • Final Performance Test
for Orion 1 • Configure for Shipment
1m
Human in the Loop Demos
in Powered Vehicle
Other Rqmnts
Human in the Docs - HSIR
CEV
Loop Demos
Lightning ESM Lunar
4m
Re-Config 1m
4m
Return SM to O&C,
Refurb & Return to
Plum Brook
Acoustics 2m
ESM Lunar Config Super Guppy
ESM Lunar Configuration
Qual Unit is Retired to
Testing (TBR) ESM Vib EDL to support future
Ship to Houston
Lunar Config 1m EDL
Human in the Loop
Verification Demos and
Future Block Upgrades

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Assembly, Integration and Production
Operations & Checkout Facility

Service Module Upper SM is populated with Friction Stir Used to mate upper and lower crew
Superstation components prior to SM integration Welder module segments
with the Crew Module (CM)
Pressure Chamber Proof test of closeout weld that Crew Module Aft portion of the Crew Module
connects the upper and lower portions Aft Station is populated with components
of the CM
Flex Station Added production capacity during
TVAC Conduct of acceptance thermal flight test vehicle builds and provides
vacuum testing of integrated spacecraft
future growth
Integration Cell CM is stacked with SM and Spacecraft
Adapter; final acceptance testing. Crew Module Upper CM populated with
Superstation components (prior to CM mate),final
Proof Pressure Cell Structurally reinforced cell for welded CM installations and testing occur
propulsion and ECLSS tubing proof
tested after CM mate prior to CM integration
with the Service Module (SM)
Airlock Entry of large scale components
without compromise of cleanliness

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System Qualification
Assembly, Integration and Production Schedule Flow

Crew Module Fabrication

Crew Module Aft SS Install and Test

Crew Module Aft 2 SS Install and Test

Crew Module Fwd SS Install and


Test (also Welds & Test)

Crew Module Integrated


Systems Install

Crew Module/Service Module


Service Module Fabrication Vehicle Integration

Systems Flight Qualification

Service Module Integrated


Systems Install

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.

Crew Module Component Delivery Schedules


System
System Qualification AI&P - PMR09 U&V
Flight Qualification
Crew Module Subsystem Component Watch List (less Avionics) based on LM Component Matrix 7-20-09

Spec Rel Float Start Finish FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15
Need Dat (ATP) J F MA M J J A S ON D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S ON D J F MA M J J A S O N D J F MA M J J A S ON D J F MA M J J A S ON D J F MA M J J A S
PDR CDR Orion-1 Orion-2
Milestones 9/8/06 3/1/15 8/21 2/8 9/1 3/1

Qual CM Aft-1 H/W Installation 1/5/12 2/29/12 1/5 2/29

Need Qual CM Aft-1 Hardware 12/1/11 12/1/11 12/1


ECLS Hardware Component Deliveries • Evaluate all system qual
CM Pressue Control Subsytem (PCS) Hardware 0d hardware in component
OPCC1 (O2 Pressure Control Sub) 6/25/08 0d 9/23/08 12/1/11 12/1 procurement matrix
CM Active Thermal Control (ATC) Hardware 0d
FCV1 (External Flow Control Valve) 5/4/08 0d 8/2/08 12/1/11 12/1
CM Waste Management Hardware 0d • Calculate margins to
UCS1 (Urine Collection Tank SubAssy) 9/26/08 0d 12/25/08 12/1/11 12/1 AI&P need dates
Qual CM Aft-2 H/W Installation 3/1/12 5/2/12 3/1 5/2

Spec
Need Qual CM Aft-2 Hardware Supplier 2/1/12 2/1/12 Hardware 2/1 2/1
ECLS Hardware Component Deliveries
Release ATP
CM Air Revitalization System (ARS) Hardware 0d Delivery
CHC1 (CO2 & Humidity Control Sub)
CM Active Thermal Control (ATC) Hardware
9/11/08 0d
0d
12/10/08 2/1/12 to AI&P 2/1

CFC1 (Internal Coolant Flow Control Subassembly) 11/20/08 0d 2/18/09 2/1/12 2/18 2/1
Qual CM Fwd-1 H/W Installation 3/1/12 5/2/12 3/1 5/2

Need Qual CM Fwd-1 Hardware 2/1/12 2/1/12 2/1 2/1


ECLS Hardware Component Deliveries
CM Air Revitalization System (ARS) Hardware 0d
SNF1 (Snorkel Fan Sub) 3/9/08 0d 6/7/08 2/1/12 2/1
CM Fire Detection and Suppression Hardware 0d
CGAO1 (Contingency Gas Analyzer) 12/4/08 0d 3/4/09 2/1/12 3/4 2/1

Qual Weld/Test/NDE/Paint 5/3/12 7/2/12 5/3 7/2


Qual CM Intgr-1 H/W Installation 7/3/12 8/27/12 7/3 8/27

Need Qual CM Intgr-1 Hardware 5/30/12 5/30/12 5/30 5/30


ECLS Hardware Component Deliveries
CM Air Revitalization System (ARS) Hardware
Options 9/22/08
to Increase
AVTC1 (Ventilation & Temperature Control Sub)
CVTC1 (Cabin Ventilation & Temp Control Sub)
0d
12/25/08 0d
12/21/08
3/25/09
Schedule
5/30/12
5/30/12
Confidence 3/25
5/30
5/30

