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A common adage is that there are two guarantees with concrete. One, it will get hard and two, it will crack. Cracking is a frequent cause of complaints in the concrete industry. The Concrete Foundations Association has produced a new flyer to help contractors educate their customers about the causes of cracks and when they should be a concern. A more detailed explanation of cracking is presented in this article. Cracking can be the result of one or a combination of factors such as drying shrinkage, thermal contraction, restraint external or internal! to shortening, subgrade settlement, and applied loads. Cracking can not be pre"ented but it can be significantly reduced or controlled when the causes are taken into account and pre"entati"e steps are taken. Another problem associated with cracking is public perception. Cracks can be unsightly but many consumers feel that if a crack de"elops in their wall or floor that the product has failed. #n the case of a wall, if a crack is not structural, is not too wide the acceptable crack of a crack depends on who you ask and ranges from $%$&' to $%('! and is not leaking water, it should be considered acceptable. #t is in the best interest of you, the wall contractor, to educate your customers that the wall will crack and when it should be a concern to them. Cracks that occur before hardening usually are the result of settlement within the concrete mass, or shrinkage of the surface plastic) shrinkage cracks! caused by loss of water while the concrete is still plastic. *ettlement cracks may de"elop o"er embedded items, such as reinforcing steel, or ad+acent to forms or hardened concrete as the concrete settles or subsides. *ettlement cracking results from insufficient consolidation "ibration!, high slumps o"erly wet concrete!, or a lack of adequate co"er o"er embedded items. ,lastic)shrinkage cracks are most common in slabs and are relati"ely short cracks that may occur before final finishing on days when wind, a low humidity, and a high temperature occur. *urface moisture e"aporates faster than it can be replaced by rising bleed water, causing the surface to shrink more than the interior concrete. As the interior concrete restrains shrinkage of the surface concrete, stresses can de"elop that exceed the concrete-s tensile strength, resulting in surface cracks. ,lastic)shrinkage cracks are of "arying lengths spaced from a few centimeters inches! up to . m $/ ft! apart and often penetrate to mid)depth of a slab. Cracks that occur after hardening usually are the result of drying shrinkage, thermal contraction, or subgrade settlement. 0hile drying, hardened concrete will shrink about $%$& in. in $/ ft of length. One method to accommodate this shrinkage and control the location of cracks is to place construction +oints at regular inter"als. For example, +oints can be constructed to force cracks to occur in places where they are inconspicuous or predictable. 1ori2ontal reinforcement steel can be installed to reduce the number of cracks or pre"ent those that do occur from opening too wide. The ma+or factor influencing the drying shrinkage properties of
concrete is the total water content of the concrete. As the water content increases, the amount of shrinkage increases proportionally. 3arge increases in the sand content and significant reductions in the si2e of the coarse aggregate increase shrinkage because total water is increased and because smaller si2e coarse aggregates pro"ide less internal restraint to shrinkage. 4se of high)shrinkage aggregates and calcium chloride admixtures also increases shrinkage. 0ithin the range of practical concrete mixes 5 (6/ to 67/ lb%yd. 7) to 8)bag mixes! cement content 5 increases in cement content ha"e little to no effect on shrinkage as long as the water content is not increased significantly. Concrete has a coefficient of thermal expansion and contraction of about 7.7 x $/)& per 9F. Concrete placed during hot midday temperatures will contract as it cools during the night. A (/9F drop in temperature between day and night)not uncommon in some areas) would cause about /./. in. of contraction in a $/)ft length of concrete, sufficient to cause cracking if the concrete is restrained. Thermal expansion can also cause cracking. *tructural cracks in residential foundations usually result from settlement or hori2ontal loading. :ost but not all! structural cracks resulting from applied loads are nearly hori2ontal parallel to the floor! and occur $&' to (8' from the top of the wall. They are much more pre"alent concrete block construction. They can be brought about by hydrostatic pressure or hea"y equipment next to the foundation. ;iagonal cracks that extend nearly the full height of the wall are often an indication of settlement. #n either of the abo"e conditions, an engineer should be consulted. ;iagonal cracks emanating from the corner of windows and other openings are called reentrant cracks and are usually the result of stress build)up at the corner. ;iagonal reinforcement at the corner of openings can reduce the instance of crack formation and will keep the cracks narrow. Other procedures which can reduce cracking in concrete include the following practices. $. <. .. (. :inimi2e the mix water content by maximi2ing the si2e and amount of coarse aggregate and by using low)shrinkage aggregate. 4se the lowest amount of mix water required for workability and placement= do not permit o"erly wet consistencies. 4se calcium chloride admixtures only when necessary. ,re"ent rapid loss of surface moisture while the concrete is still plastic through use of spray)applied finishing aids or plastic sheets to a"oid plastic)shrinkage cracks more important in slabs! ,ro"ide contraction +oints at reasonable inter"als, ./ times the wall thickness is a good >rule)of)thumb'. ,re"ent extreme changes in temperature after placement and initial cure. ,roperly place and consolidate the concrete.
