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An Investigation into tLe SLear StrengtL ol Rock Discontinuity

S BLowmik, Ncn-member
P Dutta, Asscctate /ember
Tbe determtnattcn c/ sbear strengtb c/ rcck dtsccnttnutty sur/aces ts crtttca/ tc stabt/tty ana/ysts c/ any rcck structure.
Htstcrtca//y, tbe re/attcnsbtp betueen tbe sbear strengtb and tbe app/ted ncrma/ stress bas been exp/atned by /tnear-
equattcn. Hcue.er /cr tbe stress range ncrma//y enccuntered tn sur/ace cr undergrcund mtntng exca.attcns, tbe ncn-
/tnear re/attcnsbtp tn.c/.tng parameters c/ ctnt rcugbness cc-e//tctent, ctnt ua// ccmpresst.e strengtb and bastc
/rtcttcn ang/e ts ccnstdered tc be apprcprtate. Tbts ncn-/tnear crttertcn tcgetber uttb tbe practtca/ metbcds tc determtne
tbe .a/ue c/ tbese parameters bas been exp/atned tn tbts arttc/e. A/sc, tbe metbcd c/ ca/cu/attcn c/ tbe tnstantanecus
ccbestcn and tnstantanecus /rtcttcn ang/e /cr a range c/ ncrma/ stresses /rcm tbe ncn-/tnear sbear strengtb agatnst
ncrma/ stress re/attcnsbtp bas been presented. Itna//y, tbts arttc/e tnc/udes tbe resu/ts c/ /abcratcry ana/ysts carrted cut cn
a /eu rcck samp/es tc t//ustrate tbe metbcd.
Keyuords: Rock discontinuity, ]oint rougLness co-ellicient (]RC), ]oint wall compressive strengtL (]CS), SLear strengtL
S Bhowmik and P Dutta are with the Department ot Mining and
Geology, Bengal Engineering College (DL), Howrah 711 103.
JLis paper (modilied) was received on May 18, 200+. Written discussion on
tLe paper will be received until Cctober 30, 200+.
Vc/ 85, August 2004 11
ITKODLCTIO
Rock mass generally contains numerous discontinuities, sucL
as, bedding planes, joints, sLear zones and laults. At low stress
conditions, lor example at sLallow deptL, lailure ol tLe intact
rock material is minimal and sliding along tLe discontinuity
planes controls tLe beLaviour ol tLe rock mass. JLe geometry ol
tLe rock mass, in sucL situations, primarily determines tLe
potential areas ol instability. However, to analyse tLe stability
ol any rock structure, developed witLin sucL rock mass, it is
pertinent to determine tLe sLear strengtL ol tLe potential lailure
surlaces tLat may consist ol a single discontinuity plane or a
complex patL lollowing several discontinuities. JLe sLear
strengtL ol sucL surlaces depends on a number ol lactors. Alter
understanding tLese lactors properly, it is possible to Lave a
reliable estimate ol tLe sLear strengtL ol tLe discontinuities
under varying normal stress condition. In tLis article, an
attempt Las been made to review tLese lactors and tLeir inter-
relationsLip tLat controls tLe sLear strengtL ol tLe discontinuity
planes. JLe practical metLod to determine tLe values ol tLese
lactors Las also been discussed. Iinally, tLe sLear strengtL
criteria lor a lew rock samples Lave also been determined.
SHEAK STKEGTH CKITEKIA OI
DISCOTILITY SLKIACES
JLe simple linear relationsLip between tLe peak sLear strengtL
ol a planar discontinuity surlace and tLe normal stress at
lailure
n
can be expressed in terms ol tLe coLesion c and angle
ol lriction by MoLr-Coulomb equation as given below
= + c
n
tan (1)
In deriving equation (1), it is assumed tLat tLe discontinuity
surlace is cemented and is absolutely planer, Laving no surlace
irregularities or undulations. Il sucL a surlace is sLeared at a
constant normal stress, at very small displacements, tLe surlace
beLaves elastically till tLe peak sLear strengtL is reacLed.
JLerealter, tLe sLear stress required to cause lurtLer sLear
displacements drops rapidly and levels out at a value known as
tLe residual sLear strengtL. Plots ol tLe peak and residual sLear
strengtLs lor dillerent normal stresses generate straigLt lines.
JLe intercept ol tLe peak sLear strengtL against normal stress
line on tLe sLear stress axis gives tLe value ol coLesion c. In rock
mecLanics, true coLesion occurs only on cemented surlaces.
However, in many practical situation, tLe term coLesion is used
lor convenience and it relers to a matLematical quantity related
to surlace rougLness
1
. In sucL situations, tLe coLesion c and tLe
angle ol lriction

