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Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

Industrial Relations Terms - A to Z


1. Accreditation: The process used to certify an organization of employers as the bargaining agent for a unit of employers. The parallel term for employee organizations is "certification". 2. Adversary System: The industrial relations system seen as consisting of two necessarily opposing forces labor and management. This !iewpoint ignores the co-operati!e elements of the relationship. ". Affirmative Action Plan: # written program to acti!ely eliminate employment standards and practices that tend to discriminate on the grounds of race creed se$ or national origin. %. Appeal: # procedure by which a party dissatisfied with a decision award or ruling may refer the matter to a higher authority for re!iew. &. Apprentice: # wor'er who enters into agreement with an employer to learn a s'illed trade through a special training period combining practical training with related off-the-(ob technical instruction. #pprenticeship is sometimes regulated by statute )designated trades*. +. Arbitration: The procedure by which a board or a single arbitrator acting under the authority of both parties to a dispute hears both sides of the contro!ersy and issues an award usually accompanied by a written decision which is ordinarily binding on both parties. #rbitrators are usually appointed by the parties concerned but under special circumstances they ore appointed by the ,inister of -abor. Compulsory arbitration is that re.uired by law and is the usual procedure for settling contract interpretation disputes. The term voluntary arbitration indicates that the parties to a dispute agree to arbitration in the absence of statutory compulsion. /. Arbitrator: Third party chosen to hear a case or group of cases which are submitted for arbitration. 0. Award: In labor-management arbitration the final decision of on arbitrator. 1inding on both parties to the dispute. 2. Bar ainin A ent: The organization that is the e$clusi!e representati!e of a group of wor'ers or employers in the process of collecti!e bargaining. 13. Bar ainin !nit: # group of employees in a firm plant or industry that has been recognized by the employer and certified by a labor relations board as appropriate to be represented by a union for purposes of collecti!e bargaining. In a craft union this could be all members of a trade such as all tools and die ma'ers in a plant4 in an industrial union the bargaining unit may include all production wor'ers in a plant or all plants in a company. 11. Base Rate: The lowest rate of pay e$pressed in hourly terms for the lowest paid .ualified wor'er classification in the bargaining unit. 5ot to be confused with basic rate which is the straight-time rate of pay per hour (ob or unit e$cluding premiums incenti!e bonuses etc. 12. Blue-collar wor"ers: Term used to describe manual wor'ers i.e. production and maintenance wor'ers. 1". Boycott: #n organized refusal on the part of employees and their union to deal with an employer with the ob(ecti!e of winning concessions. 6rimary boycotts usually ta'e the form of putting pressure on consumers not to buy the goods of an employer who is directly in!ol!ed in a dispute. In the dress industry for e$ample the International -adies7 Garment 8or'ers7 9nion fre.uently boycotts the sale of non-union made dresses. :econdary boycotts are those in which 1

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

pressure is e$erted on employers who are not directly in!ol!ed in a dispute e.g. wor'ers of ;ompany # refuse to buy or handle goods of ;ompany 1 which is engaged in a labor dispute. 1%. Broader-based or Centrali#ed Bar ainin : # type of bargaining that aims to reduce the degree of fragmentation in the collecti!e bargaining process and the potential conflict that can result by combining employers on the one hand and<or unions on the other to form negotiating coalitions thereby reducing the potential for se.uential wor' stoppages in the same industry< company as !arious contracts terminate. 1&. Bumpin : =$ercise of seniority rights by wor'ers to displace less senior union employees when business conditions re.uire temporary layoffs or the discontinuance of departments. 1+. Business A ent: # full-time union officer of a local union who handles grie!ances helps enforce agreements and performs other tas's in the day-to-day operation of a union. 1/. Call-bac" Pay: ;ompensation often at higher wage rates. for wor'ers called bac' on the (ob after completing their regular shift. ;ontract pro!isions usually pro!ide for a minimum number of hours of pay regardless of the number of hours actually wor'ed. 10. Call-in Pay: Guaranteed hours of pay )ranging from two to eight hours* to a wor'er who reports for wor' and finds there is insufficient wor' for him or her to do. 6ro!isions for call-in pay are usually spelled out in collecti!e agreements. 12. Certification: >fficial designation by a labor relations board or similar go!ernment agency of a union as sole and e$clusi!e bargaining agent following proof of ma(ority support among employees in a bargaining unit. 23. Certified !nion: # union designated by a labor relations board as the e$clusi!e bargaining agent of a group of wor'ers. 21. C$ec"-off: # clause in a collecti!e agreement authorizing an employer to deduct union dues and sometimes other assessments and transmit these funds to the union. There are four main types4 the first three apply to union members only4 )1* ?oluntary re!ocable4 )2* ?oluntary irre!ocable4 )"* ;ompulsory4 )%* Rand @ormula -- dues deducted from both union and non-union employees. 22. Closed S$op: # pro!ision in a collecti!e agreement whereby all employees in a bargaining unit must be union members in good standing before being hired and new employees must be hired through the union. 2". Co-determination: # process whereby decisions are made (ointly by management and wor'ers )or their representati!es*. These (oint decisions may be made at !arious le!els within a company -- at the board le!el for e$ample through the appointment of wor'er directors or at shop-floor le!el by establishing some form of labor-management committee or e!en by utilizing e$isting collecti!e bargaining machinery. 2%. C%&A Clause: -iterally a "cost of li!ing ad(ustment" )or allowance* clause. # clause built into a collecti!e agreement which lin's wage or salary increases to changes in the cost of li!ing during the life of the contract. #lso termed an "escalator clause". 2&. Collective A reement: #n agreement in writing between an employer and the union representing his<her employees which contains pro!isions respecting conditions of employment rates of pay hours of wor' and the rights and obligations of the parties to the agreement. 2

