APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.

1
Management of
MPLS- based VPNs
Management of
MPLS- based VPNs
2003. 10. 1.
Youngtak Ki m
Advanced Networki ng Technol ogy Lab. (ANTL)
Dept. of Informati on & Communi cati on Engi neeri ng,
Yeungnam Uni versi ty, Korea
(ytki m@yu.ac.kr)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
2
Outl i ne
This tutorial goes through …
Framework of MPLS-based VPNs: L3VPN, L2VPN, VPLS
Traffic Engineering based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLS
Management Framework of MPLS Network, MPLS MIBs
MPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNs
Commercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution,
SheerBOS, Wandl’s IP/MPLSview
Experiences in the design and implementation of a Management System for
DiffServ-aware-MPLS (DoumiMan)
Conclusions and Discussions
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
3
Framework of MPLS- based VPNs
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
4
VPN (Vi rtual Pri vate Network)
What is VPN (Virtual Private Network) ?
Definition of VPN in RFC 2764 (A Framework for IP Based Virtual Private
Networks) : “VPN is an Emulation of a private wide area network (WAN)
facility using IP facilities (including the public Internet or private IP
backbones).”
CPE-based VPN
Network-based VPN
General Requirements of VPNs
Opaque packet transport
Data Security
Quality of Service Guarantees
Tunneling Mechanism
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
5
VPN Types
Types of IP based Virtual Private Networks (RFC 2764)
Virtual Leased Lines (VLL)
Virtual Private Dial Network (VPDN)
Virtual Private Routed Network (VPRN)
Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
6
VPN Types (1): VLL
Virtual Leased Lines (VLL)
Point-to-point link provided to a customer, connecting two CPE devices
the link layer type used to connect the CPE devices to the ISP nodes can be
any link layer type: e.g. ATM VCC, Frame Relay circuit
ISP tunnel between two edge ISP nodes
CPE
ISP
edge
node
ISP
edge
node
CPE
IP Tunnel
IP backbone
network
ATM
VCC
ATM
VCC
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
7
VPN Types (2): VPDN
Virtual Private Dial Network (VPDN)
allows a remote user to connect on demand through an ad hoc tunnel into
another site; the user is connected to a public IP network via a dial-up PSTN
or ISDN
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocols (L2TP)
PPP session on the dial-up connection and L2TP tunnel
Host
Corp.
Network
NAS
(Network
LAC
LNS
IP
Backbone Network
Gateway
dialup
connection
L2TP Tunnel
PPP Session
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
8
VPN Types (3): VPRN
Virtual Private Routed Networks (VPRN)
Emulation of a multi-site wide area routed network using IP facilities
CPE-based VPRN or network-based VPRN
packet forwarding is carried out at the network layer
a mesh of IP tunnels between ISP routers with VPN-specific
routing/forwarding tables
CPE
ISP
edge
node
ISP
edge
node
CPE IP Tunnel
IP backbone
network
Stub
Link
Stub
Link
ISP
edge
node
I
P

T
u
n
n
e
l I
P

T
u
n
n
e
l
CPE CPE
Stub
Link
Stub
Link
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
9
VPN Types (4): VPLS
Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS) (1)
Emulation of LAN segment over IP using Internet facilities, with a
Transparent LAN Service (TLS)
A case of L2VPN service distinguished by the support of L2 broadcast
Can be used to interconnect multiple stub CPE nodes, either bridges or
routers, in a protocol transparent manner
Essentially equivalent to a VPRN, except that each VPLS edge node
implements link layer bridging rather than network layer forwarding
CPE routers would peer transparently across a VPLS with each other
without requiring any router peering with any nodes within the VPLS
VPLS topology can be
point-to-point
point-to-multipoint (hub and spoke)
any-to-any (full mesh)
mixed (partial mesh)
hierarchical
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
10
Vi rtual Pri vate LAN Segment (VPLS) (2)
CPE
ISP
edge
node
ISP
edge
node
CPE
IP Tunnel
IP backbone
network (Service
Provider backbone)
Stub
Link
Stub
Link
ISP
edge
node
I
P

T
u
n
n
e
l
I
P

T
u
n
n
e
l
CPE CPE
Stub
Link
Stub
Link
Access
Network
CPE
CPE
VPLS A
VPLS A
VPLS B
VPLS
B
VPLS
B
VPLS B
Logical Bridge
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
11
MPLS- based VPNs (1): BGP/MPLS IP VPNs
Multiple VRFs (VPN Routing and Forwarding tables) in PEs
PE-CE attachment circuit is associated with exactly one VRF
Carrier’s Carriers case
a VPN provided by an SP which is offering VPN services to its customers
CE routers should support MPLS
PE routers should distribute , to the CE routers, labels for the routes they
distribute to the CE routers
Routers at the different sites should establish BGP connections among
themselves for the purpose of exchanging external routes
Multi-AS backbone
two sites of a VPN are connected to different Autonomous Systems
IBGP is used to distribute routing information within an AS
EBGP re-distribute routing information among (labeled VPN-IPv4 routes)
from AN to neighboring AS
Multi-hop EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes between source
and destination ASs.
VRF-to-VRF connections at the AS border routers
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
12
MPLS- based VPNs (2): L3PPVPN (Provi der
Provi si oned VPN) /MPLS
Provider Edge (PE) (in PE-based VPN) or Customer Edge (CE) (in CE-based VPN)
determine how to route VPN traffic by looking at the IP and/or MPLS headers of the
packets they receive from the customer’s edge devices
MPLS LSP is used as the tunnel among PE-PE (in PE-based VPN), or CE-CE (in CE-
based VPN)
CE
device
PE
device
PE
device
PE
device
PE
device
CE
device
CE
device
PE
device
PE
device
Tunnel
(MPLS LSP)
PE
device
PE
device
Tunnel
(MPLS LSP)
VPN
tunnel
VPN
tunnel
VPN
tunnel
VPN
tunnel
SP Network A
SP Network B
SP Network C
dual
homing
dual
homing
Backdoor
link
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
13
MPLS- based VPNs (3): L2PPVPN (Provi der
Provi si oned VPN) /MPLS
Provides pseudo wire or emulated LAN service on provider network
Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS): each CE device is presented with a
set of Point-to-Point virtual circuit
Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS): each CE device has one or more LAN
interfaces that lead to a “virtual backbone” to make multipoint-to-multipoint
VPN (LAN emulation service)
CE 1
L2 VPN A
PE
device
CE 4
PE
device
CE 2
L2 VPN A
PE
device
CE 3
L2 VPN A
L2 VPN B
Access
Network
CE 5
L2 VPN B
Service Provider
Backbone
Logical Switching Instance
(provides Pseudo wire or emulated LAN)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
14
L2PPVPN Provi si oni ng Model s
Overlay Model
Customer
Site A
(Hub)
Customer
Site B
(Hub)
Customer
Site C
(Spoke)
Customer
Site D
(Spoke)
Customer
Site E
(Spoke)
Service Provider Network
PE
PE
PE
PE
CE
CE
CE
CE
CE
Customer
Site A
Customer
Site B
Customer
Site C
Customer
Site D
Customer
Site E
Service Provider Network
PE
PE
PE
PE
CE
CE
CE
CE
CE
Routing information is
exchanged between customer
and service provider routers
Routing information is
exchanged between customer
and service provider routers
Service provider routers
exchange customer routes
through the core network
Peer-to-peer Model
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
15
Traffi c Engi neeri ngs based on
Di ffServ- aware- (G)MPLS Network
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
16
GMPLS OXC-LSR
GMPLS/DWDM-OXC
layer Network
MPLS, MSPP
Layer network
IP
Router
IP Layer network
IP
Router
IP
Router
Multimedia/
Video
Archives
Multimedia/
Video
Archives
GbE
SW
GbE
SW
GbE
SW
LSP
IP
Router
Storage Access Network
(SAN)
GbE
VPN
NGI wi th IP, MPLS and WDM Opti cal Network
MPLS, MSPP/MSPP
TDM
SONET/SDH
(Circuit Switched
Service)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
17
Guaranteed Bandwidth & QoS
Bandwidth:
Committed Data rate (CDR)/ Committed Burst Size (CBS), Excess Burst Size (EBS)
Peak Date Rate (PDR)/ Peak Burst Size (PBS)
End-to-end Packet Transfer Delay: Propagation delay + Queuing delay
Limited Jitter (delay variation)
Limited End-to-end Packet loss
Differentiated Service provisioning with Different priority/weight
Premium service, controlled service
Best effort service
Hierarchical traffic engineering with TE-Tunnels (LSPs) for extremely
broadband networking with WDM optical lambda/fiber switching
Maximized utilization of available bandwidth & resources
Objecti ves of Traffi c Engi neeri ng i n NGI (1)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
18
Objecti ves of Traffi c Engi neeri ng i n NGI (2)
Two major objectives may be conflicting
Guaranteed Bandwidth & QoS
Maximized resource utilization
in order to guarantee strictly bandwidth and QoS, strict bandwidth &
resource reservation is required
if bandwidth & resource are strictly reserved and not used, underutilization
problem occurs => general phenomenon in current telephone network
Solution to get both objectives ?
controlled bandwidth borrowing among service class-types within a TE-LSP
controlled redistribution of extra-available bandwidth among TE-LSP
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
19
MPLS (Mul ti - Protocol Label Swi tchi ng)
source
(IP address A)
destination
(IP address B)
Ingress Node
Egress Node
IP datagram
IP datagram
MPLS Domain Network
LER 11
LER 12
LER 21
LSR 10
LSR 20
LSR 30
LSR 40
LER 31
LER 41
LER 42
IP header (destAddr=B, srcAddr=A)
IP payload
label i
i
label j
j
label k
k
label m
m
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
20
MPLS Label
Label: Label Value, 20 bits (0-16 reserved)
Exp.: Experimental, 3 bits (was Class of Service)
S: Bottom of Stack, 1 bit (1 = last entry in label stack)
TTL: Time to Live, 8 bits
Layer 2 Header
(eg. ATM
VC/VP, PPP,
802.3 MAC)
•••
MPLS ‘Shim’ Headers
(Label Stacking)
Label Exp S TTL
20 3 1 8
32-bit (4-bytes)
IP Header IP Payload
label stack n
(s=1)
label stack 1
(s=0)
Shim Header
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
21
Traffi c groupi ng wi th Label Stacki ng
LSP 121
LSP 111
LSP
level (k-1) Packet Flow
P1
P2
LSP 120
LSP 110
LSP 100
LSP 110
LSP 120
LSP 111
Packet Flow
P1
P2
LSP
level (k)
LSP
level (k)
LSP
level (k+1)
LSP
level (k-1)
LSP 121
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
n-1
R
n-1
R
n
R
n
LSP 111
ingress
(push a label)
swapping
R
i
R
i
LSP 100
ingress
(push a label)
• • • • • •
LSP 111
egress
(pop a label)
LSP 110
ingress
(push a label)
LSP 110
egress
(pop a label)
R
i+1
R
i+1
LSP 100
egress
(pop a label)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
22
GMPLS- based Opti cal Transport
Networki ng
GMPLS-Signaling + OAM/LMP
NIC
IP
TCP/UDP
Application
Host A
LSP
PSC-LSR
(Optional Core)
O-NIC
(WDM)
MPLS
NIC
IP
IP Router
O-NIC
(WDM)
PSC-LSR
(Edge)
IP
MPLS
O-NIC
(WDM)
O-NIC
(WDM)
GMPLS-Signaling for optical network
Internet control & management protocols
(RIP, OSPF, BGP, DVMRP, MOSPF)
Traffic engineering with fault management & performance management
for Internet Transit Network
fiber
bundle
O-NIC
(WDM)
OXC-LSR
(Core)
OXC
O-NIC
(WDM)
OXC-LSR
(Core)
OXC
SDH/
SONET
MainFrame
GbE
SW
Metro-GbE
Net
PSTN
HDN
MSPP
GFP-F
GFP-T
O-NIC
(WDM)
LCAS
GMPLS
Signaling
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
23
QoS- guaranteed Servi ce Provi si oni ng i n NGN
QoS-guaranteed VPN/VPLS Service
QoS-guaranteed Broadband Multimedia Service
QoS-guaranteed Broadband Content Distribution Network / Storage Access Network
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
MPLS
LSR
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
MPLS
LSR
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
MPLS
LSR
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
MPLS
LSR
MPLS
LSR
MPLS
LSR
GMPLS Core Network
GMPLS/Broadband Transport Network
(All Optical, O-O-O)
(DiffServ-aware-GMPLS)
PE
(VPLS-aware
MPLS LER)
Customer Premises
Network A
(IP Router)
CE
PE
(VPLS-aware
MPLS LER)
Customer Premises
Network B
(IP Router)
CE
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
TGW
AGW
Narrowband
Multimedia/
PSTN
Narrowband
Multimedia/
Cellular/
Mobile
TGW
AGW
Narrowband
Multimedia /
PSTN
Narrowband
Multimedia /
Cellular/
Mobile
Broadband Content
Distribution Network
(CDN/SAN)
Broadband Content
Distribution Network
(CDN/SAN)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
24
Control Pl ane and Management Pl ane of QoS- guaranteed
NGN/(G)MPLS
Autonomous
System (AS) 1
EN
Autonomous
System (AS) 3
EN
Autonomous
System (AS) 2
EN EN
NNI
NNI
QoS- guaranteed NGN Backbone Network
Di ffServ- aware- GMPLS/OXC 광 전 달 망
End- to- End QoS
NGN Backbone Network Performance/QoS
CE
UNI
Customer
Premises
Network (CPN) A
CE
UNI
Customer
Premises
Network (CPN) B
Access Network QoS Access Network QoS
Control Pl ane
End-user
application
platform
Admission
control &
Connection
Control
agent
End-user
application
platform
QoS/call
Request
QoS Request (GMPLS Signaling)
QoS Request &
Resource
Allocation
Notification
Resource Allocation (GMPLS Signaling)
Resource
Allocation
Management Pl ane
Resource
Manager &
GMPLS
OAM/NMS
Resource
Manager &
GMPLS
OAM/NMS
Admission
control &
Connection
Control
agent
Resource
Manager &
GMPLS
OAM/NMS
Inter-AS
QoS Negotiation
BGP-TE
Inter-AS
QoS Negotiation/
BGP-TE
Wireless
Access
Network
Wireless/
Mobile
PSTN,
SAN/CDN
Broadband
Access
Network
EN
Wireless
Access
Network
Wireless/
Mobile
PSTN,
SAN/CDN
Broadband
Access
Network
EN
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
25
MPLS Traffi c Engi neeri ng
Fast packet switching
Fast packet switching by using fixed short label, instead of long address
matching in IP packet routing
based on existing fast data link layer switching technologies (e.g. ATM, FR)
Traffic engineering with Connection-oriented LSP (Label
Switched Path)
more predictable network control and management
Constraint-based Routing; Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF)
Forwarding Equivalent Class (FEC)
source/destination IP address range : min, max
source/destination port range : min, max
Type of Service (ToS)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
26
Servi ce Level Agreement (SLA)
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
A contract between a service provider and a customer
Specifies, usually in measurable terms, what QoS the service provider will
provide
Traffic Parameters: Committed Data Rate (CDR)/CBS+EBS
QoS Parameters: Delay, Jitter, Packet Loss Rate
Service Availability: Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)/Mean Time to
Restoration of Service (MTRS)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
27
Constrai nt- based Routi ng i n MPLS
Traffic parameters of the constraint-based routing for LSP
bandwidth of LSP : peak data rate, committed data rate
Modification of Link State Database for constraint-based routing
traffic parameter
available bandwidth at each link : number of lambda channels, bandwidth of each lambda
channels
Additional QoS parameter
propagation delay
Combined cost metric
Modification of OSPF shortest path routing
constraint-based routing with traffic parameters: bandwidth, QoS, resource class,
class of failure protection
SRLG (Shared Risk Link Group)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
28
Exampl e of Constrai nt- based Routi ng
1
2
3
6
8
9
7
10
13
14
15
20
19
18
17
11
16
12
4
820
5M
1144
20M
828000
10M
Seattle
San Francisco
Salt Lake City
Los Angels
Denver
Phoenix
Houston
Dallas
Minneapolis
Chicago
St. Louis
Memphis
New Orleans
Atlanta
Miami
Washington
D.C.
Detroit
New York
Boston
745
10M
380
5M
688
10M
381
10M
816
10M
1067
50M
920
50M
861000
50M
780
100M
521000
50M
409
10M
297
10M
286
10M
845
10M
285000
10M
454
100M
246
5M 352
10M
393000
10M
394
5M
473
10M
861000
10M
661
10M
632
10M
534
10M
640
5M
834 10M
211 5M
237 5M
5
Rapid city
611
10M 657
10M
389
50M
Physically shortest path.
But can not provide the
requested 7 Mbps
bandwidth !!
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
29
Exampl e of SRLG- di sjoi nt Backup Path Routi ng
1
2
3
6
8
9
7
10
13
14
15
20
19
18
17
11
16
12
4
820
5M
1144
20M
828000
10M
Seattle
San Francisco
Salt Lake City
Los Angels
Denver
Phoenix
Houston
Dallas
Minneapolis
Chicago
St. Louis
Memphis
New Orleans
Atlanta
Miami
Washington
D.C.
Detroit
New York
Boston
745
10M
380
5M
688
10M
381
10M
816
10M
1067
50M
920
50M
861000
50M
780
100M
521000
50M
409
10M
297
10M
286
10M
845
10M
285000
10M
454
100M
246
5M 352
10M
393000
10M
394
5M
473
10M
861000
10M
661
10M
632
10M
534
10M
640
5M
834 10M
211 5M
237 5M
5
Rapid city
611
10M 657
10M
389
50M
Constraint-routed shortest
path that can provide 7
Mbps bandwidth !!
Shared Risk Link Group
(SRLG) – disjoint backup
path with
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
30
Factors on End- to- End Transfer del ay,
J i tter
Queuing delay in M/D/1 queue
Mean time in Queue
Packet loss and buffer size calculated by heavy traffic
approximation:
R
B
s t
w


= •

=
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( 2 ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
R
B
s s t t
w q



= •
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= + =
) 1 ( 2
) 2 (
1
) 1 ( 2 ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

− = = >
ρ
ρ 1
2 exp ) ( } size System Pr{ x x Q x
ρ : link utilization
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
31
Bandwi dth Borrowi ng among LSPs
wi thi n an TE- LSP
LSP j (weight = y)
LSP k (weight = z)
Excess available
bandwidth
TE-LSP
Borrowing/re-allocation of
available/unused bandwidth
LSP i (weight = x)
needs more
bandwidth
under utilization
under utilization
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
32
Re- di stri buti on of Extra Avai l abl e
Bandwi dth among Tunnel (TE)- LSP
Available Excess
Bandwidth
User LSPInner Tunnel LSP
Outer Tunnel LSP
_
_ _
i
i
k
k
i j
i j i
i m
m
w
a v a i l a b l e B W L S P e x t r a A v a i l a b l e B W
w
w
a v a i l a b l e B W L S P a v a i l a b l e B W L S P
w
= ×
= ×


PHY LINK
LSP
i
(w
i
)
LSP
j
(w
j
)
LSP
i1
(w
i1
)
extraAvailableBW
LSP
i2
(w
i2
)
LSP
j1
(w
j1
)
LSP
j2
(w
j2
)
(a) Controlled Bandwidth Redistribution/Borrowing
(b) Hierarchical/Recursive Redistribution of
Available Bandwidth
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
33
Di fferenti ated Servi ce (Di ffServ)
NCT
(Network Control Traffic)
Packet Transmission
with Link Speed X
(LSP : PDR/PBS,
CDR/CBS+EBS)
Packet
Scheduling
Expedited Forwarding (EF)
Assured Forwarding (AF)
Best Effort Forwarding (BEF)
Traffic Shaping
Packet
Discarding
(algorithmic
dropping)
P
a
c
k
e
t


C
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
e
r
Smoothing
(averaging)
Buffer depth
IP Packet
flow input
M
e
t
e
r
i
n
g
,

A
c
t
i
o
n
,

A
l
g
o
r
i
t
h
m
i
c

D
r
o
p
p
i
n
g
Di ffServ Packet Processi ng Model
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
34
Exampl e of Di ffServ Cl ass- type and
Performance Objecti ves
000 000 U 10
-3
U U
Best effort
service
Best effort BE
001 000
Committed
rate
10
-3
U
1
sec
FTP
E-mail
Low loss bulk
data
AF1
010 000
Committed
rate
10
-3
U
400
msec
Data base
Web
Transaction
data
AF2
011 000
Committed
rate
10
-3
U
400
msec
Terminal
session
Custom app
Transaction
data,
interactive
AF3
100 000
Committed
rate
10
-3
50
msec
400
msec
Video
conference
Jitter sensitive,
real-time high
interaction
AF4
101 110 Peak rate 10
-3
50
msec
100
msec
VoIP
Jitter sensitive,
real-time high
interaction
EF
111 000 /
110 000
Peak rate 10
-3
U
100
msec
RIP, OSPF,
BGP-4
Minimized error,
high priority
NCT1/
NCT0
DSCP
Bandwidth
definition
packet
Loss
Ratio
Jitter Delay Example Objective
Class-
type
(Note : a) U : undefined, b) Drop precedence of AF4~AF1 : 010, 100, 110)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
35
Per Hop Behavi or (PHB)
Per-Hop Behavior (PHB)
The externally observable forwarding behavior applied at a DS-compliant
node to a DS behavior aggregate
The means by which a node allocates resources to behavior aggregates
Defines hop-by-hop resource allocation mechanism
Example of PHB
Guarantee minimal bandwidth allocation ( x % of a link or tunnel)
Guarantee minimal bandwidth allocation (x % of a link or tunnel) with
proportional fair sharing of any excess link capacity
Buffer allocation
Priority relative to other PHBs
PHBs are specified as a group (PHB group) for consistency
PHBs are implemented in nodes by means of some buffer management and
packet scheduling mechanisms
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
36
Meteri ng & Marki ng
Parameters for Metering & Marking
T
C
(t) –B ≥ 0
T
P
(t)-B ≥ 0
and
T
C
(t) –B < 0
T
P
(t)-B < 0
PDR/PBS
CIDR/CBS
Two Rate
Three Color Marker
(TRTCM)
T
C
(t) –B ≥ 0
T
P
(t)-B ≥ 0
and T
E
(t)-B ≥
0
T
E
(t)-B < 0
CDR/CBS+E
BS
Single Rate
Three Color Marker
(SRTCM)
Green Yellow Red Parameters
(Note: B: arrived packet size, T
E
(t): token count of excess rate token bucket,
T
C
(t): token count of committed rate token bucket, T
P
(t): token count of peak rate token bucket)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
37
Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) Provisioning
Traffic parameters
Peak Rate
Average rate, Sustainable rate with burst tolerance
Minimum rate
Frame rate with max. frame size
QoS Parameters
End-to-end transfer Delay
Delay variance (Jitter) tolerance
Bit/Packet/Frame error rate
Maximized bandwidth & resource utilization
Bandwidth over-booking
Bandwidth sharing, borrowing
Integrated Traffi c Engi neeri ng for
Di ffServ- aware- MPLS
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
38
Per Cl ass- Type Queui ng (1):
RED (Random Earl y Detecti on) Queue
Drop Probability
Average Queue Length
THmin THmax
1
Pmax
Pmin
Probabilistic
packet drop
Buffer level
TH
min
TH
max
Discard Discard with increasing
probability P
a
Do not discard
0
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
39
Per Cl ass- Type Queui ng (2):
WRED (Wei ghted Random Earl y Detecti on)
Queue
Drop Probability
Average Queue Length
THmax(0…7) THmin(0) THmin(7)
1
Pmax
(0..7)
(a) Default WRED Drop Probability Configuration
Drop Probability
THmax(0…7)
THmin(0) THmin(7)
1
Pmax(0)
Pmax(7)
Average
Queue
Length
(b) WRED case 1
Average
Queue
Length
Drop Probability
THmax(7)
THmin(0)
THmin(7)
1
Pmax(0)
Pmax(7)
THmax(0)
(c) WRED case 2
(Note: THmin(i) =
(1/2 + i/8)*THmax
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
40
Di ffServ Packet Schedul er
Hierarchical Packet Scheduler
Priority
Scheduler
Priority
Scheduler
Rate-based
scheduler
(WRR or WFQ)
Rate-based
scheduler
(WRR or WFQ)
NCT1
NCT0
EF
AF4
AF3
AF2
AF1
BF
priority
priority
priority
priority
Min rate
Min rate
Min rate
Min rate
shaping rate
(PDR/PBS,
CDR/CBS+EBS)
T
r
a
f
f
i
c

S
h
a
p
e
r
T
r
a
f
f
i
c

S
h
a
p
e
r
priority
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
41
Di ffServ- aware- MPLS Traffi c Engi neeri ng
IP Packet
Stream
P
a
c
k
e
t

C
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
e
r
AF 4
Two Rate Three Color
Marker (PIR/PBS,
CIR/CBS+EBS)
NCT1
Single Rate Three Color
Marker (CIR/CBS+EBS)
NCT0
Single Rate Three Color
Marker (CIR/CBS+EBS)
EF
Single Rate Three Color
Marker (CIR/CBS+EBS)
AF 3 Two Rate Three Color
Marker (PIR/PBS,
CIR/CBS+EBS)
AF 2 Two Rate Three Color
Marker
(PIR/PBS, CIR/CBS+EBS)
AF 1
Two Rate Three Color
Marker (PIR/PBS,
CIR/CBS+EBS)
BF
drop
?
drop
?
drop
?
drop
?
drop
?
drop
?
drop
?
drop
?
R
a
t
e
-
b
a
s
e
d

p
a
c
k
e
t

s
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
P
r
i
o
r
i
t
y
-
b
a
s
e
d

p
a
c
k
e
t

s
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
CR-LSP
(Traffic Parameters :
- Peak Data Rate(PDR)
- Peak Burst Size (PBS)
- Committed Data Rate (CDR)
- Committed Burst Size (CBS)
- Excess Burst Size (EBS)
- Weight
- Resource Class / Color =“gold”)
Multi-field Packet
Classification
Per-Class-type
Metering/Marking
Packet Dropping
(algorithmic drop according
to averaged buffer depth)
packet
scheduling
traffic shaping
u
s
e
r

B
CR-LSP
(Traffic Parameters,
Resource class
= “silver”)
CR-LSP
(Traffic Parameters,
Resource class
= “bronze”)
U
s
e
r

C
AF1, 2, 3, 4
EF (or AF1)
NCT 0/1
BE (default)
AF1, 2, 3, 4
EF (or AF1)
NCT 0/1
BE (default)
TE-LSP
Maximum
Capacity/
Aggregate BW
Allocated BW
Un-reserved BW
Policy-based MPLS Traffic Trunk (TE-LSP)
Management, Load Balancing
rt/nrt-VBR traffic
CBR realtime traffic
VPN control message
rt/nrt-VBR traffic
CBR realtime traffic
VPN control message
U
s
e
r
(
U
s
e
r
G
r
o
u
p
)

A
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
42
Traffi c Pol i ci ng and Traffi c Shapi ng
Classify
Measure
Configured rate
No
match
Incoming
packets
Queuing method
Outgoing packets
WFQ/FIFO
P
a
c
k
e
t

S
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
Metering/Marking
Token
bucket
Aggregated
committed
rate
Token
bucket
Per-class
committed
rate
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
43
Management Framework of MPLS
Network
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
44
Di ffServ- aware- MPLS Traffi c Engi neeri ng for
QoS- guaranteed Servi ce Provi si oni ng
Collection &
Analysis
of Performance
Measurement
results
Di ffServ- aware- G/MPLS
Router parameter setting
(Bandwidth allocation, Queuing, packet scheduling)
Network Planning & Provisioning
(Re-) configuration of logical topology,
Network load balancing
GMPLS/OXC TE- LSP (traffi c trunk)
Real-time
per-flow
optimization
Mid-term
optimization
Long-term
optimization
End- to- end QoS & performance measurement
Node & Li nk, Di ffServ- aware- ELSP QoS
performance moni tori ng
QoS-guaranteed GMPLS/OXC Backbone Network
Servi ce Level
Agreement (SLA)
- QoS parameter
- Traffic Parameter
(QoS/SLA Standards)
QoS- guaranteed
Real ti me Mul ti medi a
Servi ce Request/
Subscri pti on
O-NNI
Access Net
QoS
Access Net
QoS
O-UNI
CE
Customer
Premises
Network (CPN) A
Intra
-net
O-UNI
CE
Customer
Premises
Network (CPN) B
Intra
-net
Di ffServ- aware-
GMPLS/OXC
Network
(AS 1)
Di ffServ- aware-
GMPLS/OXC
Network
(AS 2)
PE
PE
PE
PE
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
45
ITU- T I.371 Traffi c Management
Framework
UPC: Usage Parameter Control
CAC: Connection Admission Control
PC: Priority Control
NPC: Network Parameter Control
RM: Resource Management
Others: Spacing, Framing, Shaping, etc
Inter-Network
(NNI)
NPC
- CAC
- RM
- PC
- Others
Network B
User-Network Interface
(UNI)
Optional Traffic
Shaping
UPC
- CAC
- RM
- PC
- Others
Network A
CPN
CPN
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
46
Network Performance rel ated Standards (1)
I.356 ATM Bearer Service QoS Standard
U U U U U U Class
default none 6msec 400msec
Class 4
(stringent class)
default U U U
Class 3
(stringent class)
default none U U
Class 2
(tolerant class)
default none 3msec 400msec
Class 1
(stringent class)
CER CLR0 CLR0+1 2-pt.CDV CTD
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
47
Network Performance rel ated Standards (2)
ITU-T Y.1540/1541 IP QoS Standards
U
1 × 10
-4
Packet Error
Rate
U
1 × 10
-3
1 × 10
-3
1 × 10
-3
1 × 10
-3
1×10
-3
Packet Loss
Rate
U U U U 50ms 50ms
Packet Delay
Variance
U 1s 400ms 100ms 400ms 100ms
Packet Transfer
Delay
Class 5
un-specified
Class 4 Class 3 Class 2 Class 1 Class 0 Service Class
QoS Class
Network
Performance
Parameter
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
48
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
GMPLS Core Network
Provider Network
(NG-SDH/SONET Network)
NG-SDH/SONET
(GFP, Virtual
Concatenation)
CPN B
(SONET/SDH,
Highspeed Leased Line,
GbE)
NG-SDH/SONET
(GFP, Virtual
Concatenation)
CPN A
(SONET/SDH,
Highspeed Leased Line,
GbE)
SDH
SDH
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER
CPN A
(IP Router)
CE
PE
(VPLS-aware
MPLS LER)
VPN A
(GbE)
CE
DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER
CPN
B
(IP Router)
CE
PE
(VPLS-aware
MPLS LER)
VPN B
(GbE)
CE
NG-SDH/SONET
(GFP-T)
SAN A
(Fiber Channel, ESCON,
FICON, DVI)
SDH
NG-SDH/SONET
(GFP, Virtual
Concatenation)
SDH
Video/Multimedia
Database Archive
SML
NML
EML
Performance management
EML-PM
SML-PM
NML-PM
NML-Monitoring
NML-Analysis
& Control
NML-Tuning
Fault management
NML-FM
NML-FC
NML-AM NML-TDS
EML-FM
EML-FC
EML-AM
EML-TDS
SML-FM
Connection management
EML-CP
NML-CP
LNC
CC
CSM
SSM
Configuration management
SML-ConfM
LNTC
NML-TC
EML-TC
Management Interface: CLI, CORBA, XML, SNMP, TMN/CMIP
Network Management System(NMS) for NGN
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
49
QoS- guaranteed NGN Networki ng Model
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
MPLS
LSR
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
MPLS
LSR
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
MPLS
LSR
OXC/
OADM
OXC/
OADM
MPLS
LSR
MPLS
LSR
MPLS
LSR
GMPLS Core Network
GMPLS/광전달망(All Optical, O-O-O)
(DiffServ-aware-GMPLS)
Provider Edge
(VPLS-aware
MPLS LER)
Customer Premises
Network A
(IP Router)
CE
Provider Edge
(VPLS-aware
MPLS LER)
Customer Premises
Network B
(IP Router)
CE
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
Edge Node
(DiffServ-aware
MPLS LER)
TGW
AGW
Narrowband
Multimedia/
PSTN
Narrowband
Multimedia/
Cellular/
Mobile
TGW
AGW
Narrowband
Multimedia /
PSTN
Narrowband
Multimedia /
Cellular/
Mobile
광대역멀티미디어
분배망서비스
(CDN/SAN)
광대역멀티미디어
분배망서비스
(CDN/SAN)
QoS-guaranteed
IP networking
System
(CPN)
QoS-guaranteed
IP networking
System
(ISP)
QoS-guaranteed
IP networking
System
(ISP)
QoS-guaranteed
IP networking
System
(CPN)
SNMP/CLI SNMP/
CLI
SNMP/
CLI
IIOP/
CORBA
SNMP/
CLI
QoS-guaranteed
IP networking
System
(ISP)
IIOP/
CORBA
IIOP/
CORBA
IIOP/
CORBA
SNMP/
CLI
AS 1
AS 2
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
50
Di stri buted Traffi c & Network Management System
for mul ti pl e Autonomous Systems (AS)
DiffServ-aware MPLS Network
Di ffServ
- aware
MPLS
LER
Di ffServ
- aware
MPLS
LER
CPN
A
CPN
B
MPLS
Transi t
LSR
MPLS
Transi t
LSR
MPLS
Transi t
LSR
Autonomous System 1
Autonomous System 2
Autonomous
System 2
Constraint-based
Shortest Path First
(CSPF) Routing
EMS
EMS
EMS
NMS
Constraint-based
Shortest Path First
(CSPF) Routing
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
51
Interacti ons among MPLS Management Modul es
IIOP
Configuration
Mgmt
Configuration
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
EMS
Configuration
Mgmt
Configuration
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
NMS
Customer
Premise
Network
CPN(Intranet)
Customer
Premise
Network
CPN(Intranet)
Generic Adapter
Service
Object
Service
Object
Service
Object
Service
Object
SNMP
interface
SNMP
interface
RMA
interface
RMA
interface
CLI
interface
CLI
interface
NE interface
NE interface
RMA
RMA
DNS
MPLS Transit Network (AS 1)
IIOP
SNMP Socket
TELNET
MPLS
Transit
Network
(AS 2)
Generic
Adapter
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
52
Management Interfaces
(EMS- Agent, EMS- NMS)
Command Line Interface (CLI)
proprietary CLI definition by each vendor
most detailed operations and management information
CORBA(Common Object Request Broker Architecture)/OMG
distributed object computing infrastructure
Manager-to-manager connection
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
XML-RPC
SOAP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
SNMP MIBs for MPLS-based VPN/VPLS
Delayed update compared with data access by CLI (Command Line Interface)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
53
Standards of MPLS Network Managements (1)
1) MPLS Management Overview:
- Related document: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management Overview, draft-ietf-mpls-
mgmt-overview-08.txt, August 2003.
- Overview of MPLS Network Management and Related MIB
- MPLS MIB의OID (Object Identifier) tree structure:
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
54
Standards of MPLS Network Managements (2)
2) TC-MIB
- Related document: Definitions of Textual Conventions for Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) Management, draft-ietf-mpls-tc-mib-05.txt, Nov. 2002.
- Describes textual conventions for use in definitions of management information for
MPLS networks
3) LSR-MIB
- Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switching Router
(LSR) Management Information Bases, draft-ietf-mpls-lsr-mib-09.txt, Oct. 2002.
- Describes MOs for modeling MPLS LSR (Label Switch Router) LSR
- interface configuration table (mplsInterfaceConfTable)
- in-segment (mplsInSegmentTable), out-segment (mplsOutSegmentTable) tables
- cross-connect table (mplsXCTable)
- label stack table (mplsLabelStackTable)
- traffic parameter table (mplsTrafficParamTable): index, MaxRate, MinRate,
MaxBurstSize
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
55
Standards of MPLS Network Managements (3)
4) TE-MIB
- Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering
Management Information Base, draft-ietf-mpls-te-mib-09.txt, Nov. 2002.
- ping (ICMP echo request) based hop-by-hop fault localization and path tracing
- in ping mode (basic connectivity check), ping packet is sent through user packet
delivery LSP, the egress LSR delivers the ping packet to control plane
- in traceroute mode (fault isolation), ping packet is sent to the control plane of each
transit LSR node, which performs various checks and returns further information that
helps check the control plane against the data plane
5) LDP-MIB
- Related document : Definitions of Managed Objects for the Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-mib-09.txt,
Oct. 2002.
- Defines 4 MIBs for Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishment and monitoring :
MPLS-LDP-MIB, MPLS-LDP-Generic-MIB, MPLS-LDP-ATM-MIB, MPLS-LDP-
Frame-Relay-MIB
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
56
Standards of MPLS Network Managements (4)
6) FTN-MIB
- Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Forward Equivalency
Class-to-Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry Management Information Base, draft-ietf-
mpls-ftn-mib-05.txt, Oct. 2002.
- Defines MIBs of the mapping and related operations of MPLS FEC (Forwarding
Equivalence Class) and NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry)
7) Bundle MIB
- Related document : Link Bundling Management Information Bases, draft-ietf-mpls-
bundle-mib-04.txt, Nov. 2002.
- Defines MIBs for grouping TE Links into a bundled link
8) VPN-MIB
- Related document : MPLS/BGP Virtual Private Network Management Information
Base using SMIv2, draft-ietf-ppvpn-mpls-vpn-mib-05.txt, Nov. 2002.
- Defines the MIB for MPLS/BGP VRF (VPN Routing and Forwarding) based VPN
configuration
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
57
MPLS Network Confi gurati on Management
MPLS Configuration Management
Installation support
support the installation of equipment and related software
installation operations, sequencing and scheduling the operation to achieve maximum
efficiency and minimum interference with ongoing operations
Provisioning
a set of procedures that bring already installed equipment into service
NE configuration
Initialization of Network Topology resource and activations
Network resource reservation and locking/unlocking for service provisioning
Status and control
Status request & report of network resource
Network resource maintenance
Network Resource Auto-discovery (optional)
dynamic resource discovery
automatic configuration & topology mapping
real-time map generation
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
58
MIBs for Confi gurati on Managements
MPLS LSR MIB
mplsInterfaceConfTable, PerfTable
mplsInSegmentTable, PerfTable
mplsOutSegmentTable
mplsXCTable
mplsLabelStackTable
mplsTrafficParamTable
MPLS TE MIB
mplsTunnelTable, ResourceTable, HopTable, ARHopTable, CHopTable
mplsTunnelPerfTable, CRLSPResTable
MPLS TE-Link MIB
teLinkTable, DescriptorTable,SrlgTable, BandwidthTable
componentLinkTable, DescriptorTable,SrlgTable, BandwidthTable
MPLS LDP MIB
MPLS LDP Generic MIB
MPLS LDP ATM MIB, FrameRelay MIB
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
59
Exampl e of MPLS Network Confi gurati on MOs (1)
10.0.0.7 Loopback address
Serial 1/1 (connected with xxx) Serial port name
620 [kbps] QoS bandwidth
Weighted fair queuing QoS queue
Class-default QoS class map
Operational-yes Status
10.0.70.2 address
Serial Port
Drop ratio 0 bps, packets marked QoS status
EF, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4 QoS class map
Port Up, line protocol up status
165.229.167.201 address
Fast Ethernet Port
1 Fast Ethernet
4 Serial network interface
1 Packet_over_Sonet (POS) network interface
Total number of activated slots/ports
MPLS Signaling protocol
OSPF, BGP Routing Protocol
12.2(8)T IOS version (Cisco Router)
Cisco 7200 Router Version
7204_G Router Name
Node
Example Attributes Managed Objects
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
60
Exampl e of MPLS Network Confi gurati on MOs (2)
10.0.0.2 (3620_B의 loopback address) Neighbor loopback address (TDP id)
Serial 0/0 (3620_B port) / 10.0.30.1 Neighbor router serial port name /
address
3620_B Neighbor router name
Router, bridge_switch Neighbor equipment
Neighbors
10.0.0.6 Loopback address
Pos4/0 Serial port name
55000[kbps] QoS bandwidth
Weighted fair queue QoS queue
Class-default QoS class map
Shutdown Status
10.10.2.2 address
PoS port
(Packet over
SONET)
Example Attributes Managed Objects
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
61
MPLS Connecti on Managements
MPLS Tunnel LSP (TE-LSP) Connection Managements
MPLS Tunnel LSP Establishments and Maintenance
Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF) routing for Constraint-based LSP
Setup
Request MPLS LER/LSR to set up LSP: Automatic routing mode or explicit
routing mode
Set up LSP traffic parameter and QoS parameter
Update of Traffic parameter and QoS parameter of MPLS Tunnel LSP
Modification of traffic parameter and QoS parameter of tunnel LSP
Establishment of backup LSP for MPLS Fault Management
SRLG-disjoint backup path routing
Establishment of working LSP for backup LSP: explicit routing mode
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
62
Connecti on Management for
Di ffServ- over/aware- MPLS on Opti cal Internet
IIOP
Configuration
Mgmt
Configuration
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
EMS
Configuration
Mgmt
Configuration
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Connection
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Performance
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
Fault
Mgmt
NMS
IIOP
OXC OXC OXC
OXC OXC OXC
LSR
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
fiber link
LSR
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
f
i
b
e
r

l
i
n
k
f
i
b
e
r

l
i
n
k
LSR
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
fiber link
LSR
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
DiffServ-
aware-
LER
optical path
(lambda channels)
fiber link fiber link
fiber link
fiber link fiber link
f
i
b
e
r

l
i
n
k
fiber link
traffic trunk
(tunnel LSP)
WDM Optical Domain Network
MPLS Domain network
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
63
Exampl e of MPLS LSP MOs (1)
Freq, Min [kbps], Max [kbps] Auto-bandwidth (optional)
0x0 ~ 0xFFFFFFFF Affinity
500,000 usec (default) – modifiable Traffic param - delay
1514 bytes Traffic param – MTU
9 [kbps] Traffic param – bandwidth
Setup priority 1
Holding priority 1
Traffic param - priority
10.0.30.2, 10.0.40.1 Next addresses (explicit route)
10.0.0.4 Destination address
10.0.0.2 Source address
Tunnel_0104_1 Tunnel name
LSP
Example Attribute MO
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
64
Exampl e of MPLS LSP MOs (2)
Protection functions provided at Physical Layer Physical backup type
Shared risk link group ID SRLG_ID
Bit error rate at Physical link Residual bit error rate
Jitter at LSR with MPLS packet switching Jitter
Propagation delay according to the physical distance,
and packet processing delay including MPLS packet
switching, port buffering at LSR
Propagation & processing delay
Allocated bandwidth in [Mbps] Reserved bandwidth
Available bandwidth in [Mbps] Available bandwidth
Link total capacity in [Mbps] Total capacity
Link State
Operational-yes Operational status
Active Administration status
Fast Ethernet, Serial Port, POS Link type
Neighbor LSR ID (Receiver)
Interface address
Link/Port ID
LSR ID (Transmitter)
LSR and Port
Example Attribute MO
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
65
Parameters for Constrai nt- based LSP
Establ i shment
SRLG-disjoint backup LSP SRLG
1+1, 1:1, M:N, 1:N, on-demand Backup_type
Weight for Weighted Fair Scheduler Weight
Setup priority, holding priority Priority
Platinum, gold, silver, bronze Service class
Service
Category
Allowable packet loss ratio Packet loss ratio
Allowable jitter boundary Jitter bound
End-to-end delay End-to-end delay
QoS Parameter
Peak data rate(PDR)/Peak Burst Size (PBS)
Committed Data Rate(CDR)/Committed Burst Size (CBS),
Excess Burst Size (EBS)
Bandwidth
Traffic
Parameter
Example Attribute MO
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
66
MPLS Network Performance Management
Performance monitoring of MPLS Tunnel LSP
Measurement of Throughput at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS)
Measurement of delay, jitter at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS)
Measurement of packet loss at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS)
Performance analysis of MPLS Tunnel LSP
Compare and analyze LSP’s SLA (service level agreement) performance parameters and the
monitored results
Determine any seriously deteriorated performance
performance control & tuning of MPLS Tunnel LSP
Update/Reallocation of operational Parameters (Bandwidth, Link Utilization) to maintain the
performance of End-to-end LSP and LSP segments of Autonomous System (AS) : Adjustment of
allocated bandwidth, Queue buffer size or scheduler parameter
Rerouting of LSP route
Overall Network Load Balancing
MPLS VPN Performance Management
Measurements of Aggregated Throughput, Packet Transfer Delay, Packet Loss Rate at MPLS
VPN Interfaces (CE-PE, PE-PE)
Measurements of Packet Mis-delivery Ratio among MPLS VPN
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
67
MPLS Network Faul t Management (1)
Establishment of Backup LSP for MPLS working tunnel LSP
SRLG disjoint back LSP routing and LSP setup
Allocation of Backup LSP resource for 1+1, 1:1, M:N, 1:N mode
Fault Detection and Notification
Fault detection ad notification at Physical Layer Link, port or Node
Fault detection ad notification by MPLS signaling and packet forwarding module
Notification of Seriously deteriorated MPLS LSP Performance
Analysis and Localization of Faults
Fault correlation and localization
Find Root Cause of the Faults
Find the location of root cause
Determine the Affected tunnel LSP and VPN
Fault Recovery
Fault Recovery by Protection switching or restoration
Protection Switching of User Traffic using Backup LSP
Establish a new back LSP
Redefine the function and the route of working LSP and backup LSP at Fault restoration
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
68
MPLS Faul t Management (2)
Differentiated Backup Path Reservations (Example)
Backup Path Utilization
Reservation with NO Traffic
Reservation with Lower Priority Traffic of possible preemption
Fault Restoration
Use Span(segment) Protection
Restoration is based on the Subnetwork(Segment)
Best Effort Lowest Lowest 0 Best effort
Lower
Normal
Higher
Highest
Preemption
Priority
Controlled traffic
Premium service
VPN
High Priority VPN
Application
Lower
Normal
Higher
Highest
Setup
Priority
100%, 1:N
100%, M:N
100%, 1:1
100%, 1+1
Bandwidth
Reservation
Gold
Bronze
Silver
Platinum
MPLS Service
Class
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
69
Exampl e of Seri ousl y Deteri orated Performance
More than 10% of transmitted data Packet loss
More than 200% of agreed jitter limit Jitter
More than 120% of agreed end-to-end delay limit End-to-end delay
Less than 80% of CDR (committed data rate) Available bandwidth
Remarks Threshold of severe degradation Traffic / QoS parameter
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
70
Faul t Detecti on Functi ons of LSR Node
MPLS signaling module hello
message
Degraded packet throughput,
increased packet loss rate
Power degradation
Switching capability loss
Malfunctioning components
Excessive temperature
Node failure
Network Interface Card (NIC) fault
monitoring
Loss of Light
Fiber cut
Lambda channel fault
Port/Link
MPLS signaling module (CR-LDP,
RSVP)의hello message
Packet mis-delivery
Faults in Switching Elements
Faults in packet/ label processing
MPLS Switching
Module
Fault Detection (Example) Fault Type Module
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
71
MPLS Faul t Recovery Objecti ves (Exampl e)
250 ms
Total allowable time from fault occurrence to
complete fault restoration
Total Fault
Restoration
Time
50 ms
Protection Switching of user traffic from faulty
working LSP to Backup LSP
Protection Switching
to Backup LSP
50 ms Fault notification to ingress LER / egress LER Fault Notification
Physical Layer: 50 ns
MPLS LSP: 150 ms
MPLS LSR: 3 sec
Fault Detection at Physical Layer
Fault Detection at LSP
Fault Detection at LSR
Fault Detection
Target Values Fault Recovery Parameter Function
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
72
Standards rel ated to MPLS Faul t Management
IETF Draft MPLS-based fast reroute
IETF Draft MPLS recovery framework
IETF Draft MPLS RSVP-LSP Fast reroute
MPLS OAM Requirements
RFC 2925, Remote Ping, Trace Route, Lookup
RFC 3479, Fault Tolerance for the LSP
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
73
MPLS OAM for the Management of
MPLS- based VPNs
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
74
MPLS OAM
OAM (Operation, Administration, Maintenance)
Layer Management Protocol for Network Layer, Data Link Layer, Physical
Layer: e.g. ATM VP/VC Layer OAM, Physical Layer OAM, SONET OAM
Fault OAM for fault monitoring, fault notification
alarm indication signal
remote defect indication (RDI)
continuity check (CC)
loopback test
Performance OAM for performance monitoring, performance analysis
Forward monitoring
Backward monitoring
Configuration OAM for administrative configuration of links, operational
status monitoring
link configuration and status management
neighbor discovery
e.g Layer Management Protocol (LMP) of WDM Optical Link
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
75
Rel ated Works on MPLS OAM
Current Standardization Status of MPLS OAM
General framework
Major considerations
No detailed implementation methods
IETF Internet Draft, “A Framework for MPLS User Plane OAM,” David
Allen (ed.), February 2003.
Implications for fault management: connectivity verification, etc.
Implications for performance management: line quality monitoring, etc.
IETF Internet Draft, “OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks,” Thomas
Nadeau et. al., February 2003.
service level agreement (SLA) measurement: availability, latency, packet loss, jitter
alarm suppression and layer coordination
support for OAM interworking for fault notification
error detection and recovery
IETF Internet Draft, “Detecting Data Plane Liveness in RSVP-TE”, Oct. 2001.
LSP Ping
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
76
Requi rements of MPLS OAM Functi ons
Basic Requirements of MPLS OAM functions
Fault management OAM should be able to provide fault detection, on-
demand verification, fault localization, notification of LSP failure
information
Performance management OAMshould be able to provide performance
monitoring to check the provisioning of traffic throughput & QoS (end-to-
end delay, jitter, packet loss rate) that is defined in service level agreement
Interactions of MPLS signaling and User-plane OAM
User plane OAM: based on in-band OAM packets to monitor real status of
user plane connections
MPLS signaling: out-of-band signaling, separated connections from the user
plane connections
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
77
Desi gn of MPLS Performance
Management OAM Functi ons
Performance Monitoring OAM of User Plane Data Path
Throughput
total delivered data size / unit time interval
Delay
d(n) =T
arrival
(n) – T
departure
(n)
Jitter (variance of transfer delay)
j(n) =|d(n) – d(n-1)|
Packet loss rate
(total transmitted packets – total delivered packets) / total transmitted packets
Severely degraded performance
e.g. excessive delay at realtime interactive communication, excessive
packet loss, excessive jitter
should be handled in the same manner of fault
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
78
Proposed Format of Performance Moni tori ng
OAM Packet
OAM Type OAM Function PDU Length
Ingress LSR Identifier
Egress LSR Identifier
LSP Identifier
Sequence Number
Time Stamp
Number of Total Transmitted Packets
Total Transmitted Data Size [Byte]
Optional Information
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
1 2 3 0
(LSR: Label Switched Router; LSP: Label Switched Path)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
79
Desi gn of MPLS Faul t Management OAM
Functi ons
Fault Detection
by fault management OAM packet: continuity check
by lower protocol layer: e.g. loss of light (LOL), loss of signal (LOS)
Fault Notification by MPLS OAM packet
Forward Defect Indication (FDI)
Backward Defect Indication (BDI)
Egress LER(Label Edge Router) -to-Ingress LER notification
Fault Notification by MPLS Signaling
RSVP-TE notify message
CR-LDP notification message
Fault notification by intermediate LSR that detected link fault by
network interface card (NIC); Note) in Wavelength Division
Multiplexing (WDM) network, it is very hard to insert OAM packets
by intermediate node
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
80
Scenari o of Faul t Noti fi cati on by MPLS
si gnal i ng
PHY
TCP/UDP
CR-LDP
MPLS
IP
OSPF-TE/
BGP
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
LSR 120
PHY
TCP/UDP
CR-LDP
MPLS
IP
OSPF-TE/
BGP
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
LSR 121
PHY
TCP/UDP
CR-LDP
MPLS
IP
OSPF-TE/
BGP
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
LER 110
(ingress node)
PHY
TCP/UDP
CR-LDP
MPLS
IP
OSPF-TE/
BGP
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
LSR 220
PHY
TCP/UDP
CR-LDP
MPLS
IP
OSPF-TE/
BGP
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
LSR 221
PHY
TCP/UDP
CR-LDP
MPLS
IP
OSPF-TE/
BGP
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
LER 211
(egress node)
working LSP
backup LSP
link failure
detection
link failure
notification
TE agent
controls
the rerouting
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
81
Loopback Test OAM
LSR120 LSR140
LER
110
LER
150
LSR130
timeout
timeout
(a) Node-by-node sequential loop-back test
(b) Roll-call loop-back test
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
82
OAM Type OAM Function PDU Length
Loop-back start LSR Identifier
Loop-back end LSR Identifier
LSP Identifier
Loop-back operation mode (sequential or roll-call)
Optional data
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
1 2 3 0
Note) Loopback test operation mode:
0: node-by-node sequential loop-back test
1: roll-call loopback test mode
Proposed Format of Loopback Test OAM
Packet
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
83
Impl ementati ons and Experi ments
Network Simulation Environment:
NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology)
GMPLS Simulator (GLASS: Gmpls Lightpath Agile
Switching Simulator): http://dns.antd.nist.gov/glass/
Networking Simulator for Generalized Multi-Protocol
Label Switching (GMPLS)
DiffServ-over-MPLS
MPLS Networking
WDM Optical Switching
General Internet Applications over TCP/UDP, IP
Included MPLS OAM functions to monitor, analysis
network operational status
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
84
Network Si mul ati on for
Di ffServ- over- MPLS
Note : the transit link between LSR 220 and LSR 221 has been designed to be bottleneck !!
Network Configuration
Server Client
LSR120 LSR 121
LSR 220 LSR 221
LER
211
100
LER
110
101 (EF, 1 Mbps)
LER
111
LER
210
200
201 (AF, 4Mbps)
LER
150
LER
151
LER
212
202
LER
213
203 (AF, 4 Mbps)
103 (AF, 2 Mbps)
105 (BF, 3 mbps) 102
104
150
152
154
151 (EF, 1 Mbps)
153 (AF, 2 Mbps)
155 (BF, 3 Mbps)
6
.
6
M
b
p
s
6
.
6
M
b
p
s
6
.6
M
b
p
s
6
.
6
M
b
p
s
6
.6
M
b
p
s
6
.6
M
b
p
s
6
.
6
M
b
p
s
6
.
6
M
b
p
s
1
3
.
2
M
b
p
s
1
3
.
2
M
b
p
s
17.6 Mbps
(Priority Sched)
(WFQ Sched)
(WFQ Sched)
(WFQ Sched)
(WFQ Sched)
(WFQ Sched)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
85
Traffi c Generati on
100 ~ 450 WFQ W=3
PDR = 4,500
CDR = 3,000
BE 154 – 155
100 ~ 450 WFQ W=2
PDR = 3,000
CDR = 2,000
AF 152 – 153
50 ~ 500
Priority
P=1
PDR = 4,500
CDR = 3,000
BE 104 – 105
100 ~ 450 WFQ W=1
PDR = 1,500
CDR = 1,000
EF 150 - 151
100 ~ 400 WFQ W=4
PDR = 6,000
CDR = 4,000
AF 200 – 201
200 ~ 350 WFQ W=4
PDR = 6,000
CDR = 4,000
AF 202 - 203
Priority
Priority
Packet
Scheduling
(DiffServ)
PDR = 3,000
CDR = 2,000
PDR = 1,500
CDR = 1,000
Traffic
Parameters
(LSP) [kbps]
P=3
P=5
Priority/Weight
(DiffServ)
50 ~ 500 AF 102 – 103
50 ~ 500 EF 100 – 101
Traffic Generation
duration
[simulation time in sec]
Traffic
type
Src - Dest
(EF: Expedited Forwarding, AF: Assured Forwarding, BE: Best Effort Forwarding)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
86
Di f f Ser v Tr af f i c Moni t or i ng ( Node160, WFQ schedul i ng)
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
7000000
4
6
3
1
2
2
1
8
1
2
4
0
2
9
9
3
5
8
4
1
7
4
7
6
5
3
5
t i me ( sec)
b
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h

(
b
p
s
)
Node154
Node152
Node150
sum( WFQ)
Di f f Ser v Tr af f i c Moni t or i ng ( Node 110, Pr i or i t y Schedul i ng)
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
7000000
4
6
2
1
2
0
1
7
8
2
3
6
2
9
4
3
5
2
4
1
0
4
6
8
5
2
6
t i me ( sec)
b
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h

(
b
p
s
)
Node104
Node102
Node100
sum( PRI )
(a) Priority Scheduling (b) WFQ scheduling
Bandwi dth Moni tori ng of Di ffServ Traffi c
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
87
Di f f Ser v End- t o- End Del ay
Node 110 ( Pr i or i t y Schedul er )
0
0. 2
0. 4
0. 6
0. 8
1
1. 2
4
6
9
1
3
4
1
9
9
2
6
4
3
2
9
3
9
4
4
5
9
5
2
4
t i me( sec)
d
e
l
a
y
(
s
e
c
)
Node104
Node102
Node100
(a) E-to-E Delay, Priority Scheduling (b) E-to-E Delay, WFQ scheduling
Di f f Ser v End- t o- End Del ay
Node 160 ( WFQ Schedul er )
0
0. 2
0. 4
0. 6
0. 8
1
1. 2
1. 4
1. 6
1. 8
4
6
9
1
3
4
1
9
9
2
6
4
3
2
9
3
9
4
4
5
9
5
2
4
t i me( sec)
d
e
l
a
y
(
s
e
c
)
Node154
Node152
Node150
Di f f Ser v Packet Loss Rat i o
Node 110 ( Pr i or i t y Schedul er )
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
4
7
1
1
3
8
2
0
5
2
7
2
3
3
9
4
0
6
4
7
3
5
4
0
t i me( sec)
P
a
c
k
e
t

L
o
s
s

R
a
t
i
o
(
%
)
Node104( Rat
i o)
Node102( Rat
i o)
Node100( Rat
i o)
Di f f Ser v Packet Loss Rat i o
Node 160 ( WFQ Schedul er )
0
10
20
30
40
50
4
7
2
1
4
0
2
0
8
2
7
6
3
4
4
4
1
2
4
8
0
5
4
8
t i me( sec)
P
a
c
k
e
t

L
o
s
s

R
a
t
i
o
(
%
)
Node154( Rat
i o)
Node152( Rat
i o)
Node150( Rat
i o)
(a) Jitter, Priority Scheduling (b) Jitter, WFQ scheduling
End- to- end del ay, J i tter
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
88
Noti fi cati ons on Severe Performance
Degradati on
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
89
Li nk Fai l ure Detecti on and Noti fi cati on
Simulation scenario
Failure detection by NIC, Continuity check OAM
LSR120 LSR140
LER
110
LER
150
LSR130
Physical link error at 250 sec
(a) Failure Detection by NIC
(b) Failure Detection by Continuity Check
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
90
Loop- back Test
Link Error at 250sec
10ms 15ms 15ms 10ms 15ms 5ms
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
91
SPN’s MPLS Backbone
CE
CE
CE
CE
PE
PE
Penultimate
Hop LSR
PE
PE
Tunneled LSP
VLAN/Ethernet VC(Virtual Circuit) LSP
LSR
Intranet
Management
(EMS/NMS)
Intranet
Management
(EMS/NMS)
SPN(Backbone)
Management
(EMS/NMS)
Penultimate
Hop LSR
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
T
E

A
g
e
n
t
MPLS- VPN Performance Management
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
92
MPLS- VPN PM Exampl es
Customer A
Customer B
Customer C
(a) Throughput
Customer A
Customer B
Customer C
Customer A
Customer B
Customer C
Customer A
Customer B
Customer C
(b) Delay
(c) Jitter (d) Packet Loss Ratio
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
93
Test Network Confi gurati on for
Control l ed Bandwi dth Borrowi ng
LSP between A and B (4 Mbps)
LSP between A and D (4 Mbps)
LSR-LSR : 20Mbps Host-LSR : 5 Mbps
LER A
LER B
LER C
LER D
LSP between C and B (4 Mbps)
LSR-LSR : 10 Mbps
LSP between C and D (2 Mbps)
LSP 1
LSP 3
LSP 7
LSP 5
LSR X LSR Y
10M 20M
20M
20M
20M 20M
Bottleneck
link
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
94
Dynami c Bandwi dth Re- di stri buti on
Scenario
Trigger bandwidth redistribution after 170sec
Trigger bandwidth rollback at 400sec
Bandwidth is not allocated to LSP 1,5 because of bottleneck link
However, LSP 3,7 are allowed to get extra-bandwidth.
(a) Throughput of LSP1, 3 (a) Throughput of LSP5,7
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
95
Commerci al MPLS- VPN Management
Systems: Ci sco VPN Sol uti on,
SheerBOS, Wandl ’s IP/MPLSvi ew
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
96
Ci sco VPN Sol uti on (1)
Cisco VPN Solution Center Architecture API and Life-cycle
Management
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
97
Ci sco VPN Sol uti on Center (2)
Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2: MPLS Solution (1)
provides management of IP VPN services throughout the service life cycle
including service provisioning and activation on customer-edge and
provider-edge routers, service auditing and service-level agreement (SLA)
provides external operations support systems (OSSs) access to the full
capabilities of the Cisco VPN Solution Center using well-defined CORBA
APIs
Operators and upstream systems can add, delete, or modify customer MPLS
VPNs and define associated VPN service topology (hub-and-spoke, full-
mesh and extranet)
Major functions:
Fault – Cisco Info Center
Configuration – Cisco Provisioning Center
Performance – Concord Network Health Monitor
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
98
Ci sco VPN Sol uti on Center (3)
Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2: MPLS Solution (2)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
99
Ci sco VPN Sol uti on Center (4)
Key features of Cisco VPN Solution Center
Realtime provisioning
flexibly service activation
high-performance service auditing
service quality assurance
SLA monitoring and reporting
QoS provisioning and measurement for service differentiation
Templates for streamlined provisioning
Application integration and flow-through provisioning
OSS interface – CORBA APIs, TIBCO event bus, Java and XML
fault management
performance and other extended management functionality
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
100
Sheer
TM
BOS (1)
Sheer
TM
Broadband Operating Supervisor (Sheer
TM
BOS)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
101
Sheer
TM
BOS (2)
Sheer
TM
BOS Solutions for Network Services
DSL over ATM
ATM over Optical
IP
IP over ATM
IP Services over Optical
L2TP and MPLS VPN over Optical core over ATM
L2TP and MPLS IPVPN
VLAN
VLAN and MPLS/L2TP/IP
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
102
Sheer
TM
BOS (3)
Sheer
TM
BOS Supported NEs
Unisphere SSG Siemens
SMS 500 SSG, SMS 1800 SSG Redback
D50 DSLAM Nokia
Shasta SSG, IMAS DSLAM, Passport ATM Switch Nortel
2000 CMTS Motorola
200 ATM Switch, 1000/4000 ATM Switch Marconi
CBX500 ATM Switch, GX550 ATM Switch Lucent
HiFocus DSLAM ECL
CE150 DSLAM, CE200 DSLAM Copper Mountain
6400 SSG, UBR 7200 CMTS, 7x00 Router, GSR 1200 Router, Catalyst,
Tdsoft Hunt8200 Router, BPX ATM Switch, 6100 DSLAM, 6160 DSLAM
Cisco
36170(Newbridge) ATM Switch, ASAM DSLAM, MiniRam DSLAM Alcatel
Network Element (NE) Manufacturer
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
103
Sheer
TM
BOS (4)
Sheer
TM
BOS Auto Discovery of Topology, Inventory and Services
Discovery of the network elements and the corresponding layered entities that exist
within them (e.g. interfaces, forwarding components)
Existing modules, ports/interfaces
Existing logical entities
MPLS labels
Contexts/Virtual Routers
Routing Tables, Forwarding Tables, VRF Tables, Label Swapping Tables
Discovery of the relationships that exist between the entities in each layer
(VC, VP, Ethernet MAC, PPPoA, 1483, 1Q tag) => Port
(IP interface) => (1483R, Ethernet, .1Q, PPPoA, PPPoE)
(Vbridge) => (Group of Interfaces)
(VRF/Virtual Router) => (Group of Interfaces)
Discovery of the multi-layer network topology
Physical Topology
ATM (PVC, SVC, SPVC) Topology
Ethernet, VLANs Topology
IP Topology
MPLS Topology
VPN Topology
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
104
Sheer
TM
BOS (5)
Sheer
TM
BOS – Managing IP-VPN Services over Broadband
Networks
Network Inventory Auto-discovery
MPLS IP-VPN logical inventory
P and PE Global Label Forwarding Table
PE Interface Specific Label Forwarding Table
List of VPNs (PE)
VPN Properties (PE)
– VPN VRF Table
– VPN Route Target: Import/Export
– VPN Router Distinguisher
– VPN Site list & Properties for each VPN Site
Network Topology Auto-discovery
Service Activation Operations
Create/Delete VPN
Add/Remove Site to VPN
Required identification parameters: VPN identifiers, connection point, site
subnets (in case of static route is used between CE-to-PE)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
105
Wandl ’s IP/MPLSvi ew (1)
Features of Wandl’s IP/MPLSview
Hardware Device Models Supported: Cisco, Juniper, Riverstone, Foundry,
and generic router types.
IP/MPLS-Configuration/Performance Management
IP/MPLS-Network Planning
VPN
BGP
MPLS-FRR
Extensive Report Generation - Aids all aspects of planning, designing, and
troubleshooting IP/MPLS Core Backbones.
Flexible and friendly Graphical User Interface
Fully web-enabled User Interface
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
106
Wandl ’s IP/MPLSvi ew (2)
IP/MPLS Network Planning with Wandl’s IP/MPLSview
IP network configuration, LSP tunnel and traffic collection
Delta configuration generation for MPLS TE provisioning
Multi-layer, Multi-protocol modeling according to exact equipment details
LSP tunnel path placement and provisioning
Fast reroute (FRR)
End-to-end path protection
MPLS LSP path generation/network grooming
Multi-period traffic load analysis
Basic design from scratch
Incremental design
Diversity/Resiliency design
Bottleneck analysis
Capacity planning / traffic growth
Multi-layered failure simulation and analysis
What-if simulation
Standard or customizable tariff databased
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
107
Wandl ’s IP/MPLSvi ew (3)
IP/MPLS Configuration and Performance Management
Network centric operation of the MPLS traffic network
Automated data collection – automatic discovery and incremental discovery
Automatic discovery of network topology
Web-accessible event browser tracks changes in network status
Intelligent multi-vendor IP/MPLS parsing
Physical and logical topology views
Dynamic reconfiguration of MPLS tunnels
Near real-time network monitoring: resource utilization, global network topology and
traffic information display, interface/tunnel statistics, data collection via SNMP
Network performance management and diagnostics
History reports and historical traffic data replay
Configuration and version control and archiving
Configuration conformance validation
Network inventory reports from SNMP polling
Integrity checking
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
108
Wandl ’s IP/MPLSvi ew (3)
Additional Features
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) model
Differentiated Services
VPN Model
State-of-Art Network Graphics
Fully Web-enabled User Interface
Wep reports
Extensive report generations
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
109
Experi ences i n the Desi gn and
Impl ementati on of Management System
for Di ffServ- aware- MPLS
DoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal mpls
internet Manager)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
110
Layered Network Management i n Doumi Man
(Di ffServ- over- uni versal mpl s i nternet
Manager)
IPRouter
MPLSLSR
IPConnectivity
TELSP
DiffServELSP
IPMPLSRouter
Router
Link
IPNetwork
MPLSLSP
IPSubnetwork
MPLSNetwork
1
0..*
1
0..*
PhysicalNetwork
FaultManagerHandler
PhysicalNode
PMHandler
ForPort
Port
PMHandler
ForLSP
Physical
Layer
Network
MPLS
Layer
Network
IP Subnetwork
& VPN
Network
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
111
O- O Desi gn & Impl ementati on for Extensi bi l i ty
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
112
Auto- di scovery of Physi cal Topol ogy Informati on
through Tel net CLI (Command Li ne Interface)
7204_F
7204_H
NMS
①show ip vrf
Pivot router
②no VRF related information
③show cdp entry*,
show cdp neighbors,
show tag-switching tdp discovery
④Information about Neighbors
⑤show ip vrf
⑥Information of VRF table
⑦show ip route vrf vrf-name
show ip protocols vrf vrf-name
⑧Detailed information of VRF table
(IP routing table on VRF,
routing protocol on VRF)
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
113
Confi gurati on Management GUI
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
114
Di ffServ- aware- ELSP Connecti on Management
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
115
DiffServ 적용구간
NCT : Guaranteed BW
Best- effort : No QoS
Service type
DiffServ 적용구간 DiffServ 적용구간
NCT : Guaranteed BW
Best- effort : No QoS
Service type
Di ffServ- aware- ELSP Performance
Management
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
116
MPLS Faul t Managements wi th NMS
Service Provider
Backbone (AS: 100)
AS: 200 AS: 300
CE
(Customer Edge)
AS: 500
AS: 400
NMS/EMS
CE
(Customer Edge)
CE
(Customer Edge)
CE
(Customer Edge)
PE
(Provider Edge)
PE
(Provider Edge)
Fault
Notification
(notification)
Establish
Backup LSP
(Rerouting)
Link Failure
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
117
Exampl e of Fast Reroute i n Ci sco
Routers
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
118
VPN GUIs
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
119
Di ffServ- aware- MPLS VPN GUIs
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
120
Concl udi ng Remarks
We discussed
Framework of MPLS-based VPNs: L3VPN, L2VPN, VPLS
Traffic Engineering based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLS
Management Framework of MPLS Network, MPLS MIBs
MPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNs
Commercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution,
SheerBOS, Wandl’s IP/MPLSview
Experiences in the Management of DiffServ-aware-MPLS VPN
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
121
References
[1] RFC 2764, A Framework for IP based Virtual Private Networks, February 2000.
[2] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-rfc2547bis-00.txt, BGP/MPLS IP VPNs, May 2003.
[3] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-framework-00.txt, A Framework for Layer 3 Provider Provisioned
Virtual Private Networks (PPVPNs), March 2003.
[4] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-vpn-vr-00.txt, Network based IP VPN Architecture using Virtual
Routers, May 2003.
[5] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-l2-framework-00.txt, L2VPN Framework, Feb. 2003.
[6] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-requirements-00.txt, Service Requirements for Layer 2 Provider
Provisioned Virtual Private Networks, Jan. 2004.
[7] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-requirements-00.txt, Requirements for Virtual Private LAN
Service (VPLS), Oct. 2002.
[8] IETF Draft, draft-lasserre-vkompella-ppvpn-vpls-02.txt, Virtual Private LAN Services over MPLS, June
2002.
[9] RFC 3272, Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic Engineering, May 2002.
[10] RFC 3564, Requirements for Support of Differentiated Services-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, July
2003.
[11] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-mgmt-overview-08.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
Management Overview, August 2003.
[12] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-te-mib-12.txt , Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic
Engineering Management Information Base, August 2003.
[13] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-tc-mib-09.txt, Definitions of Textual Conventions for Multiprotocol
Label Switching (MPLS) Management, August 2003.
[14] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-oam-requirements-01.txt, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks,
June 2003.
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
122
[15] ITU-T Rec. Y.1710, Requirements for MPLS OAM.
[16] ITU-T Rec. Y.1711, OAM Mechanisms for MPLS Network.
[17] ITU-T Rec. Y.1720, Protection Switching for MPLS Networks.
[18] ITU-T Draft Rec. Y.mplsperf, MPLS Performance.
[19] IETF RFC3289, Differentiated Services MIB module
[20] IETF draft-ietf-snmpconf-diffpolicy-07.txt, Differentiated Services Configuration MIB.
[21] IETF RFC 3512, Configuring Networks and Devices With SNMP.
[22] IETF RFC 3410, "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet- Standard Management
Framework ",
[23] IETF RFC 3289 Management Information Base for the Differentiated Services Architecture", , May 2002.
[24] IETF RFC3411, "An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Management Frameworks", Harrington, D., Presuhn, R. and B. Wijnen, December 2002.
[25] IETF draft-ietf-snmpconf-pm-13.txt, "Policy-based Management MIB", Work in Progress, Waldbusser,
S., J. Saperia, and T. Hongal, March 2003.
[26] IETF draft-ietf-psamp-framework-03.txt, A Framework for Passive Packet Measurement, June 2003.
[27] IETF draft-ietf-psamp-sample-tech-02.txt, Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP Packet Selection,
June 2003.
[28] Tanja Zseby, “Deployment of Sampling Methods for SLA Validation with Non-Intrusive Measurements,”
Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement Workshop (PAM 2002), Fort Collins, CO, USA, March
25-26, 2002.
[29] IETF draft-ietf-psamp-mib-00.txt, Definitions of Managed Objects for Packet Sampling,
[30] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-telink-mib-02.txt, Traffic Engineering Link Management Information Base, May
2003.
[31] IETF RFC 3209, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels, December 2001.
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
123
[32] IETF RFC 3469, Framework for Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based Recovery, February
2003.
[33] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-fastreroute-03.txt, Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels,
[34] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-ping-03.txt, Detecting MPLS Data Plane Failures.
[35] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-fastreroute-mib-01.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering
Management Information Base for Fast Reroute, November 2002.
[36] IETF RFC 3479, Fault Tolerance for the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), February 2003.
[37] IETF RFC 2702, Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS, September 1999.
[38] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-oam-requirements-01.txt, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks, June 2003.
[39] IETF RFC draft-ietf-mpls-bgp-mpls-restart-02.txt, Graceful Restart Mechanism for BGP with MPLS,
October 2002.
[40] IETF draft-ietf-policy-qos-device-info-model-10.txt, Information Model for Describing Network Device
QoS Datapath Mechanisms, May 2003.
[41] IETF draft-ietf-policy-core-schema-16.txt, Policy Core LDAP Schema, October 2002.
[42] IETF RFC 3060, Policy Core Information Model -- Version 1 Specification,
[43] IETC RFC 3198, Terminology for Policy-Based Management, November 2001.
[44] IETF RFC 3460, Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) Extensions, January 2003.
[45] IETF draft-ietf-netconf-prot-00, NETCONF Configuration Protocol, August 11, 2003.
[46] IETF RFC 2925, Definitions of Managed Objects for Remote Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations,
September 2000.
[47] IETF draft-ietf-disman-alarm-mib-14.txt, Alarm MIB, June 2003.
[48] IETF draft-ietf-disman-event-mib-v2-02.txt, Event MIB, June 2003.
[49] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-framework-02.txt , Real-time Application Quality of Service
Monitoring (RAQMON) Framework, June 2003.
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
124
[50] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-pdu-02.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring
(RAQMON) Protocol Data Unit (PDU), June 2003.
[51] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-mib-01.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring
(RAQMON) MIB, June 2003.
[52] IETF draft, Application Performance Measurement MIB draft-ietf-rmonmib-apm-mib-10.txt, August 6,
2003.
[53] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-tpm-mib-09.txt, Transport Performance Metrics MIB, June 26, 2003.
[54] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-sspm-mib-07.txt, Definition of Managed Objects for Synthetic Sources for
Performance Monitoring Algorithms, June 2003.
[55] Thomas D. Naeau, MPLS Network Management – MIBs, Tools and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann
Publishing Co., 2003.
[56] NIST GMPLS Simulator – A Scalable Discrete Event Simulator for the GMPLS-based Next Generation
Optical Internet, http://dns.antd.nist.gov/glass/.
[57] MPLS Forum Super Demo 2002 – Test Plan & Results.
[58] Petri Aukia et al., “RATES: A Server for MPLS Traffic Engineering,” IEEE Network Magazine,
Mar./Apr. 2000.
[59] Wandal IP/MPLSView, http://www.wandl.com/html/mplsview/MPLSview_new.cfm.
[60] Differentiated Services – Network Configuration and Management (DISCMAN), EURESCOM, 2000.
[61] Sheer Broadband Operating Supervisor (BOS), Sheer Networks,
http://www.sheernetworks.com/solutions/overview.shtml.
[62] TS Choi, SH Yoon, HS Chung, CH Kim, JS Park, BJ Lee, TS Jeong, “Wise<TE>: Traffic Engineering
Server for a Large-scale MPLS-based IP Networks,” NOMS2002, April 2002.pp. 251 ~ 264.
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
125
[63] Cisco MPLS Tunnel Builder Pro,
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/netmgtsw/ps4731/prod_technical_reference09186a0080107b3
a.html.
[64] Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2, http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/netmgtsw/ps2327/.
[65] Youngtak Kim, “Doumi Man (DiffServ-over-universal-MPLS Internet Manager) for Guaranteed QoS
Provisioning in Next Generation Internet,” ITRC Forum 2003, June 4, 2003.
APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ.
126
Thank You !!!
Youngtak Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering,
College of Engineering, Yeungnam University
(Tel: +82-53-810-2497, Fax: +82-53-814-5713,
E-mail: ytkim@yu.ac.kr)