7. &. 6.
Cracks can also be caused by free2ing and thawing of saturated concrete, alkali) aggregate reacti"ity, sulfate attack, or corrosion of reinforcing steel. 1owe"er, cracks from these sources may not appear for years. ,roper mix design and selection of suitable concrete materials can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of cracks and deterioration related to free2ing and thawing, alkali)aggregate
or steel corrosion. . sulfate attack.reacti"ity.
. How to repair cracks will depend entirely on w ere t e crack is located. DIY lack of expertise. proximity of trees and t e weat er.BUILDING PROBLEMS . or building surveyor. Most are structural cracks and can be a result of engineering design.STRUCTURAL CRACKING STRUCTURAL CRACKS Cracks in brickwork and cracks in concrete are usually building construction defects. $ e inspection will c eck t e building construction type and contributing factors for t ese cracks appearing. defective building practices or builder mismanagement. Your real estate investment will be devalued if t e defect is structural and re"uire structural repairs. t en a building inspection by an experienced building consultant. %elow are some p otos of properties we ave inspected s owing cracking in brickwork and walls. Droug t conditions can be a ma!or factor. type of soils. BUILDING CONSULTANT INSPECTIONS # ere cracks ave occurred. will be re"uired.
Cracks can also appear w ere renovations or additions ave occurred. walls.PROBLEMS DUE TO CRACKING $ ere are engineering and standard building tolerances w ere most minor cracks may not be defects. and floors and may result in leaking s owers. %at room and kitc ens can be more of a concern wit damage to tiles. . &n example of a cracked wall in a bat room is below.
MAJOR CRACKS # ere ma!or structural cracks are evident. $ e cost and type of repairs will depend entirely on eac defect t at is inspected. Related B ilding Pro!le" Article# 'urt er information on spalling of concre e !concre e cancer". . or surveyor. t en a building consultant. $ is often involves structural underpinning but may also involve ot er building alternatives. #efec s in $%il#ing prac ices and sal #e eriora ion in $%il#ings can be found in previous newsletters. will refer to an experienced structural engineer for engineering designs.
particularly from other specialist acoustic engineers. #t is difficult after completion of the building to impro"e the acoustical rating between indi"idual units. as well as internal rooms.The following information maybe of interest to you when undertaking future refurbishments. or gyprock. Our office can be contacted if a more detailed report is required. but are the materials used in new construction. There has been some contro"ersy in *ydney o"er the years. Aco #tic Rating or additional #o nd$roo%ing &'ic' can !e added to a ! ilding The following pages pro"ide information on • • • additional soundproofing to plasterboard walls additional soundproofing to timber floating floors additional performance and soundproofing windows 0hen the ?uilding Code of Australia was introduced se"eral years ago one of the main changes was the downgrading of the acoustic rating between units. but it appears that little consideration is gi"en to the additional noise that can affect the building. 0e ha"e inspected many buildings where timber floating floors ha"e been installed. 0here pre"iously the walls between units and internal walls were constructed of bricks. The plasterboard manufacturers ha"e now brought out a new material which appears to ha"e a substantially impro"ed acoustical rating and should be considered as a replacement if the existing linings are not to the owners satisfaction. The reason why this is occurring is that within most new buildings the method of construction has changed. *tandard plasterboard. including within unit buildings. The building mainly consists of a concrete shell which allows lightweight non)structural internal partitions. this is now a lightweight construction. howe"er "arious systems can be completed to meet the acoustical rating as specified by Council. particularly with unit holders who can hear audible noises from ad+oining units. The walls between indi"idual units again is a lightweight construction. This information is not a highly technical specification but gi"es an o"er"iew. For this reason we pro"ide the following information which maybe of assistance with future refurbishment of buildings. particularly units. For further information on soundproofing we suggest you download a brochure from@ here I"$ro(e"ent# to aco #tic rating to %loor#) incl ding ti"!er %loating %loor# 0e ha"e inspected many properties where a timber floating floor has been installed. #n the ma+ority of cases it does appear that there has been no . linings as well as fibreglass and polyester insulation ha"e a poor acoustic rating.