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

>rdinarily the agreement is for a definite period such as one two or three years usually not less than twel!e months. 9nder some conditions amendments are made to agreements by mutual consent during the term of the agreement in order to deal with special circumstances. 2+. Collective Bar ainin : ,ethod of determining wages hours and other conditions of employment through direct negotiations between the union and employer. 5ormally the result of collecti!e bargaining is a written contract that co!ers all employees in the bargaining unit both union members and non-members for a specified period of time. ,ore recently the term has been broadened to include the day-to-day acti!ities in!ol!ed in gi!ing effect to or carrying out the terms of a collecti!e agreement. Bar ainin in ood fait$ refers to the re.uirement that the two parties meet and confer at reasonable times with minds open to persuasion with a !iew to reaching agreement on new contract terms. Good faith bargaining does not imply that either party is re.uired to reach agreement on any proposal. The term collecti!e bargaining is fre.uently prefaced with e$pressions such as company-wide industry-wide or multi-employer which ser!e to specify more precisely the form of bargaining. Thus company-wide collective bar ainin refers to bargaining that ta'es place between a company with many plants and )typically* a single union representing employees of a particular craft or s'ill. The terms and conditions arri!ed at are generally uniform throughout the company. Industry-wide bar ainin refers to situations in which the terms and conditions of employment agreed to by labor and management co!er an entire industry. 'ulti-employer bar ainin co!ers those situations in which bargaining ta'es place between a union and a group or association of employers )hence it is also termed "association bargaining"*. Auite often in fact much so-called industry-wide bargaining is actually multi-employer bargaining since there are relati!ely few industries in which collecti!e bargaining is conducted in a genuinely industry-wide conte$t. 2/. Conciliation and 'ediation: # process that attempts to resol!e labor disputes by compromise or !oluntary agreement. 1y contrast with arbitration the mediator conciliator or conciliation commissioner does not bring in a binding award and the parties are free to accept or re(ect the recommendation. The conciliator is often a go!ernment official whose report contains recommendations and is made public. ;onciliation is a prere.uisite to legal stri'e<loc'out action. The mediator is usually a pri!ate indi!idual appointed as a last resort after conciliation has failed to pre!ent or put an end to a stri'e. Preventive mediation is inter!ention by a neutral third party during the closed period of a collecti!e agreement to assist in resol!ing contentious problems before they reach the bargaining table. 20. Consumer Price Inde(: # :tatistics ;anada monthly statistical indicator which follows changes in retail prices of selected consumer items in ma(or ;anadian cities. The inde$ and its monthly fluctuations are employed in calculating ;>I# payments )cost of li!ing allowance* in collecti!e agreements. 22. Contractin out: The use by employers of wor'ers outside their own wor' force to perform tas's pre!iously performed by the employers7 own employees. "3. Coolin -off Period: # re.uired period of delay )fi$ed by federal or pro!incial law* following legal notice of a pending labor dispute during which there con be neither stri'e nor loc'out. It follows upon the unsatisfactory conclusion of compulsory conciliation attempts. 8ages and "

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

conditions of wor' ore usually frozen under conditions set by the pre!ious contract. =!ery effort is mode during this time to settle the dispute. "1. Cost of &ivin : Relationship of the retail cost of consumer goods and ser!ices to the purchasing power of wages. "2. Craft: # manual occupation that re.uires e$tensi!e training and a high degree of s'ill such as carpentry plumbing linotype operation. "". Craft !nion: # union that limits its members to a particular craft. ,ost craft unions today howe!er ha!e broadened their (urisdiction to include many occupations and s'ills not closely related to the originally designated craft. "%. Cyclical !nemployment: 9nemployment caused by fluctuations in the economy i.e. loss of (obs due to a downward trend in the business cycle. ;yclical unemployment is of for greater magnitude than seasonal technological or frictional unemployment. "&. )ecertification: The procedure for remo!ing a union7s official recognition as e$clusi!e bargaining representati!e. "+. )iscrimination *at wor"+: 9ne.ual treatment of persons whether through hiring or employment rules or through !ariation of the conditions of employment because of se$ age marital status race creed union membership or other acti!ities. In many cases discrimination is an unfair labor practice under federal or pro!incial laws. "/. )ismissal Pay: ):ee Severance Pay.* "0. ,-ual Pay for ,-ual .or": The principle that wage rates should be based on the (ob rather than upon the se$ race etc. of the wor'er or upon other factors not related to his<her ability to perform. "2. ,-ual Pay for .or" of ,-ual /alue: The principle that wor'ers who ore performing wor' of e.ual !alue must recei!e the some pay for wor' in the same establishment. =.ual !alue is determined by an analysis of the composite s'ill effort and responsibility re.uired in the performance of such wor' and the conditions under which the wor' is performed. %3. ,ssential Industries: Industries which render such important and necessarily uninterrupted ser!ice to the general public as to warrant special regulation to pre!ent the stoppage of their operations by labor disputes. %1. 0act-findin : # formal<informal dispute resolution procedure for in!estigating and reporting on the facts of a situation such as a wor' stoppage affecting the public. %2. 0air ,mployment Practices: The practice of employers or unions of offering wor'ers e.ual employment opportunities regardless of race national or ethnic origin color religion age se$ marital status con!iction for which a pardon has been granted or physical handicap. %". 0eat$erbeddin : The practice of e$tending wor' through the limitation of production the amount of wor' to be performed or other ma'e-wor' arrangements. ,any such practices ha!e come about as a conse.uence of wor'ers being laid off through mechanization or technological change which has led unions to see' some method of retaining wor'ers e!en though there may be no wor' for them to perform. %

