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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Element 79" redirects here. For the short story and anthology y Fred !oyle, see Element 79 "anthology#. $his article is a out the metal. For the color, see %old "color#. For other uses, see %old "disam iguation#.

&g '

( )g platinum * gold + mercury
%old in the periodic ta le

Appearance metallic yello,

General properties Name, symbol, number Pronunciation Element category Group, period, block Standard atomic weight Electron configuration gold, &u, 79 -oldtransition metal .., /, d .9/.9//0/9"0# 12e3 4f.4 0d.5 /s. 6, 7, .7, 86, .7, .

istory Naming !isco"ery Phase !ensity #near r$t$% &i'uid density at m$p$ (elting point )oiling point eat of fusion eat of "apori*ation (olar heat capacity aurum in 9atin, meaning glo, of sunrise :iddle Easterns " efore /555 ;<# Physical properties solid .9.85 g=cm>8 .7.8. g=cm>8 .887.88 ?.947.06 @F.5/4..7 @<,, 0.78 @F670/ @<,8.69 ?, .6.00 kJ=mol>. 864 kJ=mol>. 60.4.7 J=mol>.=?>. +apor pressure

A "Aa# at $ "?#

. ./4/

.5 .7.4

.55 656.

.k 667.

.5 k 6/65

.55 k 8577

Atomic properties ,-idation states Electronegati"ity /oni*ation energies Atomic radius 0o"alent radius +an der 1aals radius 0rystal structure (agnetic ordering Electrical resisti"ity 0, 4, ., 6, ., >. "amphoteric oBide# 6.04 "Aauling scale# .st: 795.. kJ=mol>. 6nd: .975 kJ=mol>. .44 pm .8/C/ pm .// pm (iscellanea face centered cu ic diamagnetic1.3 "65 @<# 66..4 nD=m

2hermal conducti"ity 2hermal e-pansion 2ensile strength 3oung4s modulus Shear modulus )ulk modulus Poisson ratio (ohs hardness +ickers hardness )rinell hardness 0AS registry number

8.7 W=m>.=?>. "60 @<# .4.6 Em=m>.=?>. .65 :Aa 79 %Aa 67 %Aa .751citation needed3 %Aa 5.44 6.0 6./ :Aa 60 !; F GG :Aa 7445H07H0 (ost stable isotopes

Speed of sound #thin rod% "r.t.# 6585 m=s>.

:ain article: Isotopes of gold

!( !E #(e+% !P .90 J 5.667 At .9/ J ..05/ At .9/ &u syn /..78 d > .9/ K 5./7/ !g .97 .98 &u .55L H "M# 5.9040 Ir .97 > .97 &u syn 6./90.7 d K ..876 !g .99 > .99 &u syn 8../9 d K 5.408 !g Necay modes in parentheses are predicted, ut have not yet een o served

iso &u

NA syn

half5life .7/..5 d

v t e

6 ref

Gold is a chemical element ,ith the sym ol Au and atomic num er 79. It is a dense, soft, mallea le, and ductile metal ,ith an attractive, right yello, color and luster that is maintained ,ithout tarnishing in air or ,ater. <hemically, gold is a transition metal and a group .. element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements, solid under standard conditions. $he metal therefore occurs often in free elemental "native# form, as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. 9ess commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, such as ,ith tellurium as calaverite, sylvanite and krennerite. %old resists attacks y individual acids, ut it can e dissolved y aOua regia "nitroH hydrochloric acid#, so named ecause it dissolves gold. %old also dissolves in alkaline

solutions of cyanide, ,hich have een used in mining. It dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloysP is insolu le in nitric acid, ,hich dissolves silver and ase metals, a property that has long een used to confirm the presence of gold in items, giving rise to the term acid test. $his metal has een a valua le and highly soughtHafter precious metal for coinage, Qe,elry, and other arts since long efore the eginning of recorded history. %old standards have sometimes een monetary policies, ut ,ere ,idely supplanted y fiat currency starting in the .985s. $he last gold certificate and gold coin currencies ,ere issued in the R.S. in .986. In Europe, most countries left the gold standard ,ith the start of World War I in .9.4 and, ,ith huge ,ar de ts, did not return to gold as a medium of eBchange. & total of .74,.55 tonnes of gold have een mined in human history, according to %F:S as of 65.6.163 $his is roughly eOuivalent to 0./ illion troy ounces or, in terms of volume, a out 96/. m8, or a cu e 6..5 m on a side. $he ,orld consumption of ne, gold produced is a out 05L in Qe,elry, 45L in investments, and .5L in industry.183 ;esides its ,idespread monetary and sym olic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics, and other fields. Its high mallea ility, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity has led to many uses, including electric ,iring, coloredHglass production, and gold leafing. :ost of the EarthTs gold pro a ly lies at its core, the metalTs high density having made it sink there in the planetTs youth. Uirtually all discovered gold is considered to have een deposited later y meteorites that contained the element,1431031/3173173 ,ith the asteroid that formed Uredefort crater having een implicated in the formation of the largest gold mining region on earth, Wit,atersrand asin.1931.531..31.63


. Etymology 6 <haracteristics o 6.. <olor o 6.6 Isotopes 8 &pplications o 8.. :onetary eBchange o 8.6 Investment o 8.8 Je,elry o 8.4 :edicine o 8.0 Food and drink o 8./ Industry o 8.7 Electronics o 8.7 <ommercial chemistry 4 <ultural history

0 Vccurrence o 0.. Sea,ater o 0.6 Specimens of crystalline native gold / Aroduction 7 :ining o 7.. Arospecting 7 EBtraction o 7.. )efining 9 Synthesis from other elements .5 <onsumption .. Aollution .6 <hemistry o .6.. 9ess common oBidation states o .6.6 :iBed valence compounds .8 $oBicity .4 Arice o .4.. !istory .0 Sym olism ./ State em lem .7 See also .7 )eferences .9 EBternal links

"%old" is cognate ,ith similar ,ords in many %ermanic languages, deriving via ArotoH %ermanic Wgul from ArotoHIndoHEuropean Wgel- ""yello,-green"#.1.831.43 $he sym ol Au is from the 9atin: aurum, according to some sources meaning "shining da,n",1.03 from Sa ine ausum "glo,ing da,n"1./3 although according to definitions ,ithin 9atin dictionaries the meaning of the ,ord aurum is the same as todayTs use of gold in reference to the metal.1.73 $he disagreement et,een definitions is possi ly due to the accumulation of evidence from archaeology of the original anciency of the metal in civiliXationP in reference to "the da,n of civiliXation",1.73 and in this respect has ecome the adopted modern meaning, disassociated from the original etymological 9atin.1.93

%old is the most mallea le of all metalsP a single gram can e eaten into a sheet of . sOuare meter, or an ounce into 855 sOuare feet. %old leaf can e eaten thin enough to ecome transparent. $he transmitted light appears greenish lue, ecause gold strongly reflects yello, and red.1653 Such semiHtransparent sheets also strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared "radiant heat# shields in visors of heatHresistant suits, and in sunHvisors for spacesuits.16.3

%old readily dissolves in mercury at room temperature to form an amalgam, and forms alloys ,ith many other metals at higher temperatures. $hese alloys can e produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control melting point or to create eBotic colors.1663 %old is a good conductor of heat and electricity and reflects infrared radiation strongly. <hemically, it is unaffected y air, moisture and most corrosive reagents, and is therefore ,ell suited for use in coins and Qe,elry and as a protective coating on other, more reactive metals. !o,ever, it is not chemically inert. %old is almost insolu le, ut can e dissolved in aOua regia or solutions of sodium or potassium cyanide, for eBample. <ommon oBidation states of gold include Y. "gold"I# or aurous compounds# and Y8 "gold"III# or auric compounds#. %old ions in solution are readily reduced and precipitated as metal y adding any other metal as the reducing agent. $he added metal is oBidiXed and dissolves, allo,ing the gold to e displaced from solution and e recovered as a solid precipitate. In addition, gold is very dense, a cu ic meter ,eighing .9855 kg. ;y comparison, the density of lead is ..,845 kg-m8, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 66,077 C .0 kg-m81683.


Nifferent colors of &gH&uH<u alloys Whereas most other pure metals are gray or silvery ,hite, gold is yello,. $his color is determined y the density of loosely ound "valence# electronsP those electrons oscillate as a collective "plasma" medium descri ed in terms of a Ouasiparticle called plasmon. $he freOuency of these oscillations lies in the ultraviolet range for most metals, ut it falls into the visi le range for gold due to su tle relativistic effects that affect the or itals around gold atoms.16431603 Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. <ommon colored gold alloys such as rose gold can e created y the addition of various amounts of copper and silver, as indicated in the triangular diagram to the left. &lloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial Qe,elry as these produce

,hite gold alloys. 9ess commonly, addition of manganese, aluminium, iron, indium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications.1663

:ain article: Isotopes of gold %old has only one sta le isotope, .97&u, ,hich is also its only naturally occurring isotope. $hirtyHsiB radioisotopes have een synthesiXed ranging in atomic mass from ./9 to 650. $he most sta le of these is .90&u ,ith a halfHlife of .7/.. days. $he least sta le is .7.&u, ,hich decays y proton emission ,ith a halfHlife of 85 Es. :ost of goldTs radioisotopes ,ith atomic masses elo, .97 decay y some com ination of proton emission, M decay, and KY decay. $he eBceptions are .90&u, ,hich decays y electron capture, and .9/&u, ,hich decays most often y electron capture "98L# ,ith a minor K> decay path "7L#.16/3 &ll of goldTs radioisotopes ,ith atomic masses a ove .97 decay y K> decay.1673 &t least 86 nuclear isomers have also een characteriXed, ranging in atomic mass from .75 to 655. Within that range, only .77&u, .75&u, .7.&u, .76&u, and .77&u do not have isomers. %oldTs most sta le isomer is .97m6&u ,ith a halfHlife of 6.67 days. %oldTs least sta le isomer is .77m6&u ,ith a halfHlife of only 7 ns. .74m.&u has three decay paths: KY decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay. Zo other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths.1673