au%acoustic. This is particularly rele"ant where timber floating floors are installed where not only a softer feel is pro"ided when walked upon. impact noise such as a person walking on the floor is far more audible. • . The following particularly applies to timber floating floors. Additionally. rockwool or pumped pulp material. as well as within unit%townhouse construction. then an Acoustical Angineer should be consulted.au%htdocs%soundsorberBbarrier.com. then our office can be contacted for more information. many products were tested.htm *INDO*S 0indows ha"e made substantial impro"ements in recent years and mainly come under the two following headings. se"eral of which ha"e only recently become a"ailable in the marketplace.soundguard.soundguard.htm http@%%www. but can also be included where additional soundproofing is required below carpets. A much higher acoustical rating can be achie"ed by a rubberised membrane which is fitted o"er the top of the ceiling +oists. Again. There are se"eral manufacturers of this type of material.au%htdocs%tbBsoundsorberBmetallised. For further information and brochures we suggest you download the following @ • • • http@%%www. polyester. 0here a timber floating floor exists. as well as noise from the first floor area within a residence. where a ma+or problem exists.com. the audible noise such as that from a tele"ision or stereo can transmit through the timber floor. Carpet acts as a noise insulator and the underlay to the carpet also assists in the reduction of sound and impact reduction.consideration to the noise reduction to the areas below which can include unit construction. *hould additional information be required. The soundproofing used within the roof "oid of these buildings does not consist of the usual fibreglass.erformance in respect of waterproofing . Our discussions with "arious suppliers and installers of timber floating floors indicate that the cost for the pro+ect is paramount and therefore unless a demand is made for noise reduction then it is not included within the ma+ority of the floating floors which are fitted. This technical knowledge now appears to be transferred into many materials. but also an acoustical layer is fitted. 0here the go"ernment has been in"ol"ed in pro"iding additional soundproofing to houses around the airport.htm and http@%%www. 0e ha"e undertaken enquires with "arious manufacturers of products which can be readily installed to substantially reduce noise impact through a floor. These materials appear to incorporate a similar soundproofing layer which is fixed to a softer material which pro"ides a cushioning affect below the floor finishes.regupol.com. This can include the first floor area of a residence.
This has been phased in o"er the last couple of years. e"en with a . the same windows are placed in buildings in an exposed location such as near the sea. the ma+ority of the remainder of the glass is a . hilltops and other wind swept areas where the wind is able to collect rain and push it against the building in a hori2ontal direction. Gla## I"$ro(e"ent# The current ?uilding Code of Australia and the Cla2ing Code requires safety glass be fitted in areas where there is an ele"ated risk of in+uries such as glass on patio handrails. *e"eral types of glass can be fitted which will substantially reduce the heat loss within the building during winter and reduce the heat ingress during summer. railway. doors including patio sliding doors. The energy ratings of buildings will come in force in the near future and the type of glass which is used will be important to achie"e an acceptable rating. #n essence. *hould further information be required then our office maybe able to assist. additional security and safety as well as noise reduction Per%or"ance in re#$ect o% &ater$roo%ing 0indows are now required to be pro"ided with a performance sticker at the time of deli"ery.• #mpro"ements in glass. Currently *:ADT C3A**E should be an option that should be considered with any window replacement.mm float glass which does allow substantial loss of heat within a building and pro"ide minimum protection against noise and no security. This usually incorporates a film being applied to the glass to reduce thermal transfer of heat. as well as deflection of windows with large panels such as patio sliding doors. including reduction of heat loss. #n other applications. 0indows now come in "arious gradings and windows can be installed on buildings in exposed locations and not be affected by water entry. the ma+ority of this glass is a &mm laminated glass but different characteristics can be incorporated to suit the indi"idual application. shower screens. #n other situations it maybe desired that additional security be pro"ided to the building. both aluminium and timber were designed some time ago for a typical exhibition house at ?aulkham 1ills. The ma+ority of windows. #t is our experience that "ery few of the window replacement companies are pro"iding adequate information and we ha"e been seen some recent replacements with inadequate graded windows. #n this case as the plastic sheeting between the two layers of glass is pro"ided with a special film which does not allow the glass to disintegrate when it is hit. it maybe desired to reduce noise in the building from a nearby road. This includes buildings at the northern end of the beach. The Australian 0indow Association has been at the forefront for impro"ements of these windows. 0hilst this is adequate for most applications. #n essence. airplane as well as noise from a large number of persons gathering or passing by. For this reason there ha"e been problems with se"eral buildings with water entry. and sidelight panels to windows. on a hilltop and other locations where the windows can be affected by wind dri"en rain.