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

%%. 0ederal 1urisdiction: #uthority of the federal go!ernment e$ercised o!er employees or employers in any enterprise of an inter-pro!incial national or international nature such as air transport broadcasting ban's pipelines railways highway transport shipping and grain ele!ators. Generally spea'ing all other enterprises tall within the (urisdiction of pro!incial or territorial go!ernments. %&. 0inal %ffer Selection: # form of arbitration used in the 9nited :tates and more recently in ;anada. usually otter a predetermined period of unsuccessful negotiation. 1oth sides put forward final offers. one of which an arbitrator or board of arbitrators must choose. %+. 0le(ible .or"-wee" or 0le(time: # system which pro!ides wor'ers with some freedom in deciding when they start and finish wor' sub(ect to the re.uirement that they are present during certain "core" hours and fulfill a minimum attendance re.uirement each day. %/. 0oreman: # super!isory employee usually classed as a part of management. # wor'ing foreman or lead man is one who regularly performs production wor' or other wor' unrelated to super!isory duties. %0. 0ree Riders: 5on-union employees who share in whate!er benefits result from union acti!ities without sharing union e$penses or union members who are 7delin.uent7 in paying their dues. %2. 0ree#e: Go!ernment action restricting wage salary and price increases in order to stabilize the economy. &3. 0rictional !nemployment: 9nemployment due to time lost in changing (obs rather than a lac' of (ob opportunities. @rictional unemployment would not be reduced significantly e!en if there were on increased demand for wor'ers but might be reduced by impro!ing the information a!ailable to (ob see'ers about !acancies. &1. 0rin e Benefits: 5on-wage benefits such as paid !acations pensions health and welfare pro!isions life insurance etc. the cost of which is borne in whole or in part by the employer. :uch benefits ha!e accounted for on increasing percentage of wor'er income and labor costs in recent years and ha!e thus become an important aspect of collecti!e bargaining. &2. 2arnis$ment: #ttachment of an employee7s wages in the hands of the employer to pay a creditor. &". 2eneral Stri"e: # general stri'e is a cessation of wor' by all union members in a geographical area usually as a political protest. &%. 2rievance: # statement of dissatisfaction. 9sually by an indi!idual but sometimes by the union or management concerning interpretation of a collecti!e bargaining agreement or traditional wor' practices. The grie!ance machinery )i.e. the method of dealing with indi!idual grie!ances* is nearly always spelled out in the contract. If a grie!ance cannot be handled at the shop le!el )where most of them are settled*. and the grie!ance arises out of on interpretation of the contract it must be resol!ed by arbitration. &&. 2uaranteed .a e Plan: # system under which on employer )a* contributes to a fund used to pay additional wages during slac' periods or )b* contractually guarantees a specified number of days of wor' during a specific period.

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Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

&+. 3andicapped .or"ers: 8or'ers whose earning capacity is impaired by age physical or mental deficiency or in(ury. To encourage their employment they are sometimes gi!en special treatment in labor statutes for e$ample by permitting employment at sub minimum rates. &/. 3armony Pled e *Co-operation Clause+: # clause in a union contract in which the employer and the union agree to co-operate on some specific sub(ect. &0. 3a#ardous %ccupations: Bobs which are classified as dangerous by pro!incial or federal laws and in which employment of miners is restricted or forbidden. @ederal legislation pro!ides wor'ers with the right to refuse wor' that is considered hazardous to health or safety. &2. 3irin 3all: #n office usually run by the union or (ointly by employers and union for referring wor'ers to (obs or for the actual hiring operation. +3. Idle Time: 5onproducti!e time resulting from waiting for wor' machinery or other brea'downs and the li'e. +1. Independent !nion: # labor organization which is not affiliated with and remains independent of any federation. +2. Individual Bar ainin : The right of indi!idual members of a unit for which an e$clusi!e representati!e has been designated for collecti!e bargaining purposes to present as indi!iduals grie!ances that are not contrary to the e$isting union contract. +". Industrial Conflict: # general term used to describe the broad areas of disagreement and difficulty between labor and management )though the go!ernment may also be in!ol!ed*. The stri'e is the most common and most !isible manifestation of conflict. It may also ta'e the form of peaceful bargaining and grie!ance handling boycotts political action and restriction of output industrial sabotage absenteeism or labor turno!er. :e!eral of these forms such as restriction of output absenteeism and turno!er may ta'e place on an indi!idual as well as on on organized basis and as such they constitute alternati!es to collecti!e action. +%. Industrial )emocracy: The in!ol!ement of wor'ers )or their representati!es* in decision ma'ing within industry. The machinery of industrial democracy may in!ol!e such de!ices as (oint labor-management committees wor's councils or wor'er representati!es in the boardroom. The de!elopment of collecti!e bargaining is !iewed by many as pro!iding the machinery through which industrial democracy may be de!eloped. ):ee also 4uality of .or"in &ife and .or"er Participation.* +&. Industrial 3ealt$: # branch of public health which concerns itself with the health and wellbeing of wor'ers. # body of rules and practices has e!ol!ed designed to eliminate hazards and industrial fatigue in the wor'place. ++. Industrial Relations: # broad term that may refer to relations between unions and management unions themsel!es management and go!ernment unions and go!ernment or between employers and unorganized employees. 8ithin this definition specific attention may be directed toward industrial conflict or its regulation through the formulation of wor' rules or agreements. +/. Industrial !nion: # union organized on the basis of product i.e. along industrial lines4 in contrast to a craft union organized along s'ill lines.

