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Compiled by Dinos Levantis

Issued by BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys 2011

All Data in this booklet should be used as guidance only No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any form or means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys. Details correct at time of going to press.

Introduction

Marine survey reports frequently contain engineering terminology which can often be unfamiliar to the non engineers in the wider spectrum of the shipping industry.

In an attempt to bridge this gap we have produced this small guide book which covers some of the common terminology used for ships, their engines and ships related operation, often encountered in survey reports. By no means should this booklet be considered a complete dictionary encompassing the entire terminology. Such a dictionary would in any case be rather large and cumbersome to use.

The intention was to keep it simple and easy to use, providing a quick reference through easily understood illustrations. A blank page has been left next to each illustration for the user to write additional notes and queries they may have which our technical staff are more than happy to advise on.

We would like to especially thank the Piraeus Office Administration staff for their enormous help and patience in preparing this booklet.

This is the first version, (Ver. 01) of this booklet and we would gladly welcome any suggestions from the users which will help us enhance any future versions.

Dinos Levantis MSc BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

CONTENTS
Page GENERAL BMT MARINE & OFFSHORE SURVEYS................................................................ GENERAL CONTACT DETAILS (HEAD OFFICE LONDON)............ GLOBAL SURVEYOR LOCATIONS................................. REGIONAL HUB OFFICES..................................... UNITS....................................... NAVIGATION.................................... COMMON NAVAL ARCHITECTURE DATA ........................... COMMON MARINE ENGINEERING DATA............................ WEATHER DATA-BEAUFORT SCALE.................................. CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS.................................. SHIP CONSTRUCTION DATA (BOW CONSTRUCTION)....................... SHIP CONSTRUCTION DATA (DOUBLE BOTTOM DECK CONSTRUCTION).................................. SHIP CONSTRUCTION DATA (STERN & RUDDER CONSTRUCTION)..................... STEERNG GEARS............................................................................................... ANCHOR & CHAINS...................................... HULL GENERAL CARGO CARRIER................................. BULK CARRIER.................................... HATCH COVERS..................................... CONTAINER CARRIER.................................. GAS CARRIER................................... PASSENGER FERRY................................... OCEAN GOING TUG BOAT................................ DOUBLE SKIN OIL CARRIER................................. MACHINERY TYPICAL ENGINES FOR PROPULSION............................. CROSSHEAD TYPE ENGINE PARTS............................... TRUNK PISTON TYPE V- ENGINES............................. TYPICAL PISTON & CRANKSHAFT ARRANGEMENT........................... CAMSHAFT ARRANGEMENT.................................. TURBOCHARGER................................... ENGINE SCAVENGE AIR & EXHAUST ARRANGEMENT......................... PROPELLERS & TAILSHAFT................................. WATER JET THRUSTERS................................ STEAM TURBINE................................... VERTICAL OIL FIRED & COMBINED BOILER.............................. REFERENCES.................................... 3 4 5 6 8-9 10 11-13 14 15 16-17 18 19 20 21 22

24 26-28 30 32 34 36 38 40

42 44-46 48-50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68-69

GENERAL

BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys Ltd (Incorporating The Salvage Association)

BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys Ltd is a leading international marine surveying and technical consultancy, operating from a worldwide network of offices. The company incorporates the world-renowned casualty expertise of The Salvage Association and BMT Murray Fenton.

The Salvage Association was founded in 1856 in London and has been closely operating with the London insurance market.

Our services include casualty surveys, report and investigations work on behalf of Hull & Machinery, P&I, Liability and cargo insurers. Our spectrum of work includes surveys of incidents affecting every type of vessel from a yacht to the largest ULCC and the most complex LNG or chemical carrier.

BMT Marine & Offshore Surveys Ltd is a leading marine consultant providing warranty services for the Cargo, Offshore Energy, Construction, Liability and Hull & Machinery insurance markets. Additional services include; risk management, risk assessments including environmental and emissions risks, feasibility studies; risk audits of vessel and engine room operations, shipbuilding and repair facilities and their procedures; assessments of port operations, wreck removal and navigation.

Our global network of surveyors are ready to immediately assist in the event of marine casualties, collisions, stranding, sinkings, salvage, wreck removal, machinery investigations, warranty, P&I and risk assessment.

CONTACT DETAILS FOR PIRAEUS & VARNA

GENERAL

LONDON Office HEAD OFFICE Marlow House 1A Lloyds Avenue London, EC3N 3AL United Kingdom Tel: +44 207 648 9650 Fax: +44 207 929 5564 Email: london@bmtmarinerisk.com

Global Support Services London Tel: +44 (0)020 7648 9655 Mobile: +44 (0)7831 879675 Email: gss_staff@bmtmarinerisk.com Email: smartin@bmtmarinerisk.com Global Support Services New York Tel: +1 212 587 9307 Mobile: +1 646 283-0626 Email: grocco@bmtmarinerisk.com

For direct contact with our regional offices please refer to page 6 of this guide or visit our website to download our International contact directory www.bmtmarinerisk.com

GENERAL

GLOBAL SUVEYOR NETWORK

Marine Expertise: Anytime, Anywhere

Global Surveyor Network

REGIONAL HUB OFFICES

GENERAL

GREECE Hellas Branch 5-7 Fillelinon Street 185 36 Piraeus Greece Tel: +30 210 42 92 690 Fax:+30 210 42 92 691 Email: piraeus@bmtmarinerisk.com or hellas@bmtmarinerisk.com

SOUTH AFRICA 13 Foregate Square Table Bay Boulevard Cape Town 8000 South Africa Tel: +27 21 421 3172/3 Fax: +27 21 421 3166 Email: cape_town@bmtmarinerisk.com

NEW YORK 20 Broad Street 7th Floor, Suite A New York, NY 10005-2615 USA Tel: +1 212 587 9300 Fax: +1 212 587 9301 Email: new_york@bmtmarinerisk.com

SINGAPORE 3 HarbourFront Place No 03-01/04 HarbourFront Tower Two Singapore 099254 Tel: +65 6517 6860 Fax: +65 6274 4881 Email: singapore@bmtmarinerisk.com

DUBAI Dubai World Trade Centre Building 13th Level, PO Box 9222 Dubai United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 4 331 3100 Fax: +971 4 331 4121 Email: dubai@bmtmarinerisk.com

For further information please visit our website www.bmtmarinerisk.com

GENERAL

NOTES

8
Length

UNITS

GENERAL

1 nm = 1852 m = 1.852 km 1 yd = 3 ft = 36 in = 0.9144 m 1 m = 100 cm = 10 dm = 1000 mm = 3,2808 ft 1 m =0.001 mm 1 cable = 185.20 m = 0.1 nm 1 fn = 1.8288 m 1 shackle of anchor cable = 15 fm = 27.5 m

Nm km m cm dm mm m ft in yd cable fn

Nautical mile kilometer meter centimeter decimeter millimeter micron foot inch yard cable length (international) fathom

Volume 1 m = 1000 dm = 1000 lit = 219.9692 gal (UK) = 1759.7547 pt (UK) 3 = 35.31467 ft = 6.2898 barrels (US) Force 1 Kgf = 9.80665 N = 2.2046 lbf = 1 Kpond 1 tonf = 1000 Kgf = 9806.65 N = 9.80665 KN 1 tonef (UK long tons) = 1.01605 tonf (metric) Kgf Lbf Kpond N KN Kilogram force Pound force Kilopond Newton Kilo-Newton
3 3

lit gal pt barrels

litre gallon (UK) pint (UK) barrels (US)

Pressure / Stress 1 atm = 1.01325 bar 2 = 101325 N/m 2 = 0.101325 N/mm 2 = 1.03322 Kgf/cm 2 = 10332.27 Kgf/m = 101.325 KPa 2 = 2116.21658 lbf/ft 2 = 14.6959 psi (lbf/in ) = 29.9213 in Hg = 760.0021 mm Hg atm bar KPa psi in Hg mm Hg Atmosphere Bar Kilo-Pascal Pound per square inch Inches of Mercury Millimeters of Mercury

GENERAL
Temperature 1 C = 33.8 F = 274.15 K Flow rate 1 lit/min = 0.000589 ft /sec 3 = 0.0000167 m /sec 3 = 0.06012 m /hr = 13.1981 gal/hr (UK) Velocity 1 Knot = 0.51444 m/s = 1.852 km/hr = 1.6878 ft/sec Power 1 KW = 1000 W = 1.3410 HP = 1.3596 PS (Metric Horse power) Moment / Torque 1 Kgf m = 9.80665 Nm = 0.009807 KNm = 7.233 lbf ft = 0.001 tonf m
3

UNITS
C F K Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin

W HP PS

Watt Horse Power Metric Horse power

10

NAVIGATION

GENERAL

Parallels of Latitude Meridians of Longitude LONDON 51 30 North


o

LATITUDE

N S

NEW YORK 74 00 West

LONGITUDE

W E
30o 15o 0o 15o 30o

0 CAPE TOWN 33 55 South


o

GREENWICH MERIDIAN

CAPE TOWN 18 22 East

Most charts are drawn to MERCATORs PROJECTION, to represent the spherical world on a flat sheet of paper with all the meridians of longitude made parallel. To keep the same land shapes the parallels of latitude are increased in proportion. This gives rise to say 600 sea miles being measured on a chart being a bigger measurement at the top of the chart than at the bottom. This is because 1 sea mile = 1 minute of latitude and the latitude scale gradually increases towards the top of the chart. This is why distances are ALWAYS measured on the latitude scale opposite your position.

[Ref. 1]

GENERAL

Loa (Length Overall) Lbp (Length between perpendiculars) Sheer forward WL

Main Deck

Summer Load line Collision Bulkhead

Aft Peak Bulkhead

Frame Numbers 100 200 Camber

10

Main Deck

WL

Freeboard

Beam Draft

Depth

Rise of Floor Base Line Bilge Keel

COMMON NAVAL ARCHITECTURE DATA 11

12

COMMON NAVAL ARCHITECTURE DATA


Wave length

GENERAL

Wave crest Wave trough Wave height

Main Deck structure in tension

Bending HOGGING CONDITION Bottom structure in compression

Main Deck structure in compression Bending SAGGING CONDITION

Bottom structure in tension Buoyancy Buoyancy Buoyancy Buoyancy Buoyancy

Shear Force Weight Weight Weight

Shear Force

Weight

Weight

The ocean wave geometry resembles a trochoidal shape. The ship structure is designed to withstand the extreme stresses due to the applied forces when balanced on such a wave having the ships length in both hogging and sagging conditions. In a sea way, the structure will be continuously subjected to deformation in all directions. The generated stresses will alternate and the material forming the structure will therefore be subjected to fatigue. A well designed structure having a well conceived geometry and being of suitable material is expected to withstand the fatigue stresses for a substantial period of time.

GENERAL

COMMON NAVAL ARCHITECTURE DATA

13

= DWT + Lightship Where is the displacement, DWT is the deadweight, (cargo capacity including fuel and stores, crew and effects), and the Lightship is the weight of the structure as built including, water in the boilers and lubes in machinery to working level. In all normal calculations the lightship figure is taken to be the same as stated in the vessels approved trim and stability booklet. The lightship is also the figure used for scrap estimations. = Lbp x B x Tm x x Cb Where Lbp is the length between perpendiculars, B is the beam, Tm is the mean draft, is the density of sea water (about 1025 Kg/m3) and Cb is the block coefficient, (for most cargo type ships between 0.65 to 0.9 passenger cruisers, 0.55 to 0.63). The larger the block coefficient the more box shaped the vessel is. Thus for a perfect box type structure Cb is 1, and off course the resistance is larger. Tm = (Tf + Ta)/2 Where Tm is the midship draft, Tf and Ta are the drafts forward and aft, respectively. Heel angle, (radians) = wl / GMT x Where wl is the moment of the weight causing the heel, (the weight times the transverse distance from midship), GMT is the transverse metacentric height and is the total displacement. The formula works in radians, (1 rad = 57.3 degrees) and can be accurate for small angles. Ships motions at sea The ships centre of gravity has six degrees of freedom, three linear and three angular as illustrated in the fig below. In a seaway it can experience all six motions simultaneously. An object resting anywhere in the structure is subjected to forces resulting from these motions. The magnitude of these forces are calculated using Newtons well known formula F = m x , where m is the mass of the object and is the acceleration of its centre of gravity.

Yawing motion

Vertical axis

Rolling motion

Pitching motion

Heaving motion

14

COMMON MARINE ENGINEERING DATA

GENERAL

Indicated Power (KW) = Pm x A x L x N x K x n / 0.6 Where Pm is the mean indicated pressure per cylinder in Bar A is the sectional area of the cylinder in m2 L is the length of stroke in m N is the engine speed in rpm K is the type of stroke per revolution (i.e. 1 for two stroke engines and 0.5 for four stroke engines) n is the number of cylinders Brake Power = Mechanical efficiency x Indicated power The mechanical efficiency of a well designed turbocharged engine can be 90% Bunkers Bunker fuel is technically any type of fuel oil used aboard ships. In the maritime field the type of classification used for fuel oils is: IFO (Intermediate fuel oil) A blend of gasoil and heavy fuel oil, with less gasoil than marine diesel oil o IFO 380 - Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes at 50C o IFO 180 - Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes at 50C o LS 380 - Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate fuel oil o LS 180 - Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate fuel oil HFO 380 (Heavy fuel oil) - Pure or nearly pure residual oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes MGO (Marine gas oil) - made from distillate only MDO (Marine diesel oil) - A blend of heavy gasoil that may contain very small amounts of black refinery feed stocks, but has a low viscosity up to 12 cSt so it does not need to be heated for use in internal combustion engines. Parameter Max Density at 15C Max Viscosity at 50C Max Pour point, Winter Unit kg/m
3

MGO 890.0 6.0 Ambient

MDO 900.0 11.0 Ambient

IFO 180 991.0 180.0 30

RMH 380 991.0 380.0 30

RMK 380 1010.0 380.0 30

mm/ s C

General recommended cSt Ambient Ambient 10~15/ 10-15/ 10-15/ injection viscosity and /C 110~ 118 130 ~ 142 130~142 temperature 1 mm/s = 1 cSt Viscosity (Kinematic) is a measure of the resistance of the fuel. In everyday terms viscosity is "thickness". TYPICAL ENGINE OPERATING PARAMETERS Parameter Unit Values Max Exhaust Temperatures C 500 General recommended Lub. Oil pressure for 2-stroke engines Kg/cm2 3.5~4.2 General recommended Lub. Oil pressure for 4-stroke engines Kg/cm2 2.0~3.0 Jacket water outlet temperature C 65~68 Type of system oil used for 2-stroke engines SAE Viscosity 30 Type of cylinder oil used for 2-stroke engines* SAE Viscosity 70 or 50 Type of system oil used for 4-stroke engines SAE Viscosity 40 *Changeover from TBN 70 to TBN 50 only when operating for more than one week on <1% sulfur

GENERAL

WEATHER DATA BEAUFORT SCALE


Mean wind speed equivalent Knots <1 1-3 4-6 m/sec 0-0.2 0.3-1.5 1.6-3.3 Sea like a mirror Ripples with the appearance of scales are formed without foam crests Small wavelets, still short but more pronounced crests have a glassy appearance and do not break Large wavelets cress begin to break foam of glassy appearance, perhaps scattered white horses Small waves becoming longer fairly frequent white horses Moderate waves taking a more pronounced long form many white horses are formed (chance of some spray) Large waves begin to form the white foam crests are more extensive everywhere (some spray) Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves begin to be blown in streaks along the direction of the wind Moderately high waves of greater length edges of crest begin to break into spindrift foam is blown in well marked streaks along the direction of the wind High waves dense streaks of foam along the direction of the wind crests of waves begin to topple, tumble and roll over, spray may affect visibility Very high waves with long overhanging crests the resulting foam in great patches is blown in dense white streaks along the direction of the wind on the whole, the surface of the sea takes a white appearance the tumbling of the sea becomes heavy and shock like visibility affected Exceptionally high waves (small and medium sized ships might be for a time lost to view behind the waves) the sea is completely covered with long white patches of foam lying along the direction of the wind everywhere the edges of the wave crests are blown into froth visibility affected The air is filled with foam and spray sea completely white with driving spray visibility very seriously affected

15
Probable mean wave height* in metres 0.1 (0.1) 0.2 (0.3)

Beaufort Number 0 1 2

Descriptive Term Calm Light air Light breeze Gentle breeze Moderate breeze Fresh breeze

Deep Sea Criterion

3 4 5

7-10 11-16 17-21

3.4-5.4 5.5-7.9 8.0-10.7 10.813.8 13.917.1 17.220.7

0.6 (1) 1 (1.5) 2 (2.5)

Strong breeze

22-27

3 (4)

Near gale

28-33

4 (5.5)

Gale

34-40

5.5 (7.5)

Strong gale

41-47

20.824.4

7 (10)

10

Storm

48-55

24.528.4

9 (12.5)

11

Violent storm

56-63

28.532.6

11.5 (16)

12

Hurricane

64 and over

32.7 and over

14 (-)

[Ref. 2]

16

SEAGOING VESSELS (Surface, Surface Effect, Sub-surface)

Aircraft

BERNOULLI Hydrostatic support (Displacement)

ARCHIMEDES Submersibles

Aerostatic c

Hydrodynamic support

Surface effect

Hydro toil

Conventional Displacement

Special Displacement

CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS

Deep displacement Planing hull Catamaran (Multi hull)

Air Submerged toils Small water plane 60-40 40-25 30-15 15

Sea

Cushion

Surface piercing

Approximate speed range potential Knots 80-100

GENERAL

Submarine

[Ref. 3]

GENERAL

CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS

17

The terms below refer to design restrictions imposed on a vessel, in order to be able to trade within standard geographic areas
TYPE DESIGN RESTRICTIONS DRY CARGO DWT about 15,000 to 40,000 mt COMMENTS

HANDYSIZE

It is numerically the most common type of Bulk carrier and in most cases is fitted with cranes Most commonly they have 5 Cargo holds and 4 cranes of 30tonnes lifting capacity Maximum permissible size which can cross the Suez Canal Maximum permissible size which can cross the Panama Canal Capers do not cross any of the worlds canals

HANDYMAX SUEZMAX PANAMAX POST PANAMAX And CAPESIZE AFRAMAX (Crude and Product Oil tankers)

DWT about 41,000 to 55,000 mt DWT up to 150,000 mt DWT 60,000 80,000 mt

DWT 81,000 250,000 TANKERS DWT between 75,000 120,000 mt

Are largely used in the basins of the Black Sea, Caribbean, China Sea and the Mediterranean Non-OPEC exporting countries mainly require the use of AFRAMAX tankers , because their harbours and canals are too small to accommodate VLCCs and ULCCs Maximum permissible size which can cross the Suez Canal Do not cross any of the worlds canals

SUEZMAX VLCC ULCC

Similar size as the respective bulk carrier.

SMALL FEEDER FEEDER

PANAMAX

POST-PANAMAX

SUEZMAX

POST-SUEZMAX

Very large crude oil carrier (super Tanker DWT between 150,000 320,000 mt) Ultra large crude oil carrier (super Tanker Do not cross any of the worlds canals DWT between 320,000 550,000 mt) CONTAINER VESSELS Up to 13,500mt Used when economic and size restrictions (up to 1000 TEU) imposed for larger sizes Approx. between Used when economic and size restrictions 13,500-31,000mt imposed for larger sizes (1,000-2,500 TEU) Approx. between Can cross Panama Canal 31,000-59,000mt (2,500-5,000 TEU) Approx. between Cannot cross Panama Canal 59,000-113,000mt (5,000-10,000 TEU) Approx. between Can cross Suez Canal 113,000-137,000mt (10,000-12,000 TEU) Above 137,000mt Cannot cross Suez Canal (Above 12,000TEU)

18

SHIP CONSTRUCTION DATA (BOW CONSTRUCTION)

GENERAL

Anchor Windlass Chain Stopper

Anchor chain Hawse pipe

Bulwark

Forecastle deck

FOREPEAK

Main deck

Soft nose plating FOREPEAK Chain locker TANK TANK Flame area

[Ref. 4]

GENERAL

SHIP CONSTRUCTION DATA (DOUBLE BOTTOM DECK CONSTRUCTION)


Hold Frames (Transverse)

19

Side Shell Margin Plate Inner bottom plating Center Strake

Inner bottom Longitudinal Hold Frames (Transverse)

Frame Bracket Side Girder Solid Floor Center Girder Transversely Framed Longitudinally Framed Bottom Longitudinal Solid Floor

Nontight Side Girder

Built up Section Flat Bar Inverted Angle

Bulb Plate Tee or Part I H-Beam with Flanges Removed Additional Face Plate if needed Flange Plate

[Ref. 5]

20

SHIP CONSTRUCTION DATA (STERN - RUDDER CONSTRUCTION)


BALANCE RUDDER WITH HEEL PINTLE

GENERAL

Steering Gear Flat Rudder Stock

Stock Palm

Upper Pintle

After Peak Tank

Rudder BLADE

Stern Tube

Stern Frame

Heel Pintle Frame 0 Skeg

SEMI SPADE RUDDER


Rudder Stock Steering Gear Flat

Neck Hearing After Peak Tank

Rudder Blade

Stern Frame Horn Pintle Stern Tube

Rudder Horn Frame 0

GENERAL

STEERING GEARS

21

RAM STEERING GEAR SYSTEM

Hydraulic Cylinder Ram Rudder stock Yoke

[Ref. 6]

ROTARY VANE STEERING GEAR SYSTEM

Rotor Stator

Vanes

Rudder stock

[Ref. 7]

22

ANCHOR & CHAINS

GENERAL

Ring (Shackle)

Shank Fluke / Palm Bill/Pea

Arms

Throat

Blade

Crown

[Ref. 8]

Connection to Anchor

Common Link

Common Link

End Link

Anchor Crown Shackle

Common Link Enlarged Link Kenter Joining Shackle

Jaw and Jaw Swivel

Anchor Shank

Connection to Chain Locker


End Link

Common Link

Enlarged Link

Clinch Shackle

[Ref. 9]

GENERAL

NOTES

23

24

Sheer strake plating Deck plating

[Ref. 10]
Tween deck hatch

GENERAL CARGO CARRIER

Longitudinal welding seams

Tank top plating

Vertical welding seams

Shell frame Bilge plating

Keel plating

HULL

[Ref. 4]

HULL

NOTES

25

26

BULK CARRIER

HULL

[Ref. 11]

HULL

NOTES

27

28
Side transverse

BULK CARRIER HOLD ARRANGEMENT


Deck longitudinal Hatchside coaming Hatchend coaming Hatchend beam

HULL

Deck transverse (Topside) bottom transverse

Cross deck beam

Side longitudinal (Topside) bottom longitudinal

Topside tank bottom

Hold frame Bilge hopper

Lower stool Center girder Inner bottom Side girder ( tanktop of double bottom)

Bilge hopper Longitudinal

Bottom transverse Bilge hopper transverse Side transverse

Solid floor Transverse ring in bilge hopper Deck plating Deck longitudinal

Bottom longitudinal

Side longitudinal

Tanktop (inner bottom) longitudinal

[Ref. 12]
Topside tank transverse web frame Topside tank Side shell longitudinal Bracket Topside tank slopping plating Topside tank slopping plating longitudinal Hatch side coaming Topside tank plating Vertical strake

Corrugated type bulkhead

Cargo Hold
Side shell plating Hopper Transverse web frame Side shell frame (Hold frame)

Where the cargo hold is used for heavy ballast condition, the shell frames have larger scantlings. The same applies for tank top plating if discharging is by means of heavy crabs.

Bracket Hopper tank Sloping Hopper tank sloping plating longitudinal Double bottom tank Bottom center girder Inner bottom plating (Tank top)

Bottom side girder Side shell longitudinal Bilge plating Bilge Keel Bottom longitudinal Hopper tank Inner bottom longitudinal

Bottom shell plating Floor

Keel plate

[Ref. 13]

HULL

NOTES

29

30

HATCH COVERS
Transverse opening hatch cover

HULL

OPEN

PANELS

Longitudinal direction
[Ref. 5]

Longitudinally opening hatch covers

PANELS

Hatch coaming brackets

Hatch coaming

Longitudinal direction

[Ref. 4]

HULL

NOTES

31

32

CONTAINER CARRIER

Double bottom

[Ref. 10]

HULL

[Ref. 14]

HULL

NOTES

33

34 GAS CARRIER

Types A, B and C tanks are known as independent tank types, categorised in accordance to their design pressure. They are completely self supporting and do not form part of the ships hull.

Protective steel Dome Aluminium alloy tank plating

The membrane type tank is based on having a thin membrane supported by a layer of insulation within the confines of the ships hull.

Water ballast

Cargo temp below -100 o C Saddles

HULL

[Ref. 10] Insulation

HULL

NOTES

35

36

Bow Door & Ramp

Main Deck (Garage Deck)

Inner ramp to upper car deck Retractable Stabilizer Fin P&S

PASSENGER FERRY

Inner ramp to lower car deck

Bow Thrusters

Stern Ramp [Ref. 10]

HULL

HULL

NOTES

37

38

OCEAN GOING TUG BOAT

HULL

Propeller fitted in Kort nozzle

Towing winch

Bow Thruster
[Ref. 5]

Towing Hook

Towing wire

HULL

NOTES

39

40
[Ref. 10]

Section x-x S Web plating Deck plating Deck longitudinal Deck Stringer plate Face S plating S End bracket Radius face plate Longitudinal bulkhead longitudinal Cross tie Centre cargo tank Bracket toe Longitudinal bulkhead Sheer strake Inner Hull longitudinal bulkhead Side shell Wing cargo tank Side longitudinal Inner hull longitudinal bulkhead longitudinal Hopper plating Wing ballast space

Centre cargo tank deck transverse Web Stiffening S

Wing cargo tank Deck transverse

DOUBLE SKIN OIL CARRIER

Vertical Web in wing ballast tank Vertical web cargo tank End bracket

Horizontal girder in wing ballast tank

Inner bottom End longitudinal bracket Inner Bracket bottom toe

Hopper web plating Floor plating Centerline girder

Bilge plating

HULL

Outboard girder

Bottom Keel longitudinal plating Bottom shell plating

Double bottom ballast space

Bilge keel Outboard girder

[Ref. 15]

HULL

NOTES

41

42

Turbocharger

Piston

Piston Rod

Crosshead Connecting Rod Crankshaft


Four stroke Trunk Piston Medium speed engine Range 200 850 rpm Reduction Gear Box required Type

TYPICAL ENGINES FOR PROPULSION


Crankcase inspection doors

MACHINERY

Two stroke Crosshead Type Slow speed engine Range 80 180 rpm

[Ref. 16]

MACHINERY

NOTES

43

44

CROSSHEAD TYPE ENGINE PARTS

MACHINERY

Cylinder block

Engine frame Crankcase inspection doors Main Bearing Keep

Bed plate

Crankshaft line

[Ref. 17]

MACHINERY

NOTES

45

46 `

CROSSHEAD

TYPE ENGINE PARTS

MACHINERY

Piston rings Piston

Cylinder liner Piston grooves Stuffing box [Ref. 18]

Piston rod

Crosshead pin

Crosshead bearings

Sliding shoes Crosshead assembly Connecting rod

Stuffing box unit

[Ref. 16] Crankshaft

MACHINERY

NOTES

47

48

Cylinder Cover (Head)

Lube Oil to rocker arms Camshaft

Pressure Reduction Valve

Oil Pump Camshaft Lubrication

TRUNK PISTON TYPE VENGINE

Lube oil Cooler Lube Oil suction

Lube Oil Filter

MACHINERY

Lube oil first enters the main bearing journals, then to crankpins, then through connecting rod to Gudgeon pin and piston / liner

[Ref. 16]

MACHINERY

NOTES

49

50

TRUNK PISTON TYPE V- ENGINE PARTS

MACHINERY

Slave piston

Master piston

Master and slave piston articulated Type joint

Two connecting rods on one crank pin

[Ref. 16]

MACHINERY

NOTES

51

52

TYPICAL PISTON & CRANKSHAFT ARRANGEMENT

MACHINERY

[Ref. 20]
Piston rings

Piston

Gudgeon pin

Connecting rod top end

Gudgeon pin bearing

Connecting rod Thrust pads Bearing shells

Crankpin Connecting rod big end Big end bearing keep

Main Journal

Timing gear MAIN BEARING SHELLS

[Ref. 19]