can be obtained by drawing tangent to tLe


lailure envelope wLere tLese represent tLe intercept on tLe
sLear stress axis and inclination ol tLe tangent witL tLe normal
stress axis, respectively. In case ol tLe residual sLear strengtL,
coLesion ceases to exist and tLe relationsLip can be expressed as

r n r
= tan (2)
wLere
r
, tLe residual lriction angle, is approximately equal to
tLe basic lriction angle ol tLe plane surlace
b
and is generally
measured by testing sawn or ground rock surlaces. A natural
discontinuity surlace contains undulations and asperites tLat
Lave signilicant inlluence on its sLear beLaviour. SLear
displacements on tLe surlace occur as a result ol tLe surlaces
moving up tLe inclined laces ol tLe asperites, causing dilation
(an increase in volume) ol tLe specimen
2-+
. JLe basic lriction
angle
b
Las to be replaced by ( )
b
+ t lor sucL surlaces in
equation (2) wLere t is tLe angle ol tLe asperite lace. However,
tLe equation (2) is valid at low normal stress wLere sLear
displacement is due to sliding along inclined surlaces
3,+
.
12 IL (I jcurna/-/N
At LigLer normal stress, tLe strengtL ol tLe intact material is
exceeded and tLe asperites tend to break oll resulting in sLear
strengtL beLaviour wLicL is more closely related to tLe intact
material strengtL tLan to tLe lrictional cLaracteristics ol tLe
surlace
1
. Also, tLe ellect ol tLe surlace rougLness, uniaxial
compressive strengtL and ground water was not included in tLis
relationsLip.
ResearcL lindings and experimental studies Lave sLown tLat tLe
beLaviour ol natural rock joints lor cLanges in sLear strengtL
witL increasing normal stress is gradual ratLer tLan abrupt. JLis
relationsLip can be expressed alter including tLe ellects ol
surlace rougLness and compressive strengtL ol joint surlace
conditions by an empirical non-linear expression
2-5
as under
= +
n b n
]RC ]CS tan log ( / )]
10
(3)
JLe non-linear term witLin tLe second bracket ol equation (3)
represents tLe peak angle ol tLe sLearing resistance and can be
predicted witL reasonable accuracy lrom knowledge ol tLe
joint wall compressive strengtL (]CS), joint rougLness co-
ellicient (]RC) and basic lriction angle
b
. JLe value ol ]CS is
tLe normal stress at wLicL tLe dilatancy contribution is reduced
to zero and is taken as equivalent to uniaxial compressive
strengtL. JLe ]RC is a dimensionless number to sLow tLe
amount ol surlace undulations and asperites present in tLe
discontinuity surlace itsell. It represents tLe cLange ol tLe angle
lor a tentL-lold cLange in tLe normal stress. Basic lriction angle

b
is tLe angle ol sLearing resistance mobilized at LigL normal
stress levels at wLicL all dilatancy ellects are suppressed, as all
tLe asperites are sLeared oll lorming tLe smootL sLearing
plane
6
.
Lquation (3) is not valid lor
n
= 0 and it ceases to Lave any
practical meaning
1
lor log ( / )]
b n
]RC ]CS + >
10
/0 . JLis
limit can be used to determine a minimum value lor
n
. An
upper limit lor
n
is given by
n
]CS = . An important
assumption Lere is tLat tLe rock wall contact occurs lor tLe
entire lengtL ol tLe surlace. However, tLe sLear strengtL can
reduce drastically wLen part or wLole ol tLe surlace is not in
intimate contact, but covered by solt lilling material, sucL as,
clay gouge. Ior planar surlace, sucL as, bedding planes in
sedimentary rock, a tLin clay coating results in a signilicant
reduction in sLear strengtL. But lor rougL or undulating
surlaces, tLe tLickness ol tLe lilling material Las to be more tLan
tLe amplitude ol tLe undulations belore tLe sLear strengtL is
reduced to tLat ol tLe lilling material
2
.
Many ol tLe analyses used to calculate lactors ol salety against
sliding are expressed in terms ol tLe MoLr-Coulomb coLesion c
and lriction angle as given in equation (1). However, since tLe
equation (3) is non-linear and does not involve tLe use ol c and

