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An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standard ized tests designed to assess intelligence.

The abbreviation "IQ" comes from the German term Intelligenz-Quotient, originally coined by psychologist William Ste rn. When current IQ tests are developed, the median raw score of the norming sam ple is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation (SD) up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so histori cally.[1] By this definition, approximately 95 percent of the population scores an IQ between 70 and 130, which is within two standard deviations of the median. IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mo rtality,[2][3] parental social status,[4] and, to a substantial degree, biologic al parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates[ 5][6] and the mechanisms of inheritance.[7] IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populati ons and the correlations between IQ and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn e ffect. Investigation of differing patterns of increases in IQ battery subtest sc ores informs current research on human intelligence. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Early history 1.2 General factor (g) 1.3 The War Years in the United States 1.4 Cattell Horn Carroll theory 1.5 Other theories 2 Current tests 3 Reliability and validity 4 Flynn effect 5 IQ and age 6 Genetics and environment 6.1 Heritability 6.2 Shared family environment 6.3 Non-shared family environment and environment outside the family 6.4 Individual genes 6.5 Gene-environment interaction 7 Interventions 8 Music and IQ 8.1 Music lessons 9 IQ and brain anatomy 10 Health and IQ 11 Social outcomes 11.1 School performance 11.2 Job performance 11.3 Income 11.4 IQ and crime 11.5 Other correlations with IQ 11.6 Real-life accomplishments 12 Group differences 12.1 Sex 12.2 Race 12.3 Ethnicity 13 Public policy 14 Criticism and views 14.1 Relation between IQ and intelligence 14.2 Criticism of g 14.3 Test bias 14.4 Outdated methodology 14.5 "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns"

14.6 Dynamic assessment 15 IQ classification 16 High IQ societies 17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links History[edit] See also: History of the race and intelligence controversy Early history[edit] A Song Dynasty painting of candidates participating in the imperial examination, a rudimentary form of psychological testing. French psychologist Alfred Binet was one of the key developers of what later bec ame known as the Stanford Binet test. The first large-scale mental test may have been the imperial examination system in China. The test, an early form of psychological testing, assessed candidates based on their proficiency in topics such as civil law and fiscal policies.[8] M odern mental testing began in France in the 19th century. It contributed to sepa rating mental retardation from mental illness and reducing the neglect, torture, and ridicule heaped on both groups.[9] Englishman Francis Galton coined the term psychometrics, and developed a method for measuring intelligence based on nonverbal sensory-motor tests. It was initia lly popular, but was abandoned after the discovery that it had no relationship t o outcomes such as college grades.[9][10] French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with psychologists Victor Henri and T hodore Simon, after about 15 years of development, published the Binet-Simon test in 1905, which focused on verbal abilities. It was intended to identify mental retardation in school children.[9] The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reve al the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks usually passed by six-year-olds but nothing beyond would have a mental age tha t exactly matched his chronological age, 6.0. (Fancher, 1985). In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarka ble diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitat ive, as opposed to quantitative, measures (White, 2000). American psychologist H enry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. The eugenics movement in the USA seized on it as a means to give them credibility in diagnosing mental re tardation, and thousands of American women, most of them poor African Americans, were forcibly sterilized based on their scores on IQ tests, often without their consent or knowledge.[11] American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford Univer sity revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelli gence Scales (1916). It became the most popular test in the United States for de cades.[9][12][13][14] General factor (g)[edit] Main article: g factor The many different kinds of IQ tests use a wide variety of methods. Some tests a re visual, some are verbal, some tests only use abstract-reasoning problems, and some tests concentrate on arithmetic, spatial imagery, reading, vocabulary, mem ory or general knowledge. The psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the fir st formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He found a single c ommon factor explained the positive correlations among tests. This is an argumen t still accepted in principle by many psychometricians. Spearman named it g for "general factor" and labelled the smaller, specific factors or abilities for spe cific areas s. In any collection of IQ tests, by definition the test that best m easures g is the one that has the highest correlations with all the others. Most of these g-loaded tests typically involve some form of abstract reasoning. Ther

