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A particularly useful application of the mapping idea concerns the ow around bodies. We

have solved the problem of the ow around a cylinder. Thus if we can nd a conformal

mapping between the unit circle and any given shape, we have solve the ow problem

around this shape.

z

R

2c

2d

z = +

b

2

z = +

b

2

, (42)

called the Joukowski mapping. Consider a circle of radius R, whose surface in the -plane

is described by the polar representation = Re

i

. Under the Joukowski mapping,

z = Re

i

+

b

2

R

e

i

=

_

R +

b

2

R

_

cos + i

_

R

b

2

R

_

sin = c cos + id sin

is an ellipse with axes length 2c and 2d.

The semiaxes come out to be

c = R +

b

2

R

, d = R

b

2

R

.

Now consider the uniform ow past an ellipse. To model an arbitrary angle between

the direction of the ow and the semi-major axis, we consider the ow around a cylinder

that approaches the x-axis under an angle :

w

1

() = U

_

e

i

+

R

2

e

i

_

.

In principle, one can nd w(z) using the inverse of the Joukowski mapping

= f(z) =

1

2

(z +

z

2

4b

2

),

so that w(z) = w

1

(f(z)).

However, the resulting expressions are often not so useful. For example, to nd the

streamlines, it is much easier to nd the streamlines of the w

1

() in the -plane, and then

to transform them using (42). This is how the pictures were produced. If one wants to

calculate the velocity, one uses

u iv =

dw

dz

=

dw

1

d

1

dz/ d

=

U(e

i

R

2

e

i

/

2

)

(1 b

2

/

2

)

.

On the cylinder, = Re

i

, so

u iv =

U(e

i

e

i

e

2i

)

(1 (b

2

/R

2

)e

2i

)

=

2iU sin( )

(e

i

(b

2

/R

2

)e

i

)

. (43)

This means there are stagnation points at = and = + . This point is where

a streamline leaves the surface. In other words, this streamline (plotted in red) has the

same value of the streamfunction then the surface of the ellipse.

4.10 Lift

Now we want to y! In principle, we know how to construct the ow around a wing of

arbitrary shape, we only have to nd the transformation, starting from a circle. We have

seen already that the key ingredient is to have circulation around the wing. We have

calculated the lift in the case of a cylindrical cross-section, but what is it for an arbitrary

shape?

4.10.1 Blasius theorem

C

t = (cos , sin )

n = (sin , cos )

x

y

We now calculate the force on a xed body in a stream, using complex notation. This

is a close relative of the calculation done in section (3.6), leading to (33). Suppose a xed

rigid body, boundary C is in a steady ow, generating a potential w(z). As we saw in 4.4,

dw

dz

= u iv = qe

i

, (44)

where |u| = q is the speed of the ow, and is the angle the ow direction makes to the

horizontal. So, according to Bernoulli (no gravity):

p = p

0

1

2

q

2

,

where p

0

= p

atm

+ U

2

/2 is a constant.

But on the surface of body, the ow is in the tangential direction. So is also the

angle the tangent line of the body makes with the real axis, and as shown in the above

Figure, we have t = (cos , sin ), n = (sin , cos ), for the tangent and normal vectors,

respectively. If we interpret both components as real and imaginary parts of a complex

number, this is the same as

t = e

i

, n = ie

i

,

where t and n are complex numbers representing the tangent and the normal.

To compute the total force F = (F

x

, F

y

) on the body, we have to do the integral

F =

_

C

pnds,

where s is the arclength along C. On the other hand, a complex line element along C is

dz dx + idy =

_

dx

ds

+ i

dy

ds

_

ds = t ds = e

i

ds.

