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Types of imperfections Introduction into analysis global sway imperfections local bow imperfections bracing system imperfections

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Geometrical Imperfections p

Variance of dimensions of a structure or a member

b

e0

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Geometrical Imperfections p

N

eo,d

Member Imperfection

Frame imperfection

Frame imperfection

always to be allowed for

Member imperfection:

only for slender members (rare) in sway frames frames, otherwise it is covered in the relevant buckling curves

3

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Residual stresses: Distribution in a I-section

r r

fy

e0

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In order to cover the effects of imperfections, engineers need to make appropriate allowances in the structural analysis. The following imperfections should be taken into account: Global imperfections for frames and bracing systems; Cover lack of verticality for frames or straightness of structure restrained by y bracings g Local imperfections p for individual members Cover lack of straightness or flatness of a member and residual stresses of the member

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F Frame i imperfection f ti can be replaced by an q closed system y equivalent of horizontal forces applied at the floor levels (i l di (including the th foundation f d ti level). For building frames sway imperfections, p , , may be disregarded where: H Ed 0.15VEd

F1 F1

F2 F2

h

(F1+F2)/2 (F1+F2)/2

Equivalent forces

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Factor

The factor can be calculated from equation (5.5) of EN 1993:

= 0 h m

Where, 0 is the basic value: h is the reduction factor for height h applicable to columns: 2 2 h = but h 1 3 h h is the height of the structure in meters m is the reduction factor for the number of columns in a row: 1 m = 0.51 + m m is the number of columns in a row

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The effects of local bow imperfection can be replaced by an equivalent closed system of horizontal forces, introduced for each column. NEd

NEd

4 N Ed e0 L

e0

8 N Ed e0 L2

NEd

NEd

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4 N Ed e0 L

The values of Relative initial local bow imperfections of members for flexural buckling e0/L are given in Table 5.1 in EN 1993.

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Usually y local imperfections p are ignored g in g global analysis and covered by reduction factors and LT in member checks. for the frame is sensitive to 2nd order effects, local bow imperfections p should be incorporated p into structural analysis when:

A member has at least one moment resistant end joint; The slenderness

> 0 .5

Af y N Ed

Wh Where, NEd is i the h design d i value l of f the h compression i force f hinged at its ends. ends

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10

Bracing systems may provide lateral stability of a strut in compression or a beam in bending For members to be restrained, the strut/beam should be considered with a geometrical imperfection (initial bow) through an equivalent geometric imperfection in the form of an initial bow imperfection.

e0 = m L / 500

Where, L is the span of the bracing system

m = 0.51 +

1 m

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11

The bow with amplitude e0 may be replaced by transverse uniform loading qd The loading qd corresponds to impact of sum of the amplitude e0 and the in-plane deflection of the bracing system q.

Member in compression (or compression g force flange of a beam) Bracing system

NEd

e0

NEd

q d = NEd 8

e0 + q L2

L

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The members of the p portal frame are p proposed p as made of rolled rods (beam: 533210 UB109, column: 305305 UC158). hr=2000

h 8000 h=8000

L=24000

Figure 1

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13

Load Combination

The combinations of loads are analyzed, y , refer to Figure g 2: self-weight & imposed load and wind load w = 10kN/m 40kN 40kN

imp p1

+3kN/m

Figure 2

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-2kN/m

14

For formulas see EN 1993-1-1

need to be considered Sway imperfection got global analysis:

1 2 = 0 h m = 0.87 = 0.003 200 8

Where, , h =

2 h = 2 8 2 3

m = 0.51 +

1 1 = 0.51 + = 0.87 m 2

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Internal Forces

Global imperfections:

imp 1 = V = 0.003 (10 24 + 80) = 0.96 kN

NEd (kN)

VEd (kN)

MEd (kNm)

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Local Imperfection

Local imperfections for global analysis only if simultaneously (column concerned): One end of the member features a rigid connection: OK Slenderness for systemic length is greater than:

> 0,5

In this case,

A fy N Ed

8000 y iy 139 = 0.65 < 2.8 (this condition is not met) = = = 1 93.9 93.9 0.94

hcr

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Structural Analysis

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Structural Analysis

Structural behaviour Types of structural analysis 1st order analysis 2nd order analysis Elastic global analysis Plastic Pl ti global l b l analysis l i Simple modelling of structural analysis Example - 2nd order effects in portal frame