efore, Spearman and others have regarded g as the (perhaps genetically determine d) real essence of intelligence. This is still a common but not universally acce pted view. Other factor analyses of the data, with different results, are possib le. Some psychometricians regard g as a statistical artifact. One of the most co mmonly used measures of g is Raven's Progressive Matrices, which is a test of vi sual reasoning.[1][9] The War Years in the United States[edit] During World War I, a way was needed to evaluate and assign recruits. This led t o the rapid development of several mental tests. The testing generated controver sy and much public debate in the United States. Nonverbal or "performance" tests were developed for those who could not speak English or were suspected of malin gering.[9] After the war, positive publicity on army psychological testing helpe d to make psychology a respected field.[15] Subsequently, there was an increase in jobs and funding in psychology in the United States.[16] Group intelligence t ests were developed and became widely used in schools and industry.[17] L.L. Thurstone argued for a model of intelligence that included seven unrelated factors (verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualizat ion, associative memory, perceptual speed, reasoning, and induction). While not widely used, it influenced later theories.[9] David Wechsler produced the first version of his test in 1939. It gradually beca me more popular and overtook the Binet in the 1960s. It has been revised several times, as is common for IQ tests, to incorporate new research. One explanation is that psychologists and educators wanted more information than the single scor e from the Binet. Wechsler's 10+ subtests provided this. Another is Binet focuse d on verbal abilities, while the Wechsler also included nonverbal abilities. The Binet has also been revised several times and is now similar to the Wechsler in several aspects, but the Wechsler continues to be the most popular test in the United States.[9] Cattell Horn Carroll theory[edit] Main article: Cattell Horn Carroll theory Psychologist Raymond Cattell defined fluid and crystallized intelligence and aut hored the Cattell Culture Fair III IQ test. Raymond Cattell (1941) proposed two types of cognitive abilities in a revision o f Spearman's concept of general intelligence. Fluid intelligence (Gf) was hypoth esized as the ability to solve novel problems by using reasoning, and crystalliz ed intelligence (Gc) was hypothesized as a knowledge-based ability that was very dependent on education and experience. In addition, fluid intelligence was hypo thesized to decline with age, while crystallized intelligence was largely resist ant. The theory was almost forgotten, but was revived by his student John L. Hor n (1966) who later argued Gf and Gc were only two among several factors, and he eventually identified 9 or 10 broad abilities. The theory continued to be called Gf-Gc theory.[9] John B. Carroll (1993), after a comprehensive reanalysis of earlier data, propos ed the three stratum theory, which is a hierarchical model with three levels. Th e bottom stratum consists of narrow abilities that are highly specialized (e.g., induction, spelling ability). The second stratum consists of broad abilities. C arroll identified eight second-stratum abilities. Carroll accepted Spearman's co ncept of general intelligence, for the most part, as a representation of the upp ermost, third stratum.[18][19] More recently (1999), a merging of the Gf-Gc theory of Cattell and Horn with Car roll's Three-Stratum theory has led to the Cattell Horn Carroll theory. It has great ly influenced many of the current broad IQ tests.[9] It is argued that this reflects much of what is known about intelligence from re search. A hierarchy of factors is used; g is at the top. Under it are 10 broad a bilities that in turn are subdivided into 70 narrow abilities. The broad abiliti es are:[9] Fluid intelligence (Gf) includes the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.

Crystallized intelligence (Gc) includes the breadth and depth of a person's acqu ired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to r eason using previously learned experiences or procedures. Quantitative reasoning (Gq) is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts a nd relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols. Reading and writing ability (Grw) includes basic reading and writing skills. Short-term memory (Gsm) is the ability to apprehend and hold information in imme diate awareness, and then use it within a few seconds. Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr) is the ability to store information and fl uently retrieve it later in the process of thinking. Visual processing (Gv) is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and thin k with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual represe ntations. Auditory processing (Ga) is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech soun ds that may be presented under distorted conditions. Processing speed (Gs) is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, parti cularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention. Decision/reaction time/speed (Gt)reflects the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of s econds; it is not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in interva ls of 2 3 minutes). See Mental chronometry. Modern tests do not necessarily measure all of these broad abilities. For exampl e, Gq and Grw may be seen as measures of school achievement and not IQ.[9] Gt ma y be difficult to measure without special equipment. g was earlier often subdivided into only Gf and Gc, which were thought to corres pond to the nonverbal or performance subtests and verbal subtests in earlier ver sions of the popular Wechsler IQ test. More recent research has shown the situat ion to be more complex.[9] Modern comprehensive IQ tests no longer give a single score. Although they still give an overall score, they now also give scores for many of these more restric ted abilities, identifying particular strengths and weaknesses of an individual. [9] Other theories[edit] J.P. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (1967) model used three dimensions which when combined yielded a total of 120 types of intelligence. It was popular in th e 1970s and early 1980s, but faded owing to both practical problems and theoreti cal criticisms.[9] Alexander Luria's earlier work on neuropsychological processes led to the PASS t heory (1997). It argued that only looking at one general factor was inadequate f or researchers and clinicians who worked with learning disabilities, attention d isorders, mental retardation, and interventions for such disabilities. The PASS model covers four kinds of processes (planning process, attention/arousal proces s, simultaneous processing, and successive processing). The planning processes i nvolve decision making, problem solving, and performing activities and requires goal setting and self-monitoring. The attention/arousal process involves selecti vely attending to a particular stimulus, ignoring distractions, and maintaining vigilance. Simultaneous processing involves the integration of stimuli into a gr oup and requires the observation of relationships. Successive processing involve s the integration of stimuli into serial order. The planning and attention/arous al components comes from structures located in the frontal lobe, and the simulta neous and successive processes come from structures located in the posterior reg ion of the cortex.[20][21][22] It has influenced some recent IQ tests, and been seen as a complement to the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory described above.[9] Current tests[edit] There are a variety of individually administered IQ tests in use in the Englishspeaking world.[23][24] The most commonly used individual IQ test series is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children for school-age test-takers. Other commonly used individual IQ test

