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GSM Multiple Rate
Algorithm
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Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Understand the multiple rate algorithm function and types.
Master the parameters of multiple rate algorithm.
Be able to configure the data of multiple rate algorithm.
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Full Rate
Traffic Channel (TCH) carries coded voice data. The full-
rate TCH is initially adopted to carry information at the
gross rate 22.8Kbit/s. The information contains the source
coding rate of 13Kbit/s.
As technologies develop, the enhanced full rate, half rate,
multiple rate and other coding are introduced.
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Speech Version
Speech version indicates the voice coding technology.
Full Rate Full Rate
Speech Version1 FR
Speech Version2 EFR
Speech Version3 AMR
Half Rate Half Rate
Speech Version1 HR
Speech Version2 /
Speech Version3 AMR
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Circuit Pool Function
“Circuit pool number” actually represents the circuit type,
indicating the support capability of the voice codec.
Different circuit pool numbers can support different voice rates.
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Circuit Pool Function
Circuit Pool
Number
Supported Rate
1
FR speech version 1.FR data (12, 6, 3.6
Kbps)
2 HR speech version 1.HR data (6, 3.6 Kbps)
3
FR speech version 1.FR data (12, 6, 3.6
Kbps).
HR speech version 1.HR data (6, 3.6 Kbps)
4
FR speech version 2.FR data (12, 6, 3.6
Kbps)
5
FR speech version 1.FR speech version 2
FR data (12, 6, 3.6 Kbps)
6
FR speech version 2.FR data (12, 6, 3.6
Kbps)
HR speech version 1.HR data (6, 3.6 Kbps)
7
FR speech version 1.FR speech version 2
FR data (12, 6, 3.6 Kbps).HR speech
version 1
HR data (6, 3.6 Kbps)
Circuit Pool
Number
Supported Rate
23
FR speech version 3.HR speech
version 3
24
FR speech version 3.FR data (12, 6,
3.6 Kbps)
HR speech version 3
25
FR speech version 1.FR speech
version 2
FR speech version 3.FR data (12, 6,
3.6 Kbps)
HR speech version 3
27
FR speech version 1.FR speech
version 2
FR speech version 3.FR data (12, 6,
3.6 Kbps)
HR speech version 1.HR speech
version 3
HR data (6, 3.6 Kbps)
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Call Signaling Processing
BSC
ASS REQ
Channel ACT
Channel ACT ACK
ASS CMD
SABM
UA
EST IND
ASS CMP
ASS CMP
MS MSC BTS
Setup
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Call Signaling Message
Setup Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS REQ Message
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Call Signaling Message
Channel Act Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMD Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMP Message
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Contents
1. EFR
2. HR
3. AMR
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The Function of EFR
The Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) is a speech coding scheme with
an enhanced full rate. Using this coding scheme, you can provide
services with better speech quality.
In the wireless communications system, the EFR applies to only
speech services and is irrelevant to data services or signaling
services.
The EFR function adopts the CELP( Code Excited Linear
Predictive Coding) coding scheme, thus improves the quality of
the speech signal.
When EFR is adopted, the transmission rate of the speech
signal of an MS on the air interface is 12.2 kbit/s.
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EFR Call Set-up Flow
Common call (FR)
EFR call
Speech version in the
assignment request is EFR
Start
Finish
Yes
No
Whether support EFR
in the current cell?
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Call Signaling Message
Channel Act Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMD Message
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Call Signaling Processing
H·::u_·
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EFR Data Configuration
Configure “Cell Attributes/Call Control/Advanced/Access Control
/Speech Version”
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Contents
1. EFR
2. HR
3. AMR
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The Function of HR
The half rate voice coding uses a new voice coding algorithm
called VCELP VCELP ((Vector Vector--Sum Excited Linear Prediction Sum Excited Linear Prediction)) to reduce
the voice coding rate to half that of full rate voice service. Thus,
one physical channel that can only support one call under the
full rate can support two calls under half rate.
If the half rate service is used, the voice capacity expands twice
without adding TRXs. By adopting half rate service, the operator
can fully use the current network to expand the system capacity.
This saves the cost and eases the spectrum use.