, it may be necessary to estimate tLe values in cases wLere tLe


values are required. JLe instantaneous coLesion c
i
and
instantaneous lriction angle

can be estimated lrom tLe


intercept and tLe inclination, respectively ol tLe tangent to tLis
non-linear relationsLip between normal stress and sLear stress
at eacL normal stress
1
. JLese quantities may be used lor
stability analysis in wLicL tLe MoLr-Coulomb lailure criterion
ol equation (1) is used. Ior a normal stress value
n
, tLe value ol

i
can be calculated lrom equation (1) as given below

i n
arc = tan( / ) (+)
wLere /
n
can be calculated lrom equation (3) in tLe
lollowing lorm
/ tan log ( / ) ]
n n b
]RC ]CS = +
10
+ ]RC ]RC ]CS
n
tan log ( / )
2
10

b e
] ] / log + 1 180 10 (5)
JLe instantaneous coLesion c
i
is calculated lrom tLe lollowing
equation
c
i n i
= tan (6)
SHEAK STKEGTH ESTIMATIO
Ior study ol tLe sLear beLaviour ol discontinuities lor a range ol
normal stresses and dillerent rock types normally encountered
in mining excavations, equation (3) can be considered to be
adequate
1,8
. JLerelore, tLe main parameters tLat are to be
calculated to determine tLe sLear strengtL ol discontinuity
surlaces are ]RC, ]CS and
b
.
JLere are two metLods lor estimating tLe value ol ]RC lor any
discontinuity surlace. It can visually be estimated by observing
tLe surlace and matcLing it witL tLe rougLness proliles as
sLown in Iigure 1. JLis metLod is valid lor small-scale
laboratory specimens. However, in actual lield conditions
wLere tLe lengtL ol tLe surlace is large, ]RC must be estimated
lor tLe lull-scale surlace using a prolilometer as sLown in Iigure 2.
Ior a certain prolile lengtL ol tLe surlace, tLe maximum
asperity amplitude is measured in millimeter using tLe
prolilometer and tLe value ol ]RC is noted lrom tLe grapLs
sLown in Iigure 2.
JLe ]CS sLould be estimated lollowing tLe International
Society lor Rock MecLanics (ISRM) suggested metLod. JLe ]CS
or tLe uniaxial compressive strengtL ol tLe joint wall value can
be obtained lrom tLe cLart sLown in Iigure 3 alter estimating
tLe values ol ScLmidt Lardness and unit weigLt ol rock.
Il ]RC and ]CS are determined lrom laboratory-scale samples,
it may be necessary to incorporate scale corrections in order to
get tLe corresponding values lor tn sttu block sizes. Ior scale
corrections involving tLe determined values ol ]RC and ]CS,
tLe lollowing two equations can be used
5
]RC ]RC
n n
]RC
=

0 0
0 02
0
( / )
.
L L (/)
]CS ]CS
n n
]CS
=

0 0
0 03
0
( / )
.
L L (8)
wLere L stands lor lengtL ol tLe surlace and tLe sullixes n and 0
reler to tLe tn sttu block size and 100 mm laboratory-scale
samples, respectively.
Vc/ 85, August 2004 13
Iigure 2 Alternative method tor estimating jKC trom surtace
roughness using Protilometer
9
JLe basic lriction angle
b
can be determined experimentally
by perlorming multi-stage sLear stress tests using a lield sLear
box
1,8
.
Estimation ot Shear Strength Parameters in Laboratory
Ior tLe determination ol dillerent parameters inlluencing tLe
sLear strengtL ol discontinuity surlace, a set ol samples were
collected lrom Jentuli Block ol JalcLer Coallield in Crissa at a
deptL ol around 100 m lrom tLe surlace. JLe experimental
metLod lor estimation ol eacL parameter is discussed below.
jRC
JLe natural discontinuity surlace ol eacL sample Las been
observed and compared witL tLe proliles as sLown in Iigure 1
and depending upon tLe presence ol asperites, cracks, and
undulations integer values indicating ]RC Lave been assumed.
jCS
JLe estimation ol ]CS involved tLe determination ol unit
weigLt ol rock and ScLmidt Lardness. JLe unit weigLt was
determined in tLe lorm ol dry densities botL by saturation and
Iigure 3 Estimation ot jCS trom Schmidt hardness and unit weight ot
rock
Iigure 1 Koughness protiles and corresponding jKC values
4
4+ = 02
4+ = 24
4+ = 46
4+ = 68
4+ = 810
4+ = 1012
4+ = 1214
4+ = 1416
4+ = 1618
4+ = 1820
0 5cm 10
Average Dispersion of Strength for
Most Rocks, MPa
U
n
i
a
x
i
a
l