cracks to brickwork 2. This o"ercomes the need for security grilles to a building but still pro"ides substantially impro"ed safety.sledgehammer.pilkington.htm Or ring the *mart Class 1otline on $8// 8$/ (/. or floor. spalling repairs can be inadequate 4. or wet. this is a cork type material which is soft and pro"ides a softer finish to the floor and was superseded by the more recent impro"ed carpet underlays. . the floor in the affected areas can noticeably lift.a"id 1all ?uilding Appraisals Fo"ember <//. #n extreme cases. a chemical reaction can be set off particularly if the internal carpets are steam cleaned on a regular basis. This type of coating was regularly used in unit construction during the $G&/Hs and $G6/Hs. . This chemical reaction sets up accelerated rust which attacks the structural core of the floor slab and building.--. it sets up a chemical reaction with the steel reinforcing to the main part of the concrete structure. Additionally.roblems are now emerging with this magnesite that when it becomes damp.au/Australasia/Australia/English/default. :ore information can be obtained from the glass manufacturers by downloading from • http://www. particularly around leaking windows or patio door units. o o o 4nit building 1. The extent of any future . Additionally. Ne&#letter Jan ar+ . deflection of concrete balconies BUILDING ITEMS O/ INTEREST AND NO* INCLUDED IN OUR REPORTS INCLUDE 0 UNIT BUILDINGS 1 MAGNESITE /LOORING 4nit building are often pro"ided with a magnesite coating to the top surface of the internal floor. regular testing of fire pro"isions Few ?uilding work to be rated for energy efficiency from now Case *tudies for general information 1..com. The problems occurs when water entry transpires. The magnesite coating was installed mainly as a le"elling compound to pro"ide an adequate le"el surface to the floor. defecti"e flashings 3. magnesite floor problems 2. but also in some buildings prior to and later to this time.
*ome strata managers are recommending that the magnesite be remo"ed when the unit is refurbished.ue to recent exposure of the abuse or compromising of certification of unit buildings works we are able to pro"ide a specialist consultant to certify unit and commercial buildings. emergency lighting. ?y law these buildings must b checked and certified e"ery year to warrant the sprinklers. would depend upon further exploratory works to the ma+ority of the building and can in"ol"e ma+or rectification costs. smoke alarms etc are correctly working. but also hydraulics. or replacement. mechanical "entilation system including possible stairwell pressuri2ation as well as other systems which maybe incorporated within the building. fire dampers. fire hydrants. There are known cases of de"elopers pressurising contractors to certify their work which does not meed the requirements of the ?uilding Code of Australia. This is a requirement for annual testing and certification that the building has adequate and functioning equipment and co"ers automatic fire detection and alarm system. sprinkler system. exit signs. .repairs. REGULAR TESTING O/ /IRE PRO2ISIONS . fire doors. A $7A Certificate is an annual requirement to ha"e the building certified to ascertain if it meets the requirements of the ?uilding Code of Australia. hose reels. mainly in respect of fire pro"isions. Our report is not a *chedule $7A Certificate on the building as this requires specialist contractors with additional expertise.