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The Function of HR
T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T I T
T T T T T T S T T T T T T
t t t t t t t t t t t t s
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The Function of HR
Single·When a timeslot is used as two TCH/H channels, one
TCH/H channel is busy and another is idle, this idle
TCH/H channel is called single channel or channel
fragment or fragment.
Td'· Td'· Td'· Td'· bu:y bu:y bu:y bu:y
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The Function of HR
Couple·When a timeslot is used as two TCH/H
channels, and these two channels are both free,
this timeslot is called a couple.
Td'· Td'· Td'· Td'· Td'· Td'· Td'· Td'·
bu:y bu:y bu:y bu:y bu:y bu:y bu:y bu:y
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The Function of HR
|: |d|e ß· ·· ·ßusy
| ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß | ß ß ß ß ß ß
| | ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß
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Channel Assignment Strategies
If the half rate function is used, when BSC receives the
“assignment request” from the MSC, it will decides to use the
channel allocation algorithm according to channel assignment
strategy specified in the data configuration.
MSC channel assignment strategy
Assign the channel according to the MSC request. If the request from MSC
is "TCHF preferred", assign the full rate channel preferentially. If it is
"TCHH preferred", assign the half rate channel preferentially.
BSC channel assignment strategy
When the assignment request sent from MSC is "Full rate TCH preferred"
or" Half rate TCH preferred", BSC assigns the proper channel according to
the availability of idle full rate channel in the cell and the allowance of MSC.
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Channel Assignment Strategies
The BSC channel allocation strategy is the default strategy. That is,
when the network is idle, the full rate is used, otherwise, the half
rate is used.
For the call that uses the half rate preferentially, the single channel
is assigned preferentially to reduce the fragment.
If a cell has multiple TRXs, the channels on the TRXs that do not
allow the rate adjustment are assigned preferentially.
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Rate Adjustment Flow
If the channel assignment request is to choose the full rate channel only:
When there is idle full rate channel, assign the channel directly.
When there is no idle full rate channel in the cell, but there is idle couple
channel, convert the couple channel to full rate channel and then assign the
converted full rate channel.
When there is no idle full rate channel and idle couple channel in the cell, but
there is idle single channel, check whether the number of single channel in
the cell is more than one. If yes, initiate intracell handover to form a couple
channel and then convert the couple channel to full rate to assign.
Otherwise, reject the assignment request.
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Rate Adjustment Flow
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Assignment request
for TCHF only
Full rate available?
Couple channel
available?
More than one half
rate channel?
Request reject
Assign full rate channel
Convert couple channel to full
rate channel and then assign
the converted channel
Initiate intra-cell handover to
formcouple channel, and then
convert the couple channel to
full rate channel to assign
Start
End
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Rate Adjustment Flow
If the channel assignment request is to half rate only :
When there is idle single channel in the cell, assign the idle half rate channel
on the single channel directly.
When there is no idle single channel in the cell, but there is idle couple channel
in the cell, assign the idle half rate channel on the couple channel.
When there is no idle single channel and idle couple channel in the cell, but
there is idle full rate channel in the cell, convert the full rate channel into couple
channel and then assign the idle half rate channel on the couple channel.
Otherwise, reject the request.
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Rate Adjustment Flow
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Half rate only assignment request
Single channel available?
Couple channel available?
Full rate channel available?
Assignment fails
Assign half rate channel
Assign the half rate channel
on the couple channel
Convert the full rate channel
into couple channel and
then assign the half rate
channel on it
Start
End
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Rate Adjustment Flow
If the channel assignment request is to choose the full rate channel
preferentially:
When there is idle full rate channel in the cell, assign it directly.
When there is no idle single channel in the cell, but there is idle couple channel
in the cell, convert the couple channel into full rate channel and then assign it.
When there is no idle full rate channel and couple channel in the cell, check
whether the number of adjustable half rate channel in the cell is more than one.
If yes, initiate intracell handover to form a couple channel and then convert the
couple channel to full rate to assign
Otherwise, assign the idle half rate channel on the single channel.
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Rate Adjustment Flow
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Assign request for full rate preferentially
Full rate available?
