You are on page 1of 7

National Conference ETEIC-2012 Proceedings, April 6 -7 , 2012, Anand Engineering College, Agra

th

th

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter


Manish Arya1, Gopal Prasad2
1,2

Department of Electrical Engineering, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, India manisharya07@gmail.com However, large inductor current ripple causes large voltage ripple and shortens lifetime of low-voltage sources such as batteries and fuel cells.

ABSTRACT
The non-isolated bidirectional dc-dc converter is presented. This converter operate with ZVS, fixed switching frequency, and a ripple free inductor current regardless of the direction of power flow. To provide ZVS of the power switches and a ripple-free inductor current, it utilizes a very simple auxiliary circuit that consists of an additional winding to the main inductor and an auxiliary inductor. Due to ZVS operation, the reverse recovery problem of the anti- parallel body diode of the power switch does not occur. Moreover, the ripplefree inductor current can reduce the voltage ripple. Keywords: Bidirectional dc-dc converter, dc-dc power conversion, and zero-voltage-switching.

Fig. 1: Conventional bidirectional dcdc converter Interleaving technique can be chosen to the bidirectional dcdc converters. If there are several identical bidirectional ZVS dc-dc converters connected in parallel, current ripple problem can be solved. However, the multichannel interleaved structure has many components and its control algorithm is complex. Interleaving technique can be chosen to the bidirectional dcdc converters. If there are several identical bidirectional ZVS dc-dc converters connected in parallel, current ripple problem can be solved. However, the multichannel interleaved structure has many components and its control algorithm is complex. Since the conventional non-isolated bidirectional dcdc converter shown in Fig. 1 can provide continuous inductor current, auxiliary circuits providing ZVS function can be a solution. However, most of them include one or more active switches. It raises the overall cost. In order to remedy these problems, a new non-isolated bidirectional ZVS dcdc converter is proposed. The proposed converter can operate with ZVS, fixed switching frequency, and a ripple free inductor current regardless of the direction of power flow. A very simple auxiliary circuit that consists of an additional winding to the main inductor and an auxiliary inductor provides ZVS function and cancels

I.

INTRODUCTION

BIDIRECIONAL dc-dc converters have been widely used in various industrial applications such as renewable energy systems, hybrid electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle, uninterrupted power supplies, and satellites. In those applications bidirectional dcdc converters control the power flow between the dc bus and the low-voltage sources such as back-up batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors. Bidirectional dcdc converters can be classified into isolated versions and non-isolated versions. It depends on the application. This paper focuses on the non-isolated bidirectional dcdc converter. Non-isolated bidirectional dc dc converters are based on a half-bridge conguration where a boost converter and a buck converter are combined. The conventional non-isolated bidirectional dcdc converter is shown in Fig. 1. In both boost and buck modes, the conventional bidirectional dcdc converter can operate in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The CCM operation can provide a low ripple current. However, the switching loss of the power switches is large and there exists the reverse recovery phenomenon of the antiparallel body diode of the power switch. With a smaller inductance, the conventional converter can operate with an inductor current that flows in both directions during each switching period. Then, ZVS operation of the power switches is achieved.

(ETEIC 2012) ISBN 978-93-81583-35-7

99

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter

out the ripple component of the inductor current. The ripplefree inductor current can enlarge the lifetime of the battery that is usually used as a low side voltage source. The theoretical analysis is provided in the following section.

II. THE PROPOSED CONVERTER


Fig. 1 shows a conventional non-isolated bidirectional dcdc Converter, In boost mode, the switch S2 acts as a boost switch and the switch S1 acts as a boost diode. In buck mode, S1 acts as a buck switch and S2 acts as a buck diode. Typically, back-up batteries or super capacitors act as the low side voltage source Vlo.