Now we can convert everything to complex notation, where it proves convenient to

dene a complex force F = F

x

iF

y

. Then

F = F

x

iF

y

=

_

C

pn

ds = i

_

C

pe

i

ds

= i

_

C

p

0

(dx idy) +

i

2

_

C

q

2

e

i

ds

=

i

2

_

C

(qe

i

)

2

dz =

i

2

_

C

_

dw

dz

_

2

dz

(the term proportional to p

0

vanishes because the integral of a total dierential over a

closed loop is zero), and we have used (44) in the last step. This is Blasius theorem:

F

x

iF

y

=

i

2

_

C

_

dw

dz

_

2

dz. (45)

Example Consider a cylinder in a stream with circulation:

w(z) = Uz + U

R

2

z

i

2

log z,

so

dw

dz

= U U

R

2

z

2

i

2z

.

Applying (45) to the circle C gives

F

x

iF

y

=

i

2

_

C

_

U U

R

2

z

2

i

2z

_

2

dz

=

i

2

_

C

_

U

iU

z

+ terms {z

2

, z

3

, z

4

}

_

dz

Now use Cauchys residue theorem

_

C

dz

z

= 2i,

_

C

dz

z

n

= 0, n = 1 and

F

x

iF

y

= iU,

which is the same as in 4.3.

4.10.2 The Kutta-Koukowski lift theorem

From the previous example one appreciates that Blasius theorem yields a much more

general result, since only the residue of the integral comes into play. Consider a body of

arbitrary cross-section C, in a uniform stream, U, which generates circulation of strength

. Far away from the body,

w(z) Uz

i

2

log z

(origin inside C) so

dw

dz

U

i

2z

, z .

Since there are no singularities in the ow between C and |z| = R, the integral must be

independent of any chosen closed path outside C:

_

C

_

dw

dz

_

2

dz = lim

R

_

|z|=R

_

dw

dz

_

2

dz.

So

_

C

_

dw

dz

_

2

dz =

_

|z|=R

_

U

i

2z

_

2

, =

i

_

|z|=R

1

z

dz = 2U,

using the same reasoning as for the cylinder. Hence we have shown that

F

x

iF

y

= iU, (46)

which is known as the Kutta-Joukowski lift theorem. So the drag on an arbitrary body is

zero and the lift force is F

lift

= U. Note that the lift force is by denition the force

in the direction normal to the ow.

4.11 Oblique ow past plates

.

We have developed a wonderful theory for lift. The only problem is that we dont

know how to determine the value of which determines the lift. Indeed, the wings of an

airplane do not have circular cross section: if cylinder is placed in a uniform stream (left

side of the Figure), there is no reason why the ow should turn either way, and thus there

is no circulation. The secret is to fashion the shape so as to induce lift. Namely, the tail

of wing is shaped to have a sharp corner, so as to force the ow to separate at that point.

As the simplest possible model for such a situation consider the ow around a at

plate, which is placed in a uniform stream at an angle . A at plate is obtained from an

ellipse by letting d 0, that is putting b = R in the Joukowski transformation (42):

z = +

R

2

.

The the width of the plate is 2c = 4R. As is seen from the Figure, the ow separates from

the plate beyond the trailing edge, so that uid particles very close to the plate have to

go around the sharp corner before leaving the plate.

This situation is reected by the velocity on the surface of the plate, which is

u iv =

U sin( )

sin

,

putting b = R in (43). Clearly, u diverges as as 0, , i.e. at the sharp edges of the

plate. This is a physically untenable situation; uid particles are not likely to make such

a sharp turn without leaving the plate altogether, especially not at innite speed! The

same conclusion can be drawn from the concept of adverse pressure gradient, introduced

earlier. The speed is very great at the trailing edge and decreases as one moves up the

plate. According to Bernoulli, this means that the pressure increases, in other words uid

particles experience an adverse pressure gradient. Instead of following a path of adverse

pressure, uid particles prefer to leave the body, producing a point of separation at the

trailing edge. This requirement is known as the Kutta condition.

As we have seen in our calculation of the ow around a cylinder with circulation, the

point of separation can be made to move by adding circulation:

w

1

() = U

_

e

i

+

R

2

e

i

_

i

2

log .

Then the complex velocity of the ow around a plate (b = R) is

u iv =

dw

1

d

d

dz

=

_

U

_

e

i

R

2

2

e

i

_

i

2

_ _

1

R

2

2

_

1

.