Couple channel available?
More than one half rate channel?
Assign full rate channel
Convert the couple channel
into full rate channel to assign
Formcouple channel by intracell
handover and then convert couple
channel into full rate to assign
Start
End
Assign half rate channel
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Rate Adjustment Flow
If the channel assignment request is to half rate preferentially:
When there is idle single channel in the cell, assign the idle half rate channel
on the single channel directly.
When there is no idle single channel in the cell, but there is idle couple channel
in the cell, assign the idle half rate channel on the couple channel.
When there is no idle single channel and idle couple channel in the cell, but
there is idle full rate channel in the cell, convert the full rate channel into couple
channel and then assign the idle half rate channel on the couple channel.
Otherwise, assign the idle full rate channel.
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Rate Adjustment Flow
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Prefer half rate assignment request
Single channel available?
Couple channel available?
Full rate channel available?
Assignment TCH/F
Assign half rate channel
Assign the half rate channel
on the couple channel
Convert the full rate channel
into couple channel and
then assign the half rate
channel on it
Start
End
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Call Signaling Message
Channel Act Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMD Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMP Message
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HR Data Configuration
Configure “Site Attributes\multiplexing mode”(1:1 or 2:1 is recommended)
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HR Data Configuration
Configure “Call Control\Advanced\Access Control”
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HR Data Configuration
Configure “Cell Attributes\Other Parameter\Public Channel Control\
Support Half Rate”
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HR Data Configuration
Configure “Cell Attributes\TRX Attributes\Channel Attributes\
Channel Type”
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HR Data Configuration
Configure “Cell Attributes\TRX Attributes\Device Attributes\
TCH Rate Adjust Allow”
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HR Data Configuration
Configure “Cell Attributes\Channel Parameter\Basic Channel
Management Parameters\Enhanced TCH Adjust Allowed”
Configure “Cell Attributes\Channel Parameter\Advanced\TCH
Traffic Busy Threthold”
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HR Data Configuration
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HR Data Configuration
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HR Data Configuration
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Contents
1. EFR
2. HR
3. AMR
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Contents
3. AMR
3.1 AMR Overview
3.2 AMR Impact on the Network Quality
3.3 AMR Call&Handover Procedure and Parameter Introduction
3.4 AMR Optimization and Maintenance Strategy
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AMR Overview
AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) is a new voice coding technique after EFR,
FR, and HR.
Its core thought is to automatically select appropriate codec algorithm
and constantly select the voice coding rate according to change of the
uplink/downlink signal quality.
BER
MOS
Codec1
Codec2
Codec3
AMR
Different codec algorithms
produce voice code streams in
different rates so as to get the
optimal balance between voice
quality and system capacity.
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AMR Overview
AMR is a collection of multiple voice codec algorithms. AMR allows the
BTS and the MS to select appropriate codec algorithms according to the
actual situation of the radio environment.
AMR is applicable only to the voice service of the wireless communication
system. It is not related to data service and signaling service.
You need to obtain license to use AMR. The license is applied on one cell.
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AMR Overview
Channel
AMR Voice Coding Mode
(Rates)
TCH/FR
AMR
(8modes)
12.2 kbit/s (GSM EFR)
10.2 kbit/s
7.95 kbit/s
7.40 kbit/s
6.70 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s
5.15 kbit/s
4.75 kbit/s
TCH/HR
AMR
(6modes)
7.95Kbit/s
7.40 kbit/s
6.70 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s
5.15 kbit/s
4.75 kbit/s
AMR Voice Coding Mode (Rates)
Full-rate AMR supports eight voice
coding modes.
Half-rate AMR supports five voice
coding modes.
AMR Activated Voce Coding Set (ACS)
ACS defines the set of changes of the
voice coding rates during a call. This
set contains one~four coding modes.
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AMR FR
Experiment 1a - Test Results
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Condi ti ons
M OS
EFR
12.2
10.2
7.95
7.4
6.7
5.9
5.15
4.75
EFR 4.01 4.01 3.65 3.05 1.53
12.2 4.01 4.06 4.13 3.93 3.44 1.46
10.2 4.06 3.96 4.05 3.80 2.04
7.95 3.91 4.01 4.08 3.96 3.26 1.43
7.4 3.83 3.94 3.98 3.84 3.11 1.39
6.7 3.77 3.80 3.86 3.29 1.87
5.9 3.72 3.69 3.59 2.20
5.15 3.50 3.58 3.44 2.43
4.75 3.50 3.52 3.43 2.66
No Er r or s C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB C/I= 1 dB
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AMR HR
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Conditions
MOS
EFR
7.95
7.4
6.7
5.9
5.15
4.75
FR
HR
EFR 4.21 4.21 3.74 3.34 1.58
7.95 4.11 4.04 3.96 3.37 2.53 1.60
7.4 3.93 3.93 3.95 3.52 2.74 1.78
6.7 3.94 3.90 3.53 3.10 2.22 1.21
5.9 3.68 3.82 3.72 3.19 2.57 1.33
5.15 3.70 3.60 3.60 3.38 2.85 1.84
4.75 3.59 3.46 3.42 3.30 3.10 2.00
FR 3.50 3.50 3.14 2.74 1.50
HR 3.35 3.24 2.80 1.92
No Errors C/I=19 dB C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB
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Contents
3. AMR
3.1 AMR Overview
3.2 AMR Impact on the Network Quality
3.3 AMR Call&Handover Procedure and Parameter Introduction
3.4 AMR Optimization and Maintenance Strategy
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Impact of AMR on Network Quality(1)
Impact of AMR on Voice Quality
According to the simulation result, when C/I is greater than 6, the
voice quality performance in descending order is FR AMR, EFR, HR
AMR, FR, and HR. It can be seen that AMR can effectively improve
network quality.
The voice quality performance of HR AMR is the similar to FR,
However, radio bandwidth occupied by HR AMR in the Um interface
is only half of that of FR. Therefore, HR AMR can not only ensure the
good voice quality, but also increase the system capacity effectively.
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Impact of AMR on Network Quality(2)
Impact of AMR on Network Coverage
AMR Network Coverage Performance
AMR has excellent anti-interference capability. Under the same FER,
AMR supports lower CIR than non-AMR. Therefore AMR has better
coverage performance.
AMR Coverage Bottleneck
In the actual coverage capability of AMR is determined by the coverage
capability of the SACCH.
In application, the data——[RLT] and [SACCH Multi-Frames] should be
set to higher values for AMR channels to increase the robustness of the
SACCH. Thus the network coverage performance of AMR is improved
and the call drop rate is reduced.
Enhanced signaling link technique is available to improve it.
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Impact of AMR on Network Quality(3)
Impact of AMR on the Network Capacity
AMR can equivalently increase the total spectrum bandwidth
of the Radio System
AMR can tolerate lower C/I. With AMR, the number of cells in a
frequency reuse cluster is smaller and the spectrum reuse
degree is higher, compared with non-AMR.
AMR can reduce the radio bandwidth for a single user
When HR AMR is used, the number of channels doubles, while
the voice quality does not drop obviously.
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Impact of AMR on Network Quality(4)
Impact of AMR on KPIs
Traffic volume
The voice codec of AMR has low requirement for CIR, so in weak coverage areas
where calls could not be made before, AMR calls can be made, thus reducing the
possibility of user’s hang-up. Therefore, AMR can improve network traffic volume.
Call drop rate
AMR only optimizes the performance of the voice frames. In weak coverage areas,
because voice frames can be correctly decoded, users will not hand up a phone,
however, because the SACCH frames cannot be correctly decoded, the RLT times
out, leading to call drop. Therefore with AMR, the call drop rate can rise, while
enhanced signaling link technique is available to improve it.
Handover
AMR increases the width and depth of the network coverage. But C/I is low in these
weak coverage areas and the receive quality in the measurement report is poor,
triggering BQ handover. Therefore with AMR, the number of BQ handovers can rise.
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Contents
3. AMR
3.1 AMR Overview
3.2 AMR Impact on the Network Quality
3.3 AMR Call&Handover Procedure and Parameter Introduction
3.4 AMR Optimization and Maintenance Strategy
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AMR Call&Handover Procedure and
Data Configuration
In the BSC6000, the following AMR parameters need to be set
1. AMR basic data parameters
2. ACS and starting mode
3. Coding rate adjustment threshold and hysteresis (full rate)
4. Coding rate adjustment threshold and hysteresis (half rate)
5. Radio link timeout (RLT) and SACCH Multi-Frames
6. AMR radio channel management parameters
7. AMR handover parameters
8. AMR power control parameters
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AMR Parameter Introduction(1)
1. AMR basic data parameters
To active AMR, enable “full-
rate speech coding
algorithm 3” and “half-rate
speech coding algorithm 3”
on the MSC side.
In addition, configure the
corresponding interface flag
as GSM_PHASE_2+.
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AMR Parameter Introduction(1)
1. AMR basic data parameters
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AMR Call Set-up Procedure
Y
Finishes AMR call set up
BSC decides whether to
support AMR function
Normal Call
N
BSC receives the assigning
request sent by MSC
BSC decides whether to
assign channel that
supports AMR function
Relationship between voice type and
voice version
FR : Full rate /speech version 1
EFR: Full rate /speech version 2
FR AMR : Full rate /speech version 3
HR : Half rate /speech version 1
HR AMR : Half rate /speech version 3
Normal Call
N
Y
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Call Signaling Message
Channel Act Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMD Message
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Call Signaling Message
ASS CMP Message
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AMR Parameter Introduction(2)
2. ACS and Starting Mode
ACS should be set basing on the actual radio environment.
However, because of the complexity of the actual radio
environment and the randomness of users' behaviors, not all
of the coding modes can be listed. Generally, the worst
coding mode, the best coding mode, and two coding modes
between them are selected.
35
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AMR Parameter Introduction(2)
0 00 0
! !! !
? ?? ?
3 33 3
2. ACS and Starting Mode
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AMR Parameter Introduction(2)
0 00 0
! !! !
? ?? ?
2. ACS and Starting Mode
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AMR Parameter Introduction(3)
3. Coding Rate Adjustment Threshold and Hysteresis (FR)
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AMR Parameter Introduction(4)
4. Coding Rate Adjustment Threshold and Hysteresis (HR)
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AMR Parameter Introduction(4)
Principles of AMR Codec Mode Adjustment
The criteria for conversion of the voice codec mode is CODEC MODE 1~4
corresponding to THR_1~3 and HYST1~3
Assume that the active codec mode is CODEC_MODE_3 for example. When
C/I is greater than THR_3+HYST_3, the codec mode is switched to
CODEC_MODE_4; when C/I is smaller than THR_2, the codec mode is
switched to CODEC_MODE_2

CODEC_MODE_4
CODEC_MODE_3
CODEC_MODE_2
CODEC_MODE_1
C/I
THR_1 + HYST_1 = THR_MX_Up(1)
THR_1 = THR_MX_Dn(2)
THR_2 = THR_MX_Dn(3)
THR_2 + HYST_2 = THR_MX_Up(2)
THR_3 = THR_MX_Dn(4)
THR_3 + HYST_3 = THR_MX_Up(3)
The adjustment of the
practical voice codec
rate can only changes
step by step, while can
not jump over several
steps for sudden
changing of C/I
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Principle of AMR Coding Mode Adjustment
The uplink coding mode is detected by the BTS.
If the BTS discovers that the configured threshold is achieved, it initiates
“Coding Mode Change” command.
After the conversion of the coding mode is completed, the MS responds with
a “Coding Mode Indication” message.
AMRFR/HRUL Codec Mode Adjustment
Coding Mode Change
Coding Mode Indication
BTS detects that RQI
reaches the threshold
38
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Principle of AMR Coding Mode Adjustment
The downlink coding is detected by the MS(The same algorithm is used).
When the MS detects that the threshold is achieved, it initiates “Coding
Mode Request”.
The BTS either ignores or immediately responds to the request
depending on the actual situation.
Upon completion, the BTS sends a “Coding Mode Indication” message
to the MS.
