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Relion 670 series

Generator protection REG670 Technical reference manual

Document ID: 1MRK 502 027-UEN Issued: December 2012 Revision: B Product version: 1.2

Copyright 2012 ABB. All rights reserved

Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party, nor used for any unauthorized purpose. The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.

Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. All other brand or product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
ABB AB Substation Automation Products SE-721 59 Vsters Sweden Telephone: +46 (0) 21 32 50 00 Facsimile: +46 (0) 21 14 69 18 http://www.abb.com/substationautomation

Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties. All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and acceptable, including that any applicable safety or other operational requirements are complied with. In particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/ or product failure would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but not limited to personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the person or entity applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby requested to ensure that all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks. This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in no event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use of this manual or the application of the equipment.

Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95/EC). This conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in accordance with the product standards EN 50263 and EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive, and with the product standards EN 60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage directive. The product is designed in accordance with the international standards of the IEC 60255 series.

Table of contents

Table of contents
Section 1 Introduction.....................................................................25
Introduction to the technical reference manual.................................25 About the complete set of manuals for an IED............................25 About the technical reference manual.........................................26 This manual.................................................................................27 Introduction.............................................................................27 Principle of operation..............................................................27 Input and output signals.........................................................30 Function block........................................................................30 Setting parameters.................................................................30 Technical data........................................................................31 Intended audience.......................................................................31 Related documents......................................................................31 Revision notes.............................................................................32

Section 2

Analog inputs..................................................................33
Introduction.......................................................................................33 Operation principle...........................................................................33 Function block..................................................................................34 Setting parameters...........................................................................34

Section 3

Local HMI.......................................................................41
Human machine interface ................................................................41 Small size HMI..................................................................................43 Small............................................................................................43 Design.........................................................................................43 Medium size graphic HMI.................................................................45 Medium........................................................................................45 Design.........................................................................................45 Keypad.............................................................................................47 LED...................................................................................................48 Introduction..................................................................................48 Status indication LEDs................................................................48 Indication LEDs...........................................................................48 Local HMI related functions..............................................................49 Introduction..................................................................................49 General setting parameters.........................................................50 Status LEDs.................................................................................50 Design....................................................................................50 Function block........................................................................50
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Input and output signals.........................................................50 Indication LEDs...........................................................................51 Introduction.............................................................................51 Design....................................................................................51 Function block........................................................................58 Input and output signals.........................................................58 Setting parameters.................................................................58

Section 4

Basic IED functions........................................................61


Authorization.....................................................................................61 Principle of operation...................................................................61 Authorization handling in the IED...........................................62 Self supervision with internal event list.............................................63 Introduction..................................................................................63 Principle of operation...................................................................63 Internal signals.......................................................................65 Run-time model......................................................................67 Function block.............................................................................68 Output signals..............................................................................68 Setting parameters......................................................................68 Technical data.............................................................................69 Time synchronization........................................................................69 Introduction..................................................................................69 Principle of operation...................................................................69 General concepts...................................................................69 Real-time clock (RTC) operation............................................72 Synchronization alternatives..................................................73 Function block.............................................................................76 Output signals..............................................................................76 Setting parameters......................................................................76 Technical data.............................................................................79 Parameter setting groups.................................................................79 Introduction..................................................................................79 Principle of operation...................................................................79 Function block.............................................................................81 Input and output signals..............................................................81 Setting parameters......................................................................82 ChangeLock function CHNGLCK.....................................................82 Introduction..................................................................................82 Principle of operation...................................................................82 Function block.............................................................................83 Input and output signals..............................................................83 Setting parameters......................................................................83 Test mode functionality TEST..........................................................83

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Introduction..................................................................................83 Principle of operation...................................................................84 Function block.............................................................................85 Input and output signals..............................................................86 Setting parameters......................................................................86 IED identifiers...................................................................................86 Introduction..................................................................................86 Setting parameters......................................................................87 Product information..........................................................................87 Introduction..................................................................................87 Setting parameters......................................................................87 Factory defined settings..............................................................87 Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI................................................88 Introduction..................................................................................88 Principle of operation...................................................................88 Function block.............................................................................89 Input and output signals..............................................................89 Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO ...........................................90 Introduction..................................................................................90 Principle of operation...................................................................90 Function block.............................................................................90 Input and output signals..............................................................91 Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI....................................................91 Introduction..................................................................................91 Principle of operation...................................................................91 Function block.............................................................................92 Input and output signals..............................................................92 Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI...............................................92 Introduction..................................................................................92 Principle of operation...................................................................93 Frequency values........................................................................93 Function block.............................................................................94 Input and output signals..............................................................95 Setting parameters......................................................................96 Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM................................................97 Introduction..................................................................................98 Principle of operation...................................................................98 Function block.............................................................................98 Input and output signals..............................................................98 Setting parameters......................................................................99 Authority status ATHSTAT...............................................................99 Introduction..................................................................................99 Principle of operation...................................................................99
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Function block...........................................................................100 Output signals............................................................................100 Setting parameters....................................................................100 Denial of service DOS....................................................................100 Introduction................................................................................100 Principle of operation.................................................................100 Function blocks..........................................................................101 Signals.......................................................................................101 Settings......................................................................................102

Section 5

Differential protection...................................................103
Generator differential protection GENPDIF ...................................103 Introduction................................................................................103 Principle of operation.................................................................104 Function calculation principles.............................................105 Fundamental frequency differential currents........................105 Supplementary criteria.........................................................109 Harmonic restrain.................................................................112 Cross-block logic scheme....................................................112 Function block...........................................................................116 Input and output signals............................................................116 Setting parameters....................................................................117 Technical data...........................................................................118 Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and T3WPDIF ........119 Introduction ...............................................................................119 Principle of operation.................................................................121 Function calculation principles.............................................122 Logic diagram.......................................................................144 Function block...........................................................................150 Input and output signals............................................................151 Setting parameters....................................................................154 Technical data...........................................................................159 Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance REFPDIF ..........160 Introduction................................................................................160 Operation principle....................................................................161 Fundamental principles of the restricted earthfault protection..............................................................................161 Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance differential protection............................................................164 Calculation of differential current and bias current...............165 Detection of external earth faults..........................................167 Algorithm of the restricted earth fault protection...................168 Function block...........................................................................169 Input and output signals............................................................170

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Setting parameters....................................................................170 Technical data...........................................................................171 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF .....................171 Identification..............................................................................171 Introduction................................................................................171 Principle of operation.................................................................172 Logic diagram.......................................................................172 Function block...........................................................................173 Input and output signals............................................................173 Setting parameters....................................................................173 Technical data...........................................................................174

Section 6

Impedance protection ..................................................175


Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic ZMHPDIS ......................................................................................175 Introduction................................................................................175 Principle of operation.................................................................175 Full scheme measurement...................................................175 Impedance characteristic.....................................................176 Basic operation characteristics.............................................177 Theory of operation..............................................................179 Simplified logic diagrams......................................................187 Function block...........................................................................190 Input and output signals............................................................191 Setting parameters....................................................................192 Technical data...........................................................................193 Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR.......................................................................................193 Introduction................................................................................194 Principle of operation.................................................................194 Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR.............................................................................194 Function block...........................................................................197 Input and output signals............................................................197 Setting parameters....................................................................197 Pole slip protection PSPPPAM ......................................................198 Introduction................................................................................198 Principle of operation.................................................................199 Function block...........................................................................203 Input and output signals............................................................203 Setting parameters....................................................................204 Technical data...........................................................................204 Loss of excitation LEXPDIS............................................................205 Introduction................................................................................205
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Principle of operation.................................................................205 Function block...........................................................................210 Input and output signals............................................................210 Setting parameters....................................................................211 Technical data...........................................................................212 Sensitive rotor earth fault protection, injection based ROTIPHIZ ......................................................................................212 Introduction................................................................................212 Principle of operation.................................................................212 The injection unit REX060....................................................214 Rotor Earth Fault Protection function...................................215 General measurement of earth fault impedance..................216 Simplified logic diagram.......................................................218 Commissioning tool ICT.......................................................220 Description of input signals........................................................223 Description of output signals.....................................................223 Function block...........................................................................225 Input and output signals............................................................225 Setting parameters....................................................................226 Technical data...........................................................................227 100% stator earth fault protection, injection based STTIPHIZ .......227 Introduction................................................................................228 Principle of operation.................................................................228 Configuration principle..........................................................229 Generator system earthing methods....................................231 100% Stator earth fault protection function..........................235 General measurement of earth fault impedance..................239 Measuring reference impedance..........................................241 Simplified logic diagram.......................................................246 The commissioning tool ICT.................................................247 Description of input signals........................................................249 Description of output signals.....................................................250 Function block...........................................................................251 Input and Output signals............................................................252 Setting parameters....................................................................252 Technical data...........................................................................254

Section 7

Current protection.........................................................255
Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output PHPIOC .........................................................................................255 Introduction................................................................................255 Principle of operation.................................................................255 Function block...........................................................................256 Input and output signals............................................................256