/ August <//<. walls and floor depending on the climate. AustraliaHs target is to limit greenhouse gas emissions to only 8K abo"e $GG/ le"els. This is a mandatory requirement for new houses appro"ed after $ Ianuary. 4i#tor+ 4nder the Jyoto . the Australian ?uilding Codes ?oard announced that national energy efficiency measures for houses will be introduced in the ?uilding Code of Australia on $ Ianuary <//. now includes a mandatory requirement for a greater energy efficiency within all Class $..ro"isions primarily relate to reflecti"e materials and insulation le"els in the roof.Few changes ha"e come into force relating to energy efficiency for new houses appro"ed from $ Ianuary <//. <//.A OF A4*TDA3#A which is the standard to which buildings are constructed. The de"elopment of the ?uilding Code of Australia energy efficiency measures for houses was undertaken by the Australian ?uilding Codes ?oard in con+unction with the Australian Creenhouse Office and other key stakeholders. *cope of the ?uilding Code of Australia Anergy Afficiency :easures@ #n *ummary.#FC CO. that agreement had been reached with *tate and Territory Co"ernments to introduce mandatory energy efficiency standards into the ?uilding Code of Australia. the ?uilding Code of Australia housing energy co"er fi"e main areas@ ?uilding Fabric ) to control conduction of energy through the building fabric.rotocol. The adoption of these new national requirements forms an important part of the Commonwealth Co"ernmentHs strategy to address global warming. . After taking into account the "iews of industry.. A brief o"er"iew to the new requirements is listed below. the Commonwealth Co"ernment announced in Iuly <///.. Anergy efficiency measures for commercial buildings will follow. An o"er"iew is as follows@ ENERG3 E//ICIENT MEASURES /OR 4OUSES ?4#3. or standard residential houses. On . as part of the strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings. #ncreased energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to achie"e this target. .
ro"isions require external gla2ing to be limited in si2e according to likelihood of heat loss from the building interior and to be protected from unwanted solar heat. The proposed energy measures "ary from location to location and are based on a climate 2one map comprising eight 2ones. This map has e"ol"ed from one de"eloped some time ago by the ?ureau of :eteorology. *hould you ha"e any further queries in respect of the new energy efficiency requirements. roof lights and penetrations. CASE STUDIES /OR GENERAL IN/ORMATION DE/ECTS IN BUILDING PRACTICES . doors. o Air :o"ement@ to ensure adequate external and internal openings are pro"ided to permit a building to be "entilated naturally or with fan assistance.ro"isions will affect buildings in hot and temperate climates where increased "entilation can pro"ide useful cooling instead of using energy for air conditioning.o *olar radiation@ to control discomfort in warmer climates from solar radiation and to pro"ide solar heating in cooler climates.ro"ision will increase a buildingHs air tightness through closable openings. and sealing around elements such as windows. . and insulation of ductwork associated with heating and air conditions systems.ro"isions primarily co"er insulation of water piping to central heating systems and storage hot water units. The following are case studies which maybe of interest now or in the future. . o ?uilding *ealing@ to control air leakage into or out of a building. and hence a"oid an increased need for heating and cooling. o *er"ices@ to a"oid wasting of energy in building ser"ices systems. . flues and exhaust fans. . then please our office as we are happy to pro"ide a copy of the new requirements to date. such as chimneys.
#n this case a half brick has been cut and abuts the +oining wall. The photograph shows where the wall has been constructed and not tied into the ad+oining brickwork. CDACJ* TO ?D#CJ0ODJ A DAA*OF FOD CDACJ* TO ?D#CJ0ODJ An inspection of this building recently re"ealed one of the common causes for cracks to brickwork.$. F4DT1AD CDACJ* TO ?D#CJ0ODJ . or similar. There is no form of tying in of the brickwork. nor fixing. This is the lack of tying in of brickwork. This brickwork supports a door +amb and is likely to result in cracking of the "ertical +oin in the brickwork mainly when doors slam. This problem could ha"e been o"ercome by construction of the two brick walls at the same time with the brickwork being interlocking.