C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,

M
P
a
U
n
i
t

W
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

R
o
c
k
,

k
N
/
m
3
H
a
m
m
e
r

O
r
i
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
Schmidt HardnessType L Hammer
Straight Edge
Asperity Amplitude, mm
Length of Profile, m
Length of Profile, m
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

o
f

A
s
p
e
r
i
t
i
e
s
,

m
m
J
o
i
n
t

R
o
u
g
h
n
e
s
s

C
o
-
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

(
J
R
C
)
1+ IL (I jcurna/-/N
caliper tecLniques. Ior eacL sample, two values, obtained lrom
tLe two metLods, were averaged and tLe mean value ol dry
density was considered. JLe ScLmidt Lardness values were
determined using a vertically downward Leld ScLmidt rebound
Lammer. JLerealter, based on tLese values ol unit weigLt and
ScLmidt Lardness, tLe ]CS ol tLe rock samples were calculated
lollowing tLe cLart sLown in Iigure 3.
8astc Irtcttcn Ang/e ( )
b
Jo determine tLe basic lriction angle, multi-stage sLear test lor
eacL sample was carried out by lield sLear box. JLe scLematic
representation ol tLe test set-up is sLown in Iigure +. Rock core
samples ol around //-mm dia were used lor tLe test. Plane
discontinuity surlaces were prepared by cutting tLe rock witL
tLe Lelp ol diamond saw. JLe lengtL ol tLe cores was cut so as to
lit tLem into tLe sLear box and tLe end surlaces were kept
parallel to tLe sLearing plane. JLe samples were tied witL tLe
Lelp ol a rope so tLat tLe two Lalves could not slide on one
anotLer and break tLe asperites. LacL sample was set in grout
mixture ol Sika Crout-21+ witL a ratio ol grout: water ol 6:1 and
allowed to Larden lor a period ol 2+-L. JLe experiment was
carried out lor tLree ranges ol normal stresses, namely, 3 k,
6 k and 9 k. JLe normal load increments were applied
witLout returning tLe lower box into its original position and
rock llour produced at lower normal load was not removed
lrom tLe discontinuity plane lor tLe successive tests. SLear
displacement values were recorded by dial gauge and lor eacL
increment ol sLear displacement, sLear load value was recorded
directly by load gauge on sLear load ram and sLear stress values
were calculated.
An ellective area correction lor normal stress was calculated lor
eacL peak sLear stress value by tLe geometrical relationsLip
wLicL is represented below
Lllective area =

ab ub a u a ab u a ( ) / sin ( / ) + 2 2 2
2 2 1
(9)
wLere a is tLe major axis ol tLe specimen, b, tLe minor axis ol tLe
specimen, and u is tLe sLear displacement.
Iigure 4 Schematic representation ot the tield shear box
P1 : Pump for Jack 2 ; P2 : Pump for Jack1 and Jack3 ; J1 & J3 : Jacks for shear stress ; G1 : Normal load gauge ; G2 : Shear load gauge ;
SP : Specimen ; CG : Bonding with cement and grout mixture ; T1, T2 & T3 : Tension wires for reaction loading ; L1 : Upper housing ;
L2 : Lower housing ; H1 & H2 : Flexible hoses with coupling
Vc/ 85, August 2004 15
At eacL normal load, tLe sample was sLeared 6 mm-10 mm. A
straigLt line was litted to tLe values ol peak sLear strengtL
against corrected normal stress plot lor eacL ol tLe samples. JLe
angle ol slope ol tLe line indicates tLe basic lriction angle
b
.
KESLLTS AD DISCLSSIO
JLe details ol eacL sample and litLology are given in Jable 1.
JLe ]RC, ]CS and