MACHINERY

NOTES

53

54

CAMS

CAMSHAFT ARRANGEMENT

CAMSHAFT

CAMS

CAMSHAFT driving gear

MACHINERY

[Ref. 16]

MACHINERY

NOTES

55

56

TURBOCHARGER

MACHINERY

Compressed air outlet into the Engine Engine Exhaust gas inlet Engine Exhaust gas outlet

Turbine wheel

Compressor wheel Air Inlet Filter Air Inlet

Turbocharger rotational speed up to 20,000 rpm


[Ref. 20]

MACHINERY

NOTES

57

58

ENGINE SCAVENGE AIR & EXHAUST ARRANGEMENT

MACHINERY

Rocker arm

Exhaust to chimney Exhaust valve

Protection grids

Push rod

Air

Cooling water space Turbine wheel Cylinder liner Exhaust gas Compression wheel

Compressed air Piston Scavenge air inlet ports Intercooler Scavenge manifold

[Ref. 16]

MACHINERY

NOTES

59

60

PROPELLERS & TAILSHAFT

MACHINERY

FIXED PITCH PROPELLER


Propeller Adjusting Ring For Alignment Aft Seal Stern Frame Aft Bulkhead Fwd Seal

Coupling Rope Guard Stern Tube Aft Bearing Stern Tube Propeller Shaft Stern tube Fwd Bearing [Ref. 19]

CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLER


Propeller rotating blade Blade carrier Tail shaft Piston rod

Moving piston

Hub body

Crankpin of blade carrier

[Ref. 21]

MACHINERY

NOTES

61

62

Steering hydraulic rams Flange connection to hull


Inlet duct optimized for each type of vessel

WATER JET THRUSTERS

Outlet

Suction

Reversing Bucket Duct

Pump impeller Shaft & Bearing

Rotation is one direction Reversing is by change of flow via vertical movement of bucket Steering is by side way movement of outlet nozzle
[Ref. 22]

MACHINERY

MACHINERY

NOTES

63

64

STEAM TURBINE

MACHINERY

Steam outlet Steam Valves

Steam Inlet

Turbine Upper casing

Rotor shaft with Blades Glands

Fixed blades (Nozzles)

Turbine Lower Casing

[Ref. 23]

MACHINERY

NOTES

65

66

VERTICAL OIL FIRED & COMBINED BOILER

MACHINERY

Engine exhaust inlet

Engine Exhaust Outlet

Hot Gas

Burner Vertical water tubes

Burner

[Ref. 24]

MACHINERY

NOTES

67

68

REFERENCES

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REFERENCES

17. Woodword D. (Editor) (2004). Pounders Marine Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines. 8th Edition. Great Britain: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemman 18. Wartsila Corporation. (2004). Sulzer RTA84T. [Online]. 2004. Available from: http://www.wartsila.com/Wartsila/global/docs/en/ship_power/media_publications/brochures/ product/engines/low_speed/rta84t_tr.pdf. [Accessed 3rd November 2010] 19. Mostratos K.A. (2005). Ships and technique. Volume II (Engine room). Piraeus: Emmanuel Stavridakis Technical publications 20. Knak, C. (1990). Diesel Motor Ships Engines and Machinery. Volume II (Diagrams). London: The Institute of Marine Engineers 21. Ulstein Propulsion AS Ulstein propulsion marketing leaflet. Ulstein propellers. Norway: Ulstein propulsion AS 22. Rolls Royce plc. (2008). Introduction of the new Rolls-Royce range of waterjets Kamewa S3. [Online]. 2008. Available from: http://www.rollsnd royce.com/Images/RR%20Kamewa%20S3_0908_tcm92-8663.pdf. [Accessed: 2 November 2010] 23. McClearn S. (2006). The Canadian Navy of yesterday and today Tribal Class Machinery (Draft). [Online]. Available from http://www.hazegray.org/navhist/canada/systems/propulsion/haida/haida-turbine-diagram.jpg. [Accessed 11th November 2010] 24. Daniel, J. & Mimikopoulos, K. (1994). Marine Steam Boilers. Athens: Evgenides Institution

NOTES

70

NOTES

71