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Geology 212

Petrology Types of Metamorphism

Prof. Stephen A. Nelson

This document las t updated on 19-Nov-2003

Metamorphism is defined as follows: The mineralogical and structural adjustment of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions that have been imposed at depths below the near surface zones of weathering and diagenesis and which differ from conditions under which the rocks in question originated. The word "Metamorphism" comes from the Gree : meta ! chan"e# morph ! form# so metamorphism means to chan"e form$ %n "eolo"& this refers to the chan"es in mineral assem'la"e and te(ture that result from su')ectin" a roc to conditions such pressures# temperatures# and chemical environments different from those under which the roc ori"inall& formed$

Note that Diagenesis is also a chan"e in form that occurs in sedimentar& roc s$ %n "eolo"&# however# we restrict dia"enetic processes to those which occur at temperatures 'elow 200o * and pressures 'elow a'out 300 M+a ,M+a stands for Me"a +ascals-# this is e.uivalent to a'out 3 ilo'ars of pressure ,1 ' ! 100 M+a-$ Metamorphism# therefore occurs at temperatures and pressures hi"her than 200o * and 300 M+a$ /oc s can 'e su')ected to these hi"her temperatures and pressures as the& are 'uried deeper in the 0arth$ 1uch 'urial usuall& ta es place as a result of tectonic processes such as continental collisions or su'duction$ The upper limit of metamorphism occurs at the pressure and temperature where meltin" of the roc in .uestion 'e"ins$ 2nce meltin" 'e"ins# the process chan"es to an i"neous process rather than a metamorphic process$ Grade of Metamorphism

3s the temperature and4or pressure increases on a 'od& of roc we sa& the roc under"oes prograde metamorphism or that the "rade of metamorphism increases$ Metamorphic grade is a "eneral term for descri'in" the relative temperature and pressure conditions under which metamorphic roc s form$

5ow-"rade metamorphism ta es place at temperatures 'etween a'out 200 to

320o *# and relativel& low pressure$ 5ow "rade metamorphic roc s are "enerall& characteri6ed '& an a'undance of h&drous minerals. 7ith increasin" "rade of metamorphism# the h&drous minerals 'e"in to react with other minerals and4or 'rea down to less h&drous minerals$

8i"h-"rade metamorphism ta es place at temperatures "reater than 320o * and relativel& hi"h pressure$ 3s "rade of metamorphism increases# h&drous minerals 'ecome less h&drous# '& losin" 822# and non-h&drous minerals 'ecome more common$ Types of Metamorphism

Contact Metamorphism *ontact metamorphism occurs ad)acent to i"neous intrusions and results from hi"h temperatures associated with the i"neous intrusion. 1ince onl& a small area surroundin" the intrusion is heated '& the ma"ma# metamorphism is restricted to the 6one surroundin" the intrusion# called a metamorphic or contact aureole$ 2utside of the contact aureole# the roc s are not affected '& the intrusive event$ The "rade of metamorphism increases in all directions toward the intrusion$ 9ecause the temperature contrast 'etween the surroundin" roc and the intruded ma"ma is lar"er at shallow levels in the crust where pressure is low# contact metamorphism is often referred to as hi"h temperature# low pressure metamorphism$ The roc produced is often a fine-"rained roc that shows no foliation# called a hornfels$

egional Metamorphism

/e"ional metamorphism occurs over lar"e areas and "enerall& does not show an& relationship to i"neous 'odies$ Most re"ional metamorphism is accompanied '& deformation under nonh&drostatic or differential stress conditions$ Thus# re"ional metamorphism usuall& results in formin" metamorphic roc s that are stron"l& foliated# such as slates# schists# and "niesses$ The differential stress usuall& results from tectonic forces that produce compressional stresses in the roc s# such as when two continental masses collide$ Thus# re"ionall& metamorphosed roc s occur in the cores of fold4thrust mountain 'elts or in eroded mountain ran"es$ *ompressive stresses result in foldin" of roc and thic enin" of the crust# which tends to push roc s to deeper levels where the& are su')ected to hi"her temperatures and pressures$

Cataclastic Metamorphism *ataclastic metamorphism occurs as a result of mechanical deformation# li e when two 'odies of roc slide past one another alon" a fault 6one$ 8eat is "enerated '& the friction of slidin" alon" such a shear 6one# and the roc s tend to 'e mechanicall& deformed# 'ein" crushed and pulveri6ed# due to the shearin"$ *ataclastic metamorphism is not ver& common and is restricted to a narrow 6one alon" which the shearin" occurred$

!ydrothermal Metamorphism /oc s that are altered at hi"h temperatures and moderate pressures '& h&drothermal fluids are h&drothermall& metamorphosed$ This is common in 'asaltic roc s that "enerall& lac h&drous minerals$ The h&drothermal metamorphism results in alteration to such M"-:e rich h&drous minerals as talc# chlorite# serpentine# actinolite# tremolite# 6eolites# and cla& minerals$ /ich ore deposits are often formed as a result of h&drothermal metamorphism$

"urial Metamorphism 7hen sedimentar& roc s are 'uried to depths of several hundred meters# temperatures "reater than 300o * ma& develop in the a'sence of differential stress$ New minerals "row# 'ut the roc does not appear to 'e metamorphosed$ The main minerals produced are often the ;eolites$ 9urial metamorphism overlaps# to some e(tent# with dia"enesis# and "rades into re"ional metamorphism as temperature and pressure increase$ #hock Metamorphism $%mpact Metamorphism& 7hen an e(traterrestrial 'od&# such as a meteorite or comet impacts with the 0arth or if there is a ver& lar"e volcanic e(plosion# ultrahi"h pressures can 'e "enerated in the impacted roc $ These ultrahi"h pressures can produce minerals that are onl& sta'le at ver& hi"h pressure# such as the 1i22 pol&morphs coesite and stishovite$ %n addition the& can produce te(tures nown as shoc lamellae in

mineral "rains# and such te(tures as shatter cones in the impacted roc $

Classification of Metamorphic

ocks

*lassification of metamorphic roc s is 'ased on mineral assem'la"e# te(ture# protolith# and 'ul chemical composition of the roc $ 0ach of these will 'e discussed in turn# then we will summari6e how metamorphic roc s are classified$ Te'ture %n metamorphic roc s individual minerals ma& or ma& not 'e 'ounded '& cr&stal faces$ Those that are 'ounded '& their own cr&stal faces are termed idioblastic$ Those that show none of their own cr&stal faces are termed xenoblastic$ :rom e(amination of metamorphic roc s# it has 'een found that metamorphic minerals can 'e listed in a "enerali6ed se.uence# nown as the crystalloblastic series# listin" minerals in order of their tendenc& to 'e idio'lastic$ %n the series# each mineral tends to develop idio'lastic surfaces a"ainst an& mineral that occurs lower in the series$ This series is listed 'elow:

rutile# sphene# ma"netite tourmaline &anite# staurolite# "arnet# andalusite epidote# 6oisite# lawsonite# forsterite p&ro(enes# amphi'oles# wollastonite micas# chlorites# talc# stilpnomelane# prehnite dolomite# calcite scapolite# cordierite# feldspars .uart6

This series can# in a rather "eneral wa&# ena'le us to determine the ori"in of a "iven roc $ :or e(ample a roc that shows euhedral pla"ioclase cr&stals in contact with anhedral amphi'ole# li el& had an i"neous protolith# since a metamorphic roc with the same minerals would 'e e(pected to show euhedral amphi'ole in contact with anhedral pla"ioclase$ 3nother aspect of the cr&stallo'lastic series is that minerals hi"h on the list tend to form porphyroblasts ,the metamorphic e.uivalent of phenocr&sts-# althou"h <-feldspar ,a mineral that occurs lower in the list- ma& also form porph&ro'lasts$ +orph&ro'lasts are often riddled with inclusions of other minerals that were enveloped durin" "rowth of the porph&ro'last$ These are said to have a poikioblastic texture$ Most metamorphic te(tures involve foliation$ :oliation is "enerall& caused '& a preferred orientation of sheet silicates$ %f a roc has a slate& cleava"e as its foliation# it is termed a slate# if it has a ph&llitic foliation# it is termed a phyllite# if it has a shistose foliation# it is termed a schist $ 3 roc that shows a 'anded te(ture without a distinct foliation is termed a gneiss$ 3ll of these could 'e porph&ro'lastic ,i$e$ could contain porh&ro'lasts-$

3 roc that shows no foliation is called a hornfels if the "rain si6e is small# and a granulite# if the

"rain si6e is lar"e and individual minerals can 'e easil& distin"uished with a hand lens$ (rotolith +rotolith refers to the ori"inal roc # prior to metamorphism$ %n low "rade metamorphic roc s# ori"inal te(tures are often preserved allowin" one to determine the li el& protolith$ 3s the "rade of metamorphism increases# ori"inal te(tures are replaced with metamorphic te(tures and other clues# such as 'ul chemical composition of the roc # are used to determine the protolith$ "ulk Chemical Composition The mineral assem'la"e that develops in a metamorphic roc is dependent on