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Setting parameters....................................................................256 Technical data...........................................................................257 Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC ......................257 Introduction................................................................................257 Principle of operation.................................................................258 Function block...........................................................................263 Input and output signals............................................................263 Setting parameters....................................................................265 Technical data...........................................................................270 Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC ................271 Introduction................................................................................271 Principle of operation.................................................................271 Function block...........................................................................272 Input and output signals............................................................272 Setting parameters....................................................................272 Technical data...........................................................................273 Four step residual overcurrent protection, zero, negative sequence direction EF4PTOC .......................................................273 Introduction................................................................................273 Principle of operation.................................................................274 Operating quantity within the function..................................274 Internal polarizing.................................................................275 External polarizing for earth-fault function............................277 Base quantities within the protection....................................277 Internal earth-fault protection structure................................278 Four residual overcurrent steps............................................278 Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison function............................................279 Second harmonic blocking element.....................................281 Switch on to fault feature......................................................283 Function block...........................................................................285 Input and output signals............................................................286 Setting parameters....................................................................287 Technical data...........................................................................292 Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC .....................................................................292 Introduction................................................................................293 Principle of operation.................................................................293 Operating quantity within the function..................................293 Internal polarizing facility of the function..............................294 External polarizing for negative sequence function..............295 Base quantities within the function.......................................295 Internal negative sequence protection structure..................296 Four negative sequence overcurrent stages........................296
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Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison function............................................297 Function block...........................................................................300 Input and output signals............................................................300 Setting parameters....................................................................301 Technical data...........................................................................306 Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection SDEPSDE .....................................................................................306 Introduction................................................................................306 Principle of operation.................................................................308 Function inputs.....................................................................308 Function block...........................................................................314 Input and output signals............................................................315 Setting parameters....................................................................316 Technical data...........................................................................318 Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR ...........319 Introduction................................................................................319 Principle of operation.................................................................319 Function block...........................................................................323 Input and output signals............................................................323 Setting parameters....................................................................323 Technical data...........................................................................325 Breaker failure protection CCRBRF ..............................................325 Introduction................................................................................325 Principle of operation.................................................................326 Function block...........................................................................328 Input and output signals............................................................329 Setting parameters....................................................................329 Technical data...........................................................................330 Pole discordance protection CCRPLD ..........................................331 Introduction................................................................................331 Principle of operation.................................................................331 Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker...................334 Unsymmetrical current detection..........................................334 Function block...........................................................................334 Input and output signals............................................................335 Setting parameters....................................................................335 Technical data...........................................................................336 Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP...............................336 Introduction................................................................................336 Principle of operation.................................................................337 Low pass filtering..................................................................339 Calibration of analog inputs..................................................339 Function block...........................................................................340
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Input and output signals............................................................341 Setting parameters....................................................................341 Technical data...........................................................................343 Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP ................................343 Introduction................................................................................343 Principle of operation.................................................................344 Low pass filtering..................................................................346 Calibration of analog inputs..................................................347 Function block...........................................................................348 Input and output signals............................................................349 Setting parameters....................................................................349 Technical data...........................................................................351 Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC ......................................................................................351 Introduction................................................................................351 Principle of operation.................................................................352 Start sensitivity.....................................................................354 Alarm function......................................................................354 Logic diagram.......................................................................355 Function block...........................................................................355 Input and output signals............................................................356 Setting parameters....................................................................356 Technical data...........................................................................357 Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator AEGGAPC......................................................................................358 Introduction ...............................................................................358 Principle of operation.................................................................358 Function block...........................................................................359 Input and output signals............................................................360 Setting parameters....................................................................360 Technical data...........................................................................361

Section 8

Voltage protection........................................................363
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV ................................363 Introduction................................................................................363 Principle of operation.................................................................363 Measurement principle.........................................................364 Time delay............................................................................364 Blocking................................................................................370 Design..................................................................................371 Function block...........................................................................373 Input and output signals............................................................373 Setting parameters....................................................................374 Technical data...........................................................................376
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Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV ..................................377 Introduction................................................................................377 Principle of operation.................................................................377 Measurement principle.........................................................378 Time delay............................................................................378 Blocking................................................................................384 Design..................................................................................384 Function block...........................................................................386 Input and output signals............................................................386 Setting parameters....................................................................387 Technical data...........................................................................389 Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV .................389 Introduction................................................................................390 Principle of operation.................................................................390 Measurement principle.........................................................390 Time delay............................................................................390 Blocking................................................................................396 Design..................................................................................396 Function block...........................................................................397 Input and output signals............................................................398 Setting parameters....................................................................398 Technical data...........................................................................400 Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH ............................................400 Introduction................................................................................401 Principle of operation.................................................................401 Measured voltage.................................................................403 Operate time of the overexcitation protection.......................404 Cooling.................................................................................408 Overexcitation protection function measurands...................408 Overexcitation alarm............................................................409 Logic diagram.......................................................................409 Function block...........................................................................410 Input and output signals............................................................410 Setting parameters....................................................................410 Technical data...........................................................................412 Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV ......................................412 Introduction................................................................................412 Principle of operation.................................................................412 Function block...........................................................................414 Input and output signals............................................................414 Setting parameters....................................................................414 Technical data...........................................................................415

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100% Stator earth fault protection, 3rd harmonic based STEFPHIZ......................................................................................415 Introduction................................................................................416 Principle of operation.................................................................417 Function block...........................................................................422 Input and output signals............................................................423 Setting parameters....................................................................424 Technical data...........................................................................424

Section 9

Frequency protection....................................................425
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF .............................................425 Introduction................................................................................425 Principle of operation.................................................................425 Measurement principle.........................................................426 Time delay............................................................................426 Voltage dependent time delay..............................................426 Blocking................................................................................428 Design..................................................................................428 Function block...........................................................................429 Input and output signals............................................................429 Setting parameters....................................................................429 Technical data...........................................................................430 Overfrequency protection SAPTOF ...............................................430 Introduction................................................................................431 Principle of operation.................................................................431 Measurement principle.........................................................431 Time delay............................................................................431 Blocking................................................................................432 Design..................................................................................432 Function block...........................................................................433 Input and output signals............................................................433 Setting parameters....................................................................433 Technical data...........................................................................434 Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC .............................434 Introduction................................................................................434 Principle of operation.................................................................434 Measurement principle.........................................................435 Time delay............................................................................435 Blocking................................................................................435 Design..................................................................................436 Function block...........................................................................437 Input and output signals............................................................437 Setting parameters....................................................................437 Technical data...........................................................................438
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Section 10 Multipurpose protection................................................439


General current and voltage protection CVGAPC..........................439 Introduction................................................................................439 Inadvertent generator energization......................................440 Principle of operation.................................................................440 Measured quantities within CVGAPC...................................440 Base quantities for CVGAPC function..................................442 Built-in overcurrent protection steps.....................................443 Built-in undercurrent protection steps...................................448 Built-in overvoltage protection steps....................................449 Built-in undervoltage protection steps..................................449 Inadvertent generator energizing.........................................449 Logic diagram.......................................................................451 Function block...........................................................................456 Input and output signals............................................................457 Setting parameters....................................................................458 Technical data...........................................................................466 Rotor earth fault protection.............................................................467 Introduction................................................................................467 Principle of operation.................................................................468 Rotor earth fault....................................................................468 Technical data...........................................................................471

Section 11 Secondary system supervision.....................................473


Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF ............................................473 Introduction................................................................................473 Principle of operation.................................................................473 Function block...........................................................................475 Input and output signals............................................................475 Setting parameters....................................................................476 Technical data...........................................................................476 Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF...............................................476 Introduction................................................................................476 Principle of operation.................................................................477 Zero and negative sequence detection................................477 Delta current and delta voltage detection.............................481 Dead line detection...............................................................483 Main logic.............................................................................483 Function block...........................................................................487 Input and output signals............................................................487 Setting parameters....................................................................487 Technical data...........................................................................488