s (some of which do not label their standard scores as "IQ" scores) include the current versions of the Stanford-Binet, Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abil ities, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Cognitive Assessment Sys tem, and the Differential Ability Scales. Approximately 95% of the population have scores within two standard deviations ( SD) of the mean. If one SD is 15 points, as is common in almost all modern tests , then 95% of the population are within a range of 70 to 130, and 98% are below 131. Alternatively, two-thirds of the population have IQ scores within one SD of the mean; i.e. within the range 85-115. IQ scales are ordinally scaled.[25][26][27][28] While one standard deviation is 15 points, and two SDs are 30 points, and so on, this does not imply that mental ability is linearly related to IQ, such that IQ 50 means half the cognitive abi lity of IQ 100. In particular, IQ points are not percentage points. The correlation between IQ test results and achievement test results is about 0. 7.[9][29] Reliability and validity[edit] Psychometricians generally regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliabilit y.[citation needed] A high reliability implies that although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and they may ha ve varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age the scores genera lly agree with one another and across time. A test-taker's score on any one IQ t est is surrounded by an error band that shows, to a specified degree of confiden ce, what the test-taker's true score is likely to be. For modern tests, the stan dard error of measurement is about three points, or in other words, the odds are about two out of three that a person's true IQ is in range from three points ab ove to three points below the test IQ. Another description is there is a 95% cha nce the true IQ is in range from four to five points above to four to five point s below the test IQ, depending on the test in question. Clinical psychologists g enerally regard them as having sufficient statistical validity for many clinical purposes.[9][30][31] IQ scores can differ to some degree for the same individual on different IQ test s. (IQ score table data and pupil pseudonyms adapted from description of KABC-II norming study cited in Kaufman 2009.[9]) Pupil KABC-II WISC-III WJ-III Asher 90 95 111 Brianna 125 110 105 Colin 100 93 101 Danica 116 127 118 Elpha 93 105 93 Fritz 106 105 105 Georgi 95 100 90 Hector 112 113 103 Imelda 104 96 97 Jose 101 99 86 Keoku 81 78 75 Leo 116 124 102 Flynn effect[edit] Main article: Flynn effect Since the early 20th century, raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most part s of the world.[32][33][34] When a new version of an IQ test is normed, the stan dard scoring is set so performance at the population median results in a score o f IQ 100. The phenomenon of rising raw score performance means if test-takers ar e scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade. This phenomenon was named the Flynn effect in the book The Bell Curve after James R. Flynn, the author wh o did the most to bring this phenomenon to the attention of psychologists.[35][3 6] Researchers have been exploring the issue of whether the Flynn effect is equally

strong on performance of all kinds of IQ test items, whether the effect may hav e ended in some developed nations, whether there are social subgroup differences in the effect, and what possible causes of the effect might be.[37] Flynn's obs ervations have prompted much new research in psychology and "demolish some longcherished beliefs, and raise a number of other interesting issues along the way. "[33] IQ and age[edit] IQ can change to some degree over the course of childhood.[38] However, in one l ongitudinal study, the mean IQ scores of tests at ages 17 and 18 were correlated at r=.86 with the mean scores of tests at ages five, six, and seven and at r=.9 6 with the mean scores of tests at ages 11, 12, and 13.[39] For decades practitioners' handbooks and textbooks on IQ testing have reported I Q declines with age after the beginning of adulthood. However, later researchers pointed out this phenomenon is related to the Flynn effect and is in part a coh ort effect rather than a true aging effect. A variety of studies of IQ and aging have been conducted since the norming of th e first Wechsler Intelligence Scale drew attention to IQ differences in differen t age groups of adults. Current consensus is that fluid intelligence generally d eclines with age after early adulthood, while crystallized intelligence remains intact. Both cohort effects (the birth year of the test-takers) and practice eff ects (test-takers taking the same form of IQ test more than once) must be contro lled to gain accurate data. It is unclear whether any lifestyle intervention can preserve fluid intelligence into older ages.[40] The exact peak age of fluid intelligence or crystallized intelligence remains el usive. Cross-sectional studies usually show that especially fluid intelligence p eaks at a relatively young age (often in the early adulthood) while longitudinal data mostly show that intelligence is stable until the mid adulthood or later. Subsequently, intelligence seems to decline slowly.[41]