The pressure and temperature reached durin" metamorphism The composition of an& fluid phase present durin" metamorphism# and The 'ul chemical composition of the roc $

=ust li e in i"neous roc s# minerals can onl& form if the necessar& chemical constituents are present in the roc ,i$e$ the concept of silica saturation and alumina saturation applies to metamorphic roc s as well-$ 9ased on the mineral assem'la"e present in the roc one can often estimate the appro(imate 'ul chemical composition of the roc $ 1ome terms that descri'e this "eneral 'ul chemical composition are as follows:

Pelitic$ These roc s are derivatives of aluminous sedimentar& roc s li e shales and mudroc s$ 9ecause of their hi"h concentrations of alumina the& are reco"ni6ed '& an a'undance of aluminous minerals# li e cla& minerals# micas# &anite# sillimanite# andalusite# and "arnet$ Quartzo-Feldspathic. /oc s that ori"inall& contained mostl& .uart6 and feldspar li e "ranitic roc s and ar osic sandstones will also contain an a'undance of .uart6 and feldspar as metamorphic roc s# since these minerals are sta'le over a wide ran"e of temperature and pressure$ Those that e(hi'it mostl& .uart6 and feldspar with onl& minor amounts of aluminous minerals are termed .uart6o-feldspathic$ Calcareous. *alcareous roc s are calcium rich$ The& are usuall& derivatives of car'onate roc s# althou"h the& contain other minerals that result from reaction of the car'onates with associated siliceous detrital minerals that were present in the roc $ 3t low "rades of metamorphism calcareous roc s are reco"ni6ed '& their a'undance of car'onate minerals li e calcite and dolomite$ 7ith increasin" "rade of metamorphism these are replaced '& minerals li e 'rucite# phlo"opite ,M"-rich 'iotite-# chlorite# and tremolite$ 3t even hi"her "rades anh&drous minerals li e diopside# forsterite#

wollastonite# "rossularite# and calcic pla"ioclase$

asic. =ust li e in i"neous roc s# the "eneral term 'asic refers to low silica content$ 9asic metamorphic roc s are "enerall& derivatives of 'asic i"neous roc s li e 'asalts and "a''ros$ The& have an a'undance of :e-M" minerals li e 'iotite# chlorite# and horn'lende# as well as calcic minerals li e pla"ioclase and epidote$ Magnesian. /oc s that are rich in M" with relativel& less :e# are termed ma"nesian$ 1uch roc s would contain M"-rich minerals li e serpentine# 'rucite# talc# dolomite# and tremolite$ %n "eneral# such roc s usuall& have an ultra'asic protolith# li e peridotite# dunite# or p&ro(enite$ Ferriginous. /oc s that are rich in :e with little M" are termed ferri"inous$ 1uch roc s could 'e derivatives of :e-rich cherts or ironstones$ The& are characteri6ed '& an a'undance of :e- rich minerals li e "reenalite ,:e-rich serpentine-# minnesotaite ,:e-rich talc-# ferroactinolite# ferrocummin"tonite# hematite# and ma"netite at low "rades# and ferrosilite# fa&alite# ferroheden'er"ite# and almandine "arnet at hi"her "rades$ Manganiferrous. /oc s that are characteri6ed '& the presence of Mn-rich minerals are termed man"aniferrous$ The& are characteri6ed '& such minerals as 1tilpnomelane and spessartine$

Classification *lassification of metamorphic roc s depends on what is visi'le in the roc and its de"ree of metamorphism$ Note that classification is "enerall& loose and practical such that names can 'e adapted to descri'e the roc in the most satisfactor& wa& that conve&s the important characteristics$ Three inds of criteria are normall& emplo&ed$ These are: 1$ Mineralo"ical - The most distin"uishin" minerals are used as a prefi( to a te(tural term$ Thus# a schist containin" 'iotite# "arnet# .uart6# and feldspar# would 'e called a 'iotite"arnet schist$ 3 "neiss containin" horn'lende# p&ro(ene# .uart6# and feldspar would 'e called a horn'lende- p&ro(ene "neiss$ 3 schist containin" porph&ro'lasts of <-feldspar would 'e called a <-spar porph&ro'lastic schist$ 2$ *hemical - %f the "eneral chemical composition can 'e determined from the mineral assem'la"e# then a chemical name can 'e emplo&ed$ :or e(ample a schist with a lot of .uart6 and feldspar and some "arnet and muscovite would 'e called a "arnet-muscovite .uart6o-feldspathic schist$ 3 schist consistin" mostl& of talc would 'e called a talcma"nesian schist$ 3$ +rotolithic - %f a roc has under"one onl& sli"ht metamorphism such that its ori"inal te(ture can still 'e o'served then the roc is "iven a name 'ased on its ori"inal name#

with the prefi( meta- applied$ :or e(ample: meta'asalt# meta"ra&wac e# meta-andesite# meta"ranite$