howe"er the bricks are not engineered.T1#* #* A ?D#CJ 3#FTA3 OLAD A . A rebate. or square section. The brickwork abo"e the lintel has been placed on their edge and not on their flat. <. to the brickwork at the end. 7. The width of the bearing of the brickwork is reduced to 67mm. or bonded. The brickwork is supporting a concrete slab abo"e which has a reasonable o"erhanging cantile"ered balcony which would impose additional loads on the brickwork. Cracks are likely to occur for the following reasons@ $. .. are "ulnerable to crushing due to the weight of the concrete abo"e. of the mortar as the mortar does not bond to the steel lintel. The brickwork has been incorrectly placed on a mortar bed. howe"er defects within the brickwork are likely to cause future cracking. A split half brick is placed abo"e and below this fibro strip. The centre core holes further reduce the structural capacity of the bricks. (. or crumbling. particularly the half bricks. For this reason the bearing width of brickwork is reduced from the normal $$/mm to 67mm. or designed. All the brickwork abo"e this beam was not tied)in. was left out of the brickwork at both ends to allow for the installation of steel beam. This practice often results in cracking.OOD 4F#T The brickwork to this lintel is supported by a steel angle. A thick strip of compressed fibro sheeting has been fitted to the brickwork to pro"ide some stability while laying the bricks. to support structural loads on their edge. The brickwork. . but does compromise the structural adequacy of the brickwork.
The flashing in this case should ha"e been turned up at the ends to pre"ent the leaks at the door sill. . On this particular house. *hould this occur.AFACT#LA F3A*1#FC* OFA OF T1A CA4*A* OF 0ATAD AFTDM TO T1A ?4#3. the outside brickwork is to be rendered. then water cannot flow out of the weep holes and will continue to flow around the base of the ca"ities until it finds the easiest point of exit.#FC A recent inspection of a building showed the flashings to the base of the ca"ity ha"e been installed. #n the ma+ority of cases renderers will co"er the weep holes which are there to allow the water to escape out of the base of the ca"ity. #n this case the end of the flashing has not been turned up at the ends and would allow any water trapped within the ca"ity to form a water leak at the sliding door which is yet to be fitted. .<. These flashings are designed to collect any water entry to the building and discharge it to the outside.
A33#FC DA. The repairs in this area would in"ol"e complete remo"al of the inadequate flashing and replacement. #t is expected leaks would occur as the flashing is not of sufficient length to allow for the ends to be turned up.. Additionally.AN4ATA *. *. .A33#FC OF COFCDATA concrete cancer! . it can be seen holes and damage is e"ident to the flashing.A#D* CAF ?A #FA. This is a condition of the flashing immediately prior to the installation of the door unit.This is a sill flashing which has been fitted for a sliding door unit.
or pro"ided with turf which is substantially affected by water and creates a damp en"ironment to the concrete slab. 0here the OwnerHs Corporation accepts the cheapest quote and does not seek referrals. The problem occurs because the steel reinforcing has insufficient >co"er' which allows either moisture or salt laden air to affect the steel reinforcing. then problems may occur. but this mainly where rust spotting is e"ident where the support >chairs' are affected by the salt or moisture. such as concrete slabs o"er garages where the area abo"e is landscaped. There are many reputable companies that complete this type of work on a regular basis.roblems of a lesser nature in new buildings may occur. This does not preclude that spalling problems occur in other en"ironments. as is illustrated below. $G6/Hs and early $G8/Hs and mainly closer to a salt en"ironment. then ongoing substantial repairs can be expected. *palling repairs can be successfully undertaken pro"iding it is properly treated. This occurs when the steel reinforcing rods within the concrete are affected by moisture. . This problem mainly exists in units built during the $G&/Hs. An example of sub)standard workmanship is shown as follows@ On this block of units the lower balcony is currently undergoing substantial remedial works. which causes the steel to rust which then expands and pushes off the surface the concrete that encases the steel reinforcing. :ost of these earlier practices were o"ercome with the Concrete Codes which were introduced during mid $G8/Hs and change in practices within the steel reinforcing industry. *hould the works not be correctly undertaken. This can also in"ol"e the chemical analysis of the concrete to ensure that the materials and practices which are undertaken do not cause future failure.*palling of concrete is commonly called concrete cancer. . or a salt en"ironment.
