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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. It is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. Therefore, training is a key to optimizing utilization human intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skills. There are four phases of training in Sahara India-Training need analysis, Training design, Training implementation and Training evaluation. Training evaluation is the most important part of training process which refers to activities aimed at finding out the effectiveness of training programme after they are conducted, against the objective for which such programmes were organized. Training evaluation techniques give us solution to answer questions like where was the capability level of learners before the programme and where is it now, what was intended to be achieved by particular programme and where is really achieved now, and what is the monitory value of training outcome against the cost incurred for conducting the training programme. The key issues involve staffing policies selecting and retaining talented employee, training and development whilst encouraging employees to be innovative and creative, culture barriers, and legal frame work. Sahara India Pariwar provides soft skill development training to their employees. But still they need to work on providing product/process development training. To evaluate the training program, questionnaire is the most popular method in Sahara India. Training initiatives and programs have become a priority for Human Resources. As business markets change due to an increase in technology initiatives, companies need to spend more time and money on training employees. In today’s business climate employee development is critical to corporate success and organizations are investing more in their employees training and development needs. Page 1
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main objective of the study is first to gain some practical knowledge regarding the functioning of MNC’s and other organizations which is very necessary to fully understand the primary functions & hence it fulfill the purpose of the Summer Internship under MBA course. The other objectives were: 1. To study the Importance of Training and Development. 2. To study the roles of Training and development Programme. 3. To study the process and functions of training. 4. To explore the methodology and types of training provided to the employees in an organization. 5. To study the purpose, process, principle, functions of the post training evaluation. 6. To study the different types of methods/techniques used to evaluate the training. 7. To study the level of evaluation. 8. To study the relevance of the post training evaluation/feedback for the employee as well as for an organization. 9. To know the challenges in training and development faced by an organization.
THEORETICAL PRESENTATION OF THE TOPIC
INTRODUCTION OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEFINED
It is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. It is concerned with improving the existing skills and exploring the potential skills of the individual i.e. upgrading the employees’ skills and extending their knowledge. Therefore, training is a key to optimizing utilization human intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skills Training and Development referred to as: • Acquisition and sharpening of employees capabilities that is required to perform various obligations, tasks and functions. • Developing the employee’s capabilities so that they may be able to discover their potential and exploit them to full their own and organizational development purpose. • Developing an organizational culture where superior-subordinate relationship, team work, and collaboration among different sub units are strong and contribute to organizational wealth, dynamism and pride to the employees.
It helps the individual handle future responsibilities, with less emphasis on present job duties.
Introduction of training
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees.
INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future.
Skills: Training is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate
machines, and use other equipments with least damage and scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills.
Education: The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a
sense of reasoning and judgment.
Development: It is less skill-oriented but stresses on knowledge. Knowledge about
business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis is useful for better management of a company.
Ethics: There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and
development programme. Ethical attitude help managements make better decisions which are in the interests of the public, the employees and in the long term-the company itself.
Attitudinal Changes: Attitude represents feelings and beliefs of individuals towards
others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitude need to be converting into positive attitude. Attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from their jobs and the work environment.
Decision making and problem solving skills: It focus on methods and techniques
for making organization decision-making and solving work related problems.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.
Individual objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in
turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by
bringing individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to
the organization’s needs.
Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible
to the needs and challenges of the society.
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
It helps to develop human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.
• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,
team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve
the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.
• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the
healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.
• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and
safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.
• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more
positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.
• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in
optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.
• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide
an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical
and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. •
Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in
increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employee
MODELS OF TRAINING
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).
THE TRAINING SYSTEM
The three model of training are: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model
SYSTEM MODEL TRAINING
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: Page 9
1. ANALYZE and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. DESIGN and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents
3. DEVELOP- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. IMPLEMENTING is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Page 10
5. EVALUATING each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. VISION – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. MISSION – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization.The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. VALUES – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc
The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented
INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (ISD) MODEL
Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for Page 12
the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc
3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts,
workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.
PROCESS OF TRAINING
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
TRAINING IMPLEMENTAT ION
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS (TNA)/TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION (TNI)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance.
Training Need arises at three levels:
• Individual level • Operational level
Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its subgroup.
Organizational level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on
strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths Page 16
can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level.
Individual level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every
individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are: • Appraisal and performance review • Peer appraisal • Competency assessments • Subordinate appraisal • Client feedback • Customer feedback • Self-assessment or self-appraisal
Operational level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work
that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the Page 17
closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.
Benefits of need assessment
Training programs are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. There are many benefits of need assessment: 1. Trainers may be informed about the broader need of the trainees. 2. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. 3. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities, which make the training programs easier to sell to line managers.
The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.
The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical,
interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.
The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their
profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.
Cost of training – It is one of the most important considerations in designing a training
programme. A training programme involves cost of different types. These may be in the form of direct expenses incurred in training, cost of training material to be provided, arrangement of physical facilities and refreshment, etc. Besides these expenses the organization has to bear indirect cost in the form of loss of production during training period. Ideally, a training programme must be able to generate more revenues than the cost involved.
Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings,
positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background
of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.
Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer
translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.
Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be
delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:
• From simple to complex • Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance • From known to unknown • From specific to general • Dependent relationship
Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program
becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:
• Trainees’ background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources, etc
Support facilities – IT can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various
requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.
Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
• Time • Accommodation, facilities and their availability • Furnishings and equipments • Budget • Design of the training, etc
To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. Training implementation can be segregated into: • Practical administrative arrangements • Carrying out of the training Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation
phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program:
The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content.
Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful
training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant.
Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer
can establish good rapport with trainees by: • Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments • Encouraging informal conversation • Remembering their first name • Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another • Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions • Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed • Getting to class before the arrival of learners • Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time Page 23
• Using familiar examples • Varying his instructional techniques • Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very important
to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The following information needs to be included:
• Kinds of training activities • Schedule • Setting group norms • Housekeeping arrangements • Flow of the program • Handling problematic situations
In general programme implementation involves action on the following lines:
• • • • Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. Scheduling the training programme. Conducting the programme. Monitoring the progress of the trainees.
The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines.
Purposes of Training Evaluation
The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training
Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.
Functions of evaluation:
There are basically two functions of evaluation: 1. Qualitative evaluations is an assessment process how well did we do?
2. Quantitative evaluation is an assessment process that answers the question How much did we do?
Principles of Training Evaluation:
Training need should be identified and reviewed concurrently with the business and personal development plan process. a) Evaluation must be continuous. b) Evaluation must be specific. c) Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. d) There should be correlation to the needs of the business and the individual. e) Organizational, group and individual level training need should be identified and evaluated. f) Techniques of evaluation should be appropriate. g) The evaluation function should be in place before the training takes place. h) The outcome of evaluation should be used to inform the business and training process.
Need of evaluation of Training:
Training cost can be significant in any business. Most organizations are prepared to incur these cost because they expect that their business to benefit from employees development and progress. Whether business has benefited can be assessed by evaluation training. There are basically four parties involved in evaluating the result of any training. Trainer, Trainee, Training and Development department and Line Manager.
• • • •
The Trainee wants to confirm that the course has met personal expectations and satisfied any learning objectives set by the T & D department at the beginning of the programme. The Trainer concern is to ensure that the training that has been provided is effective or not. Training and Development want to know whether the course has made the best use of the resources available. The Line manager will be seeking reassurance that the time hat trainee has spent in attending training results in to value and how deficiency in knowledge and skill redressed. The problem for many organizations is not so much why training should be evaluated but how. Most of the organizations overlook evaluation because financial benefits are difficult to describe in concrete terms. The process of evaluation is central to its effectiveness and helps to ensure that:
• • •
Whether training budget is well spent To judge the performance of employee as individual and team. To establish culture of continuous learning and improvement.
PROCESS OF TRAINING EVALUATION
Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training
program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style
During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually
consist of short tests at regular intervals.
After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again
to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.
Techniques of evaluation
The various methods of training evaluation are: • Observation • Questionnaire • Interview • Self diaries • Self recording of specific incidents
WHAT TO EVALUATE/LEVEL OF EVALUATION
Donald Kirkpatrick developed four level models to assess training effectiveness. According to him evaluation always begins with level first and should move through other levels in sequence.
Reaction Level: The purpose is to measure the individual reaction to the training activity. The benefit of Reaction level evaluation is to improve Training and Development activity efficiency and effectiveness.
Learning Level: The basic purpose is to measure the learning transfer achieved by the training and development activity. Another purpose is to determine to what extent the individual increased their knowledge, skills and changed their attitudes by applying quantitative or qualitative assessment methods
Behavior Level: The basic purpose is to measure changes in behavior of the individual as a result of the training and development activity and how well the enhancement of knowledge, skill, attitudes has prepared than for their role.
Result Level: The purpose is to measure the contribution of training and development to the achievement of the business/operational goals.
ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE OF THE COMPANY
Sahara India- a corporate, which believe that quality, is never an accident it is a result of planning, team work and a commitment of excellence. Sahara India Pariwar is a multibusiness conglomerate with diversified business interest that includes finance, real estate, media & entertainment, tourism & hospitality, and service & trading.
Sahara India Pariwar Year Workers Dependents Asset Establishments 1978 in Gorakhpur, India 3 15 2000 1 No Trade union No owner 2005, headquarter in lucknow India 9.10 lack 45.50 lack Over 50,000 crore 1707
The employees at Sahara India Pariwar greet each other by saying “Sahara Pranam” Every year, republic day and independence day is celebrated as Bharat Parv ( national festival) and Sahara India Pariwar celebrates it as the biggest event of the pariwar( family).
Sahara India Pariwar has been the official sponsors of the Indian cricket team and Indian hockey team. Page 32
• • • • • • •
Sahara India Pariwar in often referred as the world’s largest family 910,000 workers/ employees and no trade union Its five star hostel ‘Sahara Star’ near Mumbai airport has the world’s largest pillar less clear-to-sky dome of its kind Holds the Guinness world record for planning 125,256 trees by 1400 volunteers in 6 hours and 35 minutes 0n 5th June 1988 at amby vally city Hold the record in India for 25%-50% hike in the gross salary of all of its employees at one go. Conducts mass marriage ceremony of 101 underprivileged girls every year Subrato Roy Sahara is also referred as “Saharasri”
SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR
Sahara India Pariwar is a major entity on the corporate scene having diversified business interests that include Finance, Infrastructure & Housing, Media & Entertainment, Consumer Products, Manufacturing, and Services & Trading. Quality is our essence and we, at Sahara India Pariwar , have always stressed on the Qualitative aspect. Consequently in this run for quality, quantity has always pursued us. We look forward to reaching the zenith and reaffirm our commitment to the process of sound nation-building.
CORE COMMITMENTS - OUR STRENGTH
• • • • • • • • • • • Emotion Discipline Duty No discrimination Quality Give respect Self-respect Truth Collective Materialism Religion Absolute Honesty
A commitment of Sahara India Pariwar to the genuine needs and rights of anybody & everybody - Be it to a depositor, newspaper reader, consumer.... all business associates and Sahara India Family Members.
India needs effective consumer protection and protection of workers' genuine rights. There are various agencies, promising protection & action. But no external body can provide justice unless the company becomes 'QUALITY CONSCIOUS' WITH STRICTLY NO DISCRIMINATION POLICY AND JUSTICE CONSCIOUSNESS as its very dominating nature.
We not only believe but practice NO DISCRIMINATION, JUSTICE & HIGH QUALITY - means enthusiastic, productive performance of duty "KARTAVYA' towards the consumer', workers' genuine satisfaction.
To provide justice - be it a matter of the tiniest imperfection or injustice in our COMMITMENT - products or services. direct or indirect, short term or long term.
Kindly rush your grievances/suggestions or any queries related to Sahara India Pariwar to the nearest Sahara establishment and/or to: Page 35
Response Will Never Be Delayed And Justice Will Never Be Denied
SAHARA INDIA PARIWA R
Infrastructure and housing
Media and entertainment
Services and Trading
Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting business data - for example as part of a process improvement or similar project. Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project, and is often formalized through a data collection Plan which often contains the following activity. 1. Pre collection activity – Agree goals, target data, definitions, methods 2. Collection – data collection 3. Present Findings – usually involves some form of sorting analysis and/or presentation. There are two methods of data collection which are discussed below:
DATA COLLECTION PRIMARY DATA (Data collection techniques) SECONDARY DATA
EXTERNAL INTERNET INTERNAL SOURCE SOURCE
In primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it. I have tried to collect the data using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data collected is unique and research and, no one else has access to it. It is done to get the real scenario and to get the original data of present.
DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE
Questionnaire are a popular means of collecting data, but are difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. The features included in questionnaire are: • • • • Theme and covering letter Instruction for completion Types of questions Length
This technique is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or behavior. The interview was done by asking a general question. I encourage the respondent to talk freely. I have used an Page 39
unstructured format, the subsequent direction of the interview being determined by the respondent’s initial reply, and come to know what is its initial problem is.
Initially, a rough draft was prepared keeping in mind the objective of the research. A pilot study was done in order to know the accuracy of the questionnaire. The final questionnaire was arrived only after certain important changes were done. Thus my sampling came out to be judgmental and continent.
The respondents who were asked to fill out questionnaires are the sampling units. These comprise of kartavyayogis of corporate HR,S ahara India Pariwar , who had attended the personality development workshop.
Sampling Size: 20
All methods of data collection can supply quantitative data (numbers, statistics or financial) or qualitative data (usually words or text). Quantitative data may often be presented in tabular or graphical form. Secondary data is data that has already been collected by someone else for a different purpose to yours.
Need of using secondary data
1. Data is of use in the collection of primary data. 2. They are one of the cheapest and easiest means of access to information. 3. Secondary data may actually provided enough information to resolve the problem being investigated. 4. Secondary data can be a valuable source of new ideas that can be explored later through primary research.
Limitation of secondary data
1. May be outdated. 2. No control over data collection. 3. May not be reported in the required form. 4. May not be reported in the required form. 5. May not be very accurate. 6. Collection for some other purpose.
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY DATA
T& D FUNCTIONS IN SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR
TEAM-HEAD TNI Training calander Training budget Training feedback Training manuals Approvals/concept paper PDW CCT-2009 CCT Networking
TEAM MEMBER 1 IT support Project/Summer training Induction manual/ppt PD e-manual CCT-2009 Training feedback or evaluation Admin task Database management MIS-T&D
TEAM MEMBER 2 Module design Module development Internal TNI External TNI Product/Process Training Oorja Project/Summer training HRIS support Best HR practices
TEAM MEMBER3 Training initiative Internal External Concept Development Write-ups& Briefing Training Evaluation PD e-manual Oorja Project/summe r training Bulletin/Board Management
TEAM MEMBER4 Library mgmt Books Journal Newspaper Dak(In/out) database Record Maintenance Admin follow Up Bulletin/Board management
The major activities performed by the Training and Developing function in Sahara India Pariwar are as follows: (1) Training needs identification/ assessment: From employees through interviews, questionnaires, etc. and secondly through HOD recommendation.
TNI IN SAHARA INDIA PARIWA R
HOD RECMMEND ATION
TNI EXERCISE/SU RVEY
(2) Training (Internal/External): Training depends upon its scope, whether needs of the training can be met within the organization or whether has to be taken to an environment outside the organization. (3) Certified corporate trainer: Certified corporate trainers are the employees of the company itself. It is their voluntary involvement. If they feel like in their service tenure that they can, for some time, train the employees of the company on the base of their Page 44
experience, then send in their CVs and on approval by the respective authority, become certified corporate trainers. (4) Types of training given in Sahara India Pariwar: • • • Induction/Orientation training Soft skill development training Project training
These terms are interchangeably used to give a friendly welcome to the new employees as members of the organization so also to introduce the new employee with the available installations (plant and machineries, systems), work norms, organizational objectives and the job position of the employee.
• • • • • • • • The company size, structure of the organization, history, market share Achievements, objective and mission. Product training Shop floor-rules and regulations Personnel policies Union contract Company services Service department
SOFT SKILL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
Modules of soft skill development training in Sahara India Pariwar:
Personality and positive attitude Business communication Team building and leadership Stress management and work-life balance Business etiquettes and corporate grooming
PERSONALITY & POSITIVE ATTITUDE
About the Module
Personality as a whole cannot be defined without the positive attitude. It is the positive attitude of a person that plays an important role in various decision making process and reaction to responsibilities and challenges in work and life. The module has been developed to help the individual to develop the understanding that how individual personalities can influence the organizational development & the organizational success.
Objective of the Module
To understand the concept of Personality & positive attitude in relation to organizational success.
Coverage of the Module
• • • • • • • • • What is personality Attributes of personality Three levels of Personality Personality is uniqueness Internal & External Qualities What are the determinants of personality What is a Organizational Personality Linking personality and organizations effectiveness How Positive Attitude can influenced Personality
Effective communication is very crucial in the business success. It is the lifeblood of an business organization. It includes conveying messages to other people clearly and unambiguously. It's also about receiving information that others are sending to you, with as little distortion as possible. Doing this involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. And it's a process that can be fraught with error, with messages muddled by the sender, or misinterpreted by the recipient. When this isn't detected, it can cause tremendous confusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity
Objective of the Module
To understand the importance of Business Communication in order to enhance the capabilities of understanding and implementing the correct communication channel to bring the effectiveness of the organization in order to succeed in business, and maintain good relationships with clients, customers and employees
Coverage of the Module
• • • • • • •
What is communication? Need of communication Communication flow Types of Communication Barriers of Communication Overcoming tips of barrier Essentials of effective communication
TEAM BUILDING & LEADERSHIP
In the context of globalization only high performing managers can survive, grow and excel. This calls for continuous enhancement of the dynamics of leadership capabilities of managers. Today’s managers will have to demonstrate positive leadership capabilities by creating and sustaining trust, shared vision as well as synergy to achieve organizational goals.
Objective of the Module
Understanding the role of leadership, teamwork and team-building.
Improving business results by managing team dynamics; flexibility and resilience, self management and emotional maturity
Coverage of the Module
• • • • • • • •
Team Vs. Group Team & Team Work The essentials of winning Team A good team player Stages of Team Building Leadership, teamwork & team-building Leader Vs. Manager Improving performance
STRESS MANAGEMENT & WORK LIFE BALANCE
During the last 20 years, the nature of jobs across globe has changed substantially resulting in jobs becoming less and less physically demanding. Coupled with this, the change in life style, has led to stress level increasing day by day, both at work place and at home. It is therefore of utmost importance to understand the various transients affecting health and fitness levels of individuals. In view of this, the module will help to take a proactive approach to stress management in order to establish a work environment that is healthy, stress-free and fit.
Objective of the Module
To understand the stress level, its symptoms and various impacts and to develop a better work life balance strategies for leading a better life.
Coverage of the Module
• • • • • • •
What is stress? Reasons of stress Symptoms of stress Impact of stress Managing Stress ABC Strategy Tips of de-stressing
BUSINESS ETIQUETTE & CORPORATE GROOMING
Self –improvement and self –development has become imperative for survival in the changing and competitive environment. Business Etiquette is a very important factor in determining the success or failure of a business or a person. This module will guide to enhance the focus for Business Etiquette & Corporate Grooming.
Objective of the Module
To understand the importance of Corporate grooming, Power Dressing and how to make our body language effective in order to enhance personal effectiveness with good manners and etiquettes in order to succeed in your business, be liked by people and maintain good relationships with clients, customers and employees.
Coverage of the Module
Business etiquette Corporate grooming Page 51
• • • • •
Corporate ground rules Social niceties Work norm Meeting protocol Dining etiquette
Project trainings are the time-to-time held training sessions held by the organization and with the help of experienced and learned employees to train students outside the organizations, in various practical fields, for the accomplishments of their compulsory projects (5) Training evaluation:
ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATA 1. What do you understand by training?
Learning Enhancement of knowledge, skill &attitude Sharing information All of the above 0 4 0 16
The above result shows that most of the kartavyayogis of corporate HR are well aware of the definition, inputs and purpose of the training program. They are self motivated to attend such training program as it will result in their skill enhancement & improving their interpersonal skill.