LWC1 (LCG Water Cooling Sub) • Assembly,


CM Active Thermal Control (ATC) Hardware
1/8/09
0d
0d Integration
4/8/09 5/30/12 & Production 4/8 5/30
LRS Hardware Component Deliveries
Drogue Parachute Mortar Assembly
Auxiliary Parachute Gun Assembly
Delivery
10/18/08 Dates
0d
10/18/08 0d
2/15/09
2/15/09
5/30/12
5/30/12
2/15
2/15
5/30
5/30

Qual CM Intgr-2 H/W Installation • Dollars to accelerate


8/28/12 10/1/12 8/28 10/1

Need Qual CM Intgr-2 Hardware 7/31/12 7/31/12 7/31

Qual Vehicle Integ. Installations / Test • Mass efficiency 10/2/12 12/24/12 10/2 12/24

Need Qual Vehicle Integ. Hardware 9/4/12 9/4/12 9/4


Delivery to Qual Test 12/31/12 12/31/12 12/31

Flight Qualification Test 1/7/13 2/28/14 1/7 2/28

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Optimizing the Details
2015 Launch Schedule

♦ Current budget was infused with additional program dollars


from stimulus and reserves
• Increased confidence through additional early engineering development
unit testing and other risk mitigations

• Increased margin by starting higher risk critical path activities early

♦ Detailed task planning enabled prioritization and streamlining


of critical path
• Detailed procurement schedules of all components with manufacture
and assembly/tests dates have been generated

♦ Analysis of schedule has identified and validated critical paths


and risk mitigation opportunities

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Mass Management

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Orion Spacecraft Mass Status
Current ISS (6-Crew) Mass Status Mass Summary
Total Spacecraft GLOW Current Best Estimate Weight 54329 lbm
Mass Growth Allowance at PDR 4325 lbm
Mass Management Reserves held at PDR 2090 lbm
Total Mass Estimate at PDR 60744 lbm
Total Spacecraft GLOW Control Mass - ISS 61015 lbm
Total Orion (under) Control Mass -271 lbm

Total Orion GLOW Margin at PDR (wrt Dry Mass) 15.6%


Total Orion Injected Margin at PDR (wrt Dry Mass) 18.4%

Current Lunar Mass Status Mass Summary


Total Spacecraft GLOW Current Best Estimate Weight 62243 lbm
Mass Growth Allowance at PDR 4227 lbm
Mass Management Reserves held at PDR 2090 lbm
Total Mass Estimate at PDR 68560 lbm
Total Spacecraft GLOW Control Mass - Lunar 66706 lbm
Total Orion (over) Control Mass +1854 lbm

Total Orion GLOW Margin at PDR (wrt Dry Mass) 12.2%


Total Orion Injected Margin at PDR (wrt Dry Mass) 10.7%

Mass Reduction Opportunities


Unrealized ISS reductions Orion propellant load changes
Block upgrades implementation Addl Lunar mission refinements
CM/SM reallocations

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Human Rating

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 47


Human-Rating Requirements Failure Tolerance

NPR 8705.2 Rev B was released in May 2008 and established


the current accepted Agency approach to failure tolerance for
safety engineering
• The space system shall provide failure tolerance to catastrophic events
(minimum of one failure tolerant), with the specific level of failure tolerance
(one, two or more) and implementation (similar or dissimilar redundancy)
derived from an integrated design and safety analysis (per the requirement
in paragraph 2.3.7.1) (Requirement)

NASA developed process and criteria for deriving appropriate


failure tolerance to support design process

• Uses Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Failure Modes and Effects


Analysis, system reliability analyses, related engineering analyses
and evaluation

• Safety analysis is done iteratively with design and the risk assessments
are updated as information and analyses mature.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 48


Risk Informed Design
Reduces Risk, Improves Safety and Increases Mission Success

♦ Rigorous safety analysis required to support risk informed design


decision process throughout the lifecycle
♦ Formal review ongoing with independent Constellation Safety Panel
• 78 flight hazards identified (57 reviewed to date)

• ~25 ground hazards identified

♦ Design issues identified through safety process and worked


through Orion design team
• 4500+ preliminary FMEAs developed and reviewed for PDR

• 4000+ candidate CILs reviewed at tech reviews, Subsystem Design Reviews, and
Orion Critical Item Review as part of PDR process

♦ Over 60 design changes identified through this process


were incorporated to reduce safety risk to crew and increase
mission success

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Risk Informed Design

Illuminates Top Enables Risk Based Decisions


Risk Drivers

Reduces Overall Risk

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Summary

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The Orion Team Has Met the Challenge

Orion’s low earth orbit and Lunar capable human System


is fully integrated
• Conducting rigorous systems engineering to meet all requirements
• Achieving a robust and safe vehicle with Risk Informed Design
• Lowering life cycle costs with producability design

Orion has a stable design that meets the mission of


International Space Station, Lunar and beyond

Production has begun!

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