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from Francis Fukuyama‟s The End of History and the Last Man (1992). The latter wedded a strand of Hegel‟s philosophy to comparative democracy studies to argue that a global convergence on liberal democracy is in progress, and that a future of global political, social and cultural homogenization could be foreseen which woul defectively be an end of history. In this instance the idea that history would end does not imply that human beings would [end o. p. 66] cease to exist, but that the manner in which history has been conceived so far, the manner in which we are accustomed to thinking about history, would cease to apply. According to this argument, at the bottom of our current thinking lies than notion that history has a progressive direction or is teleological, and that this direction is maintain through conflicts and contradictions of various sorts within and between societies. Hegel envisaged an idealistic direction for history, whereby what he regarded as increasing degrees of „self-consciousness‟ would be manifested in increasingly rational social organization through history, and could lead to an end of history where world society would have achieved complete „selfconsciousness‟.Hegel‟s Phenomenology of Spirit ( 1977) conceptualized this process, and his posthumously published lectures on the Philosophy of History  1956) attempted a factual fleshing out of the idea by presenting a world history which ostensibly charts different levels of self-consciousness in different societies.” (Gupta, pp. 66-67) *** “The point here is not to examine the extent to which Moses‟ readings of the chosen novels confirm an „end of history‟ view. Rather, what is of interest here is the thinking underlying his methodology. In this methodology, clearly, literature and literary criticisms are instrumentalized in the service of a debate of political and sociological and philosophical moment. The debate rages out their irrespective of literature, disregardful of literature, and Moses pushes his way in unexpectedly by drawing upon his [end of p. 68] literary resources---to take a position in the debate. It is a modest position, mainly giving the thumbs up to proponents of the „end of history‟ without affecting the contours of the debate particularly. Nor does it specifically impinge upn the practice of literature and the pursuit of literary criticism: the range of literary reference is too limited. Using some literary fiction as exemplary for a general ideological position does not allow for reflection on the literary to a sufficient degree to feed back into literature and literary critisim. And yet there is a grain of an interesting idea in there. It is the presumption that literary fictional texts can serve as evidence in a similar fashion as empirically based political or social observations. It is presumed that the processes represented within and implicit around fictional works, which can be discerned by a reader or interpreter, convey a reality or veracity about their geopolitical locations that is as germane as, say, statistical dataor sociological fieldwork or political reports. Moses obviously believes that, if one is looking for evidence to support a sociopolitical theory, one may call upon literature.” (Gupta, pp. 68-69)
[end of p. The darker the news. This is not so much a critical gesture as a kind of literart self-awareness which is squarely grounded in its millennial context. as consequent on their impotent place in the world. Because we‟re giving way to terror. and quietly dies there. some plots---where such fictional authors figure. which is noteworthy: Every sentence has a truth waiting at the end of it and the writer learns how to know it when he finally gets there. As Brita process with her craft they engage in conversation. a unity of author and writing and language. Eventually. and Bill offeres the efollowing bitter observations on the contemporary situation of novelists: „There‟s a curious not that binds novelists and terrorists. the beat and pose. On one level this truth is the swing of the sentence. the grander the narrative. To begin with.‟ „But you know all this. In the West we become famous effigies as our books lose the power to shape and influence. to news of terror. In the passage of interest here. in which the reclusive novelist Bill Gray is the main protagonist. in the portrayal of fictional authors within fiction. Without pausing on this passage at the moment. When he expresses this frustration to Brita he also expresses an ideal of authorship. the novel he has been working on for a prolonged period but without success. (DeLillo 1991. to radios.*** “There is a somewhat different kind of „death of the author‟ pondered in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century which is of more importance in this study of litereature and globalization.‟ (DeLillo 1991. Gilbert Adair‟s novels in the early 1990s . but also without losing sight of it. to boms stashed in radios. but down deeper it‟s the integrity of the writer as he matches with the language.‟ „Keep going. to tape recorders and cameras. They make raids on human consciousness. Bill is persuaded by a photographer. But you‟re smart to trap us in your camera before we disappear. This is why you travel a million miles photographing writers. who specializes in capturing images of authors. to make himself available for a photography session. News of disaster is the only narrative people need. News is the last addiction before--what? I don‟t know. 48) Interestingly. Now bomb-makers and gunmen have taken tjat territory. I‟ve always seen myself in sentences […] I‟ve worked the sentences of this book long and hard but not long and hard enough because I no longer see myself in the language. he abandons his work in progress and goes to Lebanon in a bid to join a publicity effort to rescue an abducted Swiss poet from terrorists. but as arising from the contemporary condition of authors. What writers used to do before were all incorporated. Brita. other fictional authors come to mind in this context. 41 -2) The bitterness of these observations could be explained in terms of Bill‟s frustration with his current affairs. Let‟s consider a few more or less random but indicative instances---some passages. I like your anger. It appears most potently in the delineation of literart authorship within literary texts. Do you ask your writers how they feel about this? Years ago I used to think it was possible or a novelist to alter the inner life of the culture. Bill doesn‟t think of his current failure to achieve the authorial unity he seeks as a personal one. 151] a passage from Don DeLillo‟s Mao II (1991) .
recognized as an unfashionably and rather preciously classical writer of the more recent fin de siècle. during his hectic stay in Kars. in Thomas Mann‟s Death in Venice ( 1932). where he is himself eventually assassinated. Again moving on to another instance without losing sight of the above. His Love and Death on Long Island (1990) is about a London-based novelist. Aschenbach finds the object of his desire in a decaying cholera-ridden old world Venice. and eventually leads to his travelling to Long Island to meet the unwary Benstock in the flesh. They are described in prosaic detail in the novel but cannot be reproduced. Ka unexpectedly discovers his poetic faculty. […] Much later. falls in love. hardly even pausing. This snowflake. They are lost. The loss of the poems. Giles. and comparison is invited in the unfolding of Adair‟s novel. it seemed to him that the poem was perfect in every way. This attraction quickly develops into an obsession which Gilles pursues by voraciously consuming teenybopper [end of p.  2004. and this made his joyful heart beat faster still. The missing poems thus convey a yearning for texts of perfect self-expression. he decided. however. 152] magazines featuring Benstock. Death is the meeting ground between Aschenbach and Giles. Orhan Pamuk‟s Snow ( 2004) presents the adventures of the minor poet Ka when he visits the Turkish town of Kars to write in portest against a ban by the secular Ataturkian state on wearing headscarves. finds himself snowbound and cut off from the rest of the socialist theatre troupe.interrogated ideas of authorship through the portrayal of fictional authors in suggestive ways. when he though about how he‟d written this poem. Where Aschenbach‟s high-minded intellectualism is overtaken by repressed desires in a way that is his classical pose by his secret desires is all too readily catered for in images but is entirely out of character with the reality of Benstock in the middle-class suburban Long Island. Somehow. So he carried on writing. who mistakenly walks into a showing of a film entitled Hotpants College II and finds himself curiously attracted to a young actor in it. the poem that had unlocked the meaning of his life he now saw sitting at its centre. was his life writ small. he had a vision of a snowflake. leaving spaces only here and there for the words he had not quite heard. and render the narrator‟s desire actually to read poems expressive of such authorial unity seem natural. and writes a series of poems with the kind of inspired authorial unity that DeLillo described through Bill Gray. (Pamuk. Whereas Aschenbach represented an earlier fin de siècle intellectual Zeitgest in his austere pursuit of his vocation. until he had written thirty-four lines. Ka witnesses an Islamist assassination. Ronnie Benstock. Ka‟s first attempt at poetry in Kars appears as follows: Because he‟d never before written a poem like this ---in one flash of inspiration without a single pause---there was a corner of his mind that doubted its worth. not in the flesh but improbably tasteless products of teenage consumer culture. 89) The irony is that Ka‟s inspired poems never see the light of day. with predictably tragic consequences. first within his conservative London life. and is a literary icon of his times. Giles---though as austere in his way---is a rather marginalized figure. and later escapes from Turkey to settle in Germany. In the politically charged atmosphere of Kas. is . Gustave von Aschenbach. But as line followed line. This plot obviously alludes to an earlier fictional author. as an aesthetic-erotic personification of his desires .
German skinheads. but it was clear that most had come to see him for political reasins or simply by chance. It is presented as symbolic of a social apathy towards poetry and a widespread absorption in the superficial and sensational. they were quick to take an interest in his death. a concretization of a desired object that renders his art redundant. So Bill finds that the very quest of the author for literary expression is interfered with by the immediacy of audiovisual media and the sensationalism of news---„we‟re giving way to terror. 386) As final as death of the man is his death as an author here. to news of terror. to tape recorders and cameras. in marked contrast to their detailed recollection of the charcoal-coloured coat he had never taken off. Turkish nationalists. This sort of death of the author has to do with a social condition where authors find themselves dissociated for their works. I heard quite a few conspiracy theories: he‟d been assassinated by the Islamists. and effectively kills them.not simply an unfortunate accident. as it is in Barthes‟s „death of the author‟. Different as these portrayals of fictional authors are. 154] kinds of producers and products which are more successful. despite his own perception of having achieved self-realization. Those other kinds of producers and products. in a way that authors and their literary products are unable to work against or alongside---which defeats and ultimately co-opts these authors and their works. Giles‟s forbidden desires are actually never really . though they were uninterested in Ka‟s life and work. in a way. where authors are misrecognized or simply not recognized in their works. derive from the contemporary Zeitgest--the late twentieth---and early twenty-first-century socio-cultural ethos. MIT. to bombs stashed in radios‟----so that not only is literature itself rendered ineffective. The slippages between authors and literature and world. the Armenians. and mould consumer expectations. the Kurds. In all three cited instances the relationship between author and work and reader is interfered with by the pervasiveness of audiovisually-centered media. In these (and there are other similar accounts) it is not so much the idea of the author is in doubt or is being undermined. his pale complexion. is consistently maintained. They could tell little about his poems. on the contrary. his unkempt hair and his nervous mannerisms. where authorial aspirations simply cannot be realizied through their works because literature is itself dissociated from the world. and the immediacy with which global realities circulate through these. If the surge of Ascherbach‟s forbidden desires in Venice was a sort of culmination of his literary aesthetic sensibility. However. to radios. they all seem to subscribe to a similar anxiety about authorship and sense of impotence or irrelevance of the author. as a quest for ideal of literary expression. The possibility of authorial achievement forms a palpable horizon against which the defeat of the author. from this perspective. disenchantment grips writing istefl. another sort of death of the author is diserned. fails in his ability to come to grips with the contemporary world and to communicate with it because his vocation is in competition with other [end of p. (Pamuk  2004. media producers and their primarily audio-visual products simply reconstitute the social sense of the world. Each fictional author. as a unity of authorial intention and language. the notion of authorship as a process of self-realizatyion. When the narrator approaches the audiences of some of Ka‟s poetry readings in the hope of recovering some of the lost lines he finds: Most of those who attended these literary evenings had been present for Ka‟s poetry reading.
. Globalization and Literature. has something to do with the place of literature in the late twentieth. Ka‟s poems simply miss their mark and fail to make any impression on audiences who are absorbed by the visual surfaces and sensational conspiracies that they have grown accustomed to consuming. The defeat of the author described above is redolent with the oppression of a particular historically contingent consuming culture. 151-156) Bibliography Gupta. 2009. Cambridge: Polity Press. Globalization and Literature. Not irrelevantly. Suman. 2009.and early twentyfirst-cntury socio-cultural marketplace. 155] culture. pp. the British Giles in the United States. or that is expressed through these fictional authors." Gupta. with modes of production and selling and buying of [end of p. and his literary vocation loses out not to a real object of desire but to a simulation thereof. in tune with the object of desire that Giles finds in teenage flicks and teenybopper magazines. Suman. Ka is able to hit a pitch of perfect poetic selfexpression only when he is cut off in Kars from the wirder and immersed in a discrete microcosm where ideologies and personalities meld into each other and the newsworthy political world becomes immediate and tangible. In other words. Giles‟s literary sensibility. "The Globalization of Literature. Once that temporary condition ceases to obtain. 151-170. with the kind of consciousness that is both moulded and catered for by culture industries. "Literary Studies and Globalization. and the Turkish Ka in Germany. Gilet discovers. Fictionally here the ideals of literature and authorship give way to the thrust of cultural technologies and commodificatons hat marks the theory and practice of late twentieth-century globalization.concretized.” (Gupta. Suman. Suman. 62-96. Gupta." Gupta. in late twentieth-century global capitalism. I choose the word ‘marketplace’ here advisedly. out of synch with the contemporar y world to begin with. the death of authors in the above occurs literally across boundaries. Cambridge: Polity Press. and the kind of literary „death of the author‟ that is performed in these fictions. away from the confines and comforts of „home‟---the American Bill dies in Lebanon. is really defeated by a trite and adolescent media-driven sensibility. The reality of Benstock in Long Island is not. […] The anxiety of authorship that these fictional authors express.
Search: Death of the artist. implied reader. book entitled Literature and the Internet. Don DeLillo‟s Mao II (1991) .