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Lecture 1: Epithelium and Glands

Contents 1.Classification of epithelial tissue Epithelium can be classified based on two criteria: Number of layer cells Simple Stratified Shape of the surface layer of cell Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Characteristic One cell layer More than one layer Characteristic Flat shape Square Rectangular ( taller than its wide )

2.Characteristic, function and distribution of simple epithelium Type Function Distribution( Location ) Lining of blood vessel (endothelium) Lining of body cavities (mesothelium) Lining of respiratory spaces ( alveoli ) Bowmans capsule in kidney Surface of ovary Surface of kidney tubules Surface of thyroid follicles Lining of GIT system Lining of gallbladder Lining some of large ducts Lining of trachea Bronchi Nasal cavity Ductus deferens Part of epididymis

Simple Squamous

Exchange of gases and nutrient Barrier Lubrication

Simple Cuboidal

Absorption Secretion Protection Absorption Secretion Protection Lubrication Protection Secretion Absorption Lubrication

Simple Columnar


3.Characteristic, function and distribution of stratified epithelium Type Stratified Squamous Function Protection Secretion Secretion Absorption Protection Absorption Secretion Distribution ( Location ) Epidermis Lining of oral cavity Esophagus Vagina Largest duct of exocrine glands Sweat glands & ducts Larger ducts of exocrine glands

Stratified Columnar

Startified cuboidal

Stratified epithelia (of columnar, cuboidal or squamous type) can have the following specializations:




The most apical layers (exterior) of cells are dead Lose their nucleus and cytoplasm Contain a tough, resistant protein called keratin This specialization makes the epithelium waterproof


It is found in tissues that stretch It can appear to be stratified cuboidal when the tissue is not stretched or stratified squamous when the organ is distended and the tissue stretches It is sometimes called the urothelium since it is almost found in the bladder, ureters and urethra

4.Classification of exocrine glands

Cell Number Type


No duct Examples: goblets cell in GIT tract Cluster of cells that function as single secretory unit Without ducts - Surface mucous cells lining the stomach With ducts - Comprises most of exocrine gland - Example : Salivary gland


Type of Secretion Type Serous Characteristic Protein package into secretory granules and release by exocytosis Can be appear as simple cuboidal or simple columnar Basophilia may present in basal area d/t large amount or RER Apical portion consist of secretory granules In some glands, cells are pyramidal Example : Parotid gland , exocrine pancreas , uterine glands


Polysaccharides added to protein to produce mucin (glycoprotein) Package into secretory granules that becomes hydrated when release from cell to form mucus Can appear simple columnar , with basal portion consist of nucleus while apical portion contain granules Example: Goblet cell in GIT and respiratory tract , surface of stomach , minor salivary glands , cells in part of genital tract Contain serous and mucous Often organized as mucous acini capped by serous demilunes Examples: Sublingual gland , submandibular gland , glands of nasal cavity , paranasal sinuses , nasopharynx , larynx , trachea and bronchi


Modes of Secretion Type


Secretory products released by exocytosis Examples : salivary glands , exocrine portion of pancreas , mammary gland Secretory products released along with portion of the apical cytoplasm Example: Mammary gland ( lipid portion of milk only Entire cell with its secretory products is released into the lumen Examples: sebaceous gland , ovary , testes



Classified based on type of ducts: Simple

Have one unbranced duct(green)


Have ducts that branch repeatedly(green)

Classified based on shape of secretory portion Tubular

shaped like a tube (sweat glands) red portion in diagram


shaped like a flask (sebaceous glands & mammary glands) Red portion in diagram


has both tubular and acinar (exocrine pancreas & submandibular gland) red portion in diagram

: Branched

exocrine glands have several bags (or tubes) sharing the same duct

5.Exocrine glands and endocrine gland Characteristic of glandular epithelium: 1. Originates from epithelial cells 2. Composed of parenchyma ( secretory portion and ducts ) and stroma ( connective tissue that keeps it all together ) 3. Secretory products are synthesized intracellularly ( inside cells ) 4. Then , it is stored in secretory granules and secreted by exocytosis Type Endocrine gland Characteristic product is secreted into the bloodstream or lymphatics NO ducts associated with these glands Products are called hormones Hormones are specific for particular target organ/tissue Example: pituitary gland ,thyroid gland , pancreas , gonads Product is secreted via ducts onto an external and internal epithelial surface Example : Sweat glands , salivary glands, stoamch , liver, pancreas

Exocrine gland