%n addition to these conventions# certain non-foliated roc s with specific chemical compositions and4or mineral assem'la"es are "iven specific names$ These are as follows:

!mphibolites: These are medium to coarse "rained# dar colored roc s whose principal minerals are horn'lende and pla"ioclase$ The& result from metamorphism of 'asic i"neous roc s$ :oliation is hi"hl& varia'le# 'ut when present the term schist can 'e appended to the name ,i$e$ amphi'olite schist-$ Marbles: These are roc s composed mostl& of calcite# and less commonl& of dolomite$ The& result from metamorphism of limestones and dolostones$ 1ome foliation ma& 'e present if the mar'le contains micas$ "clogites: These are medium to coarse "rained consistin" mostl& of "arnet and "reen clinop&ro(ene called omphacite# that result from hi"h "rade metamorphism of 'asic i"neous roc s$ 0clo"ites usuall& do not show foliation$ Quartzites# >uart6 arenites and chert 'oth are composed mostl& of 1i2 2$ 1ince .uart6 is sta'le over a wide ran"e of pressures and temperatures# metamorphism of .uart6 arenites and cherts will result onl& in the recr&stalli6ation of .uart6 formin" a hard roc with interloc in" cr&stals of .uart6$ 1uch a roc is called a .uart6ite$

$erpentinites# 1erpentinites are roc s that consist mostl& of serpentine$ These form '& h&drothermal metamorphism of ultra'asic i"neous roc s$ $oapstones# 1oapstones are roc s that contain an a'undance of talc# which "ives the roc a "reas& feel# similar to that of soap$ Talc is an M"-rich mineral# and thus soapstones from ultra'asic i"neous protoliths# li e peridotites# dunites# and p&ro(enites# usuall& '& h&drothermal alteration$ $karns# 1 arns are roc s that ori"inate from contact metamorphism of limestones or dolostones# and show evidence of havin" e(chan"ed constituents with the intrudin" ma"ma$ Thus# s arns are "enerall& composed of minerals li e calcite and dolomite# from the ori"inal car'onate roc # 'ut contain a'undant calcium and ma"nesium silicate minerals li e andradite# "rossularite# epidote# vesuvianite# diopside# and wollastonite that form '& reaction of the ori"inal car'onate minerals with silica from the ma"ma$ The chemical e(chan"e is that ta es place is called metasomatism. Mylonites# M&lonites are cataclastic metamorphic roc s that are produced alon" shear 6ones deep in the crust$ The& are usuall& fine-"rained# sometimes "lass&# that are strea & or la&ered# with the la&ers and strea s havin" 'een drawn out '& ductile shear$

Metamorphic )acies %n "eneral# metamorphic roc s do not drasticall& chan"e chemical composition durin" metamorphism# e(cept in the special case where metasomatism is involved ,such as in the production of s arns# as discussed a'ove-$ The chan"es in mineral assem'la"es are due to chan"es in the temperature and pressure conditions of metamorphism$ Thus# the mineral assem'la"es that are o'served must 'e an indication of the temperature and pressure environment that the roc was su')ected to$ This pressure and temperature environment is referred to as Metamorphic Facies. ,This is similar to the concept of sedimentar& facies# in that a sedimentar& facies is also a set of environmental conditions present durin" deposition-$ The se.uence of metamorphic facies o'served in an& metamorphic terrain# depends on the "eothermal "radient that was present durin" metamorphism$ 3 hi"h "eothermal "radient such as the one la'eled "3" # mi"ht 'e present around an i"neous intrusion# and would result in metamorphic roc s 'elon"in" to the hornfels facies$ ?nder a normal to hi"h "eothermal "radient# such as "9"# roc s would pro"ress from 6eolite facies to "reenschist# amphi'olite# and eclo"ite facies as the "rade of metamorphism ,or depth of 'urial- increased$ %f a low "eothermal "radient was present# such the one la'eled "*" in the dia"ram# then roc s would pro"ress from 6eolite facies to 'lueschist facies to eclo"ite facies$ Thus# if we now the facies of metamorphic roc s in the re"ion# we can determine what the "eothermal "radient must have 'een li e at the time the metamorphism occurred$ This relationship 'etween "eothermal "radient and metamorphism will 'e the central theme of

our discussion of metamorphism$ /eturn to Geolo"& 212 8ome +a"e