Lc is modeled as a magnetizing inductance Lm and an ideal transformer that has a turn ratio of Np:Ns(= 1: n). The leakage inductance of the coupled inductor Lc is included in the auxiliary inductor Ls. The diodes D1and D2 represent the intrinsic body diodes of S1 and S2. The capacitors C1 and C2 are parasitic output capacitances of S1 and S2. Since the capacitances of Cf1 and Cf2 are large enough, Cf1 and and VC Cf2 can be considered as voltage sources VC f1 during a switching period. Since the average of the f2 voltage across the inductor should be zero at steady-state according to volt-second balance law, the average values of the lter capacitors voltages VC f1 and VC f2 are equal to the voltages VhiVlo and Vlo, respectively. Fig. 4(a) shows the theoretical waveforms for the boost mode of the proposed converter. Fig. 4(b) describes the buck mode of the proposed converter. Fig. 5 shows the operating modes of boost and buck modes. Both boost and buck modes have four operating modes during a switching period Ts (=t4t0).

III. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS


As shown in Fig. 4, before t0, S1is conducting. The magnetizing current im decreases linearly and the current iLs increases linearly. At t0, they have their minimum and maximum values Im2 and IL s1 respectively. Fig.2.Circuit diagram of proposed bidirectional dc-dc converter

Fig. 3.Equivalent circuit The dc bus voltage bus is the high side voltage source Vhi. The capacitor Cf represents the high-frequency lter capacitor at dc bus. The proposed bidirectional dcdc converter is shown in Fig. 2. It is very similar to the conventional converter except that an additional winding Ns to the main inductor and auxiliary inductor Ls are added and the lter capacitor Cf is split into Cf1 and Cf2. This auxiliary circuit provides ZVS function and cancels out the ripple component of the main inductor current regardless of the direction of power flow. The equivalent circuit of the proposed converter is shown in Fig. 3. The coupled inductor

Fig. 4: Theoretical waveforms of the proposed converter MODE1 [t0 : t1] : This begins with turn-off of S1. The switch current iS1 is (1n)IL s1 Im2att0. With an assumption that the capacitors C1and C2are very small and the time interval in this mode is very short, all the currents can be considered as constant and the voltages vS1andvS2 vary linearly. The transition time interval Tt1 can be simplified as follows:

National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Instrumentation & Communication Engineering

100

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter

MODE2 [t1 : t2] : At t1, the voltage vS2 arrives at zero and the body diode D2of S2starts to conduct. Then, the gate pulse for the switch S2is applied. Since the voltage vS2 is maintained at zero at the moment of the turn-on of S2, zerovoltage turn-on of S2 is achieved. Since the voltage vp across the magnetizing inductance Lm is Vlo, the magnetizing current im increases linearly from Im2 as follows:

Since the switch current iS1isiL s ilo, it can be obtained from (7) and (8). At the end of this mode, the inductor current iLs1 arrives at its maximum value IL s1 and the current im arrives at its minimum values Im2

Ripple Current Cancellation:


From equation 4 & 8 , the zero ripple condition is obtained as:

The inductor current iL s decreases linearly as follows:

Relation between Vlo and Vhi:


Since the primary current ip is equal to niL s, the low-voltage side current ilo can be derived from (2) and (3) as follows: Referring to the voltage waveforms vp across the magnetizing inductance Lm shown in Fig. 4, the volt-second balance law gives:

Since the switch current iS2 is iloiL s, it can be obtained from (3) and (4). At the end of this mode, the inductor current iL s arrives at its minimum value IL s2 and the magnetizing current im arrives at its maximum values Im1. MODE3 [t2 : t3] : This mode begins with the turn-off of S2. At this moment, the switch current iS2 is Im1 + (1n)IL s2. This current starts to charge C2and discharge C1. Similar to Mode 1, the transition time interval Tt2 can be considered as follows:

This can be written as:

IL s1 and IL s2 The auxiliary inductor current iL s always flows through Cf1 and Cf2. Since the average value of a current flowing through a capacitor should be zero at steady state, it can be seen easily from Fig. 4 that IL s1 is equal to IL s2. From Modes 2 and 4, IL s1 and IL s2 can be obtained as follows:

MODE4 [t3 : t4] : At t3, the voltage vS1 across the switch S1 arrives at zero and its body diode D1starts to conduct. After that, the gate pulse for the switch S1is applied. Since the voltage vS1 is maintained at zero at the moment of the turnon of S1, zero- voltage turn-on of S1is achieved. In this mode, the voltage vp is (VhiVlo). Therefore, the magnetizing current im decreases linearly as follows:

ZVS Condition:
ZVS of S1 is easily achieved. From Fig. 4 the ZVS condition for S1 is given by

Similarly, for ZVS of S2, the following condition should be satisfied. The above inequality can be rewritten as:

The current iL s increases linearly as follows:

From (6) and (7), the low-voltage side current ilo can be derived as follows:

Where is the power conversion efficiency and Po is the output power.

National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Instrumentation & Communication Engineering

101

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter

IV. SIMULATION AND RESULT Conventional dc-dc converter:

P-spice Simulation of Conventional DC-DC Converter

National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Instrumentation & Communication Engineering

102

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter

From the output waveform we see that a conventional dc-dc converter doesnt have zero switching property.

Proposed Converter:

P-spice Simulation of Conventional DC-DC Converter From the output waveform of the proposed converter, we see that zero voltage switching of the switches is almost obtained and input current ripples are reduced to great extent.

National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Instrumentation & Communication Engineering

103

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter

Parametric analysis: in this section we see the effect of auxiliary inductance on the ripples in the current.

From the above analysis we see that as we increase the auxiliary inductance, the current ripple reduces. But from the efficiency versus inductance relationship given above we see that there is a limit on maximum inductance that can be used. Following MATLAB program show the relation between efficiency & inductance.

National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Instrumentation & Communication Engineering

104

Non-isolated Bidirectional Zero-voltage Switching DC-DC Converter

V. CONCLUSION
The topic describes a new bidirectional dc-dc converter. With this converter ZVS of the power switches is always achieved and the reverse recovery problem of the anti parallel body diode of the power switches is solved. Moreover it provides the ripple free current characteristics in low voltage side for large values of auxiliary inductance. The largest possible value of inductance is decided by the efficiency. [4]

[5]

REFERENCES
[1] H. Tao, J. L. Duarte, and M. A. M. Handrix, Lineinteractive UPS using a fuel cell as the primary source, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 3012 3021, Aug. 2008. L. R. Chen, N. Y. Chu, C. S. Wang, and R. H. Liang, Design of a reflex based bidirectional converter with the energy recovery function, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 30223029, Aug. 2008. F. Shang and Y. Yan, Novel forward-flyback hybrid

[6]

[7]

[2]

[8]

[3]

bidirectional DC-DC converter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 15781584, May 2009. T.-F. Wu,Y.-C. Chen, J.-G. Yang, and C.-L. Kuo, Isolated bidirectional full-bridge DC-DC converter with a flyback snubber, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 19151922, Jul. 2010. R.-J.Wai, C.-Y. Lin, andY.-R. Chang, High step-up bidirectional isolated converter with two input power sources, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 26292643, Jul. 2009. H.Krishnsawami and N. Mohan, Three-port seriesresonant DC-DC converter to interface renewable energy sources with bidirectional load and energy storage ports, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 22892297, Oct. 2009. A. L. Kirsten, T. B. Marchesan, M. A. D. Costa, and R. N. do Prado, Resonant technique for bidirectional flyback converter, IET Electron. Lett., vol. 45, no. 25, pp. 13451346, Dec. 2009. H. Kim, C. Yoon, and S. Choi, An improved currentfed ZVS isolated boost converter for fuel cell applications, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 23572364, Sep. 2010.

National Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Instrumentation & Communication Engineering

105