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Section 12 Control..........................................................................491
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing SESRSYN......................................................................................491 Introduction................................................................................491 Principle of operation.................................................................492 Basic functionality.................................................................492 Logic diagrams.....................................................................492 Function block...........................................................................501 Input and output signals............................................................501 Setting parameters....................................................................504 Technical data...........................................................................507 Apparatus control APC...................................................................508 Introduction................................................................................508 Principle of operation.................................................................508 Error handling............................................................................509 Bay control QCBAY...................................................................511 Introduction...........................................................................511 Principle of operation............................................................511 Function block......................................................................513 Input and output signals.......................................................513 Setting parameters...............................................................514 Local/Remote switch.................................................................514 Introduction...........................................................................514 Principle of operation............................................................514 Function block......................................................................516 Input and output signals.......................................................516 Setting parameters...............................................................517 Switch controller SCSWI...........................................................517 Introduction...........................................................................518 Principle of operation............................................................518 Function block......................................................................523 Input and output signals.......................................................523 Setting parameters...............................................................524 Circuit breaker SXCBR..............................................................524 Introduction...........................................................................525 Principle of operation............................................................525 Function block......................................................................529 Input and output signals.......................................................529 Setting parameters...............................................................530 Circuit switch SXSWI.................................................................530 Introduction...........................................................................530 Principle of operation............................................................530 Function block......................................................................534
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Input and output signals.......................................................534 Setting parameters...............................................................535 Bay reserve QCRSV..................................................................535 Introduction...........................................................................536 Principle of operation............................................................536 Function block......................................................................538 Input and output signals.......................................................539 Setting parameters...............................................................540 Reservation input RESIN...........................................................540 Introduction...........................................................................540 Principle of operation............................................................540 Function block......................................................................542 Input and output signals.......................................................543 Setting parameters...............................................................544 Interlocking ....................................................................................544 Introduction................................................................................544 Principle of operation.................................................................544 Logical node for interlocking SCILO .........................................547 Introduction...........................................................................547 Logic diagram.......................................................................547 Function block......................................................................548 Input and output signals.......................................................548 Interlocking for busbar earthing switch BB_ES .........................548 Introduction...........................................................................549 Function block......................................................................549 Logic diagram.......................................................................549 Input and output signals.......................................................549 Interlocking for bus-section breaker A1A2_BS..........................550 Introduction...........................................................................550 Function block......................................................................551 Logic diagram.......................................................................552 Input and output signals.......................................................553 Interlocking for bus-section disconnector A1A2_DC ................554 Introduction...........................................................................555 Function block......................................................................555 Logic diagram.......................................................................556 Input and output signals.......................................................556 Interlocking for bus-coupler bay ABC_BC ................................557 Introduction...........................................................................557 Function block......................................................................558 Logic diagram.......................................................................559 Input and output signals.......................................................561 Interlocking for 1 1/2 CB BH .....................................................564
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Introduction...........................................................................564 Function blocks....................................................................565 Logic diagrams.....................................................................567 Input and output signals.......................................................572 Interlocking for double CB bay DB ...........................................576 Introduction...........................................................................576 Function block......................................................................577 Logic diagrams.....................................................................579 Input and output signals ......................................................582 Interlocking for line bay ABC_LINE ..........................................585 Introduction...........................................................................585 Function block......................................................................586 Logic diagram.......................................................................587 Input and output signals.......................................................592 Interlocking for transformer bay AB_TRAFO ............................594 Introduction...........................................................................595 Function block......................................................................596 Logic diagram.......................................................................597 Input and output signals.......................................................598 Position evaluation POS_EVAL.................................................600 Introduction...........................................................................600 Logic diagram.......................................................................600 Function block......................................................................601 Input and output signals.......................................................601 Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI presentation SLGGIO.....................................................................601 Introduction................................................................................601 Principle of operation.................................................................601 Functionality and behaviour ................................................603 Graphical display..................................................................603 Function block...........................................................................605 Input and output signals............................................................605 Setting parameters....................................................................606 Selector mini switch VSGGIO.........................................................607 Introduction................................................................................607 Principle of operation.................................................................607 Function block...........................................................................608 Input and output signals............................................................608 Setting parameters....................................................................609 IEC61850 generic communication I/O functions DPGGIO.............609 Introduction................................................................................609 Principle of operation.................................................................609 Function block...........................................................................610
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Input and output signals............................................................610 Settings......................................................................................610 Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GGIO.........................610 Introduction................................................................................610 Principle of operation.................................................................611 Function block...........................................................................611 Input and output signals............................................................611 Setting parameters....................................................................612 AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0 AUTOBITS..........612 Introduction................................................................................613 Principle of operation.................................................................613 Function block...........................................................................614 Input and output signals............................................................614 Setting parameters....................................................................615 Single command, 16 signals SINGLECMD....................................629 Introduction................................................................................629 Principle of operation.................................................................629 Function block...........................................................................630 Input and output signals............................................................630 Setting parameters....................................................................631

Section 13 Logic.............................................................................633
Tripping logic SMPPTRC ...............................................................633 Introduction................................................................................633 Principle of operation.................................................................633 Logic diagram.......................................................................635 Function block...........................................................................638 Input and output signals............................................................638 Setting parameters....................................................................639 Technical data...........................................................................640 Trip matrix logic TMAGGIO............................................................640 Introduction................................................................................640 Principle of operation.................................................................640 Function block...........................................................................642 Input and output signals............................................................642 Setting parameters....................................................................643 Configurable logic blocks................................................................644 Introduction................................................................................644 Inverter function block INV........................................................644 OR function block OR................................................................645 AND function block AND...........................................................646 Timer function block TIMER......................................................646 Pulse timer function block PULSETIMER..................................647 Exclusive OR function block XOR.............................................647
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Loop delay function block LOOPDELAY...................................648 Set-reset with memory function block SRMEMORY.................648 Reset-set with memory function block RSMEMORY.................649 Controllable gate function block GATE......................................650 Settable timer function block TIMERSET..................................651 Technical data...........................................................................652 Fixed signal function block FXDSIGN............................................652 Principle of operation.................................................................652 Function block...........................................................................653 Input and output signals............................................................653 Setting parameters....................................................................653 Boolean 16 to Integer conversion B16I..........................................654 Introduction................................................................................654 Principle of operation.................................................................654 Function block...........................................................................654 Input and output signals............................................................654 Setting parameters....................................................................655 Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node representation B16IFCVI................................................................655 Introduction................................................................................655 Principle of operation.................................................................656 Function block...........................................................................656 Input and output signals............................................................656 Setting parameters....................................................................657 Integer to Boolean 16 conversion IB16..........................................657 Introduction................................................................................657 Principle of operation.................................................................657 Function block...........................................................................658 Input and output signals............................................................658 Setting parameters....................................................................659 Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node representation IB16FCVB...............................................................659 Introduction................................................................................659 Principle of operation.................................................................659 Function block...........................................................................660 Input and output signals............................................................660 Setting parameters....................................................................661

Section 14 Monitoring.....................................................................663
Measurements................................................................................663 Introduction................................................................................664 Principle of operation.................................................................665 Measurement supervision....................................................665 Measurements CVMMXN.....................................................669
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Phase current measurement CMMXU.................................674 Phase-phase and phase-neutral voltage measurements VMMXU, VNMMXU..............................................................675 Voltage and current sequence measurements VMSQI, CMSQI..................................................................................675 Function block...........................................................................675 Input and output signals............................................................677 Setting parameters....................................................................680 Technical data...........................................................................693 Event counter CNTGGIO................................................................694 Identification..............................................................................694 Introduction................................................................................695 Principle of operation.................................................................695 Reporting..............................................................................695 Design..................................................................................695 Function block...........................................................................696 Input signals..............................................................................696 Setting parameters....................................................................697 Technical data...........................................................................697 Event function EVENT....................................................................697 Introduction................................................................................697 Principle of operation.................................................................697 Function block...........................................................................699 Input and output signals............................................................699 Setting parameters....................................................................700 Logical signal status report BINSTATREP.....................................702 Introduction................................................................................702 Principle of operation.................................................................702 Function block...........................................................................703 Input and output signals............................................................703 Setting parameters....................................................................704 Measured value expander block RANGE_XP................................704 Introduction................................................................................705 Principle of operation.................................................................705 Function block...........................................................................705 Input and output signals............................................................705 Disturbance report DRPRDRE.......................................................706 Introduction................................................................................706 Principle of operation.................................................................707 Function block...........................................................................714 Input and output signals............................................................716 Setting parameters....................................................................717 Technical data...........................................................................727 Event list.........................................................................................727
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Introduction................................................................................727 Principle of operation.................................................................727 Function block...........................................................................728 Input signals..............................................................................728 Technical data...........................................................................728 Indications......................................................................................728 Introduction................................................................................728 Principle of operation.................................................................729 Function block...........................................................................730 Input signals..............................................................................730 Technical data...........................................................................730 Event recorder ...............................................................................730 Introduction................................................................................730 Principle of operation.................................................................730 Function block...........................................................................731 Input signals..............................................................................731 Technical data...........................................................................731 Trip value recorder.........................................................................731 Introduction................................................................................731 Principle of operation.................................................................732 Function block...........................................................................732 Input signals..............................................................................732 Technical data...........................................................................733 Disturbance recorder......................................................................733 Introduction................................................................................733 Principle of operation.................................................................733 Memory and storage............................................................734 IEC 60870-5-103..................................................................735 Function block...........................................................................736 Input and output signals............................................................736 Setting parameters....................................................................736 Technical data...........................................................................736

Section 15 Metering.......................................................................737
Pulse-counter logic PCGGIO..........................................................737 Introduction................................................................................737 Principle of operation.................................................................737 Function block...........................................................................739 Input and output signals............................................................740 Setting parameters....................................................................740 Technical data...........................................................................741 Function for energy calculation and demand handling ETPMMTR......................................................................................741 Introduction................................................................................741
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Principle of operation.................................................................741 Function block...........................................................................742 Input and output signals............................................................742 Setting parameters....................................................................743

Section 16 Station communication.................................................745


Overview.........................................................................................745 IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol.........................................745 Setting parameters....................................................................745 Technical data...........................................................................746 IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions SPGGIO, SP16GGIO................................................................................746 Introduction...........................................................................746 Principle of operation............................................................746 Function block......................................................................746 Input and output signals.......................................................747 Setting parameters...............................................................748 IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions MVGGIO.......748 Principle of operation............................................................748 Function block......................................................................748 Input and output signals.......................................................748 Setting parameters...............................................................749 IEC 61850-8-1 redundant station bus communication..............749 Introduction...........................................................................749 Principle of operation............................................................750 Function block......................................................................752 Output signals......................................................................752 Setting parameters...............................................................752 LON communication protocol.........................................................752 Introduction................................................................................752 Principle of operation.................................................................753 Setting parameters....................................................................771 Technical data...........................................................................771 SPA communication protocol.........................................................771 Introduction................................................................................771 Principle of operation.................................................................772 Communication ports...........................................................779 Design.......................................................................................779 Setting parameters....................................................................780 Technical data...........................................................................780 IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol.....................................780 Introduction................................................................................780 Principle of operation.................................................................780 General.................................................................................780
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Communication ports...........................................................790 Function block...........................................................................790 Input and output signals............................................................793 Setting parameters....................................................................798 Technical data...........................................................................801 Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking GOOSEINTLKRCV.........................................................................801 Function block...........................................................................801 Input and output signals............................................................802 Setting parameters....................................................................803 Goose binary receive GOOSEBINRCV..........................................804 Function block...........................................................................804 Input and output signals............................................................804 Setting parameters....................................................................805 Multiple command and transmit MULTICMDRCV, MULTICMDSND.............................................................................805 Introduction................................................................................806 Principle of operation.................................................................806 Design.......................................................................................806 General.................................................................................806 Function block...........................................................................807 Input and output signals............................................................808 Setting parameters....................................................................809

Section 17 Remote communication................................................811


