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A Master and Slave Control Strategy for Parallel Operation of Three-Phase UPS Systems with Different Ratings

Woo-Cheol Lee, Taeck-Ki Lee Sang-Hoon Lee, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Dong-Seok Hyun Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering HanKyong National University HanYang University AnSung, Kyonggi-do, Korea Seoul, Korea woocheol@hnu.hankyong.ac.kr sanghoon@ihanyang.ac.kr Abstract Parallel operation of UPS system has been used to increase power capacity of the system or to secure reliable supply of power to critical loads. During parallel operation, load sharing control to maintain the current balance is critical for reliable operation, since load sharing is very sensitive to differences in components of each module such as amplitude /phase difference, line impedance, and output LC filters. To solve these problems various control algorithms have been researched. However, these methods cannot be applied to UPS systems with different ratings. For this case, master and slave control algorithms for parallel operation is adequate. If the ratings of UPS systems are different, the value of passive LC filters will be different, and it will affect current sharing. This paper presents the general problems associated with parallel operation of UPS systems, and control strategy for parallel operation with different ratings. The validity of the proposed control strategy is investigated through simulation and experiment with two UPS systems. Keywords-component; Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), Parallel Operation, Load-sharing Control In-Young Suh Power&Industrial Systems R&D Center Hyosung Corporation Seoul, Korea iysuh@hyosung.com

expansion of the system. Another disadvantage is that these kinds of parallel operation methods could not be applied to UPS systems with different ratings. In this paper, a current sharing control strategy is introduced to solve some of the existing problems with conventional parallel operation. The system consists of a master and a slave UPS. The master UPS provides CVCF (constant voltage, constant frequency) output. The slave UPS added in parallel operation tracks and follows the current reference acquired from the load current. If the slave UPS regulates the output voltage simultaneously with the master UPS without applying adequate controls that were mentioned previously, a circulation current will be generated due to the difference in amplitude and phase difference of the voltages of the master and slave UPS systems. However, this problem can be solved, if the slave UPS performs only current sharing control. This will allow parallel operation of UPS systems with different ratings. Values of parameters such as passive filters (L, C) for UPS systems are not identical for different rating. This affects current sharing and it is difficult to achieve precise current sharing between systems that are operated in parallel. To solve this problem a phase control algorithm is proposed If the master UPS fails during operation, the slave UPS can also control the output voltage by changing the operation mode from a current control to a voltage control within the operating limits of the slave UPS. Therefore, a higher reliability can be guaranteed. In this paper, general problems that need to be considered for parallel operation of UPS systems with different ratings are also presented. The solution is discussed in detail. II. GENERAL PROBLEMS OF PARALLEL OPERATION

I.

INTRODUCTION

Recently, the use of critical loads such as computers, medical equipment, process controllers, and data processing systems has steadily increased. These critical loads are sensitive to voltage variations and other power quality related problems. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems that can supply reliable power to critical loads during power quality events are one of the most popular solutions used in dealing with power quality problems [1]. UPS systems are used in parallel configuration frequently to increase total power capacity of the system or to secure a higher reliability at critical loads [2] [3]. During parallel operation, the load sharing control to maintain the current balance is critical. The load sharing is very sensitive to differences between each UPS module such as amplitude/phase difference, line impedance, and output LC filter. Various methods of parallel operation to increase the total capacity rating and reliability have been researched, including power deviation compensation, voltage/frequency droop method and instantaneous modulation control [4] [5] [6]. However, in these methods, the output voltages of all the modules in parallel need to be synchronized exactly in frequency, phase and amplitude to guarantee identical equality of load sharing. Otherwise, the output current may contain reactive circular components, that is, circulating currents. This can result in decrease of system capability, malfunction and damage to the parallel operation system [7]. Thus, parallel operation schemes are difficult to implement and provide

For the analysis of effects due to amplitude/phase differences in output voltages of different UPS systems, a perphase equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 1. V1 , V2 , I1 and I 2 are the output voltages/currents of UPS1 and UPS2.

Vo 0
jX 1 I1 Io I2 jX 2

V1 1
UPS1

Zo

V2 2
UPS2

Figure 1. Per-phase equivalent circuit

0-7803-8269-2/$17.00 (C) 2004 IEEE.