Putting = Re

i

, we nd the velocity on the plate:

u iv =

_

U

_

e

i+i

e

ii

_

i

2R

_

e

i

1 e

2i

=

_

U sin( )

4R

_

1

sin

. (47)

Let us focus on the trailing edge, corresponding to 0. (assume for example that the

front of the plate is slightly rounded, so that separation is not as important there). Thus

we want u iv to be nite for 0, a requirement which is another incarnation of the

Kutta condition. This can be achieved by choosing such that the angular bracket on

the right of (47) vanishes for = 0. In other words,

= 4RU sin , (48)

which is the Kutta condition for the plate. This is the value chosen for the above Figure,

where the ow is seen to leave the plate smoothly in the direction of the orientation of

the plate. Now the singularity cancels and the velocity becomes

u iv =

U

sin

(sin( ) + sin ) U cos , as 0,

a nite value!

The wonderful thing is that we have now determined the circulation uniquely, so we

can calculate the lift using Blasius theorem:

F

lift

= U = 4RU

2

sin , (49)

where 4R is the width of the plate. Once more, note that this is the force acting normal

to the ow, so it is at an angle relative to the orientation of the plate. It is customary

to dene a lift coecient c

L

by

F

lift

= c

L

A

w

U

2

2

,

where A

w

= 4R is the area of the wing (per unit length), also called the chord. Thus we

have found that for the plate

C

(plate)

L

= 2 sin 2

In the Figure, this result is compared to experiment, and it works really well, as long as

the angle of attack is small. If however becomes too large the theory fails abruptly.

The reason is clear from the two photographs below. As long as is small, the ow

remains laminar and attached to the wing. As is too great, the ow separates and a

completely dierent type of description must be sought.

Finally, we comment on the presence of circulation around the wing, which is the

crucial ingredient needed for ying. In the rst instance, there is nothing wrong with that

from the point of view of a potential ow description. However, where is this circulation

coming from when one imagines starting up the ow, with zero circulation? Since the

net circulation in a large circle around the wing must vanish initially, and the Kutta

condition requires a circulation < 0 around the wing, this means that in the process

of the point of separation moving to the trailing edge, vortices of positive circulation

(rotating counterclockwise) are shed from the wing. Eventually the vortices are convected

downstream, and no longer matter for the problem.

4.12 Joukowski wings

wing

R

R

R 2

Joukowski. In particular, we account for the fact that a real wing will be rounded at the

leading edge (for the oncoming ow to go around it smoothly) and to be very sharp at

the trailing edge (for the ow to separate).

Mapping an ellipse, we have seen that if b < R, the Joukowski transformation maps

a circle to an ellipse; If b = R, the ellipse degenerates to a at plate. Now let us take the

Joukowski transformation

z = +

R

2

,

but shift the circle by to the left, and with radius R + . The equation of the circle in

the -plane is

= + (R + )e

i

, = 0..2.

Thus it touches the circle of radius R at the right, but lies inside it everywhere else. In

other words, the aerofoil is described by the equation

z = + (R + )e

i

+

R

2

+ (R + )e

i

.

It is clear that this shape is rounded everywhere, but sharp at the trailing edge to the

right, where it has a cusp (it looks locally line the sharp end of a plate), as seen in the

Figure. The length of the wing in the horizontal is called the chord. From the above

mapping, back and front ends are at = R and = R 2, respectively. Thus the

chord is

A = 2R + R + 2 +

R

2

R + 2

=

4(R + )

2

R + 2

.

Now the complex potential around the shifted circle is evidently

w

1

() = U

_

( + )e

i

+

(R + )

2

( + )

e

i

_

i

2

log( + ),

and the complex velocity around the aerofoil is

dw

dz

=

dw

1

d

d

dz

=

_

U

_

e

i

_

R +

( + )

_

2

e

i

_

i

2( + )

_

_

1

R

2

2

_

1

Once more, there are potential singularities at = R. However, the singularity

= R lies inside the wing, and is therefore harmless. On the other hand, the point

= R lies on the surface, and will lead to a singularity, unless is chosen appropriately.