(onetary e-change

%old is commonly formed into ars for use in monetary eBchange. %old has een ,idely used throughout the ,orld as money, for efficient indirect eBchange "versus arter#, and to store ,ealth in hoards. For eBchange purposes, mints produce standardiXed gold ullion coins, ars and other units of fiBed ,eight and purity. $he first coins containing gold ,ere struck in 9ydia, &sia :inor, around /55 ;<. 1673 $he talent coin of gold in use during the periods of %recian history oth efore and during the time of the life of !omer ,eighed et,een 7.46 and 7.70 grams.1693 From an earlier

preference in using silver, European economies reHesta lished the minting of gold as coinage during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.1853 ;ills "that mature into gold coin# and gold certificates "converti le into gold coin at the issuing ank# added to the circulating stock of gold standard money in most .9th century industrial economies. In preparation for World War I the ,arring nations moved to fractional gold standards, inflating their currencies to finance the ,ar effort. AostH,ar, the victorious countries, most nota ly ;ritain, gradually restored goldHconverti ility, ut international flo,s of gold via ills of eBchange remained em argoedP international shipments ,ere made eBclusively for ilateral trades or to pay ,ar reparations. &fter World War II gold ,as replaced y a system of nominally converti le currencies related y fiBed eBchange rates follo,ing the ;retton Woods system. %old standards and the direct converti ility of currencies to gold have een a andoned y ,orld governments, led in .97. y the Rnited StatesT refusal to redeem its dollars in gold. Fiat currency no, fills most monetary roles. S,itXerland ,as the last country to tie its currency to goldP it acked 45L of its value until the S,iss Qoined the International :onetary Fund in .999.18.3 <entral anks continue to keep a portion of their liOuid reserves as gold in some form, and metals eBchanges such as the 9ondon ;ullion :arket &ssociation still clear transactions denominated in gold, including future delivery contracts. $oday, gold mining output is declining.1863 With the sharp gro,th of economies in the 65th century, and increasing foreign eBchange, the ,orldTs gold reserves and their trading market have ecome a small fraction of all markets and fiBed eBchange rates of currencies to gold have een replaced y floating prices for gold and gold future contract. $hough the gold stock gro,s y only . or 6L per year, very little metal is irretrieva ly consumed. Inventory a ove ground ,ould satisfy many decades of industrial and even artisan uses at current prices. $he gold content of alloys is measured in carats "k#. Aure gold is designated as 64k. English gold coins intended for circulation from .06/ into the .985s ,ere typically a standard 66k alloy called cro,n gold,1883 for hardness "&merican gold coins for circulation after .787 contained the slightly lo,er amount of 5.955 fine gold, or 6../ kt#.

&lthough the prices of some platinum group metals can e much higher, gold has long een considered the most desira le of precious metals, and its value has een used as the standard for many currencies. %old has een used as a sym ol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that com ine these properties. %old as a sign of ,ealth and prestige ,as ridiculed y $homas :ore in his treatise Utopia. Vn that imaginary island, gold is so a undant that it is used to make chains for slaves, ta le,are, and lavatory seats. When am assadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold Qe,els and adges, the Rtopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party.


%old prices "RS[ per troy ounce#, in nominal RS[ and inflation adQusted RS[. :ain article: %old as an investment :any holders of gold store it in form of ullion coins or ars as a hedge against inflation or other economic disruptions. !o,ever, economist :artin Feldstein does not elieve gold serves as a hedge against inflation or currency depreciation.1803 $he ISV 46.7 currency code of gold is 2&R. :odern ullion coins for investment or collector purposes do not reOuire good mechanical ,ear propertiesP they are typically fine gold at 64k, although the &merican %old Eagle and the ;ritish gold sovereign continue to e minted in 66k metal in historical tradition, and the South &frican ?rugerand, first released in .9/7, is also 66k. 18/3 $he special issue <anadian %old :aple 9eaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any ullion coin, at 99.999L or 5.99999, ,hile the popular issue <anadian %old :aple 9eaf coin has a purity of 99.99L. Several other 99.99L pure gold coins are availa le. In 655/, the Rnited States :int egan producing the &merican ;uffalo gold ullion coin ,ith a purity of 99.99L. $he &ustralian %old ?angaroos ,ere first coined in .97/ as the &ustralian %old Zugget ut changed the reverse design in .979. Vther modern coins include the &ustrian Uienna Ahilharmonic ullion coin and the <hinese %old Aanda.

:ain article: Je,elry

:oche gold necklace depicting feline heads. 9arco :useum <ollection. 9imaHAeru ;ecause of the softness of pure "64k# gold, it is usually alloyed ,ith ase metals for use in Qe,elry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. &lloys ,ith lo,er carat rating, typically 66k, .7k, .4k or .5k, contain higher percentages of copper or other ase metals or silver or palladium in the alloy. <opper is the most commonly used ase metal, yielding a redder color.1873 EighteenHcarat gold containing 60L copper is found in antiOue and )ussian Qe,elry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating rose gold. FourteenHcarat goldH copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain ronXe alloys, and oth may e used to produce police and other adges. ;lue gold can e made y alloying ,ith iron and purple gold can e made y alloying ,ith aluminium, although rarely done eBcept in specialiXed Qe,elry. ;lue gold is more rittle and therefore more difficult to ,ork ,ith ,hen making Qe,elry.1873 FourteenH and eighteenHcarat gold alloys ,ith silver alone appear greenishHyello, and are referred to as green gold. White gold alloys can e made ,ith palladium or nickel. White .7Hcarat gold containing .7.8L nickel, 0.0L Xinc and 6.6L copper is silvery in appearance. Zickel is toBic, ho,ever, and its release from nickel ,hite gold is controlled y legislation in Europe.1873 &lternative ,hite gold alloys are availa le ased on palladium, silver and other ,hite metals,1873 ut the palladium alloys are more eBpensive than those using nickel. !ighHcarat ,hite gold alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than are either pure silver or sterling silver. $he Japanese craft of :okumeHgane eBploits the color contrasts et,een laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative ,oodHgrain effects.

%old is perhaps the most anciently administered medicine "apparently y shamanic practitioners#1873 and kno,n to Nioscorides,18931453 apparent paradoBes of the actual toBicology of the su stance nevertheless suggests the possi ility still of serious gaps in understanding of action on physiology.14.3 In medieval times, gold ,as often seen as eneficial for the health, in the elief that something so rare and eautiful could not e anything ut healthy. Even some modern

esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing po,er.1463 Some gold salts do have antiHinflammatory properties and are used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. %old ased inQections have een eBplored as a means to help to reduce the pain and s,elling of rheumatoid arthritis and tu erculosis.1483 !o,ever, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as elemental "metallic# gold is inert to all chemicals it encounters inside the ody. %old alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as cro,ns and permanent ridges. $he gold alloysT slight mallea ility facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface ,ith other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced y the creation of porcelain cro,ns. $he use of gold cro,ns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others. <olloidal gold preparations "suspensions of gold nanoparticles# in ,ater are intensely redHcolored, and can e made ,ith tightly controlled particle siXes up to a fe, tens of nanometers across y reduction of gold chloride ,ith citrate or ascor ate ions. <olloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, iology and materials science. $he techniOue of immunogold la eling eBploits the a ility of the gold particles to adsor protein molecules onto their surfaces. <olloidal gold particles coated ,ith specific anti odies can e used as pro es for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells.1443 In ultrathin sections of tissues vie,ed y electron microscopy, the immunogold la els appear as eBtremely dense round spots at the position of the antigen.

%old, or alloys of gold and palladium, are applied as conductive coating to iological specimens and other nonHconducting materials such as plastics and glass to e vie,ed in a scanning electron microscope. $he coating, ,hich is usually applied y sputtering ,ith an argon plasma, has a triple role in this application. %oldTs very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping po,er for electrons in the electron eam, helping to limit the depth to ,hich the electron eam penetrates the specimen. $his improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. %old also produces a high output of secondary electrons ,hen irradiated y an electron eam, and these lo,Henergy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.14/3 $he isotope goldH.97 "halfHlife 6.7 days# is used, in nuclear medicine, in some cancer treatments and for treating other diseases.14731473

8ood and drink

%old can e used in food and has the E num er .70.1493 %old leaf, flake or dust is used on and in some gourmet foods, nota ly s,eets and drinks as decorative ingredient.1053 %old flake ,as used y the no ility in medieval Europe as a decoration in food and drinks, in the form of leaf, flakes or dust,

either to demonstrate the hostTs ,ealth or in the elief that something that valua le and rare must e eneficial for oneTs health. NanXiger %old,asser "%erman: %old ,ater of NanXig# or %old,asser "English: %old,ater# is a traditional %erman her al liOueur10.3 produced in ,hat is today %da\sk, Aoland, and Sch,a ach, %ermany, and contains flakes of gold leaf. $here are also some eBpensive "][.555# cocktails ,hich contain flakes of gold leaf.1063 !o,ever, since metallic gold is inert to all ody chemistry, it has no taste, it provides no nutrition, and it leaves the ody unaltered.1083


:irror for the future James We

Space $elescope coated in gold to reflect infrared light

$he ,orldTs largest gold ar has a mass of 605 kg. $oi museum, Japan.