b
values lor tLe ten samples were estimated
as explained in tLe previous section and tLe results are given in
Jable 2. JLe nature ol sLear stress against sLear displacement
Table 2 jKC, jCS and
b
ot each sample along with Schmidt rebound
hardness number and density
Sample Kock jKC Kebound Density, jCS,
b
,
umber Type Hardness kg/m
3
MPa Degree
umber
1 SLale 1 1/.00 23.92 23.60
_
15.0 19.83
2 Sandstone + 20.50 21.02 2+.20
_
16.0 22.55
3 Carbona-
ceous sLale 2 2+.50 20.26 28.23
_
18.5 1/.96
+ Sandstone 3 20.50 21.02 2+.20
_
16.0 25.92
5 Critty
sandstone + 12.00 21./0 1/./0
_
/.0 21.12
6 Silty
sandstone 2 20.50 1/.10 22.30
_
2.0 23.08
/ SLale 1 1+.00 23.92 20.00
_
0.0 16.10
8 Silty
sandstone 3 23.00 1/.10 2+.20
_
16.0 20.++
9 Critty
sandstone 2 20.00 21./0 25.00
_
16.5 19.91
10 Sandstone + 21./5 21.02 26.50
_
8.0 21.96
Table 1 Lithological description ot rock samples
Description Shale Sandstone Carbonaceous Shale Gritty Sandstone Silty Sandstone
Colour Medium dark LigLt-coloured Dark-coloured LigLt-coloured LigLt-coloured
(Mesocratic) (Luecocratic) (Melanocratic) (Luecocratic) (Luecocratic)
Crain size Very line grained Medium grained Very line grained Coarse grained Medium grained (Silty)
Mineral Quartz(no cleavage), Quartz (no cleavage), Quartz, Ielspar, Quartz Quartz (very LigL),
composition Mica, Ielspar (wLite Mica, Ielspar (wLite Sericite (protruding) Ielspar (very LigL),
coloured) coloured Ielspar (wLite Biotite (Mica)
altered), Mica (very rare)
Structure Bedding delined by Bedding not seen Alternate dark and Bedding not seen Bedding present
alternative dark ligLt band delined by alternate
(Carbon Mica) and ligLt dark (Mica) and ligLt
(Quartz Ielspar) band (Quartz Ielspar) band
Jexture Clastic Clastic Clastic Clastic Clastic
grapL and tLe sLear stress against corrected normal stress are
sLown lor one particular sample in Iigure 5 and Iigure 6,
respectively. A spreadsLeet cell program in Microsolt Lxcel
was developed to determine tLe sLear strengtL, instantaneous
coLesion and instantaneous lriction angle lor a range ol normal
stresses lollowing tLe lormulae given in equations (+)-(6). JLe
result ol one analysis perlormed witL tLe program is given in
Jable 3.
It is observed lrom Jable 2 tLat tLe values ol ]RC vary lrom 1 to +.
JLese are estimated values made lrom visual analysis ol tLe
surlaces and matcLing witL proliles given in Iigure 1. It is also
seen tLat ]CS varies witLin a range ol 1/./0 MPa - 28.23 MPa.
JLe value ol
b
varies lrom 16 10 .

to 25 92 .

. JLerelore, it can
be said tLat cLange in rock type results in a signilicant cLange in
tLe values ol tLese parameters. JLis will eventually Lave
signilicant ellect on tLe sLear strengtL ol tLe rock discontinuity
surlaces. Moreover, it is observed lrom Jable 3 tLat tLe values ol
instantaneous coLesion and instantaneous lriction angle also
vary widely witL tLe cLange in normal stress. JLerelore, in
Iigure 5 Shear stress against shear displacement
Shear Stress
Shear Displacement, mm
S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