Binary signal transfer......................................................................811 Introduction................................................................................811 Principle of operation.................................................................811 Setting parameters....................................................................812 Transmission of analog data from LDCM LDCMTransmit..............815 Function block...........................................................................815 Input and output signals............................................................815

Section 18 IED hardware...............................................................817


Overview.........................................................................................817 Variants of case and local HMI display size..............................817 Case from the rear side.............................................................820 Hardware modules.........................................................................824 Overview....................................................................................824 Combined backplane module (CBM).........................................825 Introduction...........................................................................825 Functionality.........................................................................825 Design..................................................................................826 Universal backplane module (UBM)..........................................828
21 Technical reference manual

Table of contents

Introduction...........................................................................828 Functionality.........................................................................828 Design..................................................................................828 Numeric processing module (NUM)..........................................830 Introduction...........................................................................830 Functionality.........................................................................830 Block diagram.......................................................................831 Power supply module (PSM).....................................................832 Introduction...........................................................................832 Design..................................................................................832 Technical data......................................................................832 Local human-machine interface (Local HMI).............................833 Transformer input module (TRM)..............................................833 Introduction...........................................................................833 Design..................................................................................833 Technical data......................................................................834 Analog digital conversion module, with time synchronization (ADM) .............................................................835 Introduction...........................................................................835 Design..................................................................................835 Binary input module (BIM).........................................................837 Introduction...........................................................................837 Design..................................................................................837 Technical data......................................................................841 Binary output modules (BOM)...................................................841 Introduction...........................................................................841 Design..................................................................................841 Technical data......................................................................843 Binary input/output module (IOM)..............................................844 Introduction...........................................................................844 Design..................................................................................844 Technical data......................................................................846 mA input module (MIM).............................................................848 Introduction...........................................................................848 Design..................................................................................848 Technical data......................................................................849 Serial and LON communication module (SLM) ........................850 Introduction...........................................................................850 Design..................................................................................850 Technical data......................................................................851 Optical ethernet module (OEM).................................................852 Introduction...........................................................................852 Functionality.........................................................................852
22 Technical reference manual

Table of contents

Design..................................................................................852 Technical data......................................................................853 Line data communication module (LDCM)................................853 Introduction...........................................................................853 Design..................................................................................854 Technical data......................................................................855 GPS antenna.............................................................................856 Introduction...........................................................................856 Design..................................................................................856 Technical data......................................................................857 IRIG-B time synchronization module IRIG-B.............................857 Introduction...........................................................................857 Design..................................................................................857 Technical data......................................................................858 Dimensions.....................................................................................859 Case without rear cover.............................................................859 Case with rear cover..................................................................861 Flush mounting dimensions.......................................................863 Side-by-side flush mounting dimensions...................................864 Wall mounting dimensions.........................................................865 External resistor unit for high impedance differential protection...................................................................................865 External current transformer unit...............................................867 Mounting alternatives.....................................................................867 Flush mounting..........................................................................867 Overview..............................................................................867 Mounting procedure for flush mounting................................868 19 panel rack mounting............................................................869 Overview..............................................................................869 Mounting procedure for 19 panel rack mounting.................870 Wall mounting............................................................................870 Overview..............................................................................870 Mounting procedure for wall mounting.................................871 How to reach the rear side of the IED..................................872 Side-by-side 19 rack mounting.................................................872 Overview..............................................................................872 Mounting procedure for side-by-side rack mounting............873 IED in the 670 series mounted with a RHGS6 case.............873 Side-by-side flush mounting......................................................874 Overview..............................................................................874 Mounting procedure for side-by-side flush mounting...........875 Technical data................................................................................875 Enclosure...................................................................................875
23 Technical reference manual

Table of contents

Connection system....................................................................876 Influencing factors.....................................................................876 Type tests according to standard..............................................877

Section 19 Injection equipment hardware......................................881


Overview.........................................................................................881 Front view of injection unit, coupling capacitor and shunt resitor unit..................................................................................881 Injection unit REX060...........................................................881 REX060 Front panel controls...............................................882 Coupling capacitor unit REX061..........................................883 Shunt resistor unit REX062..................................................884 Injection unit REX060 from rear side.........................................885 Injection unit REX060...........................................................885 Injection unit REX060.....................................................................886 Introduction................................................................................886 Design.......................................................................................886 Coupling capacitor unit REX061.....................................................889 Introduction................................................................................889 Design.......................................................................................889 Shunt resistor unit REX062............................................................890 Introduction................................................................................890 Design.......................................................................................890 Technical data................................................................................892 Hardware...................................................................................892 Type tests according to standards.............................................893 Influencing factors.....................................................................895

Section 20 Labels...........................................................................897
Labels on IED.................................................................................897 Labels on injection equipment........................................................900

Section 21 Connection diagrams...................................................905


Injection equipment........................................................................921

Section 22 Inverse time characteristics..........................................949


Application......................................................................................949 Principle of operation......................................................................952 Mode of operation......................................................................952 Inverse characteristics....................................................................957

Section 23 Glossary.......................................................................983

24 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 1 Introduction

Section 1

Introduction

About this chapter


This chapter explains concepts and conventions used in this manual and provides information necessary to understand the contents of the manual.

1.1
1.1.1

Introduction to the technical reference manual


About the complete set of manuals for an IED
The users manual (UM) is a complete set of five different manuals:
Decommissioning deinstalling & disposal
IEC09000744-1-en.vsd
IEC09000744 V1 EN

Planning & purchase

Commissioning

Engineering

Engineeringmanual Installation and Commissioning manual Operators manual Application manual Technical reference manual

The Application Manual (AM) contains application descriptions, setting guidelines and setting parameters sorted per function. The application manual should be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical protection function could be used. The manual should also be used when calculating settings. The Technical Reference Manual (TRM) contains application and functionality descriptions and it lists function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and technical data sorted per function. The technical reference
25 Technical reference manual

Operation

Installing

Maintenance

Section 1 Introduction

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

manual should be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during normal service. The Installation and Commissioning Manual (ICM) contains instructions on how to install and commission the protection IED. The manual can also be used as a reference during periodic testing. The manual covers procedures for mechanical and electrical installation, energizing and checking of external circuitry, setting and configuration as well as verifying settings and performing directional tests. The chapters are organized in the chronological order (indicated by chapter/section numbers) in which the protection IED should be installed and commissioned. The Operators Manual (OM) contains instructions on how to operate the protection IED during normal service once it has been commissioned. The operators manual can be used to find out how to handle disturbances or how to view calculated and measured network data in order to determine the cause of a fault. The Engineering Manual (EM) contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the different tools in PCM600. The manual provides instructions on how to set up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure. The manual also recommends a sequence for engineering of protection and control functions, LHMI functions as well as communication engineering for IEC 61850 and DNP3.

1.1.2

About the technical reference manual


The following chapters are included in the technical reference manual. Local HMI describes the control panel on the IED and explains display characteristics, control keys and various local HMI features. Basic IED functions presents functions for all protection types that are included in all IEDs, for example, time synchronization, self supervision with event list, test mode and other general functions. Current protection describes functions, for example, over current protection, breaker failure protection and pole discordance. Voltage protection describes functions for under voltage and over voltage protection and residual over voltage protection. Frequency protection describes functions for over frequency, under frequency and rate of change of frequency protection. Multipurpose protection describes the general protection function for current and voltage. Secondary system supervision describes current based functions for current circuit supervision and fuse failure supervision. Control describes control functions, for example, synchronization and energizing check and other product specific functions. Logic describes trip logic and related functions. Monitoring describes measurement related functions that are used to provide data regarding relevant quantities, events and faults, for example. Station communication describes Ethernet based communication in general, including the use of IEC 61850 and horizontal communication via GOOSE. Remote communication describes binary and analog signal transfer, and the associated hardware.
Technical reference manual

26

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 1 Introduction

Hardware describes the IED and its components. Connection diagrams provides terminal wiring diagrams and information regarding connections to and from the IED. Inverse time characteristics describes and explains inverse time delay, inverse time curves and their effects. Glossary is a list of terms, acronyms and abbreviations used in ABB technical documentation.

1.1.3

This manual
The description of each IED related function follows the same structure (where applicable). The different sections are outlined below.

1.1.3.1

Introduction
Outlines the implementation of a particular protection function.

1.1.3.2

Principle of operation
Describes how the function works, presents a general background to algorithms and measurement techniques. Logic diagrams are used to illustrate functionality.

Logic diagrams

Logic diagrams describe the signal logic inside the function block and are bordered by dashed lines. Signal names Input and output logic signals consist of two groups of letters separated by two dashes. The first group consists of up to four letters and presents the abbreviated name for the corresponding function. The second group presents the functionality of the particular signal. According to this explanation, the meaning of the signal BLKTR in figure 4 is as follows: BLKTR informs the user that the signal will BLOCK the TRIP command from the under-voltage function, when its value is a logical one (1).

Input signals are always on the left hand side, and output signals on the right hand side. Settings are not displayed. Input and output signals In a logic diagram, input and output signal paths are shown as a lines that touch the outer border of the diagram. Input and output signals can be configured using the ACT tool. They can be connected to the inputs and outputs of other functions and to binary inputs and outputs. Examples of input signals are BLKTR, BLOCK and VTSU. Examples output signals are TRIP, START, STL1, STL2, STL3.