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If the output impedance of the UPS is inductive, the active and reactive powers can be expressed as

Pi =
Qi =

ViVo sin i Xi
ViVo cos i Vo Xi
2

(1)

(2)

If the amplitude/phase differences occur in output voltage without adequate control, the output current of the UPS is increased to provide the constant load current. This will decrease the system efficiency, and may cause damage to the power devices in the paralleled UPS systems. To solve these problems, various compensation methods have been researched, but ware still not able to operate UPS systems with different ratings in parallel. III. THE PROPOSED METHOD

where, i = 1 or 2.

A. Problems due to phase difference ( V1 = V2 , 1 2 )

Equation (1) shows the active power ( Pi ) is predominately dependent on the power angle. Fig. 2 shows the current peak values for various phase difference is 2 1 = 0 ~ 10 .
15 12 9 6 3 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Fig. 4 shows the equivalent circuit of the proposed method. The system consists of a master and slave UPS. They are represented as constant sinusoidal voltage source and currentcontrolled current source, respectively.

current peak value(A)

Io I2 I1

Im

Is1

Is2

Isn

Io

Load
Voltage source (master UPS) Current-controlled sources (slave UPSs)

Ph a s e dif f e re n ce ( de g re e )

Figure 4. The proposed equivalent circuit

Figure 2. Currents by phase difference

Fig. 2 shows the current of the UPS2 increases in proportion to the phase difference, while the current of the UPS1 decreases.
B. Problems due to amplitude difference ( V1 V2 , 1 = 2 )

A. Master UPS The master UPS provides a constant voltage and a constant frequency output (CVCF). Fig. 5 presents the voltage control scheme of the master UPS. As shown in Fig. 5, it consists of a voltage-controller and a current-controller.

Equation (2) shows the reactive power (Qi ) is predominately dependent on the voltage amplitude. Fig. 3 shows the current peak values for various amplitude V V differences where 2 1 100 = 0 ~ 10(%) . V1

SVPWM

I1 L
3/2
ds-qs to de-qe

Ild

Vo

LOAD

3/2
ds-qs to de-qe

3/2
ds-qs to de-qe

de-qe to ds-qs

Current controller

I1 I1*

Vo
Voltage controller
C d dt

15

V 1*

d dt

Vo *

Current peak value(A)

12 9 6 3 0 0% 2% 4% 6% 8%

Io I2 I1

Vo

Prediction

Figure 5. The block diagram of the master UPS

10%

The output voltage reference can be written as

A m plitu de diffe re n ce (% )

Figure 3. Currents by amplitude difference

Fig. 3 shows the current of UPS2 increases in proportion to the amplitude difference of the two output voltages.

Voa * E sin t * * Vo = Vob = E sin(t 2 / 3) V * E sin(t + 2 / 3) oc

(3)

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Measured output voltage Voa Vob Voc Reference output voltage Voa* Vob* Voc* Measured load current Iald Ibld Icld

Voqs

3/2
Vods
*

ds-qs to de-qe

LPF LPF Low-pass filter

Voqe Voqe Vode Voqe*

Prediction

Voqe Ildqe
*

I1qe I1qe*

PI wC wC PI

PI wL wL PI
I1de

Voqs

3/2
Vods Ildqs
*

ds-qs to de-qe

Voqe*

V1qe*

Vode* Ildqe

Vode

I1de* Ildde*
Prediction

V1de*

Mater UPS

3/2
Ildds Stationary Ref. Frame

ds-qs to de-qe
Rotatory Ref. Frame

LPF LPF

Vode Ildde

Vode

Figure 6. Control block diagram of the master UPS

Equation (3) is converted to a d-q rotating frame and derived as constant value
* Voqe E * * = = Vo = CV o * Vode 0

The final voltage reference of the master UPS can be written as V1qe = Vo qe + K PI ( I1qe I1qe ) + LI1de V1de = Vo de + K PI ( I1de I1de ) LI1qe
where, K PI : PI gain of controller
* * * * *

(4)

(7)

cos t 2 where, C = sin t 3 1/ 2

cos(t 2 / 3) cos(t + 2 / 3) sin(t 2 / 3) sin(t + 2 / 3) 1/ 2 1/ 2

The voltage-controller compares the measured output * voltage Vo with the voltage reference Vo and then compensates the errors. In order to improve the system performance by eliminating the harmful effects caused by load current disturbances, load current predictive feed-forward loops are used. The load current predictive feed-forward loop can be calculated as,

B. Slave UPS In order to eliminate the circulation current caused by amplitude and phase difference, the slave UPS performs only current sharing control. Fig. 7 shows a current control scheme of the slave UPS. The current reference of each slave UPS is synthesized from the load current, since the current reference is obtained from the load current.

