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WHY THIS PARTICULAR CASE STUDY WAS CHOSEN Purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the cultural and

natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources financially beneficial to local citizens (Hawkins, 1994:261). Environmentally responsible travel and visits to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features, both past and present), that promote conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local population (Mason, 2003).

A deep form of ecotourism, commonly represented by small, specialist-guided groups with highly responsible behaviour towards the natural environment. The second is a shallow form of ecotourism, those who visit a destination area for a few days, unlikely ever to return to the same place because they may be more interested in their travel experience and behave less responsibly towards the natural environment (Cater, 1997). three main actors: tourism, national parks or protected areas, and local communities in the ecotourism development context. Firstly, Win-win-win Scenario. All three players or actors mutually benefit. Tourism enhances the management capability of the park. Therefore, favourable conditions for tourism and recreation opportunities are created. Local communities benefit from parks, and are encouraged to support conservation activities. The result is that tourism benefits local communities, and local attitudes toward tourism or tourists are favourable. Prospects for inter-cultural exchange are good. Secondly, Win-win-lose Scenario. Tourism benefits local communities, but the park suffers from tourism impacts; tourism may benefit from the conservation efforts of the park but the impact on local communities may be negative (i.e. cultural impacts); visitors/ tourists enjoy the opportunities provided by the park but do not contribute locally. Tourism benefits but both the parks and local communities lose. Local communities do not benefit from tourism, and tourism does not enhance but rather degrades the management capability of the park- MAINLY SEEN IN OUR CONTEXT.

ACCESS? HOW THEY KNOW ABOUT THE PLACE? ENVIRONMENT AND MICROCLIMATE PREDOMINANT MONSOONS. WET AND MARITIME TROPICAL CLIMATE RAINFALL 120140 rainy days per year. Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to northeast monsoon. TEMPERATURE Mean annual temperatures range from 25.027.5 C . March, April and May

months are the hottest. December to February months are the coldest.

BREEZE- VAST EXPANSE OF BACKWATER ON THREE TO ALL SIDES. VERY BREEZY SOIL- Hydromorphic saline soil -The tidal backwaters contribute to the salinity of the soil.

Riverine alluvium is restricted to the banks of rivers and their tributaries. They are composed of sandy to clayey loam and are enriched in plant nutrients.
GROUNDWATER- NOT BRACKISH IN KUMBALANGY, BUT BRACKISH IN OTHER COASTAL AREAS INCLUDING T.THURUTH. NOT POLLUTED. VEGETATION- PATCHES OF MANGROVES. ORIGINALLY A LOT OF CASUARINA, BUT NOT MUCH SEEN NOW. CULTIVATION-coconut(MAJOR), paddy, arecanut, pepper, vegetables. FAUNA- LOT OF MARINE ANIMALS, FISH. RICH AVIFAUNA.

The general elevation of the coast is less than 8.0m. amsl and that of the midlands is between 8.0 and 76 m.amsl. Pre monsoon depth of ground water 0-2m. Flooding EXPERIENCED DURING MONSOONS. SOIL EROSION WHERE NOT PROTECTED. (RECORDS OF UPTO 150 M EROSION)

Kumbalangi is a village that is situated in Ernakulam. This is a fishing village which has a total area of 16 sq kms. It is surrounded by backwaters and fishing is done here using Chinese fishing nets and ordinary nets. There are more than 100 Chinese fishing nets in these backwaters. Kumbalangi has a very vast backwater stretch which is interconnected by waterways. The land is separated from water with the presence of large mangroves. This water is habitat for a large number of marine animals such as prawns, crabs, oysters etc. Tourists from all over the world come here and this place is regarded as the gateway for them. Tourism has developed in this area and several measures are taken to transform this island into a model fishing village and a tourist destination.

