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protein c and s they are made by vitamin K Antithrombin III and protein c are protein complexes that promote

anticoagulation Antithrombin III is a Potent anticoagulant that binds to and inactivates free thrombin, preventing its binding and cleaving of fibrinogen. Pg 334 Pathophysiology Copstead 4 th edition .. A plasma protein that inactivates factor V and VIII prevents clot formation. Protein S assists protein C in binding to phospholipase and stimulates release of plasminogen activator, initiating fibrinolysis. Pg 334 Pathophysiology Copstead 4 th edition..

Protein C is

Low molecular-weight heparins and heparin work by Enhancing the activity of ant thrombin III.. Pathophysiology Tests for protein C and protein S are usually ordered as part of an investigation into a possible clotting (hypercoagulable) disorder and/or to help diagnose the cause of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or a venous thromboembolism (VTE), especially if it occurs in a relatively young person (less than 50 years old) or has formed in an unusual location, such as the veins leading to the liver or kidney or the blood vessels of the brain (cerebral).

Low level of protein C or protein S activity can result in Excessive or inappropriate blood clotting clotting cascade Intrinsic or extrinsic pathway initiates depending upon whether injury was endothelial or tissue. Prothrombin becomes thrombin, fibrinogen becomes fibrin (aka clot). Plasmin then lyses clot into FSP. Taken orally (swallowed) as a tablet. Warfarin interferes with your body's natural chemical processes by targeting a substance called vitamin K. Vitamin K has an essential role to play in the production of prothrombin, which is a protein found in the blood. Prothrombin plays an important part in the process of the formation of clots. If the production of vitamin K is slowed down, the production of prothrombin is also slowed. This means that it will take longer for blood clots to form. A naturally occurring vitamin. Vitamin K is primarily found in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce, and enters your body when you eat these foods. Vitamin K is produced by the bacteria in your intestines, This is why we give infants it just hours after birth and it is also in vitamin and nutritional supplements. Your body uses vitamin K to produce some of the clotting factors that helps blood clot

Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant medicine that is

Vitamin K is

So if you are on warfarin (Coumadin)

Warfarin (Coumadin) works by interfering with how your body uses vitamin K. The metabolism of warfarin (Coumadin), vitamin K, and vitamin K dependent clotting factors takes place in your liver. Warfarin (Coumadin) prevents the production of vitamin K dependent clotting factors. As a result, clotting occurs at a much slower rate. One good way to think about vitamin K and its importance while taking warfarin (Coumadin) is that you need to maintain a balance between the amount of vitamin K in your body and the amount of warfarin (Coumadin) prescribed by your healthcare provider.

warfarin (Coumadin) is used to stop clots , after PE, DVT, AFTER MECHANICAL VALVE you should aim to keep The amount of vitamin K in your diet consistent. For example, if you normally eat two servings per day of food that is high in vitamin K content, you should continue this pattern every day. If you do not normally eat foods that are high in vitamin K, do not suddenly eat a large amount of them.IE leafy green vegetables v8, MULTI VITAMINS ,slim fast, boost

What is C-reactive protein?

Acute phase protein Released in inflammation & tissue damage Disappears when inflammation subsides Lacks disease specificity Elevated in many disorder Bacterial and viral infections Rheumatic fever Malignant diseases Rheumatoid arthritis Tuberculosis Post-op Myocardial infarction Appears rapidly after acute tissue injury 4 - 6 hours Concentration may rise to 1000X normal Reference range: <0.5 mg/dL Heat labile Destroyed at 70EC for 30 minutes Synthesized by liver Binds (calcium dependent) to C-polysaccharide in bacterial cell walls Complement activation Innate immunity

What disorders have elevated levels of C-reactive protein?

What are the characteristics of C-reactive protein?

What is the role of C-reactive protein in opsonization?

What is High sensitivity CRP (hsCRP)?

Used to assess risk for acute coronary syndrome Stimulated by IL-6 during inflammation Increases are minimal Often less than reference range for conventional CRP Baseline elevations indicate higher risk for coronary artery disease and death from CAD with or without presence of clinical symptoms. Aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs reduce risk of coronary artery disease Low risk for acute coronary syndrome

What does elevated hs-CRP indicate?

What do treatments to decrease inflammation may also reduce? What is does it mean to have 0-1 mg/L of hs-CRP? What is does it mean to have 1-3 mg/L of hs-CRP? What is does it mean to have anything over 3mg/L of hs-CRP?

Moderate risk for acute coronary syndrome

High risk for acute coronary syndrome.

What must be performed with hs-CRP to detect minimal changes? High sensitivity methods What are some methods for conventional laboratory detection of CRP? Agglutination (latex) Anti-human CRP attached to latex particle Fluorescent antibody Precipitation (capillary or tube) Gel diffusion Immunonephelometry RIA Reference range: < 0.5 mg/dL sensitive to 3mg/L Uses Monitoring inflammation Evaluating treatment Immunonephelometry Uses monoclonal antibody to CRP Sandwich immunoassay Sensitive to 0.175 mg/L

What are the characteristics of CRP assays?

What are some methods for laboratory detection of hs-CRP?