SVPWM

I2 L 3/2
ds-qs to de-qe

Ild Vo

LOAD

I ld (k + 1) = 3[ I ld (k ) I ld (k 1)] + I ld (k 2)

(5)
de-qe to ds-qs

3/2
ds-qs to de-qe

In addition, voltage feed-forward loops are included to decouple the d-q voltage values. Using feed-forward loops improves dynamic characteristics during load variations. The output of the voltage-controller (current reference) can be written as
I1qe = I ld qe + K PI (Vo qe Vo qe ) + CVo de I1de = I ld de + K PI (Vo de Vode ) CVoqe
* * * * * * * *

Current controller

I2 I2*

V2* Vo

d dt

1/k

Figure 7. The block diagram of the slave UPS

(6) The detailed control block diagram of the slave UPS is shown in Fig. 8. The current reference can be expressed as

where, I ld : load current estimate, K PI : PI gain of controller

The current-controller compares the current of the master * UPS I1 with the output of the voltage-controller I1 , these errors are compensated with a PI controller. Therefore the controller adds the compensated value to the output voltage to * generate the voltage reference V1 of the master UPS. Fig. 6 represents the control block diagram in detail.

I 2 qe = I 2 de =
*

I ld qe I ld de

k k

+ CVoqe CVode

(8)

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Reference output voltage Voa* Vob* Voc* Measured load current Iald Ibld Icld Voqs*

3/2
Vods* Ildqs

ds-qs to de-qe

Voqe* Ildqe Vode*

wC 1/k
I2qe*

I2qe

Voqe

PI
wL

V2qe*

3/2
Ildds Stationary Ref. Frame

ds-qs to de-qe
Rotatory Ref. Frame

LPF LPF

Ildqe Ildde Ildde

wL 1/k wC
I2de*

Slave UPS
V2de*

PI
I2de

Low-pass filter

Vode

Figure 8. Control block diagram of the slave UPS

In equation (8), the constant k , which determines current sharing value of the slave UPS depends on the capacity rating of the slave UPS. For example, parallel operation with two UPSs, where k = 2 , the load sharing is divided equally, and if k = 3 , the load -sharing is divided with a ration of two to one. Therefore, parallel operation of UPS systems with different ratings is available.
The current-controller compares the measured current of * slave UPS I 2 with the current reference I 2 , and then compensates these errors. Therefore, the controller adds the compensated value to the output voltage to generate the voltage * reference V2 of the slave UPS. Finally, the voltage reference of the slave UPS can be written as V2 qe = Vo qe + K PI ( I 2 qe I 2 qe ) + LI 2 de V2 de = Vo de + K PI ( I 2 de I 2 de ) LI 2 qe
where, K PI : PI gain of controller
* * * * *

I 3 + (n 1) I 2 =

Vo + Vo jC2 (n 1) R

(12)

The current-controller has a characteristic of a first order filter. Thus, the current of slave UPS follows the current reference by the first order filter with time constant ().
I2 = Io 1 1 + j (13)

These equations are used to determine the voltage transfer function F ( s ) = Vo ( s ) / V1 ( s ) that is needed to analyze the frequency response. The voltage transfer function can be written as
F (s) = Vo = V1 s + n s {( m + 1) L1C1 } + s {L1C1 (mn m + n) +
3 2

(9)

L1 L )} + s ( 1 + ) + n R R

(14)
where, n: total number of UPSs, m: proportion coefficient (mC1=C2), : time constant

During master UPS failures, the output voltage cannot be controlled. To solve the problem, one of the slave UPSs added for parallel operation changes the operation mode from current control to voltage control within the capacity rating of the slave UPS. Therefore, constant output voltage can be achieved while guaranteeing higher reliability. C. Frequency Response The simplified circuit of the parallel operation is presented in Fig. 9. The circuit can be described by equations (10)-(12).

The corresponding bode plots are presented in Fig. 10. The parameters used are R = 20 , L1 = 2mH , C1 = 8.8F , m = 2 , n = 1,2,10 . The gain of the current controller is set to be 100 at f = 60 Hz . Also, the time constant is set to a very small value ( = 26.5s ) . From the bode plots, it is clear that even 10 UPSs in parallel leads only to a small change of the bode plots, and phase and gain margins are sufficient. Therefore, there is no problem in the controller design.