& gold nugget of 0 mm in diameter " ottom# can e eBpanded through hammering into a gold foil of a out 5.0 sOuare meters. $oi museum, Japan. %old solder is used for Qoining the components of gold Qe,elry y highH temperature hard soldering or raXing. If the ,ork is to e of hallmarking Ouality, gold solder must match the carat ,eight of the ,ork, and alloy formulas are manufactured in most industryHstandard carat ,eights to color match yello, and ,hite gold. %old solder is usually made in at least three meltingHpoint ranges referred to as Easy, :edium and !ard. ;y using the hard, highHmelting point solder first, follo,ed y solders ,ith progressively lo,er melting points, goldsmiths can assem le compleB items ,ith several separate soldered Qoints. %old can e made into thread and used in em roidery. %old produces a deep, intense red color ,hen used as a coloring agent in cran erry glass. In photography, gold toners are used to shift the color of silver romide lackH andH,hite prints to,ards ro,n or lue tones, or to increase their sta ility. Rsed on sepiaHtoned prints, gold toners produce red tones. ?odak pu lished formulas for several types of gold toners, ,hich use gold as the chloride.1043 %old is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visi le light as ,ell as radio ,aves. It is used for the protective coatings on many artificial satellites, in infrared protective faceplates in thermal protection suits and astronautsT helmets and in electronic ,arfare planes like the E&H/; Aro,ler. %old is used as the reflective layer on some highHend <Ns. &utomo iles may use gold for heat shielding. :c9aren uses gold foil in the engine compartment of its F. model.1003 %old can e manufactured so thin that it appears transparent. It is used in some aircraft cockpit ,indo,s for deHicing or antiHicing y passing electricity through it. $he heat produced y the resistance of the gold is enough to deter ice from forming.10/3

$he concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 0.95^.566 cm>8. %old is highly conductive to electricity, and has een used for electrical ,iring in some highHenergy applications "only silver and copper are more conductive per volume, ut gold has the advantage of corrosion resistance#. For eBample, gold electrical ,ires ,ere used during some of the :anhattan AroQectTs atomic eBperiments, ut large high current silver ,ires ,ere used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the proQect. $hough gold is attacked y free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oBidation and corrosion in other environments "including resistance to nonHchlorinated acids# has led to its ,idespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin layer coating electrical connectors, there y ensuring good connection. For eBample, gold is used in the connectors of the more eBpensive electronics ca les, such as audio, video and RS; ca les. $he enefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications has een de atedP gold connectors are often criticiXed y audioHvisual

eBperts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. !o,ever, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts ,ith a very high failure cost "certain computers, communications eOuipment, spacecraft, Qet aircraft engines# remains very common.1073 ;esides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts ecause of its resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, ductility and lack of toBicity.1073 S,itch contacts are generally su Qected to more intense corrosion stress than are sliding contacts. Fine gold ,ires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process kno,n as ,ire onding.

0ommercial chemistry
%old is attacked y and dissolves in alkaline solutions of potassium or sodium cyanide, to form the salt gold cyanide_a techniOue that has een used in eBtracting metallic gold from ores in the cyanide process. %old cyanide is the electrolyte used in commercial electroplating of gold onto ase metals and electroforming. %old chloride "chloroauric acid# solutions are used to make colloidal gold y reduction ,ith citrate or ascor ate ions. %old chloride and gold oBide are used to make cran erry or redHcolored glass, ,hich, like colloidal gold suspensions, contains evenly siXed spherical gold nanoparticles.1093

0ultural history

$he $urin Aapyrus :ap

Funerary mask of $utankhamun

Jason returns ,ith the golden fleece on an &pulian redHfigure calyB krater, ca. 845`885 ;<.

&ncient %reek golden decorated cro,n, funerary or marriage material, 875`8/5 ;<. From a grave in &rmento, <ampania %old artifacts found at the Zahal ?ana cave cemetery dated during the .975s, sho,ed these to e from ,ithin the <halcolithic, and considered the earliest find from the 9evant "%opher et al. .995#.1/53 %old artifacts in the ;alkans also appear from the 4th millennium ;<, such as those found in the Uarna Zecropolis near 9ake Uarna in ;ulgaria, thought y one source "9a Ziece 6559# to e the earliest ",ellHdated" find of gold artifacts.1/.3 %old artifacts such as the golden hats and the Ze ra disk appeared in <entral Europe from the 6nd millennium ;< ;ronXe &ge.

Egyptian hieroglyphs from as early as 6/55 ;< descri e gold, ,hich king $ushratta of the :itanni claimed ,as "more plentiful than dirt" in Egypt.1/63 Egypt and especially Zu ia had the resources to make them maQor goldHproducing areas for much of history. $he earliest kno,n map is kno,n as the $urin Aapyrus :ap and sho,s the plan of a gold mine in Zu ia together ,ith indications of the local geology. $he primitive ,orking methods are descri ed y oth Stra o and Niodorus Siculus, and included fireHsetting. 9arge mines ,ere also present across the )ed Sea in ,hat is no, Saudi &ra ia. $he legend of the golden fleece may refer to the use of fleeces to trap gold dust from placer deposits in the ancient ,orld. %old is mentioned freOuently in the Vld $estament, starting ,ith %enesis 6:.. "at !avilah#, the story of $he %olden <alf and many parts of the temple including the :enorah and the golden altar. In the Ze, $estament, it is included ,ith the gifts of the magi in the first chapters of :atthe,. $he ;ook of )evelation 6.:6. descri es the city of Ze, Jerusalem as having streets "made of pure gold, clear as crystal". EBploitation of gold in the southHeast corner of the ;lack Sea is said to date from the time of :idas, and this gold ,as important in the esta lishment of ,hat is pro a ly the ,orldTs earliest coinage in 9ydia around /.5 ;<.1/83 From the /th or 0th century ;<, the <hu "state# circulated the aing auan, one kind of sOuare gold coin. In )oman metallurgy, ne, methods for eBtracting gold on a large scale ,ere developed y introducing hydraulic mining methods, especially in !ispania from 60 ;< on,ards and in Nacia from .5/ &N on,ards. Vne of their largest mines ,as at 9as :edulas in 9ebn "Spain#, ,here seven long aOueducts ena led them to sluice most of a large alluvial deposit. $he mines at )ocia :ontand in $ransylvania ,ere also very large, and until very recently, still mined y opencast methods. $hey also eBploited smaller deposits in ;ritain, such as placer and hardHrock deposits at Nolaucothi. $he various methods they used are ,ell descri ed y Aliny the Elder in his encyclopedia Zaturalis !istoria ,ritten to,ards the end of the first century &N. Nuring :ansa :usaTs "ruler of the :ali Empire from .8.6 to .887# haQQ to :ecca in .864, he passed through <airo in July .864, and ,as reportedly accompanied y a camel train that included thousands of people and nearly a hundred camels ,here he gave a,ay so much gold that it depressed the price in Egypt for over a decade.1/43 & contemporary &ra historian remarked: %old ,as at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. $he mithOal did not go elo, 60 dirhams and ,as generally a ove, ut from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till no,. $he mithOal does not eBceed 66 dirhams or less. $his has een the state of affairs for a out t,elve years until this day y reason of the large amount of gold ,hich they rought into Egypt and spent there 1...3 _<hiha &lHRmari, [65] $he Aortuguese overseas eBpansion started in .4.0 ,ith the taking of <euta, to control the gold trade coming across the desert. &lthough the caravan trade routes ,ere then diverted, the Aortuguese continued eBpansing south,ards along the coast and eventually

uying the gold directly "or less indirectly# from the &fricans in the %ulf of %uinea.1citation

$he European eBploration of the &mericas ,as fueled in no small part y reports of the gold ornaments displayed in great profusion y Zative &merican peoples, especially in <entral &merica, Aeru, Ecuador and <olom ia. $he &Xtecs regarded gold as literally the product of the gods, calling it "god eBcrement" "teocuitlatl in Zahuatl#, and after :onteXuma ,as killed, most of this gold ,as shipped to Spain.1//3 !o,ever, for the indigenous peoples of Zorth &merica gold ,as considered useless and they sa, much greater value in other minerals ,hich ,ere directly related to their utility, such as o sidian, flint, and slate.1/73 %old played a role in ,estern culture, as a cause for desire and of corruption, as told in childrenTs fa les like )umplestiltskin, ,here the peasantTs daughter turns hay into gold, in return for giving up her child ,hen she ecomes a princess, and stealing the hen that lays golden eggs in Jack and the eanstalk. $he top priXe at the Vlympic games is the gold medal. $here is an ageHold tradition of iting gold to test its authenticity. &lthough this is certainly not a professional ,ay of eBamining gold, the bite test ,as not to check if the coin ,as gold "95L gold coins are fairly strong# ut to see if the coin ,as gold plated lead. & lead coin ,ould e very soft and thus teeth marks ,ould result. Fake gold coins ,ere a common pro lem efore .986 so ,eighing a coin and also sliding a coin through a "counterfeit detector" slot ,as common "making a lead coin thicker ,ould add ,eight thus ,hy slide it through a measured slot#. :ost esta lishments "especially RS Western saloons# ,ould never accept a gold "or silver# coin of high value efore ,eighing such an item.1citation needed3 70L of all gold ever produced has een eBtracted since .9.5.1/73 It has een estimated that all gold ever refined ,ould form a single cu e 65 m "// ft# on a side "eOuivalent to 7,555 m8#.1/73 Vne main goal of the alchemists ,as to produce gold from other su stances, such as lead _ presuma ly y the interaction ,ith a mythical su stance called the philosopherTs stone. &lthough they never succeeded in this attempt, the alchemists promoted an interest in ,hat can e done ,ith su stances, and this laid a foundation for todayTs chemistry. $heir sym ol for gold ,as the circle ,ith a point at its center "#, ,hich ,as also the astrological sym ol and the ancient <hinese character for the Sun. %olden treasures have een rumored to e found at various locations, follo,ing tragedies such as the Je,ish temple treasures in the Uatican, follo,ing the templeTs destruction in 75 &N, a gold stash on the $itanic, the ZaXi gold train ` follo,ing World War II. $he Nome of the )ock on the Jerusalem temple site is covered ,ith an ultraHthin golden glasure1clarification needed3. $he Sikh %olden temple, the !armandir Sahi , is a uilding covered

,ith gold. Similarly the Wat Ahra ?ae, emerald ;udha temple in $hailand has ornamental gold statues ,alls and roofs. Some European king and OueenTs cro,ns ,ere made of gold, and gold ,as used for the ridal cro,n since antiOuity. &n ancient $almudic teBt circa .55 &N descri es )achel, )a i &ki aTs ,ife asking for a "Jerusalem of %old" "cro,n#. & %reek urial cro,n made of gold ,as found in a grave circa 875 ;<.