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

+0. Industry-wide Bar ainin : ;ollecti!e bargaining that ta'es place on an industry-wide basis4 terms and conditions of employment agreed upon co!er all or a ma(or portion of the organized employees in the industry. +2. In5unction: # court order restraining an employer or union from committing or engaging in certain acts. /3. Interest )ispute: # dispute arising from the negotiation ct a new collecti!e agreement or the re!ision of on e$isting agreement on e$piry. /1. International &abor %ffice: The secretariat of the International &abor %r ani#ation which administers and co-ordinates the acti!ities of the I->. /2. International labor %r ani#ation *I&6+: # tripartite world body representing labor management and go!ernment. :ince 12%+ one of the specialized agencies of the 9nited 5ations. It disseminates labor information to wor'ers of all countries and sets minimum international labor standards called "con!entions " offered to member nations for ratification. Its head.uarters are in Gene!a. :witzerland. /". 1ob )escription: # description of the nature of a particular (ob ifs relation to other (obs the wor'ing conditions the degree of responsibility and the of her .ualifications called for. /%. 1ob ,nric$ment: The attempt to ma'e (obs more rewarding and less monotonous for the indi!idual wor'er. 6rocedures used may include (ob enlargement )including more responsibilities on the (ob or (ob rotation )allowing the wor'er to mo!e from one (ob to another at specific inter!als*. ):ee also 4uality of .or"in &ife.* /&. 1ob Security: # wor'er7s sense of ha!ing continuity of employment resulting from the possession of special s'ills seniority or protection pro!ided in a collecti!e agreement against unforeseen technological change. /+. 1ob Trainin : # procedure whereby wor'ers while wor'ing learn how to perform particular (obs. ):ee also "Apprentice."* //. 1ourneyman: # craft or s'illed wor'er who has completed apprenticeship training and been admitted to full membership in his or her craft. =$amples4 (ourneyman plumber (ourneyman carpenter. /0. 1urisdictional )ispute - Inter-union )ispute: # conflict between two or more unions o!er the right of their membership to perform certain types of wor'. If the conflict de!elops into a wor' stoppage it is called a (urisdictional stri'e. /2. &abor Colle e of Canada: 1ilingual institution of higher education for trade union members operated (ointly by the ;anadian -abor ;ongress. ,cGill 9ni!ersity and the 9ni!ersity de ,ontreal for the purpose of pro!iding training ground for future trade union leaders. 03. &abor Council: #n organization formed by a labor federation at the city le!el. It is organized and functions in the same manner as a pro!incial federation but within a city. @inances ore often obtained through a per capita ta$ on affiliates. 01. &abor 0ederation: #n association of unions which while retaining their autonomy co-operate to achie!e common goals. /