Coding Mode Request
Coding Mode Indication
MS detects that RQI
reaches the threshold
AMRFR/HR DL Codec Mode Adjustment
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AMR Parameter Introduction(5)
5. Radio Link Timeout (RLT) and SACCH Multi-Frames
To increase the robustness of the SACCH channel, to
improve the AMR network coverage performance, and to
lower the call drop rate, in practice the RLT and SACCH Multi-
Frames should be set higher.
On the other side, Enhanced Signaling Link Technique is
available to improve it.
39
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Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Repeated Downlink FACCH
– Improve the probability of the
MS receiving the FACCH
frames in the poor radio
enviroment
Repeated SACCH
– Improve the robustness of
SACCH links
bSC \··:`ou: bSCb000\9l8C!?
bTS \··:`ou: bTS\3l8C03
HS \··:`ou: Tl· HS tlut :uµµo·t: 30ll lb
l·µ·ut·d /CC| l·µ·ut·d /CC| l·µ·ut·d /CC| l·µ·ut·d /CC| ·ou:`:t: o° ·ou:`:t: o° ·ou:`:t: o° ·ou:`:t: o° l·µ·ut·d Do»u'`uk l/CC| l·µ·ut·d Do»u'`uk l/CC| l·µ·ut·d Do»u'`uk l/CC| l·µ·ut·d Do»u'`uk l/CC| uud uud uud uud
l·µ·ut·d S/CC| l·µ·ut·d S/CC| l·µ·ut·d S/CC| l·µ·ut·d S/CC|
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page80
Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Repeated Downlink FACCH Technical Principle
Enable BSS to transmit the FACCH frames repeatedly when the measurement
result of the downlink link is lower than the threshold configured.
The repetition mechanism is as follows
0 ! ? 3 1 ¯ b ¯ 8 9 !0 !! !? !3 !1 !¯ !b !¯ !8 !9 ?0 ?! ?? ?3 ?1 ?¯
l ll l S SS S T TT T l ll l l ll l l ll l
··:·ut
··:·ut
40
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page81
Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Implementation of Repeated
Downlink FACCH Technical
1. Enable the cell-level switch
“Repeated Downlink FACCH ”
and configure “Repeated
Downlink FACCH Threshold”
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page82
Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Implementation of Repeated Downlink FACCH Technical
2. BSC decodes the capability of the MS support” Repeated ACCH ”,
and then informs BTS about the Repeated ACCH Capability of the
MS via “Channel Active” message when activizing TCH channel.
3. BTS determines whether to start to send repeated FACCH
messages by comparing the receive quality provided in the downlink
MR and the “Repeated Downlink FACCH Threshold”.
41
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page83
Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Repeated SACCH Technical Principle
Add SRO(SACCH Repetition Order) indication bit on the downlink SACCH, and
SRR(SACCH Repetition Request) indication bit on the uplink SACCH.
Upon the failure to decode an SACCH frame, BTS sets the SRO to 1, requesting
MS to resend the SACCH frame.
Upon the failure to decode an SACCH frame, MS sets the SRR to 1, requesting
BTS to resend the SACCH frame.
SlO SlO SlO SlO
Sll Sll Sll Sll
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page84
Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Implementation of Repeated
SACCH Technical
1. Enable the cell-level switch
“Repeated Downlink FACCH ”
2. BSC decodes the capability of the
MS support” Repeated ACCH ”,
and then informs BTS about the
Repeated ACCH Capability of the
MS via “Channel Active” message
when activising TCH channel.
42
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page85
Enhanced Signaling Link Technique
Implementation of Repeated SACCH Technical
3. Suppose MS supports ”Repeated ACCH Capability”
when BTS receives the uplink SACCH frame in which SRR=1, the BTS
will resend SACCH frames excluding short message until SRR=0
If BTS fails to decode an uplink SACCH, BTS sets SRO=1, requesting
MS to resend the uplink SACCH frame until SRO=0
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page86
AMR Parameter Introduction(6)
6. AMR Radio Channel Management Parameters
43
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AMR Parameter Introduction(7)
7. AMR Handover Parameters
AMR handover is the intra-cell handover between FR AMR and
HR AMR.