$his .0/HtroyHounce "4.9 kg# nugget, kno,n as the :oQave Zugget, ,as found y an individual prospector in the Southern <alifornia Nesert using a metal detector. %oldTs atomic num er of 79 makes it one of the higher atomic num er elements ,hich occur naturally. 9ike all elements ,ith atomic num ers larger than iron, gold is thought to have een formed from a supernova nucleosynthesis process,1citation needed3 although a ne,er theory suggests they are made y the collision of neutron stars instead.1/93 Either ,ay, satellites should e a le to detect the resulting gold, " ut ,e have no spectroscopic evidence that 1such3 elements have truly een produced." 1753 $hese theories hold that the resulting eBplosions scattered metalHcontaining dusts "including heavy elements like gold# into the region of space in ,hich they later condensed into our solar system and the Earth.17.3 ;ecause the Earth ,as molten ,hen it ,as Qust formed, almost all of the gold present on Earth sank into the core. :ost of the gold that is present today in the EarthTs crust and mantle ,as delivered to Earth y asteroid impacts during the late heavy om ardment.1763 Vn Earth, gold is found in ores in rock formed from the Arecam rian time on,ard.1/.3 It most often occurs as a native metal, typically in a metal solid solution ,ith silver "i.e. as a gold silver alloy#. Such alloys usually have a silver content of 7`.5L. Electrum is elemental gold ,ith more than 65L silver. ElectrumTs color runs from goldenHsilvery to silvery, dependent upon the silver content. $he more silver, the lo,er the specific gravity. Zative gold occurs as very small to microscopic particles em edded in rock, often together ,ith OuartX or sulfide minerals such as "FoolTs %old", ,hich is a pyrite.1783 $hese are called lode deposits. $he metal in a native state is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets1/.3 that have een eroded from rocks and end up in alluvial

deposits called placer deposits. Such free gold is al,ays richer at the surface of goldH earing veins1clarification needed3 o,ing to the oBidation of accompanying minerals follo,ed y ,eathering, and ,ashing of the dust into streams and rivers, ,here it collects and can e ,elded y ,ater action to form nuggets.

)elative siXes of an 7/5 kg lock of gold ore, and the 85 g of gold that can e eBtracted from it. $oi gold mine, Japan.

%old left ehind after a pyrite cu e ,as oBidiXed to hematite. Zote cu ic shape of cavity. %old sometimes occurs com ined ,ith tellurium as the minerals calaverite, krennerite, nagyagite, petXite and sylvanite "see telluride minerals#, and as the rare ismuthide maldonite "&u6;i# and antimonide aurosti ite "&uS 6#. %old also occurs in rare alloys ,ith copper, lead, and mercury: the minerals auricupride "<u8&u#, novodneprite "&uA 8# and ,eishanite ""&u, &g#8!g6#. )ecent research suggests that micro es can sometimes play an important role in forming gold deposits, transporting and precipitating gold to form grains and nuggets that collect in alluvial deposits.1743 &nother recent study has claimed ,ater in faults vaporiXes during an earthOuake, depositing gold. When an earthOuake strikes, it moves along a fault. Water often lu ricates faults, filling in fractures and Qogs. & out / miles ".5 kilometers# elo, the surface, under incredi le temperatures and pressures, the ,ater carries high concentrations of car on dioBide, silica, and gold. Nuring an earthOuake, the fault Qog suddenly opens ,ider. $he ,ater inside the void instantly vaporiXes, flashing to steam and forcing silica, ,hich forms the mineral OuartX, and gold out of the fluids and onto near y surfaces.1703

$he ,orldTs oceans contain gold. :easured concentrations of gold in the &tlantic and Zortheast Aacific are 05`.05 fmol-9 or .5`85 parts per Ouadrillion "a out .5`85 g-km8#. In general, gold concentrations for &tlantic and Aacific samples are the same "]05 fmol-9# ut less certain. :editerranean deep ,aters contain higher concentrations of gold ".55`.05 fmol-9# attri uted to ,indH lo,n dust and-or rivers. &t .5 parts per Ouadrillion the EarthTs oceans ,ould hold .0,555 tonnes of gold.17/3 $hese figures are three orders of magnitude less than reported in the literature prior to .977, indicating contamination pro lems ,ith the earlier data. & num er of people have claimed to e a le to economically recover gold from sea ,ater, ut so far they have all een either mistaken or acted in an intentional deception. Arescott Jernegan ran a goldHfromHsea,ater s,indle in the Rnited States in the .795s. & ;ritish fraudster ran the same scam in England in the early .955s.1773 FritX !a er "the %erman inventor of the !a er process# did research on the eBtraction of gold from sea ,ater in an effort to help pay %ermanyTs reparations follo,ing World War I.1773 ;ased on the pu lished values of 6 to /4 pp of gold in sea,ater a commercially successful eBtraction seemed possi le. &fter analysis of 4,555 ,ater samples yielding an average of 5.554 pp it ecame clear that the eBtraction ,ould not e possi le and he stopped the proQect.1793 Zo commercially via le mechanism for performing gold eBtraction from sea ,ater has yet een identified. %old synthesis is not economically via le and is unlikely to ecome so in the foreseea le future.

Specimens of crystalline nati"e gold

Zative gold nuggets

")ope gold" from 9ena )iver, Sakha )epu lic, )ussia. SiXe: 6.0^..6^5.7 cm.

<rystalline gold from :ina eapata, Santa Elena de Rairen, UeneXuela. SiXe: 8.7^...^5.4 cm.

%old leaf from !arvard :ine, Jamesto,n, <alifornia, RS&. SiXe 9.8^8.6^ f5.. cm.

:ain article: 9ist of countries y gold production

$he entrance to an underground gold mine in Uictoria, &ustralia

Aure gold precipitate produced y the aOua regia refining process

$ime trend of gold production &t the end of 6559, it ,as estimated that all the gold ever mined totaled ./0,555 tonnes.163 $his can e represented y a cu e ,ith an edge length of a out 65.67 meters. &t [.,/55 per troy ounce, ./0,555 metric tonnes of gold ,ould have a value of [7.0 trillion. World production for 65.. ,as at 6,755 tonnes, compared to 6,6/5 tonnes for 6557. Since the .775s, South &frica has een the source for a large proportion of the ,orldTs gold supply, ,ith a out 05L of all gold ever produced having come from South &frica. Aroduction in .975 accounted for 79L of the ,orld supply, producing a out .,475 tonnes. In 6557 <hina ",ith 67/ tonnes# overtook South &frica as the ,orldTs largest gold producer, the first time since .950 that South &frica has not een the largest.1753


:ain article: %old mining $he city of Johannes urg located in South &frica ,as founded as a result of the Wit,atersrand %old )ush ,hich resulted in the discovery of some of the largest gold deposits the ,orld has ever seen. %old fields located ,ithin the asin in the Free State and %auteng provinces are eBtensive in strike and dip reOuiring some of the ,orldTs deepest mines, ,ith the Savuka and $au$ona mines eing currently the ,orldTs deepest gold mine at 8,777 m. $he Second ;oer War of .799`.95. et,een the ;ritish Empire and the &frikaner ;oers ,as at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold ,ealth in South &frica. Vther maQor producers are the Rnited States, &ustralia, )ussia, and Aeru, as ,ell as, %hana, ;urkina Faso, :ali, Indonesia and RX ekistan. :ines in South Nakota and Zevada supply t,oHthirds of gold used in the Rnited States. In South &merica, the controversial proQect Aascua 9ama aims at eBploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of &tacama Nesert, at the order et,een <hile and &rgentina. $oday a out oneHOuarter of the ,orld gold output is estimated to originate from artisanal or small scale mining.17.3

:ain article: %old prospecting Nuring the .9th century, gold rushes occurred ,henever large gold deposits ,ere discovered. $he first documented discovery of gold in the Rnited States ,as at the )eed %old :ine near %eorgeville, Zorth <arolina in .758.1763 $he first maQor gold strike in the Rnited States occurred in a small north %eorgia to,n called Nahlonega.1783 Further gold rushes occurred in <alifornia, <olorado, the ;lack !ills, Vtago in Ze, eealand, &ustralia, Wit,atersrand in South &frica, and the ?londike in <anada.

:ain article: %old eBtraction %old eBtraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits. Vre grades as little as 5.0 mg-kg "5.0 parts per million, ppm# can e economical. $ypical ore grades in openHpit mines are .`0 mg-kg ".`0 ppm#P ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 8 mg-kg "8 ppm#. ;ecause ore grades of 85 mg-kg "85 ppm# are usually needed efore gold is visi le to the naked eye, in most gold mines the gold is invisi le. $he average gold mining and eBtraction costs ,ere a out RS[8.7-oX in 6557, ut these can vary ,idely depending on mining type and ore OualityP glo al mine production amounted to 6,47... tonnes.1743


&fter initial production, gold is often su seOuently refined industrially y the Wohl,ill process ,hich is ased on electrolysis or y the :iller process, that is chlorination in the melt. $he Wohl,ill process results in higher purity, ut is more compleB and is only applied in smallHscale installations.170317/3 Vther methods of assaying and purifying smaller amounts of gold include parting and inOuartation as ,ell as cupellation, or refining methods ased on the dissolution of gold in aOua regia.1773

Synthesis from other elements

%old ,as synthesiXed from mercury y neutron om ardment in .94., ut the isotopes of gold produced ,ere all radioactive.1773 In .964, a Japanese physicist, !antaro Zagaoka, accomplished the same feat.1793 %old can currently e manufactured in a nuclear reactor y irradiation either of platinum or mercury. Vnly the mercury isotope .9/!g, ,hich occurs ,ith a freOuency of 5..0L in natural mercury, can e converted to gold y neutron capture, and follo,ing electron captureH decay into .97&u ,ith slo, neutrons. Vther mercury isotopes are converted ,hen irradiated ,ith slo, neutrons into one another, or formed mercury isotopes ,hich eta decay into thallium. Rsing fast neutrons, the mercury isotope .97!g, ,hich composes 9.97L of natural mercury, can e converted y splitting off a neutron and ecoming .97!g, ,hich then disintegrates to sta le gold. $his reaction, ho,ever, possesses a smaller activation crossH section and is feasi le only ,ith unHmoderated reactors. It is also possi le to eQect several neutrons ,ith very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form .97!g. !o,ever such highHenergy neutrons can e produced only y particle accelerators.1clarification needed3.