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

02. &abor 0orce: #ll persons 1& and o!er who are either employed temporarily idle or unemployed and see'ing employment. 0". &abor &aw: That part of the law which treats of persons in their capacity as wor'ers or employersC the go!erning of labor relations labor and employer organizations employment practices and conditions in the wor'place. 0%. &abor-'ana ement Committee: #ny committee ha!ing representation from both management and labor4 discussion sub(ects may include safety and health producti!ity .uality of wor'ing life training etc. 0&. &abor Relations Board: # board usually pro!ided for under the pro!incial labor relations acts which is responsible for certification of trade unions the inclusion of dispute-settling pro!isions in collecti!e agreements and in!estigation of complaints of bad faith in collecti!e bargaining. ):ee also Canada &abor Relations Board.* 0+. &abor Turnover: Rate at which wor'ers mo!e into and out of employment usually e$pressed as a percentage based on the number of employees lea!ing a plant or industry during a certain time o!er the a!erage number of employees in the plant or industry during the same period. 0/. &ayoff: Temporary prolonged or final separation from employment as a result of a lac' of wor'. 00. &eave of Absence: 6aid or unpaid time away from wor' with employer7s permission to meet family or ci!ic responsibilities. ;ommon forms of lea!e include maternity lea!e berea!ement or funeral lea!e and lea!e for (ury duty. 02. &ine ,mployee: #n employee whose duties are directly related to the production and distribution of the companyDs products or ser!ices. 23. &ocal !nion: The unit of labor organization formed in a particular locality through which members participate directly in the affairs of their organization such as the election of local officers the financial and other business matters of a local relations with their employer)s* and the collection of members7 dues. 21. &oc"out: The closing of a place of employment a suspension of wor'. or a refusal by an employer to continue to employ a number of his employees underta'en with a !iew to compelling them to agree to conditions of employment on his terms or to refrain from e$ercising their e$isting rights and pri!ileges. 22. 'aintenance of 'embers$ip: # pro!ision in a collecti!e agreement stating that no wor'er need (oin the union as a condition of employment but that all wor'ers who !oluntarily (oin must maintain their membership for the duration of the agreement as a condition of continued employment. ):ee !nion Security.* 2". 'ana ement Ri $ts: These encompass those aspects of the employer7s operations that do not re.uire discussion with or concurrence by the union or rights reser!ed to management which are not sub(ect to collecti!e bargaining :uch rights may include matters of hiring production manufacturing and sales. The resistance of many managers to inno!ations such as industrial democracy may fre.uently be traced to concern o!er the erosion of management prerogati!es that such inno!ations sometimes entail.

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

2%. 'aster A reement: # collecti!e bargaining agreement which ser!es as the pattern for ma(or terms and conditions for an entire industry or segment thereof. -ocal terms may be negotiated in addition to the terms set forth in the master contract. 2&. 'inimum .a e: The rate of pay established by statute or by minimum wage order as the lowest wage that may be paid whether for a particular type of wor' to a particular class of wor'ers or to any wor'er. 2+. 'odified !nion S$op: # place of wor' in which non-union wor'ers already employed need not (oin the union but all new employees must (oin and those already members must remain in the union. ):ee !nion Security Clauses !nion S$op.* 2/. 'onopoly: ;ontrol of a commodity or ser!ice in a particular mar'et which enables the one ha!ing control to raise the price substantially abo!e that fi$ed by free competition. 20. 'oonli $tin : The holding by a single indi!idual of more than one paid (ob at the same time. 22. 'ultinational Bar ainin : 1argaining between an international union or union federation and a company whose operations are international in scope. These companies 'nown as multinationals pose many uni.ue problems for organized labor. In particular their international status gi!es them scope for transferring production from one country to another on a temporary or permanent basis in order to use non-union employees or brea' a stri'e. 133. 7epotism: The practice of gi!ing promotions basic employment higher earnings and other benefits to employees who are relati!es of management. 131. %pen S$op: # shop in which union membership is not re.uired as a condition of securing or retaining employment. 132. %r ani#ed &abor: ;onsists of all unions and wor'ersD organizations whose principal ob(ects are the regulation of relations between wor'ers and employers and the protection of the interests of wor'ers4 the union mo!ement as a whole. 13". %vertime: Eours wor'ed in e$cess of the ma$imum regular number of hours fi$ed by statute union contract or custom. ;loc' o!ertime is a premium paid for wor' during specified regular wor'ing hours re.uired by collecti!e agreement. 13%. Paid ,ducational &eave: -ea!e for educational purposes granted to a wor'er and paid for by the employer or go!ernment. 13&. Part-time ,mployee: #n employee who wor's fewer than the normally scheduled wee'ly or monthly hours of wor' established for persons doing similar wor'. There are different 'inds of part-time wor'. @or e$ample an employee may wor' regular hours that are less than full-time or may be "on call" and wor' for a firm occasionally as needed. 13+. Pattern Bar ainin : # procedure in collecti!e bargaining whereby a union see's to obtain e.ual or identical terms from other employers as in an agreement already obtained from an important company. 13/. Pension Plan: #rrangement to pro!ide definite sums of money for payment to employees following retirement. # final-earnings plan is a pension based upon length of ser!ice and a!erage earnings for a stated period (ust before retirement. # contributory plan is financed by both the employer and the employees. 2