2. Training is must for enhancing productivity and performance.
Completely agree Partially agree Disagree Unsure 17 3 0 0
A NAL IS:
The above result shows mostly
the kartavyayogis of corporate HR are well aware of the role and importance of the training. It means somewhere their productivity and performance has been improved after the training program attended by them and it helped them to achieve their goal. Page 54
3. (i). Have you attended any training program in the last 01 year?
Yes No 20 0
100% respondents had attended training program in the last 01 year. It means in corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar, time to time training is provided to all the kartavyayogis and it is continuous process.
(ii). If yes, which module of soft skill development training?
Personality and positive attitude Business communication Team building and leadership Stress management and work-life balance Business etiquettes and corporate grooming All of above If any other ,please specify 3 2 0 2 0 13 0
65% respondents had attended all the five modules of soft skill development training. But besides soft skill development training, Corporate HR Sahara India Pariwar should also provide product/process or skill based training to enhance the employability.
4.(i). After the training, have you given feedback of it?
Yes No 20 0
100% respondent had given feedback after attending the training. It means each and every respondent are well aware of the importance of giving feedback. They know that their feedback is very important to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training program.
(ii). If yes, through which method?
Questionnaire Interview Supplement test Any other 16 1 1 0
The above result shows that the questionnaire is the most popular method of evaluating the training program and other methods are not very much in practice in corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar But since there are various other methods of evaluation of training program like interviews, supplement test, self diaries& observation so it should also implement
the other methods also to identify the ROI (return on investment) & effectiveness and valuation of the training program.
5. Which method of post training feedback according to you is more appropriate?
Observation Questionnaire Interviews Self diaries Supplement test 5 3 8 3 1
I. Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar, mostly use the questionnaire to get the feedback of trainees but only 15% respondents are in favor of questionnaire because in it there is a possibility of getting inaccurate data and in this responding conditions are also not controlled. II. On the other side 40% respondents feel that interview is the most appropriate method of evaluating the training program because it is more flexible method, and in this they can get the opportunity for clarification and the most important thing is that in the interview, personal interaction is also possible. III. 25% are in favor of observation because this is non-threatening and is excellent
way to measure the behavioral changes. IV. Beside this, 15% are in favor of self diaries and 5% are in the favor of supplement test. It means that Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar should also try to use other method of evaluation of training program.
6.(i). Do you think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness?
Yes No 20 0
100% respondents think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness. It means that kartavyayogis in the Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar are well aware of the importance of taking feedback after the training.
(ii).If yes, how can the post training feedbacks can help the participants?
Improve job performance An aid to future planning Motivate to do better All of the above None 1 3 2 14 0
70% respondent feel that the post training feedback can help the participants to improve their job performance, is an aid to future planning and can motivate to do better. It means that they are benefited by giving feedback of the training, attended by them.
7. Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting training.
Completely agree Partially agree Disagree Unsure 14 6 0 0
70% respondents are completely agree and 30% respondents are partially agree with the statement that post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting training program. It means that all the respondent are well aware of the purpose and objective of the post training evaluation.
8. What should be the approach of post training evaluation?
Trainer centered Trainee centered Subject centered All of the above 2 2 8 8
I. 40% respondents feel that the approach of post training evaluation should be subject centered and 40% respondent also feel that it should be trainer, trainee and subject centered. II. 10% respondents are in favor of trainee centered approach and 10% respondents are in favor of trainer centered approach. It means that the evaluation procedure should be implemented concerning trainer, trainee and subject.
9. What should be the ideal time to evaluate the training?
Immediate after training After 15 days After 1 month Can’t say 6 7 4 3
35% respondent feel that training should be evaluate after 15 days.30% feel that it should be immediate after training. 20% feel that ideal time to evaluate the training is after 1 month and 15% are unsure. Since each respondent had attended different training program. So the ideal time of evaluation of training depends on types of training. It could be vary for different training.