$he consumption of gold produced in the ,orld is a out 05L in Qe,elry, 45L in investments, and .5L in industry.1citation needed3 India is the ,orldTs largest single consumer of gold, as Indians uy a out 60L of the ,orldTs gold,1953 purchasing approBimately 755 tonnes of gold every year, mostly for Qe,elry. India is also the largest importer of goldP in 6557, India imported around 455 tonnes of gold.19.3 Indian households hold .7,555 tonnes of gold ,hich represents ..L of the glo al stock and ,orth more than [905 illion.1963 %old Qe,elry consumption y country in tonnes19831943 0ountry :;;9 :;<; :;<< :;<: India 446.87 740.75 97/.8 7/4

%old Qe,elry consumption y country in tonnes19831943 0ountry :;;9 :;<; :;<< :;<: %reater <hina 87/.9/ 467.55 96..0 7.7.0 Rnited States .05.67 .67./. .99.0 ./. $urkey 70../ 74.57 .48 ..7 77.70 76.90 /9.. 07.0 Saudi &ra ia )ussia /5..6 /7.05 7/.7 7..9 Rnited &ra Emirates /7./5 /8.87 /5.9 07.. 0/./7 08.48 8/ 47.7 Egypt Indonesia 4..55 86.70 00 06.8 Rnited ?ingdom 8..70 67.80 66./ 6... Vther Aersian %ulf <ountries 64..5 6..97 66 .9.9 6..70 .7.05 >85.. 7./ Japan South ?orea .7.78 .0.77 .0.0 .6.. .0.57 .4.8/ .55.7 77 Uietnam $hailand 7.88 /.67 .57.4 75.9 2otal <=;>$7; <>;=$?; Other Countries 25 .6 25!." #$".! #$#.5 1orld 2otal <7?;$. :;=9$? .@>7$= .<?.$?

Further information: :ercury cycle %old production is associated ,ith contri ution to haXardous pollution.190319/3 $he ore, generally containing less than one ppm gold metal, is ground and miBed ,ith sodium cyanide or mercury to react ,ith gold in the ore for gold separation. <yanide is a highly poisonous chemical, ,hich can kill living creatures ,hen eBposed in minute Ouantities. :any cyanide spills1973 from gold mines have occurred in oth developed and developing countries ,hich killed marine life in long stretches of affected rivers. Environmentalists consider these events maQor environmental disasters.19731993 When mercury is used in gold production, minute Ouantity of mercury compounds reach ,ater odies, causing heavy metal contamination. :ercury can then enter into the human food chain in the form of methyl mercury. :ercury poisoning in humans causes incura le rain function damage and severe retardation. $hirty tonnes of used ore is dumped as ,aste for producing one . ounce "67 g# of gold. 1.553 %old ore dumps are the source of many heavy elements such as cadmium, lead, Xinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury. When sulfide earing minerals in these ore dumps are eBposed to air and ,ater, the sulfide transforms into sulfuric acid ,hich in turn dissolves these heavy metals facilitating their passage into surface ,ater and ground ,ater. $his process is called acid mine drainage. $hese gold ore dumps are long term, highly haXardous ,astes second only to nuclear ,aste dumps.1.553

%old eBtraction is also a highly energy intensive industry, eBtracting ore from deep mines and grinding the large Ouantity of ore for further chemical eBtraction reOuires ,ith 60 kW=h of electricity reOuired per gram of gold produced.1.5.3


%old "III# chloride solution in ,ater &lthough gold is the most no le of the no le metals,1.5631.583 it still forms many diverse compounds. $he oBidation state of gold in its compounds ranges from >. to Y0, ut &u"I# and &u"III# dominate its chemistry. &u"I#, referred to as the aurous ion, is the most common oBidation state ,ith soft ligands such as thioethers, thiolates, and tertiary phosphines. &u"I# compounds are typically linear. & good eBample is &u"<Z#6>, ,hich is the solu le form of gold encountered in mining. <uriously, aurous compleBes of ,ater are rare. $he inary gold halides, such as &u<l, form XigXag polymeric chains, again featuring linear coordination at &u. :ost drugs ased on gold are &u"I# derivatives.1.543 &u"III# "auric# is a common oBidation state, and is illustrated y gold"III# chloride, &u6<l/. $he gold atom centers in &u"III# compleBes, like other d7 compounds, are typically sOuare planar, ,ith chemical onds that have oth covalent and ionic character. &Oua regia, a .:8 miBture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, dissolves gold. Zitric acid oBidiXes the metal to Y8 ions, ut only in minute amounts, typically undetecta le in the pure acid ecause of the chemical eOuili rium of the reaction. !o,ever, the ions are removed from the eOuili rium y hydrochloric acid, forming &u<l4> ions, or chloroauric acid, there y ena ling further oBidation. Some free halogens react ,ith gold.1.503 %old also reacts in alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide. With mercury, it forms an amalgam.

&ess common o-idation states

9ess common oBidation states of gold include >., Y6, and Y0.

$he >. oBidation state occurs in compounds containing the &u> anion, called aurides. <aesium auride "<s&u#, for eBample, crystalliXes in the caesium chloride motif.1.5/3 Vther aurides include those of ) Y, ?Y, and tetramethylammonium "<!8#4ZY.1.573 %old has the highest Aauling electronegativity of any metal, ,ith a value of 6.04, making the auride anion relatively sta le. %old"II# compounds are usually diamagnetic ,ith &u`&u onds such as 1&u"<!6#6A"</!0#636<l6. $he evaporation of a solution of &u"V!# 8 in concentrated ! 6SV 4 produces red crystals of gold"II# sulfate, &u6"SV4#6. Vriginally thought to e a miBedH valence compound, it has een sho,n to contain &u4Y 1.5731.593 6 cations. & note,orthy, legitimate gold"II# compleB is the tetraBenonogold"II# cation, ,hich contains Benon as a ligand, found in 1&u2e43"S 6F..#6.1..53 %old pentafluoride, along ,ith its derivative anion, &uF> /, and its difluorine compleB, gold heptafluoride, is the sole eBample of gold"U#, the highest verified oBidation state.1...3 Some gold compounds eBhi it aurophilic bonding, ,hich descri es the tendency of gold ions to interact at distances that are too long to e a conventional &u`&u ond ut shorter than van der Waals onding. $he interaction is estimated to e compara le in strength to that of a hydrogen ond.

(i-ed "alence compounds

WellHdefined cluster compounds are numerous.1.573 In such cases, gold has a fractional oBidation state. & representative eBample is the octahedral species g&u"A"</!0#8#h/6Y. %old chalcogenides, such as gold sulfide, feature eOual amounts of &u"I# and &u"III#.

Aure metallic "elemental# gold is nonHtoBic and nonHirritating ,hen ingested1..63 and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf. :etallic gold is also a component of the alcoholic drinks %oldschliger, %old Strike, and %old,asser. :etallic gold is approved as a food additive in the ER "E.70 in the <odeB &limentarius#. &lthough the gold ion is toBic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to eing corroded or transformed into solu le salts "gold compounds# y any kno,n chemical process ,hich ,ould e encountered in the human ody. Solu le compounds "gold salts# such as gold chloride are toBic to the liver and kidneys. <ommon cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating, are toBic y virtue of oth their cyanide and gold content. $here are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide.1..831..43 %old toBicity can e ameliorated ,ith chelation therapy ,ith an agent such as dimercaprol.

%old metal ,as voted &llergen of the aear in 655. y the &merican <ontact Nermatitis Society. %old contact allergies affect mostly ,omen.1..03 Nespite this, gold is a relatively nonHpotent contact allergen, in comparison ,ith metals like nickel.1../3

Further information: %old as an investment

%old price history in .9/5`65.. %old is currently valued at around RS[/6,555 per kilogram. 9ike other precious metals, gold is measured y troy ,eight and y grams. When it is alloyed ,ith other metals the term carat or %arat is used to indicate the purity of gold present, ,ith 64 carats eing pure gold and lo,er ratings proportionally less. $he purity of a gold ar or coin can also e eBpressed as a decimal figure ranging from 5 to ., kno,n as the millesimal fineness, such as 5.990 eing very pure.

$he price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, ut a procedure kno,n as the %old FiBing in 9ondon, originating in Septem er .9.9, provides a daily enchmark price to the industry. $he afternoon fiBing ,as introduced in .9/7 to provide a price ,hen RS markets are open.1..73 !istorically gold coinage ,as ,idely used as currencyP ,hen paper money ,as introduced, it typically ,as a receipt redeema le for gold coin or ullion. In a monetary system kno,n as the gold standard, a certain ,eight of gold ,as given the name of a unit of currency. For a long period, the Rnited States government set the value of the RS dollar so that one troy ounce ,as eOual to [65./7 "[//4.0/-kg#, ut in .984 the dollar ,as devalued to [80.55 per troy ounce "[..60.67-kg#. ;y .9/., it ,as ecoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of RS and European anks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand.1..73

& S,issHcast . kg gold ar Vn .7 :arch .9/7, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the gold pool, and a t,oHtiered pricing scheme ,as esta lished ,here y gold ,as still used to settle international accounts at the old [80.55 per troy ounce "[...8-g# ut the price of gold on the private market ,as allo,ed to fluctuateP this t,oHtiered pricing system ,as a andoned in .970 ,hen the price of gold ,as left to find its freeHmarket level. <entral anks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally een declining. $he largest gold depository in the ,orld is that of the R.S. Federal )eserve ;ank in Ze, aork, ,hich holds a out 8L1..93 of the gold ever mined, as does the similarly laden R.S. ;ullion Nepository at Fort ?noB. In 6550 the World %old <ouncil estimated total glo al gold supply to e 8,709 tonnes and demand to e 8,704 tonnes, giving a surplus of .50 tonnes.1.653 Sometime around .975 the price egan in trend to greatly increase,1.6.3 and since .9/7 the price of gold has ranged ,idely, from a high of [705-oX "[67,855-kg# on 6. January .975, to a lo, of [606.95-oX "[7,.8.-kg# on 6. June .999 "9ondon %old FiBing#.1.663 $he period from .999 to 655. marked the ";ro,n ;ottom" after a 65Hyear ear market.1.683 Arices increased rapidly from 655., ut the .975 high ,as not eBceeded until 8 January 6557 ,hen a ne, maBimum of [7/0.80 per troy ounce ,as set.1.643 &nother record price ,as set on .7 :arch 6557 at [.568.05-oX "[86,955-kg#.1.643 In late 6559, gold markets eBperienced rene,ed momentum up,ards due to increased demand and a ,eakening RS dollar. Vn 6 Necem er 6559, %old reached a ne, high closing at [., %old further rallied hitting ne, highs in :ay 65.5 after the European Rnion de t crisis prompted further purchase of gold as a safe asset.1.6/31.673 Vn . :arch 65.., gold hit a ne, allHtime high of [.486.07, ased on investor concerns regarding ongoing unrest in Zorth &frica as ,ell as in the :iddle East.1.673 Since &pril 655. the gold price has more than Ouintupled in value against the RS dollar, hitting a ne, allHtime high of [.,9.8.05 on 68 &ugust 65..,1.693 prompting speculation that this long secular ear market has ended and a ull market has returned.1.853