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Frame components Beams Beam-columns Beam columns Joints Beam Joint

Beam-column

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Continuous framing: Simple framing: Semi-continuous framing: rigid joint simple joint semi-rigid joint

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Structural Behaviour

Load Displacement Load parameter Full elastic response

Peak load

Frame

Elastic limit

Displacement parameter

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Structural Behaviour

Actual A t l response of f the th frame f is i non linear li Linear behaviour limited Non-linear behaviour due to: Geometrical influence of the actual deformed shape (second order effects) Joint behaviour Material yielding

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Sway Displacement i l Load

HEd NEd x h HEd NEd x

Frame

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P- effect : due to floor sway y 1st order frame stiffness modified dominant effect P- effect : due to beam-column deflection 1st order member stiffness modified significant only for relatively slender members which is rare

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Aims of global frame analysis Determine the distribution of the internal forces Determine the corresponding deformations Means Adequate models incorporating assumptions about the behaviour of the structure and its component: members and joints Basic principles to be satisfied: Equilibrium throughout the structure Compatibility C tibilit of f deformation d f ti between b t the th frame f components t Constitutive laws for the frame components Frame model - element model must satisfy the basic principles

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The internal forces & moments may be determined using either: First order analysis: Using the initial geometry of the structure, structure or Second-order analysis: Taking into account the influence of the deformation of the structure, e.g. both the sway effect (P- effect) and the P- effect (member deflection effect). The second-order effects should be considered if they increase the action effects significantly or modify significantly the structure behaviour.

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Elastic global analysis should be based on the assumption that the stress-strain behaviour is linear, whatever the stress level is. is Internal forces and moments may be calculated calculated, even if the resistance of the section is based on its plastic resistance. Elastic global analysis may also be used for cross sections ti th the resistance i t of f which hi h are limited li it d b by local l l buckling.

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General types of Elastic analysis:

LA: LBA: GNA: GNIA: Linear elastic analysis; Linear bifurcation analysis; y ; Geometrically non-linear analysis; Geometrically non-linear with imperfections analysis.

Fcr

LBA GNIA

e

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1st order elastic analysis

M

Indefinite linear elastic response of member sections and of joints Equilibrium established for the undeformed structural configuration

Elastic Mj M M

Mj

Elastic

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Load parameter

d order elastic analysis 2nd

cr

Indefinite linearlinear elastic response of member sections and j i t joints Equilibrium established for the deformed structure Allows for P P- effect and, if necessary, for P- effect

Displacement parameter 2nd order elastic anal analysis sis

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Plastic g global analysis y may y be used where: the members are capable of sufficient rotation capacity to enable the required q redistributions of bending g moments to develop. the stability y of members at plastic p hinges g can be assured. Rigid plastic analysis may be applied if no effects of the deformed geometry have to be considered.

F

Simplified scheme of plastic analyses

rigid-plastic analysis

plastic hinge fib plasticity fibre l ti it

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Rigid-plastic global analysis Rigid-plastic member section behaviour Rigid-plastic joint behaviour when plastic hinges are allowed there

Rigid plastic

Mpl.Rd M Mpl.Rd p Mj,Rd

Rigid plastic

Mj

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Load parameter

LRP3

1 2 3

Usually a first order analysis Find critical mechanism Easy application for simple frames e.g. industrial portal frames Serviceability y deflection check

W H B C

1

Displacement parameter

W D w H B h D

E A

Beam mechanism

W H B C

3

Sway y mechanism

h D w

Combined mechanism

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34

Elastic-perfectly plastic global analysis 2nd order analysis usually used Deterioration of frame stability as plastic hinges form Mj M Mpl.Rd M pl.Rd Mj.Rd j Rd Plastic hinge

Elastic-perfectly plastic response of member sections

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First-order analysis may be used, if the following criterion is satisfied: Fcr = 10 For elastic analysis: cr FEd (5 1) (5.1) Fcr = 15 For plastic analysis: cr

FEd

FEd

is the elastic critical buckling load for global instability mode based on initial elastic stiffnesses.