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

130. Per Capita Ta(: Regular payments by a local to its national or international union labor council or federation or by a union to its central labor body. It is based on the number of members. 132. Pic"et &ine: # group of wor'ers Fpic'etsG posted at plant entrances and gates or marching nears the entrances and gates to inform employees of the e$istence of a labor dispute and to persuade and influence them not to enter the premises or do business with the employer. 113. Pic"etin : 6atrolling near the employer7s place of business by union members pic'ets -- to publicize the e$istence of a labor dispute persuade wor'ers to (oin a stri'e or (oin the union discourage customers from buying or using the employer7s goods or ser!ices etc. 111. Piece Rate: #mount paid to an employee for each unit of output. 112. Premium Pay: # wage rate higher than straight time payable for o!ertime wor' wor' on holidays or scheduled days off etc. or for wor' under e$traordinary conditions such as dangerous dirty or unpleasant wor'. 11". Probationary Period: The initial period of employment during which a wor'er is on trial and may be discharged with or without cause. 11%. Productivity: >utput per unit of input4 a measure of efficiency. 11&. Profit-s$arin Plan: #n arrangement under which employees recei!e a percentage of the employer7s profits in addition to their wages. # cash payment plan is one under which the employees7 share of the profits is paid immediately in cash. # deferred payment plan is one under which the employer deposits the employees7 portion of the profits with a trustee to be paid to them at some time in the future depending upon conditions specified in the trust. 9nder some schemes profits are distributed in the form of shores. #lso sometimes called gain sharing. 11+. 4uality of .or"in &ife: # process designed to assist employers unions and employees in implementing (oint problem-sol!ing approaches to impro!e the .uality of wor'ing life within organizations in the interests of impro!ed labor-management relations organization effecti!eness and employee wor' satisfaction. 11/. Raidin : #n attempt by one union to induce members of another union to defect and (oin its ran's. 110. Rand 0ormula: # pro!ision of a collecti!e agreement stating that non-union employees in the bargaining unit must pay the union a sum e.ual to union fees as a condition of continuing employment. 5on-union wor'ers ore not howe!er. re.uired to (oin the union. 112. Ran" and 0ile: Indi!idual union members who ha!e no special status either as officers or shop stewards in the plant. 123. Ratification: @ormal appro!al of a newly negotiated agreement by !ote of the union members affected as well as by employers or employer associations. 121. Real .a es: The actual purchasing power of wages. >ften computed by di!iding money wages by the cost-of-li!ing inde$. =$ample4 if money wages increase from H1.33 to H1.2& an hour but the cost-of-li!ing also increases by 2& per cent real wages ha!e remained constant. It 13

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

is by loo'ing at the changes in real wages that changes in li!ing standards can be obser!ed. ):ee also C%&A Clause.* 122. Reco nition: =mployer acceptance of a union as the e$clusi!e bargaining representati!e for the employees in the bargaining unit. ):ee also Certification.* 12". Redundancy Pay: ):ee Severance Pay.* 12%. Re-opener: # pro!ision in a collecti!e agreement which permits either side to reopen the contract at a specified time or under special circumstances prior to its e$piration in order to bargain on stated sub(ects such as wage increases pensions health and welfare schemes etc. 12&. Residual Ri $ts: Those rights not spelled out in a collecti!e agreement generally considered to be management rights. 12+. Rest Period: :pecified short period sometimes re.uired by law during which wor'ers are allowed to cease wor' usually on company time. 12/. Retirement: 6ermanent withdrawal from the labor force. )elayed retirement is withdrawal after the normal retirement date usually with the consent or at the re.uest of the employer. )isability retirement is withdrawal before the normal retirement age because of physical incapacity. ,arly retirement is withdrawal before the normal retirement date. 120. Retrainin : The establishment of programs and training acti!ities to educate employees in new s'ills or 'nowledge made necessary by changing technology wor' rotation reassignment etc. 122. Ri $t-to-.or": The right of an employee to refrain from (oining a union and to 'eep his (ob without union membership or acti!ity. 1"3. Safety and 3ealt$ Committee: # committee composed of wor'ers and management set up for the purpose of promoting a greater concern for impro!ement of safety and health in the wor'place. 1"1. Scanlon Plan: #n incenti!e plan de!eloped by Boseph :canlon one-time research director of the 9nited :teelwor'ers and later on staff at the ,assachusetts institute of Technology. The plan is designed to achie!e greater production through increased efficiency with the opportunity for the accrued sa!ings achie!ed to be distributed among the wor'ers. 1"2. Seasonal !nemployment: 9nemployment that is due to the seasonal nature of the wor'. #gricultural wor'ers lumber wor'ers and some construction wor'ers are unemployed for a part of each year because of weather conditions. 1"". Semi-s"illed &abor: 8or'ers who ha!e ac.uired some proficiency at particular (obs but whose acti!ities do not come within any of the traditional s'illed crafts. 1"%. Seniority: #n employee7s standing in the plant based on length of continuous employment. =mployees with the greatest seniority are usually the last to be laid off )see &ayoff and Bumpin * and are often gi!en certain ad!antages in the matters of promotion and selection of holiday periods based on seniority.