The original steel reinforcing rods ha"e been cut. but is not tied in any form to original steel reinforcing and is therefore not structural . The original cross reinforcing rods ha"e been remo"ed. A new mesh has been fitted. or remo"ed at the edge of the repairs.
#n some cases new steel reinforcing rods ha"e been fitted to e"ery second original steel reinforcing rod but ha"e been welded with a . The new mesh which has been fitted is not of a structural si2e to pro"ide structural support to the bottom of the slab./mm lap to the original reo. .
The new mesh which has been fitted is also bolted and fixed to the affected concrete slab abo"e to pro"ide adequate fixing. .
This confirms the mesh is only fitted to pro"ide some bonding agent for the later rendering to the underside of the slab. with an epoxy and will be affected by future rust. but part of . The repairs in this area will fail as the mesh is not gal"anised. As is e"ident. or coated.
. Additionally. (. a porous render to a thickness of approximately <7mm will be applied o"er the steel reinforcing. #n this application the steel requires a minimum of 7/mm co"er of compacted concrete so that the salt en"ironment does not cause future rust.AF3ACT#OF OF COFCDATA ?A3COF#A* 4F#T COFCDATA AOTADFA3 ?A3COF#A* .the other works which ha"e been completed. the repairs do not in any form take into consideration deficiency in the balcony slab and the reduction in structural slab.
0here this is of a concern is with unit buildings located near the sea. O"er time this deflection will continue and e"entually causes a settlement crack at the top of the concrete balcony near the building. The salt en"ironment and rainwater causes the steel within the concrete slab to rust at the point where the crack is occurring. 0hilst we ha"e not seen too many failures of concrete balconies it is expected that this will become more common place in the future and require ma+or remedial works.An additional future structural concern with unit buildings is in respect of structural settlement and deflections of cantile"ered concrete balconies. This mainly occurs where the balcony is pro"ided with a perimeter brick railing which pro"ides substantial loads at the outer edge of the slab. . The weight of the brickwork causes the balcony slab to defect and results in reasonable gaps between the brick railing and original wall of the building.
type of soils. DIY lack of expertise. . proximity of trees and t e weat er. Droug t conditions can be a ma!or factor. %elow are some p otos of properties we ave inspected s owing cracking in brickwork and walls. t en a building inspection by an experienced building consultant. Most are structural cracks and can be a result of engineering design.STRUCTURAL CRACKING STRUCTURAL CRACKS Cracks in brickwork and cracks in concrete are usually building construction defects. Your real estate investment will be devalued if t e defect is structural and re"uire structural repairs. How to repair cracks will depend entirely on w ere t e crack is located. BUILDING CONSULTANT INSPECTIONS # ere cracks ave occurred. will be re"uired. $ e inspection will c eck t e building construction type and contributing factors for t ese cracks appearing. or building surveyor.BUILDING PROBLEMS . defective building practices or builder mismanagement.
Cracks can also appear w ere renovations or additions ave occurred. .PROBLEMS DUE TO CRACKING $ ere are engineering and standard building tolerances w ere most minor cracks may not be defects. %at room and kitc ens can be more of a concern wit damage to tiles.
all:buildreport. and floors and may result in leaking s owers.walls.-. &n example of a cracked wall in a bat room is below.. /0-1 2234 '&5 +. #efec s in $%il#ing prac ices and sal #e eriora ion in $%il#ings can be found in previous newsletters. 86# . $ is often involves structural underpinning but may also involve ot er building alternatives. *evel -. Related B ilding Pro!le" Article# 'urt er information on spalling of concre e !concre e cancer". *ane Cove.4. t en a building consultant..com. -43 *ongueville 7oad. or surveyor. 'or a building inspection report contact( David Hall %uilding &ppraisals )ty *imited $elep one +. MAJOR CRACKS # ere ma!or structural cracks are evident... will refer to an experienced structural engineer for engineering designs..au . 9mail d. $ e cost and type of repairs will depend entirely on eac defect t at is inspected. /0-1 23-4 6uite .
. . &ll rig ts reserved.44/ David Hall %uilding &ppraisals.Copyrig t .