%old ars at the Emperor <asino in :acau %reat human achievements are freOuently re,arded ,ith gold, in the form of gold medals, golden trophies and other decorations. Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually a,arded a gold medal. :any a,ards such as the Zo el AriXe are made from gold as ,ell. Vther a,ard statues and priXes are depicted in gold or are gold plated "such as the &cademy &,ards, the %olden %lo e &,ards, the Emmy &,ards, the Aalme dTVr, and the ;ritish &cademy Film &,ards#. &ristotle in his ethics used gold sym olism ,hen referring to ,hat is no, commonly kno,n as the golden mean. Similarly, gold is associated ,ith perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of the golden ratio and the golden rule. %old is further associated ,ith the ,isdom of aging and fruition. $he fiftieth ,edding anniversary is golden. Vur precious latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". $he height of a civiliXation is referred to as a "golden age". In some forms of <hristianity and Judaism, gold has een associated oth ,ith holiness and evil. In the ;ook of EBodus, the %olden <alf is a sym ol of idolatry, ,hile in the ;ook of %enesis, & raham ,as said to e rich in gold and silver, and :oses ,as instructed to cover the :ercy Seat of the &rk of the <ovenant ,ith pure gold. In ;yXantine iconography the halos of <hrist, :ary and the <hristian saints are often golden. :edieval kings ,ere inaugurated under the signs of sacred oil and a golden cro,n, the latter sym oliXing the eternal shining light of heaven and thus a <hristian kingTs divinely inspired authority1citation needed3. &ccording to <hristopher <olum us, $hose ,ho had something of gold, ,ere in possession of something of great value on Earth and a su stance to even help souls to paradise.1.8.3 Wedding rings have long een made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected y the passage of time and may aid in the ring sym olism of eternal vo,s efore %od and-or the sun and moon and the perfection the marriage signifies. In VrthodoB <hristian ,edding ceremonies, the ,edded couple is adorned ,ith a golden cro,n "though some opt for ,reaths, instead# during the ceremony, an amalgamation of sym olic rites.

In popular culture gold holds many connotations ut is most generally connected to terms such as good or great, such as in the phrases: "has a heart of gold", "thatTs goldenj", "golden moment", "then youTre goldenj" and "golden oy". %old also still holds its place as a sym ol of ,ealth and through that, in many societies, success.

State emblem
In .9/0, the <alifornia 9egislature designated gold "the State :ineral and mineralogical em lem".1.863 In .9/7, the &laska 9egislature named gold "the official state mineral".1.883

See also

;ulk leach eBtracta le gold <hrysiasis "dermatological condition# <ommodity fetishism ":arBist economic theory# Nigital gold currency %old &ntiH$rust &ction <ommittee %old fingerprinting %old phosphine compleB %old Arospectors &ssociation of &merica :ining in )oman ;ritain Arospecting $um aga

.. 6. 8. 4. 0. /. 7ump up A :agnetic suscepti ility of the elements and inorganic compounds in 9ide, N. )., ed. "6550#. C&C 'andboo% of Chemistr( and )h(sics "7/th ed.#. ;oca )aton "F9#: <)< Aress. IS;Z 5H7498H547/H0. k Jump up to: a b World %old <ouncil F&l. )etrieved on .6 Septem er 65.8. 7ump up A Soos, &ndy "/ January 65..#. "%old :ining ;oom Increasing :ercury Aollution )isk". *d+anced ,edia -olutions. /nc. " )etrieved 6/ :arch 65... 7ump up A ;attison, 9eila "7 Septem er 65..#. ":eteorites delivered gold to Earth". ;;< Ze,s. 7ump up A "Where does all EarthTs gold come fromG Arecious metals the result of meteorite om ardment, rock analysis finds". 9 Septem er 65... doi:.5..587-nature.5899. )etrieved .6 Septem er 65.8. 7ump up A ?irk, J.P )uiX, J.P <hesley, J.P $itley, S. "6558#. "$he Vrigin of %old in South &frica". *merican -cientist 9< "/#: 084. doi:.5..0..-6558./.084.


7ump up A ":eteor Sho,er )ained %old Vn &ncient Earth". ! .5 Septem er 65... )etrieved .6 Septem er 65.8. 7. 7ump up A Will old, :.P Elliott, $.P :oor ath, S. "65..#. "$he tungsten isotopic composition of the EarthTs mantle efore the terminal om ardment". 0ature @77 "78/8#: .90`.97. doi:.5..587-nature.5899. A:IN edit 9. 7ump up A ":angalisa AroQect". Superior :ining International <orporation. .5. 7ump up A $herriault, &. :., %rieve, ). &. F., m )eimold, W. R. ".997#. "Vriginal siXe of the Uredefort Structure: Implications for the geological evolution of the Wit,atersrand ;asin". ,eteoritics .:: 7.`77. ;i code:.997:mAS...86...7.$. doi:.5.....-Q..940H0.55..997.t 5.646.B. ... 7ump up A :eteor craters may hold untapped ,ealth. <osmos :agaXine "67 July 6557#. )etrieved on .6 Septem er 65.8. .6. 7ump up A <orner, ;.P Nurrheim, ). J.P Zicolaysen, 9. V. ".995#. ")elationships et,een the Uredefort structure and the Wit,atersrand asin ,ithin the tectonic frame,ork of the ?aapvaal craton as interpreted from regional gravity and aeromagnetic data". 1ectonoph(sics <7<: 49. doi:.5..5./-5545H .90."95#95579Hl. edit .8. 7ump up A VBford English Nictionary .4. 7ump up A !esse, ) W. Je,elrymaking $hrough !istory: &n Encyclopedia, %reen,ood Au lishing %roup, 6557 IS;Z 58.8880579 .0. 7ump up A Supporting references ` "shining da,n" %oogleHscholar m %oogleH ooks )etrieved 7 June 65.6 ./. 7ump up A <hristie, & and ;rath,aite, ). "9ast updated 6 Zovem er 65..# :ineral <ommodity )eport .4 _ %old, Institute of geological and Zuclear sciences 9td ` )etrieved 7 June 65.6 .7. 7ump up A Zotre Name Rniversity 9atin Nictionary )etrieved 7 June 65.6 .7. 7ump up A :aspero, % and Sayce, & ! ".9.5# 1he 2a3n of Ci+ili4ation5 6g(pt and Chald7a .9. 7ump up A <rooks, % )P Ingersley, < F and Schem, & J. & ne, 9atinH English schoolHleBicon: on the asis of the 9atinH%erman leBicon of Nr. <. F. Ingerslev, J.;. 9ippincott, .7/. )etrieved 7 June 65.6 65. 7ump up A "%old: causes of color". )etrieved / June 6559. 6.. 7ump up A :allan, 9loyd ".97.#. -uiting up for space5 the e+olution of the space suit. John Nay <o. p. 6./. IS;Z 977H5H87.H97.05H.. 66. k Jump up to: a b "%old Je,ellery &lloys f Rtilise %old. Scientific, industrial and medical applications, products, suppliers from the World %old <ouncil". 65 January 6555. )etrieved 0 &pril 6559. 68. 7ump up A &r laster, J. W. ".990#. "Vsmium, the Nensest :etal ?no,n". )latinum ,etals &e+ie3 .9 "4#: ./4. 64. 7ump up A ")elativity in <hemistry". )etrieved 0 &pril 6559. 60. 7ump up A Schmid aur, !u ertP <ronQe, StephanieP NQordQevic, ;ratislavP Schuster, Vliver "6550#. "Rnderstanding gold chemistry through relativity".

Chemical )h(sics .<< ".`6#: .0.`./.. ;i code:6550<A....8.....0.S. doi:.5..5./-Q.chemphys.6554.59.568. 6/. 7ump up A "Zudat 6". Zational Zuclear Nata <enter. )etrieved .6 &pril 65.6. 67. k Jump up to: a b &udi, %.P ;ersillon, V.P ;lachot, J.P Wapstra, &.!. "6558#. "$he ZR;&SE Evaluation of Zuclear and Necay Aroperties". 0uclear )h(sics * "&tomic :ass Nata <enter# 7:9: 8`.67. ;i code:6558ZuAh&.769....8&. doi:.5..5./-Q.nuclphysa.6558....55.. 67. 7ump up A "& <ase for the WorldTs Vldest <oin: 9ydian 9ion". ) 6558H.5H56. )etrieved 65.8H.5H67. 69. 7ump up A Seltman, < $ ".964#. *thens. /ts 'istor( and Coinage 8efore the )ersian /n+asion. IS;Z 577.748575. )etrieved 4 June 65.6. 85. 7ump up A : : Aostan, E :iller ".9/7#. 1he Cambridge 6conomic 'istor( of 6urope5 1rade and industr( in the ,iddle *ges. <am ridge Rniversity Aress, 67 &ugust .977. IS;Z 506.577595. 8.. 7ump up A "S,iss Zarro,ly Uote to Nrop %old Standard". 1he 0e3 9or% 1imes. .9 &pril .999. 86. 7ump up A ?ing, ;yron "65 July 6559#. "%old mining decline". ; )etrieved 68 Zovem er 6559. 88. 7ump up A 9a,rence, $homas Ed,ard ".947#. 1he ,int5 * 2a(-boo% of the &.*.:. 2epot 8et3een *ugust and 2ecember $22. 3ith ;ater 0otes. p. .58. 84. 7ump up A $ucker, %eorge ".789#. 1he theor( of mone( and ban%s in+estigated. p. 898. 80. 7ump up A :artin Feldstein "6/ Necem er 6559#. "Is %old a %ood !edgeG". AroQect Syndicate. )etrieved 69 Necem er 6559. 8/. 7ump up A "$he Ever Aopular ?rugerrand". http5<<333.americansil+ereagletoda(.com. 65.5. )etrieved 85 &ugust 65... 87. k Jump up to: a b c d World %old <ouncil, Je,ellery $echnology, Je,ellery &lloys 87. 7ump up A ?ean, W. F.P ?ean, I. ). 9. "6557#. "<linical pharmacology of gold". /nflammopharmacolog( <? "8#: ..6`60. doi:.5..557-s.5777H557H556.HB. A:IN .7068788. 89. 7ump up A :oir, Navid :ac eth ".78.#. Outlines of the ancient histor( of medicine. 45. 7ump up A :ortier, $om. &n eBperimental study on the preparation of gold nanoparticles and their properties, AhN thesis, Rniversity of 9euven ":ay 655/# 4.. 7ump up A :erchant, ;. ".997#. "%old, the Zo le :etal and the AaradoBes of its $oBicology". 8iologicals :? ".#: 49`09. doi:.5..55/- iol..997.5.68. A:IN 9/87749. 46. 7ump up A "$he healing po,er of precious metals". )etrieved / June 6559. 48. 7ump up A :essori, 9.P :arcon, %. "6554#. "%old <ompleBes in the treatment of )heumatoid &rthritis". In Sigel, &strid. ,etal ions and their comple=es in medication. <)< Aress. pp. 675`85.. IS;Z 977H5H7647H080.H..


