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Essays
An essay written for a teacher or tutor very often requires you to give your opinion and support it with examples. lts purpose is to persuade the readJr to agree with the

opinions or to show reasons for a particular point of view.


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Organ isation

Look at the table. Work in pairs and discuss what you think feature in the Contert column.

is

the purpose of each

General statement

(1)

Definition(s)
l

- optional
i

(:)

Scope

of essay

I trt
(+)

Argument5
Evidence

G)
(6)

5ummary
Relate the argument to a more

world view

general i fzt

.1
rAdvances in teqh[oloSr

Write these points in the correct place in the Purpose column.

will result in a growth irl

lo explain what is under:tood by some key words/concepts to introduce the reader to the topic to underline the writeri point of view to remind the reader ofthe key ideas to express important ideas to support ideas with examples to tell the reader what you intend to cover in this essay
Look at this sample essay. ln the table above, tick the purposes which have been

ulemploJranetrt'' Discuss.
There has been considera,ble deba,te in ihe na,iional press with some expeds ctaimlng that we are heading for a, decrease irr ihe nu:ober and tJrpes of job available lqEilg oiherc insist tha,t we are a,bout to see a surge in iob opportunitles. However, when we look ai the situation from a globa,l perspective, we see increasing oppofiunities for work for those who are willing a,nd able to travel.

the one hand, there are those who believe that with the advent of new technotos/, such as automs,tion a'nd the use of robots, the number ofjobs for people wi[ decrea,se. In addition, these advocates of gloom argue that globausation will mearl tha,t 'our' jobs will be taken by
On

included. ln any piece of extended writing, we need to link our ideas so that we produce coherent and logical language.

Underline the connecting words/


phrases in the essay.

others in other countrles where, for exa,mple, labour costs a,re lowen On the other hand, the more optimistic among us view the future as a, golden age when more people (architects, for example) will be able to enioy jobs which a,re lniellectually interestlng because the du-Il monotonous jobs will ha,ve been s,utoroated. Advanced iechnolory will enable us io travel and work almost wherever we like in the world, a,nd that means a global eoonoqlr will work to

our advantage. In mJr opinion, having considercd both sides of the argument, I believe that there will be more job

Are most of the connecting words/ phrases formal or informal?

oppofiunities, the workforce will be more mobile andiobs ir[itl be more rewarding. Moreover, this uril be the case for an increasing number of people as the econorly of the world as a whole continues to prosper.

wRtTihlG FOIDER 6

Make a plan for the following essay by making notes on points a-c and completing the table below.

Read the following essay title and makb notes on vocabulary and key phrases.

b c

Who is the reader? Style: formal/informal?


Length?

'Our appearance, the way we

I
_.)

ln your English class, you have been discussing the reasons why people study English. Your teacher has asked you to write the following 250-word essay:

dress, etc., reflects who we are. It is therefore important to be consistent in the style we adopt throughout our lives.' Discuss.

'lf everyone spoke one language (English, for example), it would lead to better international
relations.'Discuss.

. . .

Styles: hairstyle, ...

For consistency: suggests a trustworthy person, Against consistency: dress to reJlect dffirent
moods, ...

...

Tips for essay

writing
two

Look at the list of tips for essay writing. Add

more tips ofyour own.

. . . . . . . .
Bra

Highlight the key words in the question. List the points you want to include.
Plan carefully. Give examples or reasons for your view.,.

Link ideas.
Present a balanced argument. Use formal/neutral vocabulary. Use a range of grammatical structures.

instorm ing voca bu la ry

When planning the main body of your essay, write down all the main points you want to include. When you do this, it is a good idea to brainstorm vocabulary and key phrases connected with the topic. For example, if you have an essay title which requires you to discuss advertising, you could make vocabulary notes like the

Write an essay for the question in exercise 6 in 220-26o words. Try to use the advice for brainstorming vocabulary and organising your essay.

following.

-laoabqlaru - Adverlleina Tech^L4aet: catchg rloga^/JL^gle., oelebrLfg end or ce menf , ege.-oat'. hL^g p ao k ag ng
L

2 PoLats {or, ral.e aA/are^?., ,{ yroduct', e^ooqrage healthg oonpeftfLoa befuteea rLval oompanLet, c r o af Lve 7 e at e rt aL aL ag / ;t' mu I af "g
L
L

3 Polate

agaLaet', make {alse claLhs, raLce a^.ealLstLc expeot'at'Lonc, LnfrqsLve, oreafe mat'erLalLrm,

crea{e {alse

needg

wRrTrr\rG FoLDER

5 / gl
I

4
a b

Linkers in writing (and speaking) act as signposts for the reader so that he/she can follow the line of argument.

c d
e

The new Court House is being constructed/built. The proposals have been considered by the board. The situation is now being controlled.
I

was ordered not to divulge the company's future

while, However, On the one hand, ln addition,Jor example, On the othet hand, and the like, becouse, ond, ln my opinion, Moreovet Note: most of the linkers are formal - and and becquse ate less formal. On the one/othet hond,ln addition,for exomple, ln my opinion and Moreover are followed by a comma.
5

plans. The prime minister was attacked for the 5tatements he made.
Refer to the crammar folder on page r7r for the explanations to these question5.

6
7

myteacher b formal
aontent

c 25o

words
Purpose
(!) To introduce the

a Have you ever had b had our wedding photos taken by ( to have/get a special ring made
Voca bu la ry
I
r

lntrodu.tion

More peofle are studying

lnglish
English, Spanish, chinese
as

readertothe topic
(2)To

world language? Discuss ways in which it

tellthe

will be easier

reader what you intend to cover in this essay

introductory 4 reference 5 excellent 5 scientific 7 relatively


2

overlooked

underpractised

Examine what problems there might be

8 memoreble

Body

For one language

b)To express

Everyone learns at young age - easy (e.9. bilingual

important ideas
(4) To

rupport ldeas

Writing folder 5 pages 92-93


Essays
(z and 3) Content lntroduction Ceneralstatement
Purpose
(1) To introduce the reader to the topic

children) Travel: easlerto make arran8ements, get help, get info, meet people study: easier to follow any course, anywhere (but not always possible)

with examples

Betterjob prospe.ts Mieht lose:

Definition(s)optional
Scope of essay

(2)To explain what is understood by some key

cultural identity, thrill of


trevel
cohclusion Many activities will be easier

wordr/(oncepts tell the reader what you intend to cover in this


(3) To

(5)Io remind the


reader of key ideas

essay

but keep cultural identity traditions

(6)To underline my point ofview

Body

Arguments
Evidence

(4) To express

idea\

important

G)To 5upport ideas with examples

Unit t5 pages 94-97


Speaking and Reading
I

Con(lusions

Summary
Relate the argument

(5)To remind the reader of the key ideas /


underline the writer's point of view
(7) To

rA 2D 3B
2

4C

to a more general

a3 b5 c6 dz e4 tt
5

rB 2D tC 4A

5C

ANSWERS AND RECORDING SCRIPTS