NO MAJOR TRAFFIC IN THE INNER ROADS. CALM AND PEACEFUL. FIND OUT ABOUT FLOODING USER BEHAVIOUR AND REQUIREMENTS HOMESTAYS: THE FAMILY LIVES IN THE HOUSE. THERE IS ONE COOK AND ONE SERVANT TO DO CLEANING. NOT MUCH PRIVACY FOR THE FAMILY OR FOR THE GUESTS, BUT BOTH PARTIES DO NOT SEEM TO MIND IT. GUESTS USUALLY GO FOR VILLAGE VISITS OR JUST RELAX NEAR THE WATER FRONT. RESORT BEHAVIOUR SPACES, UTILITY, FUNCTION FORM AND ARCHITECTURE

THE HOUSES ARE BUILT TO NO PARTICULAR ARCHITECTURAL STYLE OR AESTHETICS. IN 'GRAMAM' THE COTTAGE IS TASTEFULLY DONE. IT USES TRADITIONAL KERALA STYLE ROOF, TERRACOTTA FLOOR AND A RUSTIC FINISHED SEMI OPEN TO SKY BATH ROOM. THE OTHER ROOMS AND COTTAGES FOLLOW BASIC FUNCTIONALITY ONLY, EVEN THE FURNITURE USED INCLUDE PLASTIC CHAIRS ETC. IT IS OBVIOUS THAT NO EFFORT HAS BEEN PUT TO MAKE THE APPEARANCE BETTER. THE RESORTS SHOW AESTHETICS BY INTEGRATING USE OF MATERIALS, MOSTLY USING TRADITIONAL STYLE AND MATERIALS LIKE WOOD, THATCH, TERRACOTTA ETC. IT GIVES A SOPHISTICATED APPEARANCE SUITABLE TO THE LUXURY RESORT BUT SOMETIMES THE CHARM OF UNFINISHED ORIGINALITY IS LOST. CIRCULATION SITE PLAN AND LANDSCAPING IN THE HOMESTAYS THE ROOMS AND COTTAGES ARE ORIENTED TOWARDS THE WATER FRONT. BASIC LANDSCAPING ONLY IS DONE WITH SOME PAVEMENTS, SEATINGS NEAR THE WATERFRONT ETC. THE EXISTING VEGETATION AND NATURE ITSELF ACT AS VERY GOOD LANDSCAPING, THEY ALSO HAVE SMALL PONDS AND STRAMS INSIDE THE PLOT. NOEFFORT AT ENHANCING THE FEATURE DONE AS OF NOW, BUT THEY HAVE PLANS TO DO THAT. IN THE RESORTS LANDSCAPING IS TASTEFULLY DONE AND EXISTING NATURAL BEAUTY IS UTILISED AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. THE PLANTS CHOSEN ARE ALSO LOCAL SPECIES AND THE LIGHTING ARRANGEMENTS COMBINED WITH THE LAWN AND PLANTS GIVE A VERY GOOD AMBIENCE. HVAC WATER SUPPLY BARRIER FREE SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE OF USERS PARKING

INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS-80%(MOSTLY EUROPEAN-UK, FRANCE, SWEDEN, GERMANY), DOMESTIC TOURISTS-20%(FAMILIES,BACHELORS,OFFICE GATHERINGS FOR CELEBRATIONS) AUGUST- FEBRUARY SEASON 200 DAYS OCCUPANCY IN MOST TARIFF RATES

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES JUST FOR TOURISTS SAKES- NOT PRACTISED AS LIVELIHOODS ANYMORE. BUT THE SITUATION IS TOTALLY DIFFERENT IN T.THURUTH. ONCE IT STARTS DEVELOPING, COMMUNITY LIVELIHOOD MAKING PATTERNS CHANGE. AWARENESS- MANGROVE PROTECTION SEEN AS A THREAT BY THE COMMUNITY (PARALLEL EXAMPLE IN SUKAU) BOAT ISSUE IN SUKAU- HOW ARE HOUSEBOATS OPERATED IN KUMBALANGY

AREA KALLANCHERY GUEST ROOM- 300SFT AREA KALLANCHERY COTTAGE- 720 SFT gramam cottage-800 sft gramam guest room(includes two interconnectedrooms and two toilets)-750 sft