7ump up A Faulk, W. A.P $aylor, %. :. ".97.#. "&n immunocolloid method for the electron microscope". /mmunochemistr( > "..#: .57.`8. doi:.5..5./-55.9H679."7.#9549/H4. A:IN 4..5.5.. 40. 7ump up A )oth, J.P ;endayan, :.P Vrci, 9. ".975#. "FI$<Hprotein &H gold compleB for light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry". 1he >ournal of histochemistr( and c(tochemistr( 5 official >ournal of the 'istochemistr( -ociet( :> ".#: 00`7. doi:.5...77-67.../.08.94. A:IN /.08.94. 4/. 7ump up A ;oXXola, John J. and )ussell, 9onnie Nee ".999#. 6lectron microscop(5 principles and techni?ues for biologists. Jones m ;artlett 9earning. p. /0. IS;Z 5H7/87H5.96H5. 47. 7ump up A "Zanoscience and Zanotechnology in Zanomedicine: !y rid Zanoparticles In Imaging and $herapy of Arostate <ancer". )adiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, Rniversity of :issouriH<olum ia. &rchived from the original on .4 :arch 6559. 47. 7ump up A !ainfeld, James F.P Nilmanian, F. &vrahamP Slatkin, Naniel Z.P Smilo,itX, !enry :. "6557#. ")adiotherapy enhancement ,ith gold nanoparticles". @ournal of )harmac( and )harmacolog( ?; "7#: 977`70. doi:.5..6..-Qpp./5.7.5550. A:IN .7/44.9.. 49. 7ump up A "<urrent ER approved additives and their E Zum ers". Food Standards &gency, R?. 67 July 6557. 05. 7ump up A "$he Food Nictionary: Uarak". ;arronTs Educational Services, Inc. .990. )etrieved 67 :ay 6557. 0.. 7ump up A ;aedeker, ?arl ".7/0#. "NanXig". 2eutschland nebst 1heilen der angren4enden ;Ander "in %erman#. ?arl ;aedeker. 06. 7ump up A %uinness ;ook of World )ecords 6557 08. 7ump up A "$he :any Rses of %old". )etrieved / June 6559. 04. 7ump up A ?odak "655/# $oning lackHandH,hite materials. $echnical Nata-)eference sheet %H68, :ay 655/. 00. 7ump up A :artin, ?eith. $$B ,c;aren : . 0/. 7ump up A "$he Nemand for %old y Industry". %old ulletin. )etrieved / June 6559. 07. 7ump up A ?rech, ShepardP :cZeill, John )o ert and :erchant, <arolyn "6554#. 6nc(clopedia of 3orld en+ironmental histor(. Colume #. )outledge. p. 097. IS;Z 5H4.0H98784H0. 07. 7ump up A "%eneral Electric <ontact :aterials". 6lectrical Contact Catalog D,aterial CatalogE. $anaka Arecious :etals. 6550. )etrieved 6. Fe ruary 6557. 09. 7ump up A "<olored glass chemistry". )etrieved / June 6559. /5. 7ump up A %opher, &.P $suk, $.P Shalev, S. and %ophna, ). "&ugust` Vcto er .995#. "Earliest %old &rtifacts in the 9evant". Current *nthropolog( .< "4#: 48/`448. doi:.5..57/-6587/7. JS$V) 6748670. /.. k Jump up to: a b c 9a Ziece, Susan "senior metallurgist in the ;ritish :useum Nepartment of <onservation and Scientific )esearch# ".0 Necem er 6559#. Fold. !arvard Rniversity Aress. p. .5. IS;Z 5H/74H58095H9. )etrieved .5 &pril 65.6.


7ump up A :ontserrat, Nominic "6. Fe ruary 6558#. *%henaten5 'istor(. :antas( and *ncient 6g(pt. IS;Z 977H5H4.0H85.7/H6. /8. 7ump up A "& <ase for the WorldTs First <oin: $he 9ydian 9ion". )etrieved 64 July 6559. /4. 7ump up A :ansa :usa. ;lack !istory Aages /0. 7ump up A "?ingdom of :ali ` Arimary Source Nocuments". *frican studies Center. ;oston Rniversity. )etrieved 85 January 65.6. //. 7ump up A ;erdan, FrancesP &na,alt, Aatricia )ieff ".996#. 1he Code= ,endo4a :. Rniversity of <alifornia Aress. p. .0.. IS;Z 977H5H065H5/684H4. /7. 7ump up A Sierra Zevada Uirtual :useum. Sierra Zevada Uirtual :useum. )etrieved on 4 :ay 65.6. /7. k Jump up to: a b "%oldsheet ` yearly and cumulative ,orld gold production charts". )etrieved 66 July 655/. /9. 7ump up A Rrry, :eg "65 July 65.8#. "%old comes from stars". <ZZ. 75. 7ump up A )oss,og, Stephan, ")adioactive glo, as a smoking gun", Zature, RS&, 69 &ugust 65.8, )etrieved on .. Septem er 65.8. 7.. 7ump up A Seeger, Ahilip &.P Fo,ler, William &.P <layton, Nonald N. ".9/0#. "Zucleosynthesis of !eavy Elements y Zeutron <apture". 1he *stroph(sical @ournal -upplement -eries <<: .6.. ;i code:.9/0&pJS........6.S. doi:.5..57/-.95.... 76. 7ump up A Will old, :atthiasP Elliott, $imP :oor ath, Stephen "65..#. "$he tungsten isotopic composition of the EarthTs mantle efore the terminal om ardment". 0ature @77 "78/8#: .90`7. ;i code:65..Zatur.477...90W. doi:.5..587-nature.5899. A:IN 78. 7ump up A "Formation of 9ode %old Neposits". )etrieved 68 :ay 6559. 74. 7ump up A "Environment m Zature Ze,s ` ;ugs gro, gold that looks like coral ` 67 January 6554". )etrieved 66 July 655/. $his is doctoral research undertaken y Frank )eith at the &ustralian Zational Rniversity, pu lished 6554. 70. 7ump up A "EarthOuakes $urn Water into %oldn.7 :arch 65.8". )etrieved .7 :arch 65.8. 7/. 7ump up A ?enison Falkner, ?.P Edmond, J ".995#. "%old in sea,ater". 6arth and )lanetar( -cience ;etters 9> "6#: 657`66.. ;i code:.995EmAS9..97..657?. doi:.5..5./-55.6H76.2"95#955/5H;. 77. 7ump up A AlaXak, Nan * 'ole in the Fround 3ith a ;iar at the 1op "Salt 9ake: Rniv. of Rtah Aress, 655/# IS;Z 5H77475H745H0 "contains a chapter on goldHfrom sea,ater s,indles# 77. 7ump up A !a er, F. ".967#. "Nas %old im :eer,asser". Geitschrift fHr *nge3andte Chemie @; "..#: 858`8.4. doi:.5..556-ange..967545..58. 79. 7ump up A :c!ugh, J.;. ".977#. "<oncentration of gold in natural ,aters". @ournal of Feochemical 6=ploration .; ".`8#: 70`94. doi:.5..5./-5870H /746"77#9550.H9. 75. 7ump up A :andaro, 9aura ".7 January 6557#. "<hina no, ,orldTs largest gold producerP foreign miners at door". :arketWatch. )etrieved 0 &pril 6559.


