This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. In an ideal world. Water management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. This is rarely possible in practice. Water is an essential resource for all life on the planet. Of the water resources on Earth only three per cent of it is not salty and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. Of the remaining one per cent, a fifth is in remote, inaccessible areas and much seasonal rainfall in monsoonal deluges and floods cannot easily be used. At present only about 0.08 per cent of all the world’s fresh water. is exploited by mankind in ever increasing demand for sanitation, drinking, manufacturing, leisure and agriculture Much effort in water management is directed at optimizing the use of water and in minimizing the environmental impact of water use on the natural environment. Successful management of any resources requires accurate knowledge of the resource available, the uses to which it may be put, the competing demands for the resource, measures to and processes to evaluate the significance and worth of competing demands and mechanisms to translate policy decisions into actions on the ground. For water as a resource this is particularly difficult since sources of water can cross many national boundaries and the uses of water include many that are difficult to assign financial value to and may also be difficult to manage in conventional terms. Examples include rare species or ecosystems or the very long term value of ancient ground water reserves.
which kills 1. Scientists have been working to find ways to reduce contamination of food using a method called the 'multiple-barrier approach'. Actions that reduce or remove contamination. Common illnesses include diarrhoea. viruses and parasitic worms. In the areas surrounding urban centres. then considering where it might be possible to create a barrier against contamination. . Barriers include: introducing safer irrigation practices. have the potential to save a large number of lives and improve livelihoods. As cities offer the best opportunities for selling produce. agriculture must compete with industry and municipal users for safe water supplies. while traditional water sources are becoming polluted with urban wastewater. a figure expected to reach two-thirds by 2050. Depending on how developed a city’s wastewater treatment is.1 million people annually and is the second most common cause of infant deaths. there can be significant health hazards related to the use of this water. Wastewater from cities can contain a mixture of pollutants. the water that farmers use for irrigating crops is contaminated with pathogens from sewage. This involves analysing the food production process from growing crops to selling them in markets and eating them. Developing world countries tend to have the lowest levels of wastewater treatment. Heavy metals may also be present. promoting on-farm wastewater treatment. farmers often have no alternative to using polluted water to irrigate their crops. and effectively washing crops after harvest in markets and restaurants. taking actions that cause pathogens to die off. This means that the water usually contains excessive levels of nutrients and salts.Managing water in urban settings Half of the world’s people now live in towns and cities. There is usually wastewater from kitchens and toilets along with rainwater runoff. as well as a wide range of pathogens. such as oestrogens. Many cholera outbreaks are also related to the reuse of poorly treated wastewater. Often. which directly affect farmers’ health and indirectly affect consumers if they eat the contaminated crops. along with traces of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors. The pathogens of most concern are bacteria. therefore.
and bogs. among others. Bolivia and Paraguay in South America. To replace these wetland ecosystem services enormous amounts of money have been spent on water purification plants and remediation measures. cypress. gum. and many others. sedges.(often from agricultural runoff from the farms that replaced the wetlands in the first place). Wetlands have historically been the victim of large-scale draining efforts for real estate development. reptiles. Wetlands provide a valuable flood control function. freshwater. Animal life includes many different amphibians. constructing dams. . The world's largest wetland is the Pantanal which straddles Brazil. Wetlands include swamps. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems. insects. marshes. cattails. The water found in wetlands can be saltwater. Wetlands are very effective at filtering and cleaning water pollution. and mammals. black spruce. or flooding for use as recreational lakes. water lilies. levees and other artificial flood controls. Since the 1970s. more focus has been put on preserving wetlands for their natural function — sometimes also at great expense. birds. Plant life found in wetlands includes: Mangrove.A wetland is an area of land whose soil is satturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. tamarack. By 1993 half the world's wetlands had been drained. Such areas may also be covered partially or completely by shallow pools of water. or brackish.
and oceans. ponds.Undisturbed Water Cycle Rainwater runs off the land into water bodies. and roofs. It also percolates into the soil. Percolation recharges groundwater and filters pollutants. Impacted Water Cycle Development puts impervious surfaces. Most of the rainwater runs off the land carrying . Through both pathways. rivers. roads. sidewalk. wetlands. water makes its way into our creeks. that prevent percolation.
pollutants into water bodies. this time to single out one of their projects. Furthermore. we have to return for a third time back to P-REX. At only 6 km from Latina. this project proposes to “reintroduce a gigantic new wetland machine” to cleanse and adaptively reuse one of the highly polluted zones of Italy's Lazio region. km. The Wetland Machine’s dimensions are directly related to the amount of wetland area needed to treat the amount of water in the Canale Aque Alth—the major collector for this highly polluted zone. . Without percolation. It is both a productive filtration system and a regional recreation area. The design retro-fits and widens existing canals to serve as flow distributors. in collaboration with Case Brown. consolidated wetland site will likely be more viable in the complex patchwork of land ownership. the drained Pontine Marshes. Given Latina’s situation distributed treatment areas would be both enormously complex to purchase and ineffective to manage. the Pontine Systemic Design. The result of Alan Berger's year as the Prince Charitable Trust Rome Prize recipient in Landscape Architecture. At 2. at the American Academy in Rome. flooding is more frequent and severe. Quoting the project summary at length: Choosing a gigantic. with a load around 50+ mg/l of N.3 sq. At 220 l/s. at least 2 square kilometers of treatment wetland will be required. the new wetland machine will drastically improve the regional water supply and provide needed open space for recreation. Of course.. soil cut/fill operations are used for terraforming shallow ridges and valleys to hold/treat water and make raised areas for new public space and program.
starker edges for fishing and water storage. Early this summer.the site could house programs and environments almost completely lacking in the region—large open landscapes with diverse vegetation. Extensive edge habitat diversity or programs—shallow shoals for juvenile fish and swimming. the President of Latina Province launched a feasibility study to evaluate the potential of this wetland machine. .
Gosselink) Wetland machines (pruned.org Wetland Conservation (William J. James G.com/2008/07/we-wetlandmachines .Bibliografie: 1) 2) 3) 4) Wetlands and waterbodies (Wolfram Kircher) Wikipedia.blogspot. Mitsch.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.