I1

I3 Io

L1

L2
C2
Slave (n-1)

(n - 1)I 2

n=10 n=2 n=1

V1
Master

C1

Vo R
Load

Figure 9. The simplified circuit of the parallel operation

V1 = Vo + I1 jL1 I 3 = I1 Vo jC1

(10) (11)

n=10

n=2

n=1

Figure 10. Bode plots of the transfer function

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IV.

PROBLEM IN PARALLEL OPERATION RATING

Generally, each UPS system of different ratings has different output LC filters [8]. Therefore, in parallel operation of different ratings, phase difference of the output current caused by different LC filters can occur. Fig. 11 shows the current root mean square (RMS) values for various phase difference of the current. As shown in Fig. 11, the slave current I s is constant, because the output current of the slave UPS is controlled with constant magnitude. The load current I o is also constant, because the master UPS provides the constant output voltage. However, the master current I m increases, because the phase difference of the current in the master and the slave UPS exists. I s is controlled to be constant, thus I m must be increased to provide constant I o .

filters (LPF). The phase difference between I o and I s is compensated with the PI controller. As shown in Fig. 13, a switch (S/W) is presented. In the normal state, the switch is in the on state, and the angle reference of the slave UPS is generated by adding the compensation of the phase difference to the angle of the source voltage. The phase of I o depends on the output voltage controlled by the master UPS. During master UPS failure, the switch goes into the off state. The slave UPS which is responsible for the output voltage should follow the phase of the input voltage, I s is synchronized with the input source.

PLL circuit Input Source Zero crossing Mater UPS breakdown

Master UPS angle Reference

30 25
Current rms value(A)

Io

LPF

PI

S/W
Normal mode

Io Im Is
I m : m aster cu rr en t I o : lo ad cu rren t
0 5 10 15 20

Slave UPS angle Reference

20 15 10 5 0

Is

LPF

Zero crossing

Io : load current

Is : slave current

I s : sla v e cu r ren t

Figure 13. Proposed control block diagram for phase synchronization

Ph as e di ffe re n ce (de gre e )

V.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Figure 11. Currents by phase difference

Fig. 12 shows the relation between I m , I s and I o . As shown in Fig. 12, the magnitude of I m decreases as the phase difference between I s and I o becomes smaller. Fig. 12(b) shows the ideal load-sharing condition. The circle is traced by the locus of the I s . Therefore, increases in I m caused by different LC filters decreases the capacity and efficiency of the whole power system. In order to solve the problem, I s must be synthesized with I o .
I o = Im+ I s Vo Is Io (b)
Io : load current

In order to verify the proposed strategy, the control system was implemented using a digital signal processor. (DSP TMS320C31) The system configuration is shown in Fig. 14. The parameters used in the experiment are shown in Table 1.
TABLE I.
Parameters Output Voltage DC-link Voltage Switching Frequency L1 / L2 C 1 / C2

SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Value 110 (V) / 60 (Hz) 320 (V) 8 (KHz) 0.6 / 1.2 (mH) 125 / 60 () 10 / 5 () 24 ()

Vo Is Im Io

Resistor load Rectifier load

Im (a)

Im : master current Is : slave current

Figure 12. The phase diagram

Fig. 13 shows the controller for phase synchronization. The controller detects the phases of I o and I s through low pass

Fig. 15 and 16 are experimental results for identical ratings (where k = 2 ). Fig. 15 shows waveforms of the voltage and current when the slave UPS is put into operation while the master UPS is in operation. A resistor and a rectifier load are used. Even when the slave UPS is not in operation, the slave current I sa exists because of capacitor C 2 . It illustrates that the proposed method produces good load sharing even with nonlinear loads and has very fast transient response.

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Input source

M aster UPS

L1

I ma I mb I mc

V oa V ob V oc

Ioa Iob Ioc

NFB 4

R ld

L ld

NFB 1

NFB 2

C1

NFB 5

L2

I sa Isb I sc

Slave UPS

NFB 3

C2
NFB 6

Rectifier Load

Figure 14. The configuration of system

I ma corresponds with the phase of I sa as shown with the second arrow(number 2), and I ma is derived through synchronization.