11

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

1"&. Severance Pay8 )ismissal Pay8 Redundancy Pay: # lump-sum payment by an employer to a wor'er whose employment is permanently ended usually for reasons beyond the wor'er7s control. :uch payments are in addition to any bac' wages due to the wor'er. 1"+. S$ift: The stated daily wor'ing period for a group of employees e.g.. 0 a.m to % p.m.. % p.m to midnight midnight to 0 a.m. ):ee Split S$ift.* 1"/. S$ift )ifferential: #dded pay for wor' performed at other than regular daytime hours. 1"0. Sic" &eave: Time off allowed for absence because of illness. 1"2. Slowdown: # deliberate lessening of wor' effort without an actual stri'e. in order to force concessions from the employer. ):ee also .or" to Rule.* 1%3. Speed-up: # union term describing situations in which wor'ers are re.uired to increase production without a compensating increase in wages. ):ee also Stretc$-out.* 1%1. Spilt S$ift: Ii!ision of an employee7s daily wor'ing time into two or more wor'ing periods to meet pea' needs. 1%2. Standard of &ivin : ;onditions under which a person or group of persons li!es at a particular time in a particular locality considered in relation to e$penses and income. 1%". Stretc$-out: # union term describing a situation in which wor'ers are re.uired to assume additional wor' duties such as tending more machines without additional compensation. ):ee also Speed-up.* 1%%. Stri"e: # cessation of wor' or a refusal to wor' or to continue wor' by employees in combination or in accordance with a common understanding for the purpose of compelling an employer to agree to terms or conditions of employment. :tri'es usually occur as a last resort when collecti!e bargaining and all other means ha!e failed to obtain the employeesD demands. =$cept in special cases stri'es are legal only when a collecti!e agreement is not in force. # Rotatin or 3it-and-Run Stri"e is a stri'e organized in such a way that only part of the employees stop wor' at any gi!en time each group tolling its turn. # Sympat$y Stri"e is a stri'e by wor'ers not directly in!ol!ed in a labor dispute4 an attempt to show labor solidarity and bring pressure on an employer in a labor dispute. # .ildcat Stri"e is a stri'e that !iolates the collecti!e agreement and is not authorized by the union. 1%&. Stri"e Benefits: 9nion payments usually a small proportion of regular income to wor'ers during a stri'e. ,any unions do not supply monetary aid but distribute groceries and other types of aid to needy families of stri'ers. 1%+. Stri"ebrea"ers: 6ersons who continue to wor' during a stri'e or who accept employment to replace wor'ers on stri'e. 1y filling stri'ersD (obs they may wea'en or brea' the stri'e. #lso 'nown as scabs. 1%/. Stri"e 7otice: @ormal announcement by a group of wor'ers to their employer or to an appropriate go!ernment agency that on a certain date they will go on stri'e. 1%0. Stri"e /ote: # !ote conducted among employees in a bargaining unit on the .uestion of whether they should go on stri'e.

12

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

1%2. Supervisor: #n employee ha!ing certain management rights such as the right to hire or fire or to recommend such action. 1&3. Supplemental !nemployment Benefit *S!B+ Plans: 6ri!ate plans pro!iding compensation for wage loss to laid-off wor'ers usually in addition to public unemployment insurance payments. 1&1. Sweat S$op: # factory where wage rates and sanitation safety and wor'ing conditions do not meet accepted standards. 1&2. Sweet$eart Contract: Term of derision for an agreement negotiated by an employer and a company-dominated union granting terms and conditions of employment more fa!orable to the contracting union than the employer would be willing to grant to a ri!al non-dominated labor organization. The usual purpose being to 'eep the ri!al out. 1&". Ta"e-$ome Pay: The net paychec' after ta$ and other deductions ha!e been made. 1&%. Tec$nolo ical !nemployment: 9nemployment that results from the introduction of laborsa!ing machinery. 1&&. Termination: The ending or se!erance of a wor'er7s employment with an employer whether by layoff discharge or !oluntary se!erance. 1&+. Time-and-a-$alf: 8age payment at one and one-half times the employee7s regular rate of pay or of the statutory minimum rate of pay for all hours wor'ed in e$cess of a specified number per day or wee'. 1&/. Time Card: The record sheet on which either manually or mechanically a wor'er7s attendance is reported. 1&0. Time Cloc": ;loc' with a mechanism to indicate on a pay-card by punch hole or other means the time of arri!al and departure of employees. 1&2. Tri-partitism *Tripartism+: ;onsultation between representati!es of labor management and go!ernment to consider issues of mutual interest. 1+3. !nemployed: 6ersons who do not ha!e wor'. The official definition for unemployment insurance purposes describes the unemployed as those persons who during the reference wee'4 )a* were without wor' had acti!ely loo'ed for wor' in the past four wee's )ending with reference wee'* and were a!ailable for wor'4 )b* had not acti!ely loo'ed for wor' in the past four wee's but had been on layoff for twenty-si$ wee's or less and were a!ailable for wor'4 )c* had not acti!ely loo'ed for wor' in the past four wee's but had a new (ob to start in four wee's or less from reference wee' and were a!ailable for wor'. 1+1. !nemployment Insurance: # federal program whereby eligible unemployed persons recei!e cash benefits for a specified period of time. These benefits are paid out of funds deri!ed from employer employee and go!ernment contributions. 1+2. !nfair &abor Practice: # practice on the part of either union or management that !iolates pro!isions of federal or pro!incial labor law. 1+". !nion: The unit of labor organization which organizes and charters locals in the industries or trades as defined in its constitution sets general policy for its locals assists them in the conduct 1"

