ORGANIZATION THEORY & BEHAVIOR

FOUNDATION OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR
DEFINITION OF AN ORGANIZATION DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR ASSUMPTIONS ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR EFFECTIVENESS TRENDS RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS

ORGANIZATION???

DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION

• CONSCIOUSLY COORDINATED SOCIAL UNIT • COMPOSED OF 2 0R MORE PEOPLE • CONTINUITY • COMMON GOAL

ENVIRONMENT

HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATION SETTINGS

INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION INTERFACE

ORGANIZATION

ENVIRONMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL PARTICIPANTS

COGNITIVE REPRESENTATION OF REALITY HELPS GUIDE OB

PARTICIPANTS CONTROL THEIR OWN BEHAVIOR TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY RELY ON COGNITIVE SUPPORTS & MANAGE RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL CUES & CONSEQUENCES

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

MOST COMPLEX BEHAVIOR ACQUIRED BY DIRECTLY OBSERVING & IMITATING OTHERS IN SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

INDIVIDUAL TASKS

TEAM ROLES

????
• Is ORGANIZATION nothing but an aggregate of individuals? • If so then – is ORGANIZATION behavior all about individual differences?- Differences in values, beliefs, perception, personality, motivation • What about differences in goals, strategies, systems , structure in an ORGANIZATION-do these bring about a distinctive ORGANIZATION behavior

AN ORGANIZATION WOULD THEREFORE HAVE • • • • A GOAL-OBJECTIVE STRUCTURE-BOUNDARIES & ROLE STRATEGIES & SYSTEMS CULTURE, CUSTOMS, VALUESDETERMINING BEHAVIOR

VISION -MISION

GOAL
FUNCTIONSTASKS/ACTIVITIESWHAT & WHY? STRATEGIES SYSTEMS CULTURE STRUCTURE PROCEDURESHOW? ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES WHO? CORE VALUES

HOW ORGANIZATION ACHIEVES ITS GOAL?
O R G G O A L A N N U A L P LA N
ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES

M A N P O W E R

M A C H IN E S

M O N E Y

MANAGEMENT FOR ORG EFFECTIVENESS
• MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS- Planning, Organizing, Leading & Controlling • MANAGERIAL ROLES-Interpersonal , Information, Decisional • MANGERIAL SKILLS-Technical, Human & Conceptual
Org Effectiveness OB

Generalization of human behavior

Certain consistencies in human behavior

DEFINITION
• ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR CAN BE DEFINED AS A FIELD OF STUDY THAT INVESTIGATES THE IMPACT THAT INDIVIDUALS , GROUPS AND STRUCTURE HAVE ON BEHAVIOR WITHIN ORGANISATION, TO ENABLE APPLYING THIS KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

DEFINTION-OB
• STUDY OF BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS WITHIN WORKGROUPS , INCLUDING AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE OF GROUPS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURES BETWEEN AND WITHIN WORKGROUPS AND THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING CHANGE

DETERMINANTS OF OB
• INDIVIDUALS. • GROUPS. • STRUCTURE.
 OB APPLIES KNOWLEDGE GAINED ABOUT INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS & THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURE ON BEHAVIOR TO MAKE THE ORGANIZATION MORE EFFECTIVE.

SIGNIFICANCE OF OB
• INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR & PERFORMANCE AT WORK • GROUP WORKING-NORMS & BEHAVIOR • STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION • ORGANIZATION DESIGN • MANAGING CHANGE

OB EMPHASIS
• BEHAVIOR AS RELATED TO
 JOBS & COMPETENCIES  WORK –JOB DESIGN  PERFORMANCE & PRODUCTIVITY  ABSENTEEISM  EMPLOYMENT TURNOVER

OB LINKAGES TO ORG GOAL
• PERSONALITY, PERCEPTION, SKILL & ATTITUDE DEVELOPMENT • LEARNING • MOTIVATION • LEADER BEHAVIOR & POWER • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION • GROUP STRUCTURE & PROCESSES • WORK DESIGN, CONFLICTS & STRESS • CHANGE PROCESSES

OB & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
• OB concerned with a whole gamut of :
– units ( individuals, roles, dyads, teams and org) – Interfaces ( interpersonal, inter team and org environment) Each deserve independent understanding and study and hence foundation of OB is multidisciplinary

Behavioral Science Sources of OB
Org unit INDIVIDUAL Topic Motivation, Perception Personality, Personal effectiveness Decision Making Inter Personal styles, Attitudes Role Effectiveness Leadership Work Motivation Role Stress and burnout Coping TEAMS & INTER TEAMS Team effectiveness Leadership, Conflict Management Consensus Building, Collaboration Org Culture, Org climate, Org Communication,Org Learning, Org Change, Org Dev, Power & Politics, Cross Cultural Org Societal culture, Values Positive Thinking, Learning PSYCHOLOGY Relevant Behavioral Science PSYCHOLOGY

ROLE

SOCIOLOGY & PSYCHOLOGY

ORGANISATION

PSYCHOLOGY POLITICAL SCIENCE ANTHROPOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY

CONTEXT

MANAGING FOR EFFECTIVENESS
INDIVIDUAL LEVEL OUTCOMES PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER ATTITUDES STRESS TEAM LEVEL OUTCOMES PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE NORMS COHESIVENESS ORG LEVEL OUTCOMES PRODUCTIVITY ABSENTEEISM TURNOVER FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE SURVIVAL CONSTITUENT SATISFACTION