Fcr

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A approximative formula for cr given by Clause 5.2.1(4) may be applied to: Portals with shallow roof slopes; Beam and column frames

H Ed h cr = VEd H,Ed

Where, Where

(5.2)

HEd is the horizontal reaction at bottom of the storey VEd is the total vertical load at bottom of the storey H,Ed is the storey sway when frame loaded with horizontal loads h is the storey height

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Limits on portal frames given in NOTE 1B & 2B of Clause 5.2.1: Note 1B: the portal rafter slope is not steeper than 1:2 (26) Note 2B: the axial load in the rafters or beams is not significant. when

Af y 0 .3 N Ed

(5 3) or rearranged (5.3) d to t

N Ed d 0.09 N cr

N cr =

2 EI

L2

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Fcr if cr = F 10 Ed Strength design using 1st order elastic analysis

Axial loading is so low that no instability of members or the frame would occur. Neglect equivalent imperfections or fictitious forces. From EC 3 cl. 6.3.1.2 simple compression ( 1) is appropriate for a member with Ncr/NEd 25. Need to check EC 3 equation (5.3) for in-plane beam or rafter member slenderness if 0 ,3

Af y N Ed

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If

3 cr < 10

Strength design using amplified 1st order elastic analysis EC3 allows the moments to be determined by amplifying the moments from a 1st order elastic analysis by a multiple, provided the equivalent global imperfections or fictitious forces are included in the analysis. the horizontal force, H, due to imperfections will be increased by the factor:

1 1 1 but cr 3.0 so,

H= 1 1 1

(VEd )

cr

cr

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40

If

<3

cr

EC3 requires 2nd order analysis rather than simply amplifying the moments from 1st order analysis. The equivalent global imperfections or fictitious forces are to be included in the analysis.

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41

When a braced or unbraced frame has very low slenderness, slenderness such as

15

cr

Strength g design g using g 1st order p plastic collapse p analysis. y The equivalent global imperfections or fictitious forces can be ignored in the analysis.

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The framing g spacing g is 10m c/c, and 1/200 equivalent horizontal load was applied.

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Eigenvalue buckling analysis is applied to predict the theoretical buckling strength of the portal frame. This method corresponds the elastic buckling analysis; an eigenvalue buckling analysis of a column will match the classical Euler solution. The design load and constraints were used to calculate the eigenvalue, g because each load has an associated buckled mode. Q was used to analysis y the The software ABAQUS buckling model

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Buckling Analysis

Eigenvalue from buckling analysis

The boundary conditions: column base is pinned; All the beam-column joints are rigid; The column torsion is constrained; The torsion & out-of-plan rotation of rafter is constrained; the out-plan displacement of crane beam is limited.

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Buckling Modes

3 first buckling modes are shown for demonstration Including horizontal loads to simulate global imperfections

cr ,1

= 1.29

cr ,2

= 3.22

cr ,3

= 3.93

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Limits on portal frames using formula 5.2 Slope of rafter: (15.12-13):21.5=1:10 (5.5) is less than 26, the formula is available. The largest axial load of rafter is 50kN, and the elastic critical load of thus rafter is 1843kN.

So,

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47

Taking Equivalent Horizontal Loads into account to simulate global imperfection:

EHF =

F2 F1

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48

H,Ed is calculated by the software, and

H,Ed = 49mm

So,

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Method 3: BS 5950-1

This method is based on the plastic analysis, and was used in BS 5950. (see reference) For simplified, the axial load is calculated by software.

2 9

51 2 342

58

D C

37 492 316

B

250

558 743

505

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50

For the left hand bay (ABC): Ic = 14300cm4 Ir = 21400cm4 Lr= 16.078m

I c Lr 14300 16.078 R= = = 1.276 I r h 21400 8.422

3EI r cr = 1.2 Lr 1 + p h + 0 . 3 p L c r r R 3 210 214 109 = = 2.0 1.2 3 160781 + 250 10 8422 + 0 . 3 20000 16078 1 . 276

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For the right hand bay (DEF): Ic = 126000cm4 Ir = 41100cm4 Lr= 20.36m Pc =505kN (conservatively) Pr =34kN 34kN

3EI r cr = 1.2 Lr 1 + pc h + 0.3 pr Lr R 3 210 411 10 9 = 1.51 = 1.2 6 20360 1 + 505 13 10 + 0 . 3 34000 20360 4 . 8

Reference: Plastic Design to BS 5950, SCI publication, publication 1996

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Three method were used to calculate the factor cr Method 1: Method 2: Method 3:

cr

= 1.29

cr = 1.33

cr = cr = 1.51

The factor cr is less than 3, 3 and the second order effects must be considered in design.

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Shear resistance Bending B di moment resistance i Tension resistance Compression resistance.

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Shear Resistance

The design shear force is denoted by VEd (shear force design effect). The design shear resistance of a cross-section is denoted by Vc,Rd Rd and may be calculated based on a plastic (Vpl,Rd l Rd) or an elastic distribution of shear stress. The design shear force, VEd, should satisfy:

VEd Vc, Rd

1.0

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Th The usual l approach h is i to t use the th plastic l ti shear h resistance i t Vpl,Rd in practice The plastic shear resistance is essentially defined as the yield strength y g in shear multiplied p by y a shear area Av The yield strength in shear is related the yield strength in tension using the von Mises yield criterion

A Vpl,Rd =

V

fy 3

M0

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Shear Area Av

The shear area Av is in effect the area of the crosssection that can be mobilized to resist the design shear force with a moderate allowance for plastic redistribution.

For sections where the action is applied parallel to the web, this is essentially the area of the web (with some allowance for the root radii in rolled sections).

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Shear Area Av

EC 3

Rolled I and H sections, load parallel to web

Av = A 2bt f + (t w + 2r )t f hwt w

= 1.0 (refer to NA to SS)

BS 5950

Rolled I, H and Channel sections, load parallel to web Av = tD

Av = A 2bt f + (t w + r )t f

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Shear Area Av

EC 3

Welded W ld d I, I H & box b sections, i load parallel to web Av = hwt w = 1.0 ( (refer to NA to SS) )

BS 5950

Welded I, & box sections, load parallel to web

Av = td

Av =2 td

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Shear Area Av

EC 3

Rectangular hollow sections, load parallel to depth

Av = Ah / (b + h)

BS 5950

Rectangular hollow sections, load p parallel to depth p Av = AD(D+B)

Av = Ab / (b + h)

Av = 2 A /

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Eurocode 3 states that both cross-sectional cross sectional (in-plane (in plane bending) and member buckling resistance must be checked, i.e.

M Ed Mc,Rd M Ed M b,Rd

Cross-section check (In-plane bending) Member-buckling check

MEd = design bending moment Mc,Rd = design d b bending d resistance about b one principal l axis of a cross-section Mb,Rd b Rd = design buckling resistance moment

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EC 3 Class 1 & 2 cross-sections:

M c, Rd = M pl, Rd = Wplf y M0

BS 5950 Class 1 & 2 cross-sections: Mc = pyS 1.2 1 2 pyZ or Cl Class 3 cross-sections: i Mc = pyZ Mc = pySeff 1.2 pyZ Class 4 cross-sections: Mc = pyZeff

Class Cl 3 cross-sections: i

M c, Rd = M El, Rd = Wel, min f y M0

Class 4 cross-sections:

M c, Rd = Weff , min f y M0

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Section Modulus

Subscripts are used to differentiate between the plastic, elastic or effective section modulus. Plastic modulus Wpl Elastic modulus Wel Effective modulus Weff

The partial factor M0 is applied to all cross-section bending resistances , and equal 1.0.

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When the design value of the shear force is less than 50% of the design plastic shear resistance, i.e. VEd 0.5 Vpl,Rd, its effect on the moment resistance may be neglected. neglected When the design value of the shear force exceeds 50% of the design plastic shear resistance i.e. VEd > 0.5 Vpl,Rd, the yield strength fy should be reduced by (1 r) in the determination of the moment resistance, resistance Mc,Rd.

f yr = (1 ) f y

where = 2VEd 1 V pl , Rd

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EC 3 When, VEd > 0,5Vpl,Rd

An alternative approach is available to determine the reduced design plastic resistance i moment for f class l 1 and 2 I-sections.

BS 5950

When, Fv > 0.6 Pv F Cl For Class 1 or 2 cross sections i Mc = py (S Sv) For Class 3 semi-comp sections Mc = py (S Sv/1.5) F Cl For Class 4 slender l d sections ti Mc = py (Zeff Sv/1.5)

M V , y , Rd =

2 (W pl , y , Rd 0.25 Aw / tw ) f y

M0

M V , y , Rd M c , y , Rd

Aw = hwt w

2

2VEd = 1 V pl , Rd

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Tension Resistance

EC 3 states that tension resistance should be verified as follows:

N t , Ed N t , Rd

(Tension check)

Nt,Ed is the tension design effect Nt,Rd is the design g tension resistance Design tension resistance Nt,Rd is limited either by: , Yielding of the gross cross-section Npl,Rd Or ultimate failure of the net cross cross-section section Nu,Rd Rd Whichever is the lesser.