Via HR-FR channel conversion, which is based on RQI and
channel occupation ratio, control strategy for balancing between
the capacity and quality of the cell is provided.
When configure the handover parameters, [AMR TCH/H Prior
Allowed] and [AMR TCH/H Prior Cell Load Threshold] should
be taken into account.
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page88
AMR Handover Procedure
AMR handover refers to the intra-cell handover between FR AMR and HR
AMR basing on the RQI.
The AMR handover provides control strategy of capacity-quality balance
within a cell.
The AMR handover is implemented through the intra-cell handover procedure.
If in P seconds of N seconds:
RQI > [F2H HO Threshold], then intra-cell handover indication from FR AMR to
HR AMR is initiated;
RQI < [H2F HO Threshold], then intra-cell handover indication from HR AMR to
FR AMAR is initiated.
Relationship between RQI and C/I· ·· ·RQI = 2*C/I
44
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page89
AMR Handover Procedure
Begin
Is [Intracell F-H HO
Allowed] Yes ?
Yes
Is current channel
TCH & version3?
No
A: Cell load > [AMR TCH/H Prior
Cell Load Threshold]
During [Penalty Time
after AMR TCHF-H HO
Fail(s)]?
Yes
Yes
Is current channel FR?
Satisfy P/N rule?
Trigger internal cell
AMR handover
Yes
No
End
RQI/2 >[F2H HO th] & A RQI/2 <[H2F HO th] End
Yes Yes
No No
No
No
No
Yes
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page90
AMR Parameter Introduction(7)
7. AMR Handover Parameters
45
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AMR Parameter Introduction(7)
7. AMR Handover Parameters
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AMR Parameter Introduction(8)
8. AMR Power Control Parameters
Different power control thresholds are set for AMR calls and non-AMR
calls. AMR calls are transmitted in lower power than non-AMR calls.
The setting principles are as follows:
Set lower “AMR UL/DL RX_LEV Upper/Lower Threshold” for AMR calls
than those for non-AMR calls.
Set higher “AMR UL/DL Qual. Upper/lower Threshold” for AMR calls than
those for non-AMR calls.
Keep other AMR power control parameters consistent with normal power
control parameters.
In practice, need to consider the setting of normal power control
parameters to adjust the AMR power control parameters.
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Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page93
AMR Parameter Introduction(8)
8. AMR Power Control Parameters
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page94
AMR Parameter Introduction(8)
8. AMR Power Control Parameters
47
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page95
Contents
3. AMR
3.1 AMR Overview
3.2 AMR Impact on the Network Quality
3.3 AMR Call&Handover Procedure and Parameter Introduction
3.4 AMR Optimization and Maintenance Strategy
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page96
AMR Optimization&Maintenance Strategy(1)
No. Performance Counters
1 Speech Version 1 Completed Assignments(Excluding Directed Retry)(TCHF)
2 Speech Version 2 Completed Assignments(Excluding Directed Retry)(TCHF)
3 Speech Version 3 Completed Assignments(Excluding Directed Retry)(TCHF)
4 Speech Version 1 Completed Assignments(Excluding Directed Retry)(TCHH)
5 Speech Version 2 Completed Assignments(Excluding Directed Retry)(TCHH)
6 Speech Version 3 Completed Assignments(Excluding Directed Retry)(TCHH)
Half rate speech version 2 actually does not exist. Therefore the half rate speech
version 2 TCH assignments (excluding direct retry) should be always zero
Traffic Statistics–AMR Call Ratio Calculation
If you need to calculate AMR (speech version 3) call ratio, according to
the number of TCH assignment successes of various speech versions
under full rate/half rate.
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Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page97
AMR Optimization&Maintenance Strategy(2)
Adding cell-level AMR call counters.
Cell-level AMR call counters are added in the Call Measurement.
Radio quality indication (RQI) performance statistics
TRX-level RQI performance statistics function by TA distribution
is provided.
Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page98
Summary
In this coursewe have learned·
The function of EFR, HR, AMR
The signaling assignment flow of EFR, HR, AMR
Data configuration of EFR, HR, AMR
49
Thank you
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