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4.

9 The Joukowski mapping: circles to ellipses


A particularly useful application of the mapping idea concerns the ow around bodies. We
have solved the problem of the ow around a cylinder. Thus if we can nd a conformal
mapping between the unit circle and any given shape, we have solve the ow problem
around this shape.
z

R
2c
2d
z = +
b
2

Consider the (inverse) mapping


z = +
b
2

, (42)
called the Joukowski mapping. Consider a circle of radius R, whose surface in the -plane
is described by the polar representation = Re
i
. Under the Joukowski mapping,
z = Re
i
+
b
2
R
e
i
=
_
R +
b
2
R
_
cos + i
_
R
b
2
R
_
sin = c cos + id sin
is an ellipse with axes length 2c and 2d.
The semiaxes come out to be
c = R +
b
2
R
, d = R
b
2
R
.
Now consider the uniform ow past an ellipse. To model an arbitrary angle between
the direction of the ow and the semi-major axis, we consider the ow around a cylinder
that approaches the x-axis under an angle :
w
1
() = U
_
e
i
+
R
2

e
i
_
.
In principle, one can nd w(z) using the inverse of the Joukowski mapping
= f(z) =
1
2
(z +

z
2
4b
2
),
so that w(z) = w
1
(f(z)).
However, the resulting expressions are often not so useful. For example, to nd the
streamlines, it is much easier to nd the streamlines of the w
1
() in the -plane, and then
to transform them using (42). This is how the pictures were produced. If one wants to
calculate the velocity, one uses
u iv =
dw
dz
=
dw
1
d
1
dz/ d
=
U(e
i
R
2
e
i
/
2
)
(1 b
2
/
2
)
.
On the cylinder, = Re
i
, so
u iv =
U(e
i
e
i
e
2i
)
(1 (b
2
/R
2
)e
2i
)
=
2iU sin( )
(e
i
(b
2
/R
2
)e
i
)
. (43)
This means there are stagnation points at = and = + . This point is where
a streamline leaves the surface. In other words, this streamline (plotted in red) has the
same value of the streamfunction then the surface of the ellipse.
4.10 Lift
Now we want to y! In principle, we know how to construct the ow around a wing of
arbitrary shape, we only have to nd the transformation, starting from a circle. We have
seen already that the key ingredient is to have circulation around the wing. We have
calculated the lift in the case of a cylindrical cross-section, but what is it for an arbitrary
shape?
4.10.1 Blasius theorem
C
t = (cos , sin )
n = (sin , cos )

x
y
We now calculate the force on a xed body in a stream, using complex notation. This
is a close relative of the calculation done in section (3.6), leading to (33). Suppose a xed
rigid body, boundary C is in a steady ow, generating a potential w(z). As we saw in 4.4,
dw
dz
= u iv = qe
i
, (44)
where |u| = q is the speed of the ow, and is the angle the ow direction makes to the
horizontal. So, according to Bernoulli (no gravity):
p = p
0

1
2
q
2
,
where p
0
= p
atm
+ U
2
/2 is a constant.
But on the surface of body, the ow is in the tangential direction. So is also the
angle the tangent line of the body makes with the real axis, and as shown in the above
Figure, we have t = (cos , sin ), n = (sin , cos ), for the tangent and normal vectors,
respectively. If we interpret both components as real and imaginary parts of a complex
number, this is the same as
t = e
i
, n = ie
i
,
where t and n are complex numbers representing the tangent and the normal.
To compute the total force F = (F
x
, F
y
) on the body, we have to do the integral
F =
_
C
pnds,
where s is the arclength along C. On the other hand, a complex line element along C is
dz dx + idy =
_
dx
ds
+ i
dy
ds
_
ds = t ds = e
i
ds.
Now we can convert everything to complex notation, where it proves convenient to
dene a complex force F = F
x
iF
y
. Then
F = F
x
iF
y
=
_
C
pn

ds = i
_
C
pe
i
ds
= i
_
C
p
0
(dx idy) +
i
2
_
C
q
2
e
i
ds
=
i
2
_
C
(qe
i
)
2
dz =
i
2
_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz
(the term proportional to p
0
vanishes because the integral of a total dierential over a
closed loop is zero), and we have used (44) in the last step. This is Blasius theorem:
F
x
iF
y
=
i
2

_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz. (45)
Example Consider a cylinder in a stream with circulation:
w(z) = Uz + U
R
2
z

i
2
log z,
so
dw
dz
= U U
R
2
z
2

i
2z
.
Applying (45) to the circle C gives
F
x
iF
y
=
i
2
_
C
_
U U
R
2
z
2

i
2z
_
2
dz
=
i
2
_
C
_
U
iU
z
+ terms {z
2
, z
3
, z
4
}
_
dz
Now use Cauchys residue theorem
_
C
dz
z
= 2i,
_
C
dz
z
n
= 0, n = 1 and
F
x
iF
y
= iU,
which is the same as in 4.3.
4.10.2 The Kutta-Koukowski lift theorem
From the previous example one appreciates that Blasius theorem yields a much more
general result, since only the residue of the integral comes into play. Consider a body of
arbitrary cross-section C, in a uniform stream, U, which generates circulation of strength
. Far away from the body,
w(z) Uz
i
2
log z
(origin inside C) so
dw
dz
U
i
2z
, z .
Since there are no singularities in the ow between C and |z| = R, the integral must be
independent of any chosen closed path outside C:
_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz = lim
R
_
|z|=R
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz.
So
_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz =
_
|z|=R
_
U
i
2z
_
2
, =
i

_
|z|=R
1
z
dz = 2U,
using the same reasoning as for the cylinder. Hence we have shown that
F
x
iF
y
= iU, (46)
which is known as the Kutta-Joukowski lift theorem. So the drag on an arbitrary body is
zero and the lift force is F
lift
= U. Note that the lift force is by denition the force
in the direction normal to the ow.
4.11 Oblique ow past plates
.
We have developed a wonderful theory for lift. The only problem is that we dont
know how to determine the value of which determines the lift. Indeed, the wings of an
airplane do not have circular cross section: if cylinder is placed in a uniform stream (left
side of the Figure), there is no reason why the ow should turn either way, and thus there
is no circulation. The secret is to fashion the shape so as to induce lift. Namely, the tail
of wing is shaped to have a sharp corner, so as to force the ow to separate at that point.
As the simplest possible model for such a situation consider the ow around a at
plate, which is placed in a uniform stream at an angle . A at plate is obtained from an
ellipse by letting d 0, that is putting b = R in the Joukowski transformation (42):
z = +
R
2

.
The the width of the plate is 2c = 4R. As is seen from the Figure, the ow separates from
the plate beyond the trailing edge, so that uid particles very close to the plate have to
go around the sharp corner before leaving the plate.
This situation is reected by the velocity on the surface of the plate, which is
u iv =
U sin( )
sin
,
putting b = R in (43). Clearly, u diverges as as 0, , i.e. at the sharp edges of the
plate. This is a physically untenable situation; uid particles are not likely to make such
a sharp turn without leaving the plate altogether, especially not at innite speed! The
same conclusion can be drawn from the concept of adverse pressure gradient, introduced
earlier. The speed is very great at the trailing edge and decreases as one moves up the
plate. According to Bernoulli, this means that the pressure increases, in other words uid
particles experience an adverse pressure gradient. Instead of following a path of adverse
pressure, uid particles prefer to leave the body, producing a point of separation at the
trailing edge. This requirement is known as the Kutta condition.
As we have seen in our calculation of the ow around a cylinder with circulation, the
point of separation can be made to move by adding circulation:
w
1
() = U
_
e
i
+
R
2

e
i
_

i
2
log .
Then the complex velocity of the ow around a plate (b = R) is
u iv =
dw
1
d
d
dz
=
_
U
_
e
i

R
2

2
e
i
_

i
2
_ _
1
R
2

2
_
1
.
Putting = Re
i
, we nd the velocity on the plate:
u iv =
_
U
_
e
i+i
e
ii
_

i
2R
_
e
i
1 e
2i
=
_
U sin( )

4R
_
1
sin
. (47)
Let us focus on the trailing edge, corresponding to 0. (assume for example that the
front of the plate is slightly rounded, so that separation is not as important there). Thus
we want u iv to be nite for 0, a requirement which is another incarnation of the
Kutta condition. This can be achieved by choosing such that the angular bracket on
the right of (47) vanishes for = 0. In other words,
= 4RU sin , (48)
which is the Kutta condition for the plate. This is the value chosen for the above Figure,
where the ow is seen to leave the plate smoothly in the direction of the orientation of
the plate. Now the singularity cancels and the velocity becomes
u iv =
U
sin
(sin( ) + sin ) U cos , as 0,
a nite value!
The wonderful thing is that we have now determined the circulation uniquely, so we
can calculate the lift using Blasius theorem:
F
lift
= U = 4RU
2
sin , (49)
where 4R is the width of the plate. Once more, note that this is the force acting normal
to the ow, so it is at an angle relative to the orientation of the plate. It is customary
to dene a lift coecient c
L
by
F
lift
= c
L
A
w
U
2
2
,
where A
w
= 4R is the area of the wing (per unit length), also called the chord. Thus we
have found that for the plate
C
(plate)
L
= 2 sin 2
In the Figure, this result is compared to experiment, and it works really well, as long as
the angle of attack is small. If however becomes too large the theory fails abruptly.
The reason is clear from the two photographs below. As long as is small, the ow
remains laminar and attached to the wing. As is too great, the ow separates and a
completely dierent type of description must be sought.
Finally, we comment on the presence of circulation around the wing, which is the
crucial ingredient needed for ying. In the rst instance, there is nothing wrong with that
from the point of view of a potential ow description. However, where is this circulation
coming from when one imagines starting up the ow, with zero circulation? Since the
net circulation in a large circle around the wing must vanish initially, and the Kutta
condition requires a circulation < 0 around the wing, this means that in the process
of the point of separation moving to the trailing edge, vortices of positive circulation
(rotating counterclockwise) are shed from the wing. Eventually the vortices are convected
downstream, and no longer matter for the problem.
4.12 Joukowski wings
wing

R
R
R 2

Now we try to model a wing in a slightly more realistic fashion, as proposed by


Joukowski. In particular, we account for the fact that a real wing will be rounded at the
leading edge (for the oncoming ow to go around it smoothly) and to be very sharp at
the trailing edge (for the ow to separate).
Mapping an ellipse, we have seen that if b < R, the Joukowski transformation maps
a circle to an ellipse; If b = R, the ellipse degenerates to a at plate. Now let us take the
Joukowski transformation
z = +
R
2

,
but shift the circle by to the left, and with radius R + . The equation of the circle in
the -plane is
= + (R + )e
i
, = 0..2.
Thus it touches the circle of radius R at the right, but lies inside it everywhere else. In
other words, the aerofoil is described by the equation
z = + (R + )e
i
+
R
2
+ (R + )e
i
.
It is clear that this shape is rounded everywhere, but sharp at the trailing edge to the
right, where it has a cusp (it looks locally line the sharp end of a plate), as seen in the
Figure. The length of the wing in the horizontal is called the chord. From the above
mapping, back and front ends are at = R and = R 2, respectively. Thus the
chord is
A = 2R + R + 2 +
R
2
R + 2
=
4(R + )
2
R + 2
.
Now the complex potential around the shifted circle is evidently
w
1
() = U
_
( + )e
i
+
(R + )
2
( + )
e
i
_

i
2
log( + ),
and the complex velocity around the aerofoil is
dw
dz
=
dw
1
d
d
dz
=
_
U
_
e
i

_
R +
( + )
_
2
e
i
_

i
2( + )
_
_
1
R
2

2
_
1
Once more, there are potential singularities at = R. However, the singularity
= R lies inside the wing, and is therefore harmless. On the other hand, the point
= R lies on the surface, and will lead to a singularity, unless is chosen appropriately.
At = R, the term in braces becomes
U
_
e
i
e
i
_

i
2(R + )
= 2iU sin
i
2(R + )
,
which vanishes for
= 4U(R + ) sin .
In other words, using Blasius theorem, the lift coecient for the Joukowski wing is
F
(wing)
lift
= 4U
2
(R + ) sin .
and the lift coecient is
c
(wing)
L
=
2(R + 2) sin
R +
.
wing

R
R

It is seen from the above formula that there is no lift if the angle of attack vanishes.
In reality, wings are cambered: the top is rounded, and the bottom is hollowed out. This
can be achieved by shifting the centre of the circle to the position +I in the -plane.
To produce a sharp trailing edge, the circle still has to touch the point = R, and thus
its equation is
= + i +
_
(R + )
2
+
2
e
i
.
For future convenience, we dene the angle
= arctan
_

R +
_
(see Figure). The chord is the same as for the prole without camber.
The resulting cambered prole is shown as the green outline above. To compute the
ow, we note the complex potential in the -plane:
w
1
() = U
_
( + i)e
i
+
(R + )
2
+
2
( + i)
e
i
_

i
2
log( + i),
and the velocity is now
u iv =
_
U
_
e
i

(R + )
2
+
2
( + i)
2
e
i
_

i
2( + i)
__
1
R
2

2
_
1
.
As before, the term in braces has to vanish for = R for the velocity to remain nite, so
this condition gives
U
_
e
i

(R + )
2
+
2
(R + i)
2
e
i
_

i
2(R + i)
= 0.
Noting that R + + i =
_
(R + )
2
+
2
e
i
, we nd
= 4
_
(R + )
2
+
2
sin( + )
as the Kutta condition. The lift coecient becomes
c
(wing)
L
=
2
_
(R + )
2
+
2
(R + 2) sin( + )
(R + )
2
,
and so indeed there is lift for = 0. As a result, the angle of attack can be kept small,
and stall is less likely.
The theoretical result for such a cambered prole is compared to experiment in the
Figure. The pressure distribution over the wing as well as the total lift predicted by
Joukowski theory is in good agreement with experiment.
5 Waves and free surface ows
Free surface ows are in some ways very dierent from what we have done before. In
all problems considered so far, the domain D in which to solve the problem is given (for
example some box or the exterior of an aeroplane wing). A free surface, on the other
hand, moves, so the domain varies in time. The key feature, however, is that the domain
does not vary according to some predetermined program. Instead, it moves in response
to the ow itself, that is in response to the ow solution (which of course itself depends
on the domain).
This leads to solutions which are quite dierent in character to the xed-boundary solu-
tions we were considering so far (and generally speaking much more interesting solutions)!
Another nice feature of free surface ows is that they are easy to observe experimentally,
one just needs to track the motion of the free surface.
5.1 Kinematic boundary condition
If a uid particle is adjacent to a boundary then we must impose a condition which links
the velocity of the boundary to that of the particle. This is known as the kinematic
boundary condition.
Let S(x, t) = 0 describe the equation of a surface in (or on the boundary of) the uid.
As the ow evolves, particles remain on the surface S if
DS
Dt
=
S
t
+u S = 0. (50)
The proof is analogous to the arguments of (1.7). Namely, according to Taylors theorem:
0 = S(x, t) S(x +ut, t + t) = t
_
u S +
S
t
_
.
Water
Oil
S=0
Example: Consider two uids bounded by an interface S(x, t) = 0 (e.g. water/oil).
Then
DS
Dt
=
S
t
+u
(oil)
S = 0, on S = 0 from above
DS
Dt
=
S
t
+u
(water)
S = 0, on S = 0 from below
_

_
Now S is normal to the surface S = const, so n = S/|S| is the unit normal to the
surface S = 0. By subtracting one of the two equations from the other, it follows that
u
(oil)
n = u
(water)
n, on S = 0. (51)
This means the normal component of the velocity on either side of the interface must be
equal, which is very intuitive.