7ump up A ;einhoff, <hristian. &emo+al of 8arriers to the *batement of Flobal ,ercur( )ollution from *rtisanal Fold ,ining. 76. 7ump up A :oore, :ark &. "655/#. ")eed %old :ine State !istoric Site". Zorth <arolina Vffice of &rchives and !istory. )etrieved .8 Necem er 6557. 78. 7ump up A %arvey, Jane &. "655/#. ")oad to adventure". %eorgia :agaXine. )etrieved 68 January 6557. 74. 7ump up A VT<onnell, )hona ".8 &pril 6557#. "%old mine production costs up y .7L in 655/ ,hile output fell". 70. 7ump up A Zoyes, )o ert ".998#. )ollution pre+ention technolog( handboo%. William &ndre,. p. 846. IS;Z 5H7.00H.8..H9. 7/. 7ump up A Aletcher, Nerek and Walsh, Frank ".995#. /ndustrial electrochemistr(. Springer. p. 644. IS;Z 5H4.6H854.5H4. 77. 7ump up A :arcXenko, eygmunt and ;alcerXak, :aroa "6555#. -eparation. preconcentration. and spectrophotometr( in inorganic anal(sis. Elsevier. p. 6.5. IS;Z 5H444H05064H0. 77. 7ump up A Sherr, ).P ;ain ridge, ?. $. and &nderson, !. !. ".94.#. "$ransmutation of :ercury y Fast Zeutrons". )h(sical &e+ie3 ?; "7#: 478`479. ;i code:.94.Ah)v.../5..478S. doi:.5...58-Ahys)ev./5.478. 79. 7ump up A :iethe, &. ".964#. "Ner eerfall des luecksil eratoms". 2ie 0atur3issenschaften <: "69#: 097`097. doi:.5..557-;F5.050047. edit 95. 7ump up A "IndiaTs love affair ,ith gold tarnishing". the :inancial 1imes. 67 :arch 6557. 9.. 7ump up A "%old: Why <hina out eats India in gold reserves". <ommodity online. 6/ &pril 6559. 96. 7ump up A "Indian households hold over [905 illion of gold: :acOuarie". 4 Necem er 65... 98. 7ump up A "%old Qe,ellery consumption y country". )euters. 67 Fe ruary 65... 94. 7ump up A "%old Nemand $rends n Investment n World %old <ouncil". )etrieved .6 Septem er 65.8. 90. 7ump up A & dulHWaha , Sa ah &hmedP :arikar, FouXul &meer "64 Vcto er 65..#. "$he environmental impact of gold mines: pollution y heavy metals". Central 6uropean @ournal of 6ngineering : "6#: 854`8.8. ;i code:65.6<EJE....6..854&. doi:.5.6477-s.808.H5..H5506H8. 9/. 7ump up A Summit declaration, AeoplesT %old summit, San Juan )idge, <alifornia in June .999. Scri "66 Fe ruary 65.6#. )etrieved on 4 :ay 65.6. 97. 7ump up A <yanide spills from gold mine compared to <herno yls nuclear disaster. Neseretne, ".4 Fe ruary 6555#. )etrieved on 4 :ay 65.6. 97. 7ump up A Neath of a river. ;;< Ze,s ".0 Fe ruary 6555#. )etrieved on 4 :ay 65.6. 99. 7ump up A <yanide spill second only to <herno yl. & .. Fe ruary 6555. )etrieved on 4 :ay 65.6. .55. k Jump up to: a b ;ehind goldTs glitter, torn lands and pointed Ouestions, Ze, aork $imes, 64 Vcto er 6550. "ANF#. )etrieved on 4 :ay 65.6.

.5.. 7ump up A Zorgate, $erryP !aOue, Za,shad "65.6#. "Rsing life cycle assessment to evaluate some environmental impacts of gold". @ournal of Cleaner )roduction. 69`85: 08. doi:.5..5./-Q.Qclepro.65.6.5..546. .56. 7ump up A !ammer, ;.P Zorskov, J. ?. ".990#. "Why gold is the no lest of all the metals". 0ature .7? "/087#: 687. ;i code:.990Zatur.87/..687!. doi:.5..587-87/687a5. .58. 7ump up A Johnson, A. ;.P <hristy, ). W. ".976#. "Vptical <onstants of the Zo le :etals". )h(sical &e+ie3 8 ? ".6#: 4875. ;i code:.976Ah)v;.../.4875J. doi:.5...58-Ahys)ev;./.4875. .54. 7ump up A Sha, III, <. F. ".999#. "%oldH;ased :edicinal &gents". Chemical &e+ie3s 99 "9#: 6079`6/55. doi:.5..56.-cr97548.o. A:IN ..749494. .50. 7ump up A Wi erg, EgonP Wi erg, Zils and !olleman, &rnold Frederick "655.#. /norganic Chemistr( ".5. ed.#. &cademic Aress. p. .67/. IS;Z 5H.6H 806/0.H0. .5/. 7ump up A Jansen, :artin "6550#. "Effects of relativistic motion of electrons on the chemistry of gold and platinum". -olid -tate -ciences 7 ".6#: .4/4`.474. ;i code:6550SSSci...7..4/4J. doi:.5..5./-Q.solidstatesciences.6550.5/.5.0. .57. k Jump up to: a b !olleman, &. F.P Wi erg, E. "Inorganic <hemistry" &cademic Aress: San Niego, 655.. IS;Z 5H.6H806/0.H0. .57. 7ump up A Wickleder, :athias S. "655.#. "&uSV4: & $rue %old"II# Sulfate ,ith an &u4Y6 Ion". @ournal of /norganic and Feneral Chemistr( ?:7 "9#: 6..6`6..4. doi:.5..556-.06.H8749"655.59#/67:9p6..6::&INH e&&<6..6f8.5.<VP6H6. .59. 7ump up A Wickleder, :athias S. "6557#. Francesco &. Nevillanova, ed. 'andboo% of chalcogen chemistr(5 ne3 perspecti+es in sulfur. selenium and tellurium. )oyal Society of <hemistry. pp. 809`8/.. IS;Z 5H70454H8//H7. ..5. 7ump up A Seidel, S.P Seppelt, ?. "6555#. "2enon as a <ompleB 9igand: $he $etra 2enono %old"II# <ation in &u2e46Y"S 6F..>#6". -cience :9; "0479#: ..7`..7. ;i code:6555Sci...695....7S. doi:.5...6/-science.695.0479...7. A:IN ..56.796. .... 7ump up A )iedel, S.P ?aupp, :. "655/#. ")evising the !ighest VBidation States of the 0d Elements: $he <ase of Iridium"YUII#". *nge3andte Chemie /nternational 6dition @= "66#: 8757`87... doi:.5..556-anie.655/55674. A:IN .//89775. ..6. 7ump up A Nierks, S ":ay 6550#. "%old :SNS". Electronic Space Aroducts International. ..8. 7ump up A Wright, I. !.P Uesey, <. J. ".97/#. "&cute poisoning ,ith gold cyanide". *naesthesia @< "79#: 98/`989. doi:.5.....-Q..8/0H 6544..97/.t .6965.B. A:IN 8566/.0. ..4. 7ump up A Wu, :ingH9ingP $sai, WeiHJenP %er, JiinP Neng, JouHFangP $say, ShyhH!a,P aang, :oH!siung. "655.#. "<holestatic !epatitis <aused y &cute %old Aotassium <yanide Aoisoning". Clinical to=icolog( .9 "7#: 789`748. doi:.5..57.-<9$H.55.570./. A:IN ..777/78. ..0. 7ump up A :acZeil, Jane Salodof !enna tattoo ingredient is &llergen of the aear."<linical )ounds#. 8 January 655/.

../. 7ump up A ;runk, Noug ".0 Fe ruary 6557#. "R iOuitous nickel ,ins skin contact allergy a,ard for 6557". ..7. 7ump up A War,ickH<hing, $ony "67 Fe ruary .998#. 1he /nternational Fold 1rade. p. 6/. IS;Z 977.700785764. ..7. 7ump up A El,ell "&u#, <raig ? ". Vcto er 65..#. 8rief 'istor( of the Fold -tandard DF-E in the United -tates. pp. ..`.8. IS;Z 977.487977790. ..9. 7ump up A !itXer, EckhardP Aer,ass, <hristian "66 Zovem er 655/#. "$he hidden eauty of gold". )roceedings of the /nternational -(mposium on *d+anced ,echanical and )o3er 6ngineering 2""B D/-*,)6 2""BE bet3een )u%(ong 0ational Uni+ersit( DIoreaE. Uni+ersit( of :u%ui D@apanE and Uni+ersit( of -hanghai for -cience and 1echnolog( DChinaE. 0o+ember 22J25. 2""6. hosted b( the Uni+ersit( of :u%ui D@apanE. pp. 5BJ 6B. D:igs 5. 6. B.2# re+ised.E. )etrieved .5 :ay 65... .65. 7ump up A "World %old <ouncil f value f research m statistics f statistics f supply and demand statistics". )etrieved 66 July 655/. .6.. 7ump up A "historical charts:gold ` .788`.999 yearly averages". kitco. )etrieved 85 June 65.6. .66. 7ump up A ?, %old ` 9ondon A: FiB .970 ` present "%IF#, )etrieved 66 July 655/. .68. 7ump up A "%oldfinger ;ro,nTs q6 illion lunder in the ullion market". 9ondon: $he $imes. .0 &pril 6557. .64. k Jump up to: a b "9;:& statistics". 9 8. Necem er 6557. )etrieved 0 &pril 6559. .60. 7ump up A "%old hits yet another record high". ;;< Ze,s. 6 Necem er 6559. )etrieved / Necem er 6559. .6/. 7ump up A "A)E<IVRS :E$&9S: <omeB %old !its &llH$ime !igh". 1he Kall -treet @ournal. .. :ay 65.6. )etrieved 4 &ugust 65.5.1dead lin%3 .67. 7ump up A %i son, ?ateP <hang, Sue ".. :ay 65.5#. "%old futures hit closing record as investors fret rescue deal". :arketWatch. )etrieved 4 &ugust 65.5. .67. 7ump up A "%old hits record, oil Qumps ,ith 9i ya unrest". )euters. . :arch 65... )etrieved . :arch 65... .69. 7ump up A "%old EBtends ;iggest Necline in .7 :onths &fter <:E )aises Futures :argins". ,,,. loom 68 &ugust 65... )etrieved 85 &ugust 65... .85. 7ump up A "%old starts 655/ ,ell, ut this is not a 60Hyear highjn Financial Alanning". & )etrieved 0 &pril 6559. .8.. 7ump up A ;ernstein, Aeter 9. "6554#. 1he )o3er of Fold5 1he 'istor( of an Obsession. John Wiley m Sons. p. .. IS;Z 977H5H47.H48/09H.. .86. 7ump up A <alifornia %overnment <ode selection 465`469.7 "see r 460..#. .88. 7ump up A &laska Statutes "see r44.59...5#.

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<hemistry in its element podcast ":A8# from the )oyal Society of <hemistryTs <hemistry World: %old ,,, %old at 1he )eriodic 1able of Cideos "Rniversity of Zottingham# Fetting Fold .797 ook, ,,, $echnical Nocument on EBtraction and :ining of %old, ,,, Aicture in the Element collection from !einrich Aniok, ,,, $he &rt of Arecolum ian %old: $he Jan :itchell <ollection, an eBhi ition catalog from $he :etropolitan :useum of &rt "fully availa le online as ANF#

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Gold compounds
<ategories: %old <hemical elements Nental materials Electrical conductors Zo le metals Arecious metals $ransition metals <u ic minerals Warrants issued in !ong ?ong Stock EBchange

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