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For F members b connected t d by b welding ldi g tension resistance Nt,Rd q to the y yield Design t Rd is equal strength of the cross-section, Npl,Rd

N pl , Rd =

Af y

M0

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For members connected by y bolting, g, Nt,Rd t Rd is reduced due to holes and is the lesser of: 1. Yield resistance of gross section

N pl,Rd =

Af y

M0

Anet f u

Anett is the net area of the cross-section fu is the ultimate tension strength

0.9 is a reduction factor for eccentricity, stress concentration etc

N u, Rd = 0.9

M2

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Th The Net Area of f the h cross-section i is i the h gross area deduction for bolt holes For each fastener hole, deduction is the gross cross sectional area of the hole g Special rules apply for Angles connected through one leg; T sections and channels connected through outstands

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When the fastener holes are not staggered, gg , the total area to be deducted for fastener holes should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross-section perpendicular to the member axis. axis p

1

Anet = A nd 0t

n = number of holes

d0

Pl t thi Plate thickness k t

e2

p2

A Anet t

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Staggered Fasteners

When fastener holes are staggered, the total area to be deducted is the greater of: 1. The area for holes crossing a perpendicular cross section 2. the sum of the areas of all holes in any y diagonal g or zig-zag g g line across 2 the member less s t/4p for each gauge space in the chain of holes

Plate thickness t

d0

On section a a-a, a Net Area = A nd0t On section a-b, Net Area = A 2d0t s2t/4p Net cross-sectional area is the lesser of:

Anet = A nd d 0t

Anett s2 = A t nd 0 4 p 72

72

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Tension Resistance

BS 5950

EC 3 Tension resistance

N t , Rd = min (N pl , Rd ; N u , Rd )

N pl, Rd = Af y

Tension capacity

Pt = p y Ae

M0

Anet f u

For grade S275: Ke = 1.2 For grade S355: Ke = 1.1 For grade S460: Ke = 1.0 For other steel grades: Ke =(Us/1.2)/p /1 2)/py ag is the g gross area of the element an is the net area of the element

N u, Rd = 0.9

M2

Anet = A nd 0t

Anet = A nd 0t

MIN Staggered fasteners

Anet

s2 = A t nd 0 4 p

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Compression Resistance

The design g value of the compression p force NEd at each cross-section shall satisfy:

N Ed N c , Rd

For Class 1, 2 & 3 cross-sections Unaffected by local buckling Design i compression i resistance i Nc,Rd equals l the h plastic resistance Npl,Rd:

N c , Rd =

Af y

M0

M1 = 1.00, in NA to SS EN 1993-1

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Compression Resistance

For Class 4 sections: Local buckling of Class 4 prevents the attainment of the squash load Design D i compression i resistance i t limited li it d to t local l l buckling resistance,

N c , Rd =

Aeff f y

M0

Aeff is the area of the effective cross-section If Class 4 section is unsymmetrical, it has to be designed as beam-column due to the additional moment arising from eccentricity of the centroidal axis. axis

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Web bearing and buckling Resistance to transverse forces Verification Example

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Introduction

Web Bearing g and Web Buckling g are modes of failure that arise from concentrated forces being transversely applied onto the webs through the flanges of the sections. sections

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Plate Stiffener

79

79

Plate Stiffener

Waler Flange

Waler

Strut

Waler Web

80

Web bearing failure means that the web yields at the its most vulnerable location, close to the root radius at the junction of the web and flange where the force is concentrated. Buckling happens when the web behaves like a slender column and buckles. buckles At both ends of the web as a column, column it is assumed that the web is adequately restrained by the flange to which it is connected in the lateral direction, and therefore, the web can neither rotate nor move laterally.

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BS5950 1 requires BS5950-1 i th t two that t i d independent d t checks h k are carried i d for web bearing and buckling. EC3 presents a single check to deal with these two failure modes. This single check accounts for the bearing and b kli buckling of f the th web b when h th member the b i subjected is bj t d to t a transverse force.