TRACING HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH
CONCEPT SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RELATIONS DECISION MAKING SOCIO-TECHNICAL PIONEERS FREDERICK TAYLOR (1911) HENRI FAYOL ( 1916-25) ELTON MAYO (1933) HERBERT SIMON (1947) E L TRIST & K W BAMFORTH (1951) DOUGLAS Mc GREGOR (1961) RENSIS LIKERT (19670 ALFRED CHANDLER (1962) PHILOSOPHY Time & Motion Studies. Finding most efficient way Management Principles Training in use of Principles Psychological factors-Job Satisfaction, Team work Bounded Rationality Optimization of Goals Social Systems view means that organization is an open system Individual needs & importance of participative management Establish Strategy , then Structure is established OB ATTRIBUTES Maximize Cost , Task specialization, maximize output Order, Equity, Division of work, Discipline Paying attention to worker needs & satisfaction Hierarchy o Goals , Effective use of resources Fit between social & technological factors Cohesiveness, Loyalty, commitment & Employer Management system Strategy/Structure fit need to adapt to environmental changes

BEHAVIOR

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

TRACING HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH-Contd
CONCEPT CONTINGENCY PIONEERS P R LAWRENCE & J W LORSCH ( 1967) DEMING(1971) & JURAN ( 1974) 1984 PHILOSOPHY Structure firm to meet environmental demands How to detect & eliminate defects OB ATTRIBUTES Integration fit

QUALITY

Instill pride in quality’ Focus on customer satisfaction

ENPOWERNMENT

PROACTIVE PERFORMANCE

1987

Responsiveness to change , Need for Social Support

EMERGING PERSPECTIVES IN OB
• SYSTEMS APPROACH • CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE • INTERACTIONALISM

SYSTEMS APPROACH
• VIEWS ORGANIZATION AS A SET OF INTERRELATED ELEMENTS FUNCTIONING AS A WHOLE
FEEDBACK INPUTSmaterial, human, financial, international TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OUTPUTS Product/Service Profit/Losses Employee behavior

CONTINGENCY APPROACH
• SUGGESTS THAT IN MOST ORGANIZATIONS SITUATIONS & OUTCOMES ARE CONTINGENT ON , OR INFLUENCED BY, OTHER VARIABLES
ORG PROBLEMS/ SITUATIONS UNIVERSAL APPROACH
CAUSE & EFFECT WAY OF RESPONDING

CONTINGENCY APPROACH

ORG PROBLEMS

EVALUATE IN TERMS OF THE SITUATION, WHICH THEN SUGGEST

CONTINGENT WAYS OF RESPONDING

INTERACTIONALISM
• INDIVIDUALS AND SITUATIONS INTERACT CONTINUOSLY TO DETERMINE INDIVIDUALS’ BEHAVIOR
INDIVIDUALS BEHAVIOR

SITUATIONS

POPULAR PRESS • ARTICLES, RESEARCH WORKS & BOOKS GIVING NEW INSIGHTS.
• THEORY Z, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, REENGINEERING, CORPORAT E CULTURES, IN SEARCH OF EXCELLENCE ETC.

Contribution of OB
• Main contribution is in the understanding and using processes, which can also be defined as the underlying behavioral dimensions of any unit of the organisation

PROCESS
• The main processes concern the
– – – – – – – – Individual( existential processes) Inter person (empathic processes) The role ( coping processes) The group ( collaboration processes) Organisation ( growth processes) Organisation interface ( influence processes) Community ( social awareness Society ( value processes)

OB- CHALLENGES &TRENDS
• Paradigm shift------?
• • • • • GLOBALISATION- Creating a global village INFORMATION AGE-IT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DIVERSITY & CULTURAL ISSUES REENGINEERING

OB- CHALLENGES &TRENDS
• ENPOWERING EMPLOYEES- shift from • Management control • COPING WITH CHANGE & TEMPORARINESS-Stability of Flexibility • STIMULATING INNOVATIVENESS & CHANGE • CORPORATE VALUES & ETHICS

OB- CHALLENGES &TRENDS
• STIMULATING INNOVATIVENESS & CHANGE. • CORPORATE VALUES & ETHICS. • WORK FORCE DEMOGRAPHICS-Age, Gender, Ethnic Composition. • WORK PLACE ISSUES- Employee Privacy, Employee rights, Unionization. • Improving Employee Skills.

OB MODELS
COGNITIVE, BEHAVIORISTIC & SOCIAL LEARNING THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS USED TO DEVELOP OB MODEL
AUTOCRATIC CUSTODIAL SUPPORTIVE SUPERLATIVE (COLLEGIAL)

BASIS OF MODEL Managerial orientation Employee Orientation Employee psychological result Employee need met Performance result

Power Authority Obedience Dependence on Boss Subsistence Minimum

Economic Resources Money Security Benefits Dependence on Organization Security Passive cooperation

Leadership Support Job Performance Participation

Partnership Teamwork Responsible Behavior Self Discipline Self Actualization Moderate enthusiasm

Status & Recognition Awakened drivers

Basic framework for understanding organizational behavior
INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES •Individual differences •Attitudes/Attitude formation •Learning /Reinforcement •Motivation ENHANCING INDIVIDUAL & INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Goal setting/Rewards Job Designation/Participation Performance Appraisal Stress Decision Making/ Creativity INTEGRATING INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS & ORGANIZATIONS •Change/development •International Issues •Career Dynamics ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES & CHARACTERISTICS Organization Structure Environment/technology Organization Design Organization Culture INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Group Dynamics Inter group dynamics Leadership/Influence Power/Politics/Conflict Interpersonal Communication

MANAGERIAL CONTEXT Managing People & Organizations

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS