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Graduate Institute of Political Science

National Sun Yat-Sen University

The Welsh School of Critical Security Studies

Graduated Student
Kuo Hui Shun

August 2007

1980

Abstract

Since the initial stages of 1980s, the global world faced the huge shift. Many
security scholars try to challenge and review the mainstream security studies that
derived from a combination of Anglo-American, statist, militarized, masculinized,
methodologically positivist, and philosophically realist thinking. The Welsh School
of Critical Security Studies is one of the most important approach. The Welsh School
thinks about security as developing in the light of the Frankfurt School, and brings the
tradition of critical, epistemology position, and emancipation to the security
studies. The Welsh School separate the core of critical security studies(CSS) into
three concepts: security, emancipation, and community, therefore, this study try to
explain and review these concepts.
Firstly, CSS tried to deepen the concepts of security, deconstruct statism and
bring the referent to individual, and then broaden the agenda of security to discuss
the traditional and non-traditional issues in the globalization world. Secondly, CSS
emphasize the relationship of theory and practice, and expect to achieve their goalemancipatory politics. Via the construction of emancipatory community, people
could released from contingent and structural oppressions, and create a free and equal
environment.
Despite the states still the major referent in international institution and security
environment, and the main concept of The Welsh School still not practice in
contemporary politics, but the first task of CSS is to bring a revision of the world, and
then create a comprehensive and humanity security thinking.

Keywords: The Welsh School, critical security studies(CSS), security, emancipation,


community, statism

II

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IV

..........78
..89

..94

..97
..97
101
105

(Security Studies)

(Booth,
1991: 314)

2001 911

2003
SARS

(Booth, 2005: 13)1(Copenhagen School)


Barry Buzan 1983 People, States and
Fear

(irreducible base unit)(Buzan, 1983: 7) Buzan

Buzan
(Smith, 2005: 32)
Buzan
Buzan Ken Booth
(Booth, 1997: 106)2

3 (comprehensive

(mainstream)(traditional)(orthodox)

(Eriksson, 1999: 318)

3
Robert Keohane Joseph Nye (complex
interdependence)

2003203

security) 4

19985-8

199932

19987

Barry Buzan

(scientific objectivist epistemology)


(Booth, 1997: 106
(Critical Security
Studies)(Smith, 2005: 40)5

(common security)(cooperative security)(collective security)


(Krause and Williams, 1996: 230)

5
20 90


Ken Booth
individual

(Booth, 1991: 319)

(global moral science)

(Booth, 1997: 106-107)


Ken Booth
Richard Wyn Jones

Kenneth Boulding
(Booth, 1991: 315)

(Booth, 2005:10-12)

Robert W. Cox
(problem- solving theory)(critical theory)

(Cox, 2002: 190193)

Cox

Ken Booth (Booth, 2005: 15-16)

(critical)

Steve Smith Keith


Krause Michael Williams 1997 Critical Security Studies: Concepts and
Cases
(Krause, 1998,
299-300)7
Ken

Critical security studies is an issue-area study, developed within the academic


discipline of international politics, concerned with the pursuit of critical knowledge about security in
world politics. Security is conceived comprehensively, embracing theories and practices at multiple
levels of society, from the individual to the whole human species. Critical implies a perspective that
seeks to stand outside prevailing structures, processes, ideologies, and orthodoxies while recognizing
that all conceptualizations of security derive from particular political/theoretical positions; critical
perspectives do not make a claim to objective truth but rather seek to provide deeper understandings of
prevailing attitudes and behavior with a view to developing more promising ideas by which to
overcome structural and contingent human wrongs.
7
Steve Smith
(Smith, 1996: 35-38)

Booth Richard Wyn Jones (The Welsh School)8

9
(Booth, 1991,
317)

(Wyn Jones, 2005: 215)


(positivist orthodoxy)

(post-positivism)(post-naturalism)(Booth, 2005:
10-11)

Ken Booth Richard Wyn Jones University of Wales (Department of


International Politics)(Welsh School)1993 Booth Wyn
Jones (Smith, 2005: 60 74)
9
Booth

(Frankfurt School)
Richard Wyn
Jones(1999) Security, Strategy, and Critical Theory
Ken Booth (Booth, 2005: 261)
Max Horkheimer

Horkheimer (immanent
critique)
200654-56

Booth Wyn Jones


(cosmopolitan)
(epistemologically selfconscious)

(Booth, 1997: 109)

200138

Antonio Gramsci
200455 1

(critical)

Keith Krause Michael Williams

(Booth, 2005:
259-260)

(Booth, 1991: 320)

(Walker, 1990: 27)

Buzan 1983
(Buzan, 1983:
30-34)
Immanuel Kant

Hedley Bull
(Booth, 1991: 319)

(Booth, 1997: 105)

1994 (United Nations Development Program)

(Smith, 2005: 5153)(broadening)

(deepening)

(Booth, 2005: 14-15)

10

Booth (emancipation)
(Booth, 1991: 319)

10

(liberty)

10

Emancipation is the freeing of people (as individuals and groups) from those
physical and human constraints which stop them carrying out what they would freely choose to do.
War and the threat of war in one of those constraints, together with poverty, poor education, political
oppression and so on. Security and emancipation are two sides of the same coin. Emancipation, not
power or order, produces true security. Emancipation, theoretically, is security.

11

Booth
(Booth, 1991: 321-322)

Booth

(Smith, 2005: 55-58)

Johan Eriksson

Eriksson

Eriksson

12

Michael William
Eriksson

(realistic)(Smith, 2005:
44) Andreas Behnke Eriksson

(Behnke, 2000: 89)


Mohammed Ayoob
(Smith, 2005: 44)Ayoob
Booth
Booth
Ayoob

Ayoob

Ayoob

Ayoob
(Ayoob, 1997: 125-128)
Mohammed Ayoob Booth

Ayoob
(Smith, 2005: 45)

13

(Booth, 2005: 2-4)

1994
(Booth, 1997: 108)
1997 Keith Krause Michael C. Williams Critical Security
Studies: Concepts and Cases
2005 Ken Booth Critical
Security Studies and World Politics

1998

199819-33 2001

200135-64

14

1999: 21-36 1999

2003: 1-14 2003

2004

Ken Booth
Richard Wyn Jones

15

Keith KrauseMichael C. WilliamsSteve Smith

16

(critical security studies, CSS) 1994

(metatheoretical
assumptions) 1

(what it is not)

Ken
Booth Richard Wyn Jones
(Wyn
Jones, 1999: ix)
Ken Booth Richard Wyn Jones
(critical theory)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: ix)

Booth Wyn Jones

(traditional security studies)

17

1923
(the Institute of Social Research) Carl Grnberg

1931 Max Horkheimer


(Bottomore, 1984: 1-5)
Horkheimer
Horkheimer
Friedrich Pollock Hebert Marcuse Leo
Lowenthal Theodor W. Adorno
Horkheimer

(interdisciplinary
materialism)(Wyn Jones, 1999: 10-13)
(fascism)
Max Horkheimer 1934
1937 Horkheimer
(Traditional and Critical Theory)

Horkheimer Adorno
Horkheimer
(self-consciousness)

18

Horkheimer
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 14-16)
Horkheimer Adorno
Hebert Marcuse

20

Horkheimer Immanuel
Kant Kant

20058-9

200138

Horkheimer

Horkheimer (What is Theory)

19

(Horkheimer, 1972: 188)Horkheimer

200140-41
Horkheimer

Horkheimer
Horkheimer

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 16-18)


Horkheimer

Horkheimer

(Horkheimer,
1972: 188)

(Wyn Jones, 1999:

20

18-20) Horkheimer

(Horkheimer, 1972: 222)


Horkheimer

(pre-Cartesian)
Horkheimer
(potentiality)(Horkheimer, 1972: 245)

(mans emancipation from slavery) (Horkheimer, 1972: 246)


Horkheimer

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 18-21)

Horkheimer
Thomas Kuhn (paradigm shifts)

(Horkheimer, 1972: 196)Horkheimer


(immanent criticism)

20065455

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 18-21)

21


(Wyn Jones, 1999: 21)Horkheimer

(Horkheimer,
1972: 200)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 21)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 21-28)


Horkheimer

200656

Horkheimer Horkheimer
(individual human beings)
Horkheimer

22


(Wyn Jones, 1999: 23)
Horkheimer

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 23-28)

Robert W. Cox
1981 Social Forces, States and World Order: Beyond International
Relations Theory. 1983 Gramsci, Hegemony and International
Relations: An Essay in Method.

Cox (Wyn

23

Jones, 1999: 1)Mark Hoffman


(Hoffman, 1987: 244)

Cox
(Hegelian Marxism) Antonio
Gramsci Andrew
LinklaterMark Neufeld Mark Hoffmam

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 2-6)


20 80

20057-9
Horkheimer Robert Cox

Cox

80

24

Horkheimer Cox

20059-11

Ken Booth Richard


Wyn Jones

Ken Booth
(the idea of the real)2
Heikki Patomaki Colin Wight

(Patomaki and Wight, 2000:218)

(realism)

Booth (Realism is not realistic)(Realism is a misnomer)( Booth,


2005: 5-6)

25


(Booth, 2005: 10)

(objectivity)
(critical distance)
Horkheimer (immanent critique)

(Booth, 2005: 11)

(Booth, 2005: 11-12)

Horkheimer

3(statism)

26

(Wyn
Jones, 1999: 94-100)
4
(epistemological self-consciousness)
1980

Stephen M. Walt

(Walt, 1991: 222) Krause Williams

Horkheimer
((Wyn Jones, 1999: 100-101)

Booth 1991 (Security


and Emancipation)

(means) (Booth, 1991: 319) Booth

Booth
Martin Shaw

27

Booth (liberal individualism)5


(reductionist)(atomistic)Booth
(Wyn Jones, 1999:
114)

(formation)(recognition)(expression)(disintegration)

(created)(negotiated)(ascribed)(denied)

Booth (Wyn Jones,


1999: 114-115)
Booth

Horkheimer
Horkheimer

Booth
Horkheimer (Wyn Jones, 1999:
115)

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/: 2007/5
/2

28


Ken Booth Richard Wyn Jones
Antonio Gramsci 6

Booth Richard Wyn Jones Security, Strategy,


and Critical Theory

(Booth, 2005: 261)7

Keith Krause
(Krause, 1998: 298)
1994 1997
Keith Krause Michael C. Williams
Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases

Booth Kenneth BouldingJohan Galtung


Richard Falk (Smith, 2005: 42)
7

(Booth, 2005: 261)

29

200455 2

Steve Smith
Keith Krause Michael Williams
(broadening)(deepening)
1997 Krause Williams Cox

Krause Williams
Critical Security
Studies: Concepts and Cases

(Smith, 2005: 40-41)


Keith Krause Michael Williams

(Krause and
Williams, 1997: viii)

(Smith, 2005: 41)


(Smith, 2005: 40-41)

Ken Booth Richard Wyn Jones

30

Wyn Jones Max HorkheimerAxel


Honneth Jrgen Habermas
Wyn Jones

(Smith, 2005: 41-42)


Booth Wyn Jones

Booth
8

(Smith, 2005: 42)


(Booth and Vale, 1997:337)

Keith Krause
Michael Williams
Krause
8

(worldwide)
(universal culture norm)(Booth, 1997: 110)

31


(Krause, 1998: 299) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and
Cases Booth
R. B. J. Walkersubaltern Mohammed Ayoob
Simon Dalby Beverly Crawford Ronnie
D. Lipschutz Karin M. Fierke (Krause and
Williams, 1997: xvi-xix) Krause Williams

Ken Booth

(Booth, 2005: 260)

Booth

(cosmopolitan)
(epistemologically self-conscious)(Booth, 1997:
109)Booth

Cox (Booth, 2005: 260)

(Krause, 1998: 305-316) Krause Williams

32

(Alker, 2005: 192)

(Booth, 2005: 269)

(obscurantism)(relativism)(faux radicalism) (Booth,


2005: 270) Booth

(universal solidarities)
Richard A. Wilson

(Booth, 2005: 270-271)

(securitization studies)

(Booth, 2005: 271)

33

(Booth, 2005: 271-272)

Booth

(common
humanity) Krause Booth

(Booth, 2005: 260)

(Booth, 2005: 272)

34

(Westphalian system) 1648


(security game)

20

(updating)(Booth, 1991: 314317)

(Booth, 1991: 313-314)

2005 Critical Security Studies and World Politics


Ken Booth (security)(community)
(emancipation)(Booth, 2005: 16)

35

Edward Luttwak

(Booth, 1991: 318)

(Booth,
1991:317-319)
Ken Booth
(Booth, 1991: 314)

(Booth, 1991: 318)

36

(the absence of
threats)
(being safe)(feeling safe)
3

(Booth, 2005: 21)

4 Robert Cox

(security is essentially a
derivative concept) (Booth, 2005:
13)

(Booth,
2005: 21)
4
W. B. Gallie
(Smith, 2005:
29)

37


(Booth, 2005: 21)

(Booth, 2005: 22)

(survival)

(Booth, 2005: 22)

Booth (Booth, 2005: 23)

(Booth, 2005: 23)


7
5

(Booth, 2005: 22)


6
Security in world politics is an instrumental value that enables people(s) some
opportunity to choose how to live. It is a means by which individuals and collectivities can invent and
reinvent different ideas about being human.
7

38

(Booth, 2005: 13-14)


(rethinking)Booth
(deepening)(broadening)

(Booth, 2005: 14)8

(Booth,
2005: 14)

Richard Wyn Jones (extending)


(Wyn Jones, 1999: 102-117)
Booth

39


(securitizing)(politicizing) (Booth, 2005:
14)

Booth

(Copenhagen School)
Buzan
(Booth, 2005: 14-15)

(Booth, 2005: 15)

40

(Booth, 2005: 15)

(security studies)
(strategic studies)(national security studies) 20
90
Richard Wyn Jones

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 94)9

(oversimplification)

(statism)(scientific objectivist) (Wyn


Jones, 1999: 94-95)

Max Horkheimer
Richard Wyn Jones Horkheimer
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 94)

41


(statism)

(Wyn
Jones, 1999: 95)

/
(inside/outside dichotomy)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 96)

42

Richard Ned
Lebow

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 96-97)


Lebow
Mikhail Gorbachev

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 97)


Colin S. Gray

(means-ends errors) (Wyn Jones, 1999: 97)


Gray

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 97-98)10

Christian Reus-Smit
Reus-Smit
19

10

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 98)

43

(Reus-Smit, 1992: 14)

Richard Wyn Jones Reus-Smit


(Wyn Jones, 1999: 98)

11

Hobbes

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 98-99)

J. Ann Tickner

(Tickner, 1995: 180)


(quasi-states)

11

Richard Wyn Jones Christian Reus-Smit(1992: 17)Realist and Resistance


Utopias: Community, Security and Political Action in the New Europe.
Once the nation-state is seen as a unified political community, it is assumed that
there exists such a homogeneity on interest and identification within that community that security can
be reduced to a minimal conception of state survival which is seen as synonymous with aggregate
individual security.Political action is thus explained in term of a unity of purpose among citizens
coalescing around a common desire to limit threats by maximizing military capabilities.

44


(Tickner, 1995: 180-181)

Wyn Jones, 1999: 99

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 99-100)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 100)

Barry Buzan 1983 People, State


and Fear (people)
Buzan

(Smith, 2005: 32)

Buzan

45

(strong states)(mature anarchy)


12(Wyn Jones, 1999: 112-113)
Buzan 13

2005: 71-72 Richard Wyn


Jones Ken Booth Peter
Vale

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 334-335)

Horkheimer
Booth Immanuel Kant
Hedley Bull

(Booth, 1991: 319) Hedley

12

Barry Buzan
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 113)
13
1983 People, State and Fear Buzan (state-centrism)
1991 Security: A New Framework for Analysis
Buzan (a narrow selfclosing definitional move)(Wyn Jones, 1999: 113)

46

Bull (World Society School)Booth


(ultimate units
of the great society of all mankind) (Alker, 2005: 191)

14
(Krause and Williams, 1997: 45-46)

2004: 57

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 116-117)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 117)

14

47

(Terriff, Croft, James and Morgan, 1999:


115) Barry Buzan

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 104-105)15

International SecuritySean M.
Lynn-Jones Steven E. Miller
16
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 105)

17

15

Buzan 1983 747


269 Buzan

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 105)


16

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 105)


17
Booth

48


(Booth, 1997: 335-336)

(Booth,
2005: 15)
18

(Terriff, Croft, James and Morgan, 1999: 115)

18

Ole Wver Wver


(Wyn Jones, 1999: 108-112)

49

(Terriff, Croft, James and Morgan, 1999: 115116)

(Southern Africa
Development Community)
(South Africa)(Botswana)

1994 (Booth and Vale,


1997: 336-337)

911 20042005

2006: 4

50

(military forces)

(Cheeseman, 2005: 63)


(military service)

(Cheeseman, 2005: 70)

(Cheeseman, 2005: 63)

(non-offensive defense NOD)(confidence


and security-building measures CSBMs)
NOD CSBMs

51

(Cheeseman, 2005:
64)

(Cheeseman, 2005: 70)

(threats without enemies)


(Cheeseman, 2005: 71)

(Cheeseman, 2005: 73-74)

(new wars)(uncivil
wars)(wars of the third kind)

52


(Cheeseman, 2005: 74-75)

2001
911
911
911
Graeme Cheeseman
Clausewitz
(Cheeseman, 2005: 64)

(Booth, 2005: 24)

Cheeseman Richard Wyn Jones


911
(Cheeseman, 2005: 64-65)

53

Booth

(Booth, 1997: 110)

Booth

(Booth, 1997: 111)

54

(critical security studies, CSS)

Ken
Booth Peter Vale

20 90
(apartheid)

(Booth and
Vale, 1997: 329-330)

(emancipation)1
Booth 1991 Security and Emancipation
Booth

(Booth, 2005: 14)

55

(Booth, 1991: 319)


(Booth, 1991: 319)

(false necessity)23

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 337)

(emancipation)
80 90
2

(Booth, 1997: 107108)


3

(Booth and Vale, 1998: 337)

56

20

(Booth, 1991: 321)

1960 1970

(Booth, 1991:319)Steve Smith


Robert Cox

(Wyn Jones, 1999:


118)
(emancipation) emancipare
(the action of setting free from slavery or tutelage)
(Wyn Jones, 2005:
216)

(Alker, 2005: 190)


(critical-security-studies project)4

subaltern
Booth
(Booth, 2005: 181)

Booth
(Booth, 1997: 113)

57

CSS (emancipation-oriented)
CSS
(Wyn
Jones, 2005: 215)

(Alker, 2005: 192)

Marx Horkheimer
Horkheimer

Horkheimer

Horkheimer
1947 Theodor Adorno Dialectic of Enlightenment
Horkheimer Adorno

58

Adorno Horkheimer

Adorno Horkheimer

(repetition) (predictability)
(calculability)(Wyn Jones, 2005: 220-223)
Jrgen Habermas
5

Habermas

Habermas

Axel Honneth Habermas


Habermas
(Wyn Jones, 2005: 223-225)

Richard Wyn Jones


(Wyn Jones, 2005: 225)

Horkheimer

59

Booth
(Booth, 2005: 181)

6
Booth

(a philosophical anchorage)

(a strategic
process)

(a guide for tactical goal setting)

(Booth, 2005: 181-182)

(Booth, 2005: 182) Booth

Emancipation is the theory and practice of inventing humanity, with a view to


freeing people, as individuals and collectivities, from contingent and structural oppression. It is a
discourse of human self-creation and the politics of trying to bring it about. Security and community
are guiding principles, and at this history the growth of a universal human rights culture is central to
emancipatory politics. The concept of emancipation shapes strategies and tactics of resistance, offers a
theory of progress foe society, and gives a politics of hope for common humanity.

60

(Booth, 2005: 182-183)

(Booth, 2005: 182)

Booth Peter Vale

(Booth, 2005: 181)


Booth 1991
(liberty)
(egalitarian)

(Booth, 1991: 321-322)

(Westernization)

911

(Al-Qaida)

61


Saudi
Arabia911

(Smith, 2005: 43)

(Wyn Jones, 2005: 216)


(progressive) (Wyn Jones, 2005: 216)

(Holocaust) 19 20
(Booth, 2005: 264)

(Wyn
Jones, 1999: 120-121)7

/ Michel Foucault

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 120-121)

62

R. B. J. Walker The Subject of Security

(Walker, 1997: 78)

(Walker, 1997: 78)


/
Walker
(Wyn Jones, 2005:
217)
Ole Wver

(Wyn
Jones, 2005: 217)

8
Wver

Wver
8

Richard Wyn Jones 1999 2005 Ole Wver


For understandable but contingent institutional reasons, post-structuralists have
emerged on the academic scene with the political program of tearing down givens, of opening up,
make possible, freeing. This invites the reasonable question: opening up for what? Neo-nazis? War?
How can the post-structuralist be sure that liberating minds and transcending limits will necessarily
lead to more peaceful condition, unless one makes an incredible enlightenment-indebted harmony of
interests assumption? For someone working in the negatively-driven field of security, a poststructuralist politics of responsibility must turn out differently, with more will to power and less denaturalization.

63

Barry Buzan Jaap de Wilde(1998) Security: A New


Framework for Analysis
(Wyn Jones, 2005: 218)
Wver

(Wyn Jones, 2005: 218)

(Wyn Jones, 2005: 215)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 120-121)

2005 Critical Security Studies and World Politics Ken Booth


(critical security studies)

(Booth, 2005: 15-16)

64

(Booth, 1997:
109)

360

21 (political
community)(Booth, 1997: 109)

(community)

(sociality)

(Booth, 2005: 109)

Booth
Vale

65

Ken Booth (absence of threats)


Niccol Machiavelli

(Linklater, 2005: 115-116)

(Linklater, 2005: 114-116)


Barry Buzan
(unbreakable paradox) (Linklater, 2005: 116)

(Linklater, 2005:
116-117)

Andrew Linklater

66

(Linklater, 2005:113-114)

Immanuel Kant

(Linklater, 2005: 118)

(billiard-ball
model)
9

Kant
(Linklater, 2005: 119)
Kant

Kant
9

(Linklater, 2005: 119)

67

(Linklater,
2005: 119)

(publicity)(dialogue)(consent)
(Linklater, 2005: 120)

Kant

19
10

10

Booth

68


(Linklater, 2005: 120)

(social arrangement)

(Linklater, 2005: 120)

Jrgen Habermas

(Linklater, 2005: 120)

Ken Booth
Peter Vale
1991 Ken Booth

1945 44

69

(security communities)
Booth

(Booth, 1991: 319)

Karl Deutsch (security community)Deutsch

(Booth and
Vale, 1997: 338-339)
Booth (emancipatory community)(Booth,
2005: 109)

11

11

A community is a free association of individuals, recognizing their solidarity in


relation to common conceptions of what it is to live an ethical life; it binds people together, providing a
distinctive network of identity and ideas, support and society. Communities in general are social
organizations whose separateness expresses human variety, but an emancipatory community will
recognize that people have multiple identities, that a persons identity cannot be defined by one
attribution, and that people must be allowed to live simultaneously in a variety of communities.
Emancipatory communities, in recognizing the right of individuals to express themselves through
multiple identifiers of difference, will, above all, celebrate human equality.

70

Booth Vale

12

Deutsch
Deutsch

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 338-339)


(South Africa)

(African National Congress ANC)

12

Booth Vale

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 329330)

71


(Booth and Vale, 1997: 339)

(Pretoria)(Moscow)

ANC

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 340)

(Non-Proliferation Treaty,
NPT) Nelson Mandela

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 340342)

72

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 342)

(Southern African
Development Coordination Conference SADCC)
(Preferential Trade Agreement of East and Southern Africa PTA)

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 342-345)


Booth

(Booth, 2005: 109-110)

73

(Booth, 2005: 263-267)

(Booth, 2005: 263)

Ken Booth Peter Vale

Booth

74

(revision)

(Booth and Vale, 1997: 354)


Ken Booth
(utopian realist)
Booth
(Booth, 1997: 104)

(Booth, 2005: 263)

75

76

Walter Lippmann
(Ayoob, 1997: 124)

1
Lippmann
Arnold Wolfers

(external)(outward)

(Ayoob,
1997: 124)

20 80

A nation is secure to the extent to which it is not in danger of having to


sacrifice core values, if it wishes to avoid war, and is able, if challenged, to maintain them by victory in
such war.

77

Ken
Booth

(Krause and Williams, 1996: 230)


Emma Rothschild

78

(Rothschild, 1995: 55)Rothschild


Ken Booth (deepening)

(broadening)

(Ayoob, 1997:
121)

Patrick Morgan

(Morgan, 2000: 40)

79


3
Morgan

(Smith, 2005: 55-56)


Stephen Walt
Walt

Walt
(Walt, 1991: 212)
Walt

(statecraft)

Walt

(Walt, 1991: 212-213)


Walt
(Krause and Williams, 1996: 230)
John Mearsheimer

(Krause and Williams, 1996: 230) subaltern


3

Security has long been about the survival and physical safety of the actors and
their people; by extension it concerns the deliberate use of force by states (and some other actors) for
various purposes. Broadening security studies to cover other harmseconomic, environmental and
so forthis unfortunate for it lumps together deliberate, organized physical harm (or threats thereof )
with other threats and pains.

80

Mohammed Ayoob

(useless) (Ayoob, 1997: 125)

(Smith, 2005: 56)


55 (Article 55 of the
UN chapter)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 106)

Stephen Walt
(intellectual coherence) Ken Booth
Eric Herring Walt
Walt

Walt (Wyn Jones, 1999: 106)


Walt

Pristina
Belfasat
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 106)

81


Booth Herring

(irrelevance)
(ignorance)

Theodor W. Adorno
(all reification is a forgetting)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 106-107)

Keith Krause Michael Williams

(broadened)(restricted) Krause
Williams
(Krause and Williams, 1996: 249)4

Krause Williams (1996: 249)


(It may be necessary to broaden the
agenda of security studies theoretically and methodologically in order to narrow the agenda of
security)(Eriksson, 1999: 319)

82


(hyphenating security)
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 106)

(Ayoob, 1997: 125)5

Jessica Tuchman Mathew 20

(Ayoob, 1997: 125)

Daniel Deudney (Deudney, 1990: 465)

6
Daniel Deudney

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 106)

National-security-from-violence and environmental habitability have little in


common.The rising fashion of linking them risks creating a conceptual muddle rather than a
paradigm or world view shifta de-definition rather than re-definition of security. If we begin to speak
about all the forces and events that threaten life, property and well-being (on a large-scale) as threats to
our national security, we shall soon drain them of any meaning. All large-scale evils will become
threats to national security.

83

Jessica Tuchman Mathew (Ayoob, 1997: 126)

Mathew

(Ayoob, 1997: 125-126)

(Darfur)
1956

2003 (Darfur)

(Sudan Liberation Movement


SLM)(Justice and Equality Movement JEM)

(Janjaweed)

2005

84


2007 6

2007

R. B. J. Walker

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 107)


Walker (Walker, 1997: 76)

7
Walker

In the end it has never been possible to pin security down to concrete practices
or institutions with any great precision, no matter how insistent the voices of military and defence
establishment might be. The whole point of concepts of security that are tied to the claims of state
sovereignty is that they must expand to encompass everything within the state, at least in its everpotential state of emergency.

85

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 107)

(citizenship)

(Krause and Williams, 1997: 43)

1983 Barry Buzan People, States and Fear


Buzan

(Wyn
Jones, 1999: 112)

86

(Krause and Williams,


1997: 46)

R. B. J. Walker
(cooperative or common or world security)

(universal)(particular) Walker

Walker

Walker
(Wyn Jones, 1999: 113)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 116-117)

87

(Bosnia)
(Rwanda)

(Krause and Williams, 1997: 4445)

1990 NATO

(Krause and Williams, 1996: 249)

88

(Smith, 2005:
57)

(Smith, 2005: 57-58) Booth

(Booth, 1997: 111)

(Krause and Williams, 1996: 249)

(political
implications)(Eriksson, 1999:
311-312)

89

Ken Booth
(Booth, 1997: 106)

8
(Eriksson, 1999: 318319)

Johan Eriksson

(Eriksson, 1999: 320)


(instinctive
moralism) Booth
Eriksson

Eriksson

90


(Eriksson, 1999: 320-321)
Mohammed Ayoob subaltern

subaltern
(Ayoob, 1997: 121-124 ) Ayoob
(ethnocentrism)
(Linklater, 2005: 122-123)

Booth (Booth, 1997: 114)

Ken Booth Peter Vale

(Williams, 1999:
342)

Abstract ideas of emancipation will not suffice: it is important for critical


security studies to engage with the real by suggesting policies, agents, and sites of change, to help
humankind, in whole and in part, to move away from its structural wrongs.

91

Observers or Advocates? On the Political Role


of Security AnalysisEriksson

Michael C. Williams

(Williams, 1999: 341)

(Williams, 1999: 342)

10
George F. Kennan

11
(Linklater, 2005: 121-122)

10

(traditional conceptions of security)


(TSS)
11
Michael Foucault
(Linklater, 2005: 122)

92

(Linklater, 2005: 122)


subaltern subaltern

subaltern

(Linklater, 2005:
123)

93

Ken Booth(1991: 319)

subaltern
Mohammed Ayoob (1997) Defining Security: A Subaltern Realist
Perspective

Booth
(Ayoob, 1997: 126)
Ayoob Booth
Booth

Ayoob

1975-1990 (Damascus)
Assad (Beirut)

94

(Ayoob, 1997: 126127)


Ayoob

Ayoob
(Ayoob,
1997: 127)

Ayoob
(ethnicity)

1947

(Ayoob, 1997:
127-128)

95


(Linklater, 2005: 121)

Booth
(Ayoob, 1997: 128)
subaltern

(Linklater, 2005: 121) Booth

(Booth, 1991: 319) Ayoob

(Smith, 2005: 45)

96

(false necessities)
(Booth, 1997: 106)

97

Max Horkheimer

Horkheimer
(Booth, 2005: 262-264)

(Booth, 2005: 269)

(Booth, 2005: 262-264)

Kant
Antonio Gramsci(Booth, 2005: 261)

98

(regressive theories)3

(Booth, 2005: 264-267)

(denaturalize)
(historicize)

(Booth, 2005: 268-269)

(Booth, 2005: 265)


3

(Booth, 2005: 7)

99

(Booth, 2005: 269)

Ken Booth Peter Vale

(Booth, 2005:
269)
Ken Booth

(critical security theory)

(Booth, 2005: 259-261)


Booth (Booth, 2005: 268)

100

Simon Dalby
(discipline)

(military-industrial-academic complex)

(Wyn Jones, 1999: 145-147)

Booth
5 Antonio Gramsci
4

Critical Security Theory is both a theoretical commitment and a political


orientation. As a theoretical commitment it embraces a set of ideas engaging in a critical and permanent
exploration of the ontology, epistemology, and praxis of security, community and emancipation in the
world politics. As a political orientation it is informed by the aim of enhancing security through
emancipatory politics and networks of community at all levels, including the potential community of
communities-common humanity.
5
Booth

(Booth,
1997: 115)

101

Gramsci

(traditional intellectuals)(organic
intellectuals)

Edward Said

(Wyn Jones, 1999:


153-160)

2003
George W.
Bush Tony Blair

(Booth,
2005: 274)

102

(Booth, 2005: 275)

(Booth, 2005: 275)

Kenneth Boulding
(Booth, 1991: 315)

103

104

1998 4 5-14
2006 2005
http://theory.people.com.cn/BIG5/40764/63787/63791/4388461.html#
2007/5/8
2005
7 71-77
2003
2006 7 54-56
1998 37 8
19-33
2001
2 1 35-65
2003 4
3 1-14
2005
7 7-14
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007/5/2
2007
http://news.yam.com/afp/life/200706/20070617394773.html
2007/07/02
1999
38 2 21-36
2004
6 55-61

105

2001
1 38-43
2005
http://www.africa-taiwan.org/fast_tw/perspectives/detail.php?o_id=8
2007/07/02
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