10. Should the post training evaluation procedure reviewed and revised periodically?
Yes No Can’t say 16 2 2
80% respondents feel that the post training evaluation procedure should be reviewed and revised periodically. It means that it has to be a continuous process and be taken regularly by the line manager/Reporting manager of the participants. It could also be taken by peer group. Still 10% feel that the post training evaluation procedure should not be reviewed and revised periodically. It means they are satisfied with the post training evaluation procedure, followed by Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar. Page 66
11. Is the whole feedback exercise after the training worth the time, money and effort?
Yes No Can’t say 18 2 0
90% respondents feel that the whole feedback exercise worth the time, money and effort and 10% respondent are not agree with this. It means that feedback exercise is valuable and worthful for the participant to achieve their personal goal as well as for the organization. Still 10% are unsure about it. So there is a need to create awareness among them that how much the feedback exercise is important to identify the effectiveness and valuation Page 67
of the training program, to identify the ROI(return on investment),to identify the need of retraining and identify the points to improve the training.
12.The post training feedback can be used:
To identify the effectiveness and valuation of training program To identify the ROI(return on investment) To identify the need of retraining To provide the points to improve the training All of above 3 2 0 0 15
75% respondents feels that post training feedback can be used to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training program, to identify the ROI, to identify the need of retraining and to provide the points to improve the training. And others are also aware of the importance of post training feedback. Page 68
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, CONCLUSION & LIMITATIONS
• Mostly all the kartavyayogis of corporate HR are well aware of the role and importance of the training They are self motivated to attend such training program as it will result in their interpersonal skill. • Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar , time to time training is provided to all the kartavyayogis and it is continuous process. • Two types of training is provided to the kartavyayogis by Corporate HR Sahara India Pariwar -induction training and soft skill development training. • Questionnaire is the most popular mean of evaluating the training program in Sahara India Pariwar. • Most of the kartavyayogis feel that interview is the most appropriate method of evaluating the training program. • Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting the training and it worth the time, money and effort. • Most of the participants are benefitted by giving feedback after attended the training. It motivated them to do better, helped them to increase their job performance and is an aid to future planning. • In Sahara India Pariwar, post training evaluation is used to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training program, to identify the ROI(return on Page 70 skill enhancement & improving their
investment), to identify the need of retraining and to provide the points to improve the training.
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The management must commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate
time to training.
Ensure that training contribute to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skill for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skill. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs. Skill based training (product/process training) should also be provided. Besides questionnaire other methods of post training evaluation should also be used like interviews, self diaries, observation and supplement test. The evaluation procedure must be implemented concerning trainer, trainee and subject.
Post training feedback has to be continuous and should also be taken from line manager/superior & from peers to find out the effectiveness and valuation of training.
Professional competence describes the state-of-the-art, Area- knowledge, expertise and skill relevant for performing excellently within a specific functional department. This competence insures that technical knowledge is both present and used within a firm for the welfare of its stake-holders. To develop this competence regular Training and Development is required Therefore, Training initiatives and programs have become a priority for Human Resources. As business markets change due to an increase in technology initiatives, companies need to spend more time and money on training employees. In today’s business climate employee development is critical to corporate success and organizations are investing more in their employees training and development needs. Training evaluation is the important part of training process. It provides a feedback and help the sponsors and the resource persons for improvement at the level of individual performance and in the strategy formulation for training and development. Post training evaluation can be used to identify the effectiveness and valuation of training programme, to identify the ROI (return on investment), to identify the need of retraining and to provide the points to improve the training.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1. The study is limited to the Corporate HR, SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR LUCKNOW. So the study is subject to the limitation of area. 2. The time period of the study was only two six weeks which may provide a deceptive picture in comparison of the study based on long run. 3. Sampling size was of only 20, because only these people had attended soft skill development training. 4. Corporate HR, Sahara India Pariwar only provides soft skill development training, not skill based (product/process) training. So how can one evaluate the skill based training is still unresolved. 5. The study is based only on secondary & primary data so lack of keen observations and interactions were also the limiting factors in the proper conclusion of the study.
QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Madam/Sir, I,Shalini Mishra, an MBA student pursuing my course from AMITY UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW. As a part of my curriculum I am undergoing summer training at Corporate HR SAHARA SHAHER LUCKNOW. Please give your views/opinions in the space given below about the post training feedback in SAHARA INDIA PARIWAR. The information provided by you will be kept highly confidential& will be used by me strictly for an analysis only. 1) What do you understand by training? a) b) c) d) Learning Enhancement of knowledge, skill and aptitude Sharing information All of above
2) Training is must for enhancing productivity and performance. a) b) c) d) Completely agree Partially agree Disagree Unsure
3) (i) Have you attended any training programme in the last 01 year? a) Yes b) No (ii) If yes ,which module of soft skill development training? a) Personality and positive attitude Page 75
b) Business communication c) Team building and leadership d) Stress management and work-life balance e) Business etiquettes and corporate grooming f) All of above g) If any other please specify ___________________________ 4) (i) After the training ,have you given feedback of it? a) Yes b) No (ii) If yes, through which method?(can select more than one) a) b) c) d) Questionnaire Interview Supplement test If any other please specify _______________
5) Which method of post training feedback according to you is more appropriate? a) b) c) d) e) Observation Questionnaire Interviews Self diaries Supplement test
6) (i) Do you think that the feedback can evaluate the training effectiveness? a) Yes b) No (ii) If yes, how can the post training feedbacks can help the participants?(can select more than one) a) b) c) d) e) Improve job performance An aid to future planning Motivate to do better All of the above None
7) Post training evaluation focus on result rather than on the effort expended in conducting training. a) Completely agree b) Partially agree Page 76
c) Disagree d) Unsure
8) What should be the approach of the post training evaluation?(can select more than one) a) b) c) d) Trainer centered Trainee centered Subject Centered All of the above
9) What should be the ideal time to evaluate the training? a) b) c) d) Immediate after training After 15 days After 1 month Cant say
10) Should the post training evaluation procedure reviewed and revised periodically? a) Yes b) No c) Cant say 11) Is the whole feedback exercise after the training worth the time, money and effort? a) Yes b) No c) Cant say 12) The post training feedbacks can be used : a) b) c) d) e) To identify the effectiveness and valuation of the training programme To identify the ROI( return on investment) To identify the need of retraining To provide the points to improve the training All of above
13) Any suggestion for improving the post training feedback procedure exists in Sahara India Pariwar? Page 77
Your Views Matter
Dear Madam/Sir We would appreciate your views sharing with us. This will help us to improve more. Please give your views/opinions in the space provided below about this kartavyayogi and evaluate the improvements after the training. Kartavyayogi’s Details Name Cadre E.C. Department
Training Programme Name of the module Date Duration Venue
Kartavyayogi’s evaluation after training
Rating – Please tick ()
S.NO ATTRIBUTES Kartavyayogi’s attitude towards his subordinates and co-workers Kartavyayogi’s ability to fullfil expected job requirements EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE NEEDS IMPROVEM ENT
3 4 5
6 S.NO 7 8
Communication skill of the kartavyayogi. Listening skill of the kartavyayogi Writing skill of the kartavyayogi Conflict resolving skills
Rating – Please tick ()
ATTRIBUTES Ability to work in a team Ability of taking initiative Motivational skill Patience and tolerance level Stress management skill Ability to work under pressure Business etiquettes of the kartavyayogi Dressing sense of the kartavyayogi Mannerism and behaviour of the kartavyayogi Punctuality at work place EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE NEEDS IMPROVEM ENT
14 15 16
Any other area where you would like to recommend this kartavyayogi to Undergo training?
Whether this training is relevant to the present requirement of your Department ?
□ Yes □ Yes
Would you recommend this training to other kartavyayogis in your Department?
Any suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the training.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. BOOKS/MAGAZINES:
• • • Human Resource Management by L. M. Prasad Human Resource Management by Dipak. k. Bhattacharya Human Resource Management by K. Ashwathapa
2. WEBSITES: • • • http://www.sahara.co.in http://www.sahara.org http://www.managementhelp.org/search/management_help_search.html?zoom_qu ery=training+and+development • • http://www.inc.com/magazine/19930201/3393_pagen_7.html http://humanresources.about.com/od/trainingtrends/Future_Education_and_Traini ng_Trends.htm • http://humanresources.about.com/od/training/Training_Development_and_Educat ion_for_Employees.htm • http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/
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