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Sensitivity Ability of instrument to detect small change of quantity measured. Ability of instrument to give reading closer to actual value. Ability of instrument to give constant reading every time the measurement is made When eyes is not perpendicular to the scale when take the reading When the instrument give reading when it is suppose to be zero

Focal point Focal length of lens Focal length of concave mirror Snell law.

Point that all parallel light with principal axis are converge to. Distance between focal point and the optical center Distance between pole and the principal focal point Sin i ------- = constant Sin r Sin i ------Sin r

Accuracy Consistency

Refractive index

Parallax error

Refraction of light. Light change its speed and direction when travel through different medium

Zero error

Monochromatic light Constructive interference Destructive interference Frequency Wavelength Light that has one wavelength only When trough meet trough//when crest meet crest When trough meet crest


Weight (N) Gravitational force (N) Gravitational Acceleration due to acceleration, g (10 gravitational force. ms-2) Elasticity Property of matter that enables an object to turn to its original size and shape when the forces acting on it are removed. Inertia Tendency of object to remain at rest or moving with constant velocity Impulsive force Rate of change of momentum Impulse Change of momentum

Number of oscillation in 1s Distance between 2 consecutive trough/crest/wave front Diffraction Wave phenomenon when wave travel through obstacle of gap/slit Coherent sources Two sources that have same frequency and same phase.


Ohms Law Pressure Force acting normally to the unit of surface area. Archimedes A body that is wholly or Principles partially immerse in liquid, the buoyant force = weight of liquid displaced Bernoulli principle Pressure of the fluid is lower when speed of the fluid is higher Current is directly proportional to the voltage when physical condition and temperature is constant, 9V battery The battery supply 9J of electrical energy to transfer 1C of charge 9W, 12V bulb The bulb use 9J of electrical energy in 1s when connected to 12V power supply 8A 8C of charges has been transfer in 1s Emf The work done by a source in driving a unit of charge around a complete circuit. Potential Work done to transfer 1C of difference//voltage charge from one point to another Power Amount of energy use in 1C

Thermal equilibrium Heat Temperature Specific heat capacity Heat capacity Thermal equilibrium When net rate heat transfer between two bodies is zero Type of energy Degree of hotness Energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg substance by 1oC. Energy required to change temperature of object by 1oC Net heat transfer between two bodies is zero.//temperature of two body touching each other is equal.

Electromagnetic induction Catapult field Electromagnet Production of induced current in solenoid when the solenoid cut the magnetic field Non-uniform magnetic field. Soft iron winding with solenoid, has magnetic field when current flow through the magnet and lost it when no current flow.

Critical angle Angle of incidence when angle of refraction=90o

Lenz Law

Determine the direction of force produced by current carrying conductor in magnetic field Determine pole of solenoid Determine the direction of current produced by generator

Induced current produced in the solenoid always oppose the effect causing it Use Fleming Left Hand Rule

Use right hand grip rule. Use Flemings Right Hand Rule.

Thermionic emission Logic gates Electron release by a hot metal surface Electronic switch that have one or more inputs but have only one output

Radioisotope The isotope with unstable nuclei that emit radioactive radiations. A process of breaking up heavy nucleus into lighter nucleus A process of merging lighter nuclei into heavy nucleus. Time taken for un-decay nuclei become half from its original amount. Fast moving electron. Helium nucleus An electromagnetic wave

Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion Half life

Beta particle Alpha particle Gamma ray

Precautionary steps during experiment Eye must be perpendicular to the scale of ammeter/voltmeter/meter rule when take the reading. All connection must be tight enough. Take several reading and find the average. For each value of manipulated variable, take several reading of responding variable and find the average Do not on the switch for longer time. Turn off the switch when not take the reading.