Figure 15. Experimental results during slave UPS startup (k=2) (Voa : Output voltage, Ima : master current, Isa : slave current, Ioa : load current)

Figure 17. Experimental results for phase synchronization (k=3) (Voa : Output voltage, Ima : master current, Isa : slave current, Ioa : load current)

Figure 16. Experimental results for load variation (k=2) (Voa : Output voltage, Ima : master current, Isa : slave current, Ioa : load current)

Fig. 16 shows experimental results for load variation from 15[A] to 20[A]. It illustrates excellent characteristic for load variation in the steady state. Fig. 17 shows the transient state during phase synchronization. The phase difference of currents I ma and I sa exists as shown with the first arrow(number 1). When the controller for phase synchronization is activated, the phase of

Figure 18. Experimental results for different rating (k=3) (Voa : Output voltage, Ima : master current, Isa : slave current, Ioa : load current)

In Fig. 18, experimental results for different ratings are shown. (where k = 3 ) As shown Fig. 18, the load sharing is divided with the ratio of two to one. Despite different ratings,

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the phase of I ma corresponds with the phase of I sa due to the proposed phase controller. Thus, parallel operation of different ratings is available.

The slave UPS added for parallel operation is used to trace the distributed current. The parallel operation of UPS systems with different ratings is available. The problem of phase difference between the master and slave UPS current is overcome using a controller for phase synchronization. Even during master UPS failure, constant output voltage is still provided.

Although satisfactory results were obtained, further research will be done regarding the imbalance of load currents.

REFERENCES
[1] Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undeland, William P. Robbins, Power Electronics, Converters, Applications, and Designs, John Wiley & Sons, 1989. [2] D. Shanxu, M. Yu, X. Jian, K. Young and C. Jian, Parallel operation control technique of voltage source inverters in UPS, IEEE Int. Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, PEDS '99. vol. 2, pp. 883-887, July 1999. [3] A. Tuladhar, H. Jin, T. Uger, and K. Mauch, Control of parallel inverters in distributed ac power systems with consideration of the line impedance effect, Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1998. APEC '98. Conference Proceedings 1998., Thirteenth Annual, vol. 1, pp. 321-328, 1998. [4] T. Kawabata and S. Higashino, Parallel operation of voltage source inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 281-287, Mar./Apr. 1988. [5] A. Tuladhar, H. Jin, T. Unger and K. Mauch, Parallel operation of single phase inverter modules with no control interconnections, IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, APEC97 vol. 1, pp. 94-100. [6] J. Holtz and K. H. Werner, Multi-Inverter UPS system with redundant load sharing control, Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 37, Issue. 6, pp. 506-513, Dec. 1990. [7] T. G. Koo, Y. B. Byun, K. Y. Joe, J. I. Seo, D. H. Kim, and C. U. Kim, Wireless parallel operation control of a two-module UPS system for equivalent load sharing, Industrial Electronics Society, IECON2000, vol. 4 , pp. 2291-2296, 2000. [8] J. Kim, S. H. Lee and J. H. Choi, Output LC filter design for UPS inverter considering the response of system, KIEE Transactions on, vol. 50B, no. 7, July 2001. [9] J. H. Choi and B. J. Kim, Improved digital control scheme of three phase UPS inverter using double control strategy, APEC '97, Conference Proceedings 1997, vol. 2, pp. 820-824, 1997. [10] J. F. Chen and C. L. Chu, Combination voltage-controlled and currentcontrolled PWM inverter for UPS parallel operation, Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10 Issue.5, pp. 547-558, Sep. 1995.

Figure 19. Experimental results during master UPS failure (k=2) (Voa : Output voltage, Ima : master current, Isa : slave current, Ioa : load current)

Fig. 19 shows the waveforms of the voltage and the current at during master UPS failure while the master and slave UPS are in operation. Even after master UPS failure, the master current I ma exists because of capacitor C1 . Although the master UPS is out of order, the output voltage is controlled to be constant by the slave UPS. Thus, higher reliability can be guaranteed. From the experimental results, the validity of the proposed method is shown.

VI.

CONCLUSION

Generally, parallel operation of UPSs is used to increase power capacity or to secure higher reliability at critical loads. This paper presents the problems caused by parallel operation, and the control strategy for parallel operation of three-phase UPS systems. The features of the proposed control strategy are summarized as follows

The parallel operation system consists of a master and slave UPS. The master UPS provides CVCF output.

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