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EC1993-1-5 distinguishes between two types of forces applied through a flange on to the web: i) forces resisted by shear in the web [load types (a) and (c)] ii) forces transferred through the web directly to the other flange [load type (b)].

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Buckling coefficients for different types of load application

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Web Failure

i. ii. For load type (a) and (c) the web is likely to fail as a result of: Crushing of the web close to the flange accompanied by yielding of the flange. Localised buckling and crushing of the web beneath the flange, the combined effect sometimes referred to as web crippling. crippling

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Web Failure

i i. ii. For loading type (b) the web is likely to fail as a result of: W b Crushing; Web C hi Buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member.

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For unstiffened or stiffened webs the design resistance to local buckling under transverse forces should be taken as:

FRd =

yw eff w

L t

M1

Where, tw is the thickness of the web; fyw is the yield strength of the web; M1 is the partial factor for resistance of members (M1 = 1.0 in SG National Annex) Leff is the effective length of web.

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The effective length g of web should be determined from:

Leff = f ly

where, f is the reduction factor due to local buckling ly is i the th effective ff ti loaded l d d length, l th appropriate i t to t the th length of the stiff bearing ss.

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The stiff bearing length ss on the flange should be taken as the distance over which the applied load is effectively distributed at a slope of 1:1 ss is less than hw

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The stiff bearing length is not given in EC3; it can be calculated with the following equations:

t T Ss r T Ss t s

ss=t+1.6r+2T

ss=t+1.6s+2T

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If the bearing g surface of the applied pp load rests at an angle g on the flange surface, as shown below, ss should be taken as zero.

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The effective loaded calculated as follow: For type (a) and (b) length ly should be

l y = s s + 2t f 1 + m1 + m 2

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For type (c) ly should be taken as the smallest value of the following equations.

2

l y = le + t f

l m1 e + + m2 2 t f

l y = l e + t f m1 + m 2

Where,

2 k F Et w le = ss + c 2 f yw hw

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m1 = f yf b f f yw t w

where, fyf is the yield strength of the flange fyw is the yield strength of the web

hw m 2 = 0.02 t f

m2 = 0

if F > 0.5

if F < 0.5

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Longitudinal g Stiffener kF

For web with longitudinal stiffeners kF may be taken as:

b1 hw k F = 6 + 2 + 5.44 - 0.21 s a a

Where, b1 is the depth of the loaded subpanel taken as the clear Where distance between the loaded flange and the stiffener

2

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Longitudinal g Stiffener kF

a s = 10.9 3 13 h hw t w w I sl ,1 b1 210 0 . 3 + a

3

Where, Isl,1 is the second moment of area of the stiffener closet to the loaded g flange including g contributing parts of the web according.

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Reduction Factor F

The reduction factor F should be obtained from:

F =

0 .5

1.0

where F = where,

l y t w f yw Fcr

3 tw Fcr = 0.9k F E hw

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The verification should be performed as follow:

FEd 2 = 1 .0 f yw Leff t w

M1

Where Fed Where, d is the design transverse force; Leff is the effective length for resistance to transverse forces; tw is the thickness of the plate.

CSP 08 - 2012

99

If the girder is subjected to a concentrated transverse force and bending , the combined effect should satisfy the following:

2 + 0.81 1.4

M Ed 1 .0 Where, 1 = f yW pl

M0

CSP 08 - 2012

100

Determine the resistance to transverse force of a 406 140 UB39 Grade S355 steel section under the type of load application shown below:

ss = 50 mm

c = 2725 mm

5500 mm

CSP 08 - 2012

101

Section Properties

b z r tf

y

h hw d

tw s z

CSP 08 - 2012

102

The load application is type (a) There are no web stiffeners, stiffeners a=, /a=0 hw/

kF hw = 6 + 2 =6 a

2

CSP 08 - 2012

103

3 tw Fcr = 0.9k F E hw

m1 = f yf b f f yw t w = 355 141.8 = 22.2 355 6.4

2 380 . 8 = 0.02 = 39.2 8.6 2

CSP 08 - 2012

104

l y = s s + 2t f 1 + m1 + m2

F =

=

ok

CSP 08 - 2012

105

F =

= 0.5

F

0.5 = 0.65 1.0 0.77

ok

FRd =

f yw Leff t w

M1

CSP 08 - 2012

106

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