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

of their affairs and is the medium for co-coordinating their acti!ities. @inances are obtained from the locals through per capita dues. 9nions usually hold regular con!entions of delegates from the locals at which general policy is set and at which officers are elected. # union may be affiliated with a larger labor organization )e.g.. congress federation. labor council*. 1+%. !nion )ues: 6eriodic payments by union members for the financial support of their union. 1+&. !nion &abel9 Bu : # tag imprint or design affi$ed to a product to show it was made by union labor. 1++. !nion %r ani#er: # person who solicits wor'ers to (oin a union. 1+/. !nion Scale: # rate of pay set by a union contract as the minimum rate for a (ob whether or not paid to a union member. 1+0. !nion Security Clauses: 6ro!isions in collecti!e agreements designed to protect the institutional authority of the union =$amples of union security clauses are4 closed s$op an agreement between union and employer that the employer may hire only union members and retain only union members in the shopC preferential $irin an agreement that an employer in hiring new wor'ers will gi!e preference to union members4 union s$op an agreement that the employer may hire anyone he wants but all wor'ers must (oin the union within a specified time after being hired and retain membership as a condition of continuing employmentC maintenance of members$ip a pro!ision that no wor'er must (oin as a condition of employment but all wor'ers who !oluntarily (oin must maintain their membership for the duration of the contract in order to 'eep their (obs. ):ee also C$ec"-off Closed S$op 'aintenance of 'embers$ip Rand 0ormula !nion S$op 'odified !nion S$op.* 1+2. !nion S$op: # place of wor' where e!ery wor'er co!ered by the collecti!e agreement must become and remain a member of the union. 5ew wor'ers need not be union members to be hired but must (oin after a certain number of days. ):ee 9nion :ecurity ;lauses ,odified 9nion :hop.* 1/3. !nion Steward: 9nion member ordinarily elected to represent wor'ers in a particular shop or department Eis or her functions may include collecting dues soliciting for new members announcing meetings recei!ing in!estigating and attempting the ad(ustment of grie!ances and education. 1/1. !n5ust )ismissal: Iismissal of an employee in on arbitrary or un(ust fashion contrary to statute or in contra!ention of a collecti!e agreement. 1/2. !nor ani#ed .or"ers: 8or'ers who do not belong to any union.

1/". /acation: 6aid lea!e for a relati!ely e$tended period. =mployers are re.uired by law to gi!e employees paid annual !acations the length of time being dependent on length of ser!ice and pro!isions of the collecti!e agreement. 1/%. /oluntary Reco nition: # !oluntary agreement )not in!ol!ing the formal certification process* between on employer and a trade union to recognize the trade union as the e$clusi!e bargaining agent of the employees in a defined bargaining unit. 1/&. .a e and Price Controls: Go!ernment effort to restrain wage and price increases. usually through the establishment of some form of re!iew or control agency )e.g.. #nti-inflation 1oard*. 1%

Glossary of Industrial Relation Terms-

1/+. .a e )etermination: The practices and procedures used to fi$ wage rates in collecti!e bargaining. 1//. .a e )ifferentials: ?ariations among wage rates due to a !ariety of factors - (ob content location s'ill industry company. se$ etc. 9nions are fre.uently concerned with eliminating wage differentials not based on the degree of effort or s'ill re.uired in a (ob but considered discriminatory. 1/0. .a e Parity: =.uality of wages between wor'ers in the same occupation but in different geographical areas4 for wor'ers in the same sector e.g.. the public sector but in different occupations e.g.. 6olicemen and firemen4 or for wor'ers in the same occupation but in different companies or countries. 1/2. .al"out: # spontaneous co-coordinated wor' stoppage. 103. .$ite-collar .or"ers: Term used to describe non-manual wor'ers e.g.. office clerical sales super!isory professional and technical wor'ers. To be contrasted with blue-collar wor'ers e.g.. ,aintenance and production wor'ers. 101. .ildcat Stri"e: # spontaneous and short-li!ed wor' stoppage not authorized by the union. It is usually a reaction to a specific problem in the wor'place rather than a planned stri'e action. 102. .or" Restriction: -imitation ordinarily placed by unions on the types or amounts of wor' that union members can do. 10". .or" Rules: Rules regulating on-the-(ob conditions of wor' usually incorporated in the collecti!e agreement. =$amples )1* limiting production wor' of super!isory personnel4 )2* limiting the assignment of wor' outside an employee7s classification4 )"* re.uiring a minimum number of wor'ers on a (ob4 )%* limiting the use of labor-sa!ing methods and e.uipment. 10%. .or" Stoppa e: # cessation of wor' resulting from a stri'e or loc'out. 10&. .or" to Rule: # practice where wor'ers obey to the letter all laws and rules pertaining to their wor' thereby affecting a slowdown. The practice also fre.uently in!ol!es a refusal to perform duties which though related are not e$plicitly included in the (ob description. ):ee also Slowdown.* 10+. .or"er Participation: The opportunity for wor'ers to share either directly or indirectly through elected representati!es in the decision-ma'ing process. ?arious degrees of participation may be identified according to the amount of influence that wor'ers are allowed to e$ert. Thus communication refers to the simple con!eyance of information to wor'ers either before or after decisions ha!e been made. Consultation in!ol!es sounding out wor'ers7 opinions usually before decisions are made. Co-determination refers to a system under which wor'ers are able to participate in a (oint decision-ma'ing process. 6articipation is often used as a synonym for industrial democracy. 10/. .or"in Conditions: ;onditions pertaining to the wor'er7s (ob en!ironment such as hours of wor' safety paid holidays and !acations rest periods free clothing or uniforms possibilities of ad!ancement etc. ,any of these are included in the collecti!e agreement and sub(ect to collecti!e bargaining.

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