M
P
a
1600.00
1400.00
1200.00
1000.00
800.00
600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
16 IL (I jcurna/-/N
estimating tLese parameters lor stability analysis, tLe values ol
normal stresses cLosen to deline tLe tangent points sLould be
close to tLe actual applied normal stress on tLe rock structure.
COCLLSIO
Lstimation ol reliable sLear strengtL values ol rock
discontinuity surlaces is ol paramount importance in any rock
Iigure 6 Shear stress against corrected normal stress
Corrected Normal Stress, MPa
Shear Stress
Linear (Shear Stress)
S
h
e
a
r

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

M
P
a
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
1+95.+
1121.59
] = J.+23t 31.J
+J.91
Table 3 Spreadsheet analysis ot one sample
Basic lrictional angle, degree : 23.08
]RC : 2
]CS, MPa : 22.30
Minimum normal stress, MPa : 0.6+091
ormal Shear /
n
Instan- Instan-
Stress Strength taneous taneous
( )
n
( ) Iriction Cohesion
Angle ( ) (c
i
)
0.6+0910 0.31+853 0.+/2++1 25.28/9// 0.012061
1.281820 0.6130/2 0.+59655 2+.686091 0.0238//
2.5636+0 1.19320/ 0.++6991 2+.08+202 0.0+/283
5.12/280 2.321181 0.+3+++5 23.+82312 0.093658
10.25+560 +.513135 0.+2201+ 22.880+20 0.185568
20.509120 8.//0192 0.+09692 22.2/852/ 0.36//6/
+1.0182+0 1/.032813 0.39/+/6 21.6/6632 0./290+9
structure stability analysis. An insigLt Las been provided in tLis
article to suggest a simple and practical metLod lor tLe
determination ol sLear strengtL. JLis Las been lollowed by
experimental results carried out on some rock specimens to
illustrate tLe metLod. However, tLe results given in tLe analysis
were calculated based on ten samples only. But practically,
sucL tests sLould be carried out lor all tLe discontinuity surlace
over wLicL sliding is expected alter tLorougL mapping ol tLe
discontinuity sets.
KEIEKECES
1. L Hoek. 'Practical Rock Lngineering.` CLapter +, Lttp://
www.rocscience.com, 2000.
2. Barton. 'Review ol a ew SLear StrengtL Criterion lor Rock ]oints.`
Lngtneertng Cec/cgy, vol /, 19/3, p 28/.
3. Barton. 'JLe SLear StrengtL ol Rock and Rock ]oints.` Internattcna/
jcurna/ c/ Rcck /ecbantcs and /tnera/cgtca/ Sctences and Cecmecbantcs
Abstract, vol 13, 19/6, p 1.
+. Barton and V CLoubey. 'JLe SLear StrengtL ol Rock ]oints in JLeory
and Practice.` Rcck /ecbantcs, vol 10, 19//, p1.
5. Barton, and C StepLanson (eds). 'Rock ]oints.` 'Review ol Predictive
Capabilities ol ]RC-]CS Model in Lngineering Practice` by R Barton and
S C Bandis. Prcceedtngs c/ tbe Internattcna/ Sympcstum cn Rcck jctnts, Leon,
orway, 1990.
6. M Maksimovic. 'JLe SLear StrengtL Components ol a RougL Rock
]oint.` Internattcna/ jcurna/ c/ Rcck /ecbantcs and /tnera/cgtca/ Sctences c
Cecmecbantcs Abstract, vol 33 , no 8, 1996, p /69.
/. Barton. 'A Review ol tLe SLear StrengtL ol Iilled Discontinuities in
Rock.` Ncruegtan Cectecbntca/ Instttute, Ncruetgatn Cectecbntca/ Instttutes
Pub/tcattcn nc 105, Cslo, 19/+.
8. L Hoek and ] W Bray. 'Rock Slope Lngineering (3rd edn).` Instttuttcn c/
/tntng and /eta//urgy, London, 1981.
9. R Barton and S C Bandis. 'Lllects ol Block Size on tLe SLear
BeLaviour ol ]ointed Rock.` 23rd U S Sympcstum cn Rcck /ecbantcs,
Berkeley, 1982, p /39.
10. D L Deere, and R P Miller. 'Lngineering Classilication and Index
Properties ol Rock.` Atr Icrce Weapcns Labcratcry. JecLnical Report o
AIL-JR-65-116. Albuquerque, M, 1996.