27 Technical reference manual

Section 1 Introduction

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters Signals in frames with a shaded area on their right hand side represent setting parameter signals. These parameters can only be set via the PST or LHMI. Their values are high (1) only when the corresponding setting parameter is set to the symbolic value specified within the frame. Example is the signal Block TUV=Yes. Their logical values correspond automatically to the selected setting value. Internal signals Internal signals are illustrated graphically and end approximately 2 mm from the frame edge. If an internal signal path cannot be drawn with a continuous line, the suffix -int is added to the signal name to indicate where the signal starts and continues, see figure 1.
BLKTR TEST TEST Block TUV=Yes BLOCK VTSU BLOCK-int. STUL1N BLOCK-int. STUL2N BLOCK-int. STUL3N & & >1 & t & TRIP START STL1 STL2 STL3 & >1

BLOCK-int.

xx04000375.vsd
IEC04000375 V1 EN

Figure 1:

Logic diagram example with -int signals

External signals Signal paths that extend beyond the logic diagram and continue in another diagram have the suffix -cont., see figure 2 and figure 3.

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 1 Introduction

STCND & & & & & &

>1

STZMPP-cont.

STNDL1L2-cont. STNDL2L3-cont. STNDL3L1-cont. STNDL1N-cont. STNDL2N-cont. STNDL3N-cont. >1 STNDPE-cont.

1L1L2 1L2L3 1L3L1 1L1N 1L2N 1L3N

>1 1--VTSZ 1--BLOCK >1 & 1--STND BLK-cont.


xx04000376.vsd
IEC04000376 V1 EN

Figure 2:

Logic diagram example with an outgoing -cont signal

STNDL1N-cont. STNDL2N-cont. STNDL3N-cont. STNDL1L2-cont. STNDL2L3-cont. STNDL3L1-cont.

>1 & >1 & & & 15 ms t 15 ms t 15 ms t 15 ms t STL1 STL2 STL3 START

>1 >1

BLK-cont.
xx04000377.vsd
IEC04000377 V1 EN

Figure 3:

Logic diagram example with an incoming -cont signal

29 Technical reference manual

Section 1 Introduction
1.1.3.3 Input and output signals

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Input and output signals are presented in two separate tables. Each table consists of two columns. The first column contains the name of the signal and the second column contains the description of the signal.

1.1.3.4

Function block
Each function block is illustrated graphically. Input signals are always on the left hand side and output signals on the right hand side. Settings are not displayed. Special kinds of settings are sometimes available. These are supposed to be connected to constants in the configuration scheme and are therefore depicted as inputs. Such signals will be found in the signal list but described in the settings table. The ^ character in front of an input or output signal name in the function block symbol given for a function, indicates that the user can set a signal name of their own in PCM600. The * character after an input or output signal name in the function block symbol given for a function, indicates that the signal must be connected to another function block in the application configuration to achieve a valid application configuration.
IEC 61850 - 8 -1 Logical Node

Mandatory signal (*) Outputs


PCGGIO

Inputs
BLOCK READ_VAL BI_PULSE* RS_CNT INVALID RESTART BLOCKED NEW_VAL ^SCAL_VAL en05000511-1-en.vsd

User defined name (^)

Diagram Number
IEC05000511 V2 EN

Figure 4:

Example of a function block

1.1.3.5

Setting parameters
These are presented in tables and include all parameters associated with the function in question.

30 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 1 Introduction
Technical data
The technical data section provides specific technical information about the function or hardware described.

1.1.3.6

1.1.4

Intended audience
General
This manual addresses system engineers, installation and commissioning personnel, who use technical data during engineering, installation and commissioning, and in normal service.

Requirements
The system engineer must have a thorough knowledge of protection systems, protection equipment, protection functions and the configured functional logics in the protective devices. The installation and commissioning personnel must have a basic knowledge in the handling electronic equipment.

1.1.5
Documents related to REG670 Operators manual

Related documents
Identity number 1MRK 502 028-UEN 1MRK 502 029-UEN 1MRK 502 027-UEN 1MRK 502 030-UEN 1MRK 502 031-BEN 1MRK 502 032-BEN 1MRG001910

Installation and commissioning manual Technical reference manual Application manual Product guide customized Product guide pre-configured Rotor Earth Fault Protection with Injection Unit RXTTE4 and REG670

Connection and Installation components Test system, COMBITEST Accessories for 670 series IEDs 670 series SPA and signal list IEC 61850 Data objects list for 670 series Engineering manual 670 series Buyers guide REG 216 Communication set-up for Relion 670 series

1MRK 513 003-BEN 1MRK 512 001-BEN 1MRK 514 012-BEN 1MRK 500 092-WEN 1MRK 500 091-WEN 1MRK 511 240-UEN 1MRB520004-BEN 1MRK 505 260-UEN

More information can be found on www.abb.com/substationautomation.

31 Technical reference manual

Section 1 Introduction 1.1.6 Revision notes


Revision A B Description First issue for 670 series version 1.2 Minor corrections made Maintenance updates, PR corrections

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

32 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 2 Analog inputs

Section 2

Analog inputs

2.1

Introduction
Analog input channels must be configured and set properly to get correct measurement results and correct protection operations. For power measuring and all directional and differential functions the directions of the input currents must be defined properly. Measuring and protection algorithms in the IED use primary system quantities. Setting values are in primary quantities as well and it is important to set the data about the connected current and voltage transformers properly. A reference PhaseAngleRef can be defined to facilitate service values reading. This analog channels phase angle will always be fixed to zero degrees and all other angle information will be shown in relation to this analog input. During testing and commissioning of the IED the reference channel can be changed to facilitate testing and service values reading. The availability of VT inputs depends on the ordered transformer input module (TRM) type.

2.2

Operation principle
The direction of a current depends on the connection of the CT. The main CTs are typically star connected and can be connected with the star point to the object or from the object. This information must be set in the IED. The convention of the directionality is defined as follows: Positive value of current or power means that the quantity has the direction into the object. Negative value of current or power means that the quantity has the direction out from the object.

For directional functions the directional conventions are defined as follows (see figure 5) Forward means direction into the object. Reverse means direction out from the object.

33 Technical reference manual

Section 2 Analog inputs

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Definition of direction for directional functions Reverse Forward

Definition of direction for directional functions Forward Reverse

Protected Object Line, transformer, etc


e.g. P, Q, I Measured quantity is positive when flowing towards the object Set parameter CTStarPoint Correct Setting is "ToObject" e.g. P, Q, I Measured quantity is positive when flowing towards the object Set parameter CTStarPoint Correct Setting is "FromObject" en05000456.vsd
IEC05000456 V1 EN

Figure 5:

Internal convention of the directionality in the IED

If the settings of the primary CT is right, that is CTStarPoint set as FromObject or ToObject according to the plant condition, then a positive quantity always flows towards the protected object, and a Forward direction always looks towards the protected object. The settings of the IED is performed in primary values. The ratios of the main CTs and VTs are therefore basic data for the IED. The user has to set the rated secondary and primary currents and voltages of the CTs and VTs to provide the IED with their rated ratios. The CT and VT ratio and the name on respective channel is done under Main menu/Hardware/Analog modules in the Parameter Settings tool.

2.3

Function block
The function blocks are not represented in the configuration tool. The signals appear only in the SMT tool when a TRM is included in the configuration with the function selector tool. In the SMT tool they can be mapped to the desired virtual input (SMAI) of the IED and used internally in the configuration.

2.4

Setting parameters
Dependent on ordered IED type.

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 2 Analog inputs

Table 1:
Name PhaseAngleRef

AISVBAS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) TRM40-Ch1 TRM40-Ch2 TRM40-Ch3 TRM40-Ch4 TRM40-Ch5 TRM40-Ch6 TRM40-Ch7 TRM40-Ch8 TRM40-Ch9 TRM40-Ch10 TRM40-Ch11 TRM40-Ch12 TRM41-Ch1 TRM41-Ch2 TRM41-Ch3 TRM41-Ch4 TRM41-Ch5 TRM41-Ch6 TRM41-Ch7 TRM41-Ch8 TRM41-Ch9 TRM41-Ch10 TRM41-Ch11 TRM41-Ch12 MU1-L1I MU1-L2I MU1-L3I MU1-L4I MU1-L1U MU1-L2U MU1-L3U MU1-L4U MU2-L1I MU2-L2I MU2-L3I MU2-L4I MU2-L1U MU2-L2U MU2-L3U MU2-L4U MU3-L1I MU3-L2I MU3-L3I MU3-L4I MU3-L1U MU3-L2U MU3-L3U MU3-L4U Unit Step Default TRM40-Ch1 Description Reference channel for phase angle presentation

Table 2:
Name CTStarPoint1 CTsec1 CTprim1 CTStarPoint2

TRM_12I Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject Unit A A Step 1 1 Default ToObject 1 3000 ToObject Description ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite

Table continues on next page 35 Technical reference manual

Section 2 Analog inputs


Name CTsec2 CTprim2 CTStarPoint3 CTsec3 CTprim3 CTStarPoint4 CTsec4 CTprim4 CTStarPoint5 CTsec5 CTprim5 CTStarPoint6 CTsec6 CTprim6 CTStarPoint7 CTsec7 CTprim7 CTStarPoint8 CTsec8 CTprim8 CTStarPoint9 CTsec9 CTprim9 CTStarPoint10 CTsec10 CTprim10 CTStarPoint11 CTsec11 CTprim11 CTStarPoint12 CTsec12 CTprim12 Values (Range) 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 Unit A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Default 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current

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Section 2 Analog inputs

Table 3:
Name CTStarPoint1 CTsec1 CTprim1 CTStarPoint2 CTsec2 CTprim2 CTStarPoint3 CTsec3 CTprim3 CTStarPoint4 CTsec4 CTprim4 CTStarPoint5 CTsec5 CTprim5 CTStarPoint6 CTsec6 CTprim6 VTsec7 VTprim7 VTsec8 VTprim8 VTsec9 VTprim9 VTsec10 VTprim10 VTsec11 VTprim11 VTsec12 VTprim12

TRM_6I_6U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit A A A A A A A A A A A A V kV V kV V kV V kV V kV V kV Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 Default ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 Description ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage

37 Technical reference manual

Section 2 Analog inputs

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Table 4:
Name CTStarPoint1 CTsec1 CTprim1 CTStarPoint2 CTsec2 CTprim2 CTStarPoint3 CTsec3 CTprim3 CTStarPoint4 CTsec4 CTprim4 CTStarPoint5 CTsec5 CTprim5 CTStarPoint6 CTsec6 CTprim6

TRM_6I Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 Unit A A A A A A A A A A A A Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Default ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 Description ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current

Table 5:
Name CTStarPoint1 CTsec1 CTprim1 CTStarPoint2 CTsec2 CTprim2 CTStarPoint3 CTsec3 CTprim3 CTStarPoint4 CTsec4

TRM_7I_5U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 Unit A A A A A A A Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Default ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 Description ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current

Table continues on next page 38 Technical reference manual

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Section 2 Analog inputs


Values (Range) 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit A A A A A A A V kV V kV V kV V kV V kV Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 Default 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 Description Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage

Name CTprim4 CTStarPoint5 CTsec5 CTprim5 CTStarPoint6 CTsec6 CTprim6 CTStarPoint7 CTsec7 CTprim7 VTsec8 VTprim8 VTsec9 VTprim9 VTsec10 VTprim10 VTsec11 VTprim11 VTsec12 VTprim12

Table 6:
Name CTStarPoint1 CTsec1 CTprim1 CTStarPoint2 CTsec2 CTprim2 CTStarPoint3 CTsec3 CTprim3 CTStarPoint4 CTsec4 CTprim4

TRM_9I_3U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 Unit A A A A A A A A Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Default ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 Description ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current

Table continues on next page 39 Technical reference manual

Section 2 Analog inputs


Name CTStarPoint5 CTsec5 CTprim5 CTStarPoint6 CTsec6 CTprim6 CTStarPoint7 CTsec7 CTprim7 CTStarPoint8 CTsec8 CTprim8 CTStarPoint9 CTsec9 CTprim9 VTsec10 VTprim10 VTsec11 VTprim11 VTsec12 VTprim12 Values (Range) FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 FromObject ToObject 1 - 10 1 - 99999 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.001 - 999.999 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit A A A A A A A A A A V kV V kV V kV Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.001 0.05 Default ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 ToObject 1 3000 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 110.000 400.00 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current ToObject= towards protected object, FromObject= the opposite Rated CT secondary current Rated CT primary current Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage Rated VT secondary voltage Rated VT primary voltage

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Section 3 Local HMI

Section 3

Local HMI

About this chapter


This chapter describes the structure and use of local HMI, which is the control panel at the IED.

3.1

Human machine interface


The local human machine interface is available in a small and a medium sized model. The difference between the two models is the size of the LCD. The small size LCD can display seven lines of text and the medium size LCD can display the single line diagram with up to 15 objects on each page. Up to 12 single line diagram pages can be defined, depending on the product capability. The local HMI is divided into zones with different functionality. Status indication LEDs. Alarm indication LEDs, which consist of 15 LEDs (6 red and 9 yellow) with user printable label. All LEDs are configurable from PCM600. Liquid crystal display (LCD). Keypad with push buttons for control and navigation purposes, switch for selection between local and remote control and reset. Isolated RJ45 communication port.

41 Technical reference manual

Section 3 Local HMI

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IEC05000055-LITEN V1 EN

Figure 6:

Small, alpha numeric HMI

IEC05000056-LITEN V1 EN

Figure 7:

Example of medium graphic HMI

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Section 3 Local HMI

3.2
3.2.1

Small size HMI


Small
The small sized HMI is available for 1/2, 3/4 and 1/1 x 19 case. The LCD on the small HMI measures 32 x 90 mm and displays 7 lines with up to 40 characters per line. The first line displays the product name and the last line displays date and time. The remaining 5 lines are dynamic. This LCD has no graphic display potential.

3.2.2

Design
The local HMI is identical for both the 1/2, 3/4 and 1/1 cases. The different parts of the small local HMI are shown in figure 8

43 Technical reference manual

Section 3 Local HMI

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

8
IEC05000055-CALLOUT V1 EN

en05000055.eps

Figure 8:

Small graphic HMI

1 Status indication LEDs 2 LCD 3 Indication LEDs 4 Label 5 Local/Remote LEDs 6 RJ45 port 7 Communication indication LED 8 Keypad

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Section 3 Local HMI

3.3
3.3.1

Medium size graphic HMI


Medium
The following case sizes can be equipped with the medium size LCD: 1/2 x 19 3/4 x 19 1/1 x 19

This is a fully graphical monochrome LCD which measures 120 x 90 mm. It has 28 lines with up to 40 characters per line. To display the single line diagram, this LCD is required.

3.3.2

Design
The different parts of the medium size local HMI are shown in figure 9. The local HMI exists in an IEC version and in an ANSI version. The difference is on the keypad operation buttons and the yellow LED designation.

45 Technical reference manual

Section 3 Local HMI

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

en05000056.eps

8
IEC05000056-CALLOUT V1 EN

Figure 9:

Medium size graphic HMI

1 Status indication LEDs 2 LCD 3 Indication LEDs 4 Label 5 Local/Remote LEDs 6 RJ45 port 7 Communication indication LED 8 Keypad

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Section 3 Local HMI

3.4

Keypad
The keypad is used to monitor and operate the IED. The keypad has the same look and feel in all IEDs. LCD screens and other details may differ but the way the keys function is identical.

IEC05000153 V1 EN

Figure 10:

The HMI keypad.

Table 7 describes the HMI keys that are used to operate the IED.
Table 7:
Key

HMI keys on the front of the IED


Function Press to close or energize a breaker or disconnector.

IEC05000101 V1 EN

Press to open a breaker or disconnector.


IEC05000102 V1 EN

Press to open two sub menus: Key operation and IED information.
IEC05000103 V1 EN

Press to clear entries, cancel commands or edit.


IEC05000104 V1 EN

Press to open the main menu and to move to the default screen.
IEC05000105 V1 EN

Press to set the IED in local or remote control mode.


IEC05000106 V1 EN

Press to open the reset screen.


IEC05000107 V1 EN

Press to start the editing mode and confirm setting changes, when in editing mode.
IEC05000108 V1 EN

Table continues on next page

47 Technical reference manual

Section 3 Local HMI


Key Function

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Press to navigate forward between screens and move right in editing mode.
IEC05000109 V1 EN

Press to navigate backwards between screens and move left in editing mode.
IEC05000110 V1 EN

Press to move up in the single line diagram and in the menu tree.
IEC05000111 V1 EN

Press to move down in the single line diagram and in the menu tree.
IEC05000112 V1 EN

3.5
3.5.1

LED
Introduction
The LED module is a unidirectional means of communicating. This means that events may occur that activate a LED in order to draw the operators attention to something that has occurred and needs some sort of action.

3.5.2

Status indication LEDs


The three LEDs above the LCD provide information as shown in the table below.
LED Indication Green: Steady Flashing Dark Yellow: Steady Flashing Red: Steady Trip command issued Dist. rep. triggered Terminal in test mode In service Internal failure No power supply Information

3.5.3

Indication LEDs
The LED indication module comprising 15 LEDs is standard in 670 series. Its main purpose is to present an immediate visual information for protection indications or alarm signals.

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Section 3 Local HMI

Alarm indication LEDs and hardware associated LEDs are located on the right hand side of the front panel. Alarm LEDs are located on the right of the LCD screen and show steady or flashing light. Steady light indicates normal operation. Flashing light indicates alarm.

Alarm LEDs can be configured in PCM600 and depend on the binary logic. Therefore they can not be configured on the local HMI. Typical examples of alarm LEDs Bay controller failure CB close blocked Interlocking bypassed Differential protection trip SF6 Gas refill Position error CB spring charge alarm Oil temperature alarm Thermal overload trip Bucholtz trip

The RJ45 port has a yellow LED indicating that communication has been established between the IED and a computer. The Local/Remote key on the front panel has two LEDs indicating whether local or remote control of the IED is active.

3.6
3.6.1

Local HMI related functions


Introduction
The local HMI can be adapted to the application configuration and to user preferences. Function block LocalHMI Function block LEDGEN Setting parameters

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Section 3 Local HMI 3.6.2


Table 8:
Name Language DisplayTimeout AutoRepeat ContrastLevel DefaultScreen EvListSrtOrder SymbolFont

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

General setting parameters


SCREEN Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range) English OptionalLanguage 10 - 120 Off On -10 - 20 0-0 Latest on top Oldest on top IEC ANSI Unit Min % Step 10 1 1 Default English 60 On 0 0 Latest on top IEC Description Local HMI language Local HMI display timeout Activation of auto-repeat (On) or not (Off) Contrast level for display Default screen Sort order of event list Symbol font for Single Line Diagram

3.6.3
3.6.3.1

Status LEDs
Design
The function block LocalHMI controls and supplies information about the status of the status indication LEDs. The input and output signals of local HMI are configured with PCM600. The function block can be used if any of the signals are required in a configuration logic. See section "Status indication LEDs" for information about the LEDs.

3.6.3.2

Function block
LocalHMI CLRLEDS HMI-ON RED-S YELLOW-S YELLOW-F CLRPULSE LEDSCLRD IEC05000773-2-en.vsd
IEC05000773 V2 EN

Figure 11:

LocalHMI function block

3.6.3.3

Input and output signals


Table 9:
Name CLRLEDS

LocalHMI Input signals


Type BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Input to clear the LCD-HMI LEDs

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Section 3 Local HMI

Table 10:
Name HMI-ON RED-S YELLOW-S YELLOW-F CLRPULSE LEDSCLRD

LocalHMI Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Backlight of the LCD display is active Red LED on the LCD-HMI is steady Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is steady Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is flashing A pulse is provided when the LEDs on the LCDHMI are cleared Active when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI are not active

3.6.4
3.6.4.1

Indication LEDs
Introduction
The function block LEDGEN controls and supplies information about the status of the indication LEDs. The input and output signals of LEDGEN are configured with PCM600. The input signal for each LED is selected individually with the Signal Matrix Tool in PCM600. LEDs (number 16) for trip indications are red. LEDs (number 715) for start indications are yellow.

Each indication LED on the local HMI can be set individually to operate in six different sequences Two sequences operate as follow type. Four sequences operate as latch type. Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as a protection indication system, either in collecting or restarting mode, with reset functionality. Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as signaling system in collecting (coll) mode with an acknowledgment functionality.

The light from the LEDs can be steady (-S) or flashing (-F). See the technical reference manual for more information.

3.6.4.2

Design
The information on the LEDs is stored at loss of the auxiliary power to the IED in some of the modes of LEDGEN. The latest LED picture appears immediately after the IED is successfully restarted.

Operating modes
Collecting mode
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Section 3 Local HMI

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LEDs which are used in collecting mode of operation are accumulated continuously until the unit is acknowledged manually. This mode is suitable when the LEDs are used as a simplified alarm system.

Re-starting mode In the re-starting mode of operation each new start resets all previous active LEDs and activates only those which appear during one disturbance. Only LEDs defined for re-starting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S) will initiate a reset and a restart at a new disturbance. A disturbance is defined to end a settable time after the reset of the activated input signals or when the maximum time limit has elapsed.

Acknowledgment/reset
From local HMI Active indications can be acknowledged or reset manually. Manual acknowledgment and manual reset have the same meaning and is a common signal for all the operating sequences and LEDs. The function is positive edge triggered, not level triggered. The acknowledged or reset is performed via the reset button and menus on the local HMI. See the operator's manual for more information.

From function input Active indications can also be acknowledged or reset from an input, RESET, to the function. This input can, for example, be configured to a binary input operated from an external push button. The function is positive edge triggered, not level triggered. This means that even if the button is continuously pressed, the acknowledgment or reset only affects indications active at the moment when the button is first pressed.

Automatic reset Automatic reset can only be performed for indications defined for restarting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S). When automatic reset of the LEDs has been performed, still persisting indications will be indicated with a steady light.

Operating sequences

The operating sequences can be of type Follow or Latched. For the Follow type the LED follows the input signal completely. For the Latched type each LED latches to the corresponding input signal until it is reset.

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Section 3 Local HMI

Figure 12 show the function of available sequences that are selectable for each LED separately. The acknowledgment or reset function is not applicable for sequence 1 and 2 (Follow type). Sequence 3 and 4 (Latched type with acknowledgement) are only working in collecting mode. Sequence 5 is working according to Latched type and collecting mode. Sequence 6 is working according to Latched type and re-starting mode.

The letters S and F in the sequence names have the meaning S = Steady and F = Flashing. At the activation of the input signal, the indication operates according to the selected sequence diagrams. In the sequence diagrams the LEDs have the characteristics as shown in figure 12.
= No indication = Steady light = Flash
en05000506.vsd
IEC05000506 V1 EN

Figure 12:

Symbols used in the sequence diagrams

Sequence 1 (Follow-S) This sequence follows all the time, with a steady light, the corresponding input signals. It does not react on acknowledgment or reset. Every LED is independent of the other LEDs in its operation.
Activating signal

LED
IEC01000228_2_en.vsd
IEC01000228 V2 EN

Figure 13:

Operating sequence 1 (Follow-S)

Sequence 2 (Follow-F) This sequence is the same as sequence 1, Follow-S, but the LEDs are flashing instead of showing steady light. Sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S) This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. Every LED is independent of the other LEDs in its operation. At the activation of the input signal, the indication starts flashing. After acknowledgment the indication disappears if

53 Technical reference manual

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

the signal is not present any more. If the signal is still present after acknowledgment it gets a steady light.
Activating signal

LED

Acknow.
en01000231.vsd
IEC01000231 V1 EN

Figure 14:

Operating sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S)

Sequence 4 (LatchedAck-S-F) This sequence has the same functionality as sequence 3, but steady and flashing light have been alternated. Sequence 5 (LatchedColl-S) This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. At the activation of the input signal, the indication will light up with a steady light. The difference to sequence 3 and 4 is that indications that are still activated will not be affected by the reset that is, immediately after the positive edge of the reset has been executed a new reading and storing of active signals is performed. Every LED is independent of the other LEDs in its operation.
Activating signal

LED

Reset
IEC01000235_2_en.vsd
IEC01000235 V2 EN

Figure 15:

Operating sequence 5 (LatchedColl-S)

Sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S) In this mode all activated LEDs, which are set to sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), are automatically reset at a new disturbance when activating any input signal for other LEDs set to sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S). Also in this case indications that are still activated will not be affected by manual reset, that is, immediately after the positive edge of that the manual reset has been executed a new reading and storing

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Section 3 Local HMI

of active signals is performed. LEDs set for sequence 6 are completely independent in its operation of LEDs set for other sequences. Definition of a disturbance A disturbance is defined to last from the first LED set as LatchedReset-S is activated until a settable time, tRestart, has elapsed after that all activating signals for the LEDs set as LatchedReset-S have reset. However if all activating signals have reset and some signal again becomes active before tRestart has elapsed, the tRestart timer does not restart the timing sequence. A new disturbance start will be issued first when all signals have reset after tRestart has elapsed. A diagram of this functionality is shown in figure 16.
From disturbance length control per LED set to sequence 6

New disturbance

&

tRestart t

& 1 &

en01000237.vsd
IEC01000237 V1 EN

Figure 16:

Activation of new disturbance

In order not to have a lock-up of the indications in the case of a persisting signal each LED is provided with a timer, tMax, after which time the influence on the definition of a disturbance of that specific LED is inhibited. This functionality is shown i diagram in figure 17.
Activating signal To LED

AND tMax t

To disturbance length control

en05000507.vsd
IEC05000507 V1 EN

Figure 17:

Length control of activating signals

Timing diagram for sequence 6 Figure 18 shows the timing diagram for two indications within one disturbance.

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Disturbance
tRestart

Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2

LED 1

LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset


IEC01000239 V2 EN

IEC01000239_2-en.vsd

Figure 18:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within same disturbance

Figure 19 shows the timing diagram for a new indication after tRestart time has elapsed.
Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2 Disturbance tRestart

LED 1

LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset


IEC01000240_2_en.vsd
IEC01000240 V2 EN

Figure 19:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two different disturbances

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Section 3 Local HMI

Figure 20 shows the timing diagram when a new indication appears after the first one has reset but before tRestart has elapsed.
Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2

LED 1

LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset


IEC01000241_2_en.vsd
IEC01000241 V2 EN

Figure 20:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within same disturbance but with reset of activating signal between

Figure 21 shows the timing diagram for manual reset.


Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2

LED 1

LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset


IEC01000242_2_en.vsd
IEC01000242 V2 EN

Figure 21:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), manual reset


57

Technical reference manual

Section 3 Local HMI


3.6.4.3 Function block
LEDGEN BLOCK RESET LEDTEST NEWIND ACK

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IEC05000508_2_en.vsd
IEC05000508 V2 EN

Figure 22:

LEDGEN function block

3.6.4.4

Input and output signals


Table 11:
Name BLOCK RESET LEDTEST

LEDGEN Input signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Input to block the operation of the LED-unit Input to acknowledge/reset the indications of the LED-unit Input for external LED test

Table 12:
Name NEWIND ACK

LEDGEN Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description A new signal on any of the indication inputs occurs A pulse is provided when the LEDs are acknowledged

3.6.4.5
Table 13:
Name Operation tRestart tMax SeqTypeLED1

Setting parameters
LEDGEN Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.0 - 100.0 0.0 - 100.0 Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Unit s s Step 0.1 0.1 Default Off 0.0 0.0 Follow-S Description Operation mode for the LED function Defines the disturbance length Maximum time for the definition of a disturbance Sequence type for LED 1

SeqTypeLED2

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 2

Table continues on next page

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Section 3 Local HMI


Values (Range) Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Unit Step Default Follow-S Description Sequence type for LED 3

Name SeqTypeLED3

SeqTypeLED4

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 4

SeqTypeLED5

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 5

SeqTypeLED6

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 6

SeqTypeLED7

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 7

SeqTypeLED8

Follow-S

sequence type for LED 8

SeqTypeLED9

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 9

SeqTypeLED10

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 10

SeqTypeLED11

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 11

Table continues on next page

59 Technical reference manual

Section 3 Local HMI


Name SeqTypeLED12 Values (Range) Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S Unit Step Default Follow-S Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Sequence type for LED 12

SeqTypeLED13

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 13

SeqTypeLED14

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 14

SeqTypeLED15

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 15

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Section 4 Basic IED functions

Section 4

Basic IED functions

About this chapter


This chapter presents functions that are basic to all 670 series IEDs. Typical functions in this category are time synchronization, self supervision and test mode.

4.1

Authorization
To safeguard the interests of our customers, both the IED and the tools that are accessing the IED are protected, by means of authorization handling. The authorization handling of the IED and the PCM600 is implemented at both access points to the IED: local, through the local HMI remote, through the communication ports

4.1.1

Principle of operation
There are different levels (or types) of users that can access or operate different areas of the IED and tools functionality. The pre-defined user types are given in Table 14. Be sure that the user logged on to the IED has the access required when writing particular data to the IED from PCM600. The meaning of the legends used in the table: R= Read W= Write - = No access rights

Table 14:
Access rights

Pre-defined user types


Guest R Super User R/W SPA Guest R System Operator R/W Protection Engineer R/W Design Engineer R/W User Administrator R

Basic setting possibilities (change setting group, control settings, limit supervision) Advanced setting possibilities (for example protection settings) Basic control possibilities (process control, no bypass) Table continues on next page

R R

R/W R/W

R R/W

R R/W

R/W R/W

R/W R/W

R R

61 Technical reference manual

Section 4 Basic IED functions


Access rights Advanced control possibilities (process control including interlock trigg) Basic command handling (for example clear LEDs, manual trigg) Advanced command handling (for example clear disturbance record) Basic configuration possibilities (I/ O-configuration in SMT) Advanced configuration possibilities (application configuration including SMT, GDE and CMT) File loading (database loading from XML-file) File dumping (database dumping to XML-file) File transfer (FTP file transfer) File transfer (limited) (FTP file transfer) File Transfer (SPA File Transfer) Database access for normal user User administration (user management FTP File Transfer) User administration (user management SPA File Transfer) System Operator R/W Protection Engineer R/W

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Guest R

Super User R/W

SPA Guest R/W

Design Engineer R/W

User Administrator R

R R R R

R/W R/W R/W R/W

R R R R

R/W R R R

R/W R/W R R

R/W R/W R/W R/W

R R/W R/W R/W

R R R -

R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W

R R R -

R/W R/W R/W R -

R/W R/W R/W R -

R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R -

R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W -

The IED users can be created, deleted and edited only with the IED User Management within PCM600. The user can only LogOn or LogOff on the local HMI on the IED, there are no users, groups or functions that can be defined on local HMI. Only characters A - Z, a - z and 0 - 9 should be used in user names and passwords. The maximum of characters in a password is 18.

At least one user must be included in the UserAdministrator group to be able to write users, created in PCM600, to IED.

4.1.1.1

Authorization handling in the IED


At delivery the default user is the SuperUser. No Log on is required to operate the IED until a user has been created with the IED User Management..

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Section 4 Basic IED functions

Once a user is created and downloaded to the IED, that user can perform a Log on, introducing the password assigned in the tool. If there is no user created, an attempt to log on will display a message box: No user defined! If one user leaves the IED without logging off, then after the timeout (set in Main menu/Settings/General Settings/HMI/Screen/Display Timeout) elapses, the IED returns to Guest state, when only reading is possible. The display time out is set to 60 minutes at delivery. If there are one or more users created with the IED User Management and downloaded into the IED, then, when a user intentionally attempts a Log on or when the user attempts to perform an operation that is password protected, the Log on window will appear. The cursor is focused on the User identity field, so upon pressing the E key, the user can change the user name, by browsing the list of users, with the up and down arrows. After choosing the right user name, the user must press the E key again. When it comes to password, upon pressing the E key, the following character will show up: $. The user must scroll for every letter in the password. After all the letters are introduced (passwords are case sensitive) choose OK and press the E key again. If everything is alright at a voluntary Log on, the local HMI returns to the Authorization screen. If the Log on is OK, when required to change for example a password protected setting, the local HMI returns to the actual setting folder. If the Log on has failed, then the Log on window opens again, until either the user makes it right or presses Cancel.

4.2
4.2.1

Self supervision with internal event list


Introduction
Self supervision with internal event list function listens and reacts to internal system events, generated by the different built-in self-supervision elements. The internal events are saved in an internal event list.

4.2.2

Principle of operation
The self-supervision operates continuously and includes: Normal micro-processor watchdog function. Checking of digitized measuring signals. Other alarms, for example hardware and time synchronization.

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The self-supervision function status can be monitored from the local HMI, from the Event Viewer in PCM600 or from a SMS/SCS system. Under the Diagnostics menu in the local HMI the present information from the selfsupervision function can be reviewed. The information can be found under Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events or Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/ General. The information from the self-supervision function is also available in the Event Viewer in PCM600. A self-supervision summary can be obtained by means of the potential free alarm contact (INTERNAL FAIL) located on the power supply module. The function of this output relay is an OR-function between the INT-FAIL signal see figure 24 and a couple of more severe faults that can occur in the IED, see figure 23

IEC04000520 V1 EN

Figure 23:

Hardware self-supervision, potential-free alarm contact

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Section 4 Basic IED functions

IO fail IO stopped IO started

OR

Set Reset e.g. IOM2 Error e.g. IO (n) Error

e.g. BIM 1 Error

OR OR OR

LON ERROR FTF fatal error Watchdog RTE fatal error RTE Appl-fail RTE OK IEC61850 not ready RTCERROR RTC OK TIMESYNCHERROR Time reset SYNCH OK Settings changed Set Reset OR Set Reset 1 second pulse Set Reset OR

Internal FAIL

NUMFAIL Internal WARN OR NUMWARNING RTCERROR

TIMESYNCHERROR SETCHGD

en04000519-1.vsd
IEC04000519 V2 EN

Figure 24:

Software self-supervision, IES (IntErrorSign) function block

Some signals are available from the INTERRSIG function block. The signals from this function block are sent as events to the station level of the control system. The signals from the INTERRSIG function block can also be connected to binary outputs for signalization via output relays or they can be used as conditions for other functions if required/desired. Individual error signals from I/O modules can be obtained from respective module in the Signal Matrix tool. Error signals from time synchronization can be obtained from the time synchronization block TIME.

4.2.2.1

Internal signals
Self supervision provides several status signals, that tells about the condition of the IED. As they provide information about the internal status of the IED, they are also called internal signals. The internal signals can be divided into two groups. Standard signals are always presented in the IED, see Table 15. Hardware dependent internal signals are collected depending on the hardware configuration, see Table 16.

Explanations of internal signals are listed in Table 17.

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Table 15:
Name of signal FAIL WARNING NUMFAIL NUMWARNING RTCERROR

Self-supervision's standard internal signals


Description Internal Fail status Internal Warning status CPU module Fail status CPU module Warning status Real Time Clock status Time Synchronization status Runtime Execution Error status IEC 61850 Error status SW Watchdog Error status LON/Mip Device Error status Runtime Application Error status Settings changed Setting groups changed Fault Tolerant Filesystem status

TIMESYNCHERROR RTEERROR IEC61850ERROR WATCHDOG LMDERROR APPERROR SETCHGD SETGRPCHGD FTFERROR

Table 16:
Card PSM ADOne BIM BOM IOM MIM LDCM

Self-supervision's hardware dependent internal signals


Name of signal PSM-Error ADOne-Error BIM-Error BOM-Error IOM-Error MIM-Error LDCM-Error Description Power Supply Module Error status Analog In Module Error status Binary In Module Error status Binary Out Module Error status In/Out Module Error status Millampere Input Module Error status Line Differential Communication Error status

Table 17:
Name of signal FAIL

Explanations of internal signals


Reasons for activation This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal signals are active; NUMFAIL, LMDERROR, WATCHDOG, APPERROR, RTEERROR, FTFERROR, or any of the HW dependent signals This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal signals are active; RTCERROR, IEC61850ERROR, TIMESYNCHERROR This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal signals are active; WATCHDOG, APPERROR, RTEERROR, FTFERROR This signal will be active if one or more of the following internal signals are active; RTCERROR, IEC61850ERROR This signal will be active when there is a hardware error with the real time clock.

WARNING

NUMFAIL

NUMWARNING RTCERROR Table continues on next page 66

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Name of signal TIMESYNCHERROR Reasons for activation This signal will be active when the source of the time synchronization is lost, or when the time system has to make a time reset. This signal will be active if the Runtime Engine failed to do some actions with the application threads. The actions can be loading of settings or parameters for components, changing of setting groups, loading or unloading of application threads. This signal will be active if the IEC 61850 stack did not succeed in some actions like reading IEC 61850 configuration, startup, for example This signal will be activated when the terminal has been under too heavy load for at least 5 minutes. The operating systems background task is used for the measurements. LON network interface, MIP/DPS, is in an unrecoverable error state. This signal will be active if one or more of the application threads are not in the state that Runtime Engine expects. The states can be CREATED, INITIALIZED, RUNNING, for example This signal will generate an Internal Event to the Internal Event list if any settings are changed. This signal will generate an Internal Event to the Internal Event list if any setting groups are changed. This signal will be active if both the working file and the backup file are corrupted and can not be recovered.

RTEERROR

IEC61850ERROR

WATCHDOG

LMDERROR APPERROR

SETCHGD SETGRPCHGD FTFERROR

4.2.2.2

Run-time model
The analog signals to the A/D converter is internally distributed into two different converters, one with low amplification and one with high amplification, see Figure 25.
ADx ADx_Low
x1 u1 x2

ADx_High
x1 u1 x2

ADx Controller

IEC05000296-3-en.vsd
IEC05000296 V3 EN

Figure 25:

Simplified drawing of A/D converter for the IED.

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The technique to split the analog input signal into two A/D converter(s) with different amplification makes it possible to supervise the A/D converters under normal conditions where the signals from the two A/D converters should be identical. An alarm is given if the signals are out of the boundaries. Another benefit is that it improves the dynamic performance of the A/D conversion. The self-supervision of the A/D conversion is controlled by the