At = R, the term in braces becomes

U

_

e

i

e

i

_

i

2(R + )

= 2iU sin

i

2(R + )

,

which vanishes for

= 4U(R + ) sin .

In other words, using Blasius theorem, the lift coecient for the Joukowski wing is

F

(wing)

lift

= 4U

2

(R + ) sin .

and the lift coecient is

c

(wing)

L

=

2(R + 2) sin

R +

.

wing

R

R

It is seen from the above formula that there is no lift if the angle of attack vanishes.

In reality, wings are cambered: the top is rounded, and the bottom is hollowed out. This

can be achieved by shifting the centre of the circle to the position +I in the -plane.

To produce a sharp trailing edge, the circle still has to touch the point = R, and thus

its equation is

= + i +

_

(R + )

2

+

2

e

i

.

For future convenience, we dene the angle

= arctan

_

R +

_

(see Figure). The chord is the same as for the prole without camber.

The resulting cambered prole is shown as the green outline above. To compute the

ow, we note the complex potential in the -plane:

w

1

() = U

_

( + i)e

i

+

(R + )

2

+

2

( + i)

e

i

_

i

2

log( + i),

and the velocity is now

u iv =

_

U

_

e

i

(R + )

2

+

2

( + i)

2

e

i

_

i

2( + i)

__

1

R

2

2

_

1

.

As before, the term in braces has to vanish for = R for the velocity to remain nite, so

this condition gives

U

_

e

i

(R + )

2

+

2

(R + i)

2

e

i

_

i

2(R + i)

= 0.

Noting that R + + i =

_

(R + )

2

+

2

e

i

, we nd

= 4

_

(R + )

2

+

2

sin( + )

as the Kutta condition. The lift coecient becomes

c

(wing)

L

=

2

_

(R + )

2

+

2

(R + 2) sin( + )

(R + )

2

,

and so indeed there is lift for = 0. As a result, the angle of attack can be kept small,

and stall is less likely.

The theoretical result for such a cambered prole is compared to experiment in the

Figure. The pressure distribution over the wing as well as the total lift predicted by

Joukowski theory is in good agreement with experiment.

5 Waves and free surface ows

Free surface ows are in some ways very dierent from what we have done before. In

all problems considered so far, the domain D in which to solve the problem is given (for

example some box or the exterior of an aeroplane wing). A free surface, on the other

hand, moves, so the domain varies in time. The key feature, however, is that the domain

does not vary according to some predetermined program. Instead, it moves in response

to the ow itself, that is in response to the ow solution (which of course itself depends

on the domain).

This leads to solutions which are quite dierent in character to the xed-boundary solu-

tions we were considering so far (and generally speaking much more interesting solutions)!

Another nice feature of free surface ows is that they are easy to observe experimentally,

one just needs to track the motion of the free surface.

5.1 Kinematic boundary condition

If a uid particle is adjacent to a boundary then we must impose a condition which links

the velocity of the boundary to that of the particle. This is known as the kinematic

boundary condition.

Let S(x, t) = 0 describe the equation of a surface in (or on the boundary of) the uid.

As the ow evolves, particles remain on the surface S if

DS

Dt

=

S

t

+u S = 0. (50)

The proof is analogous to the arguments of (1.7). Namely, according to Taylors theorem:

0 = S(x, t) S(x +ut, t + t) = t

_

u S +

S

t

_

.

Water

Oil

S=0

Example: Consider two uids bounded by an interface S(x, t) = 0 (e.g. water/oil).

Then

DS

Dt

=

S

t

+u

(oil)

S = 0, on S = 0 from above

DS

Dt

=

S

t

+u

(water)

S = 0, on S = 0 from below

_

_

Now S is normal to the surface S = const, so n = S/|S| is the unit normal to the

surface S = 0. By subtracting one of the two equations from the other, it follows that

u

(oil)

n = u

(water)

n, on S = 0. (51)

This means the normal component of the velocity on either side of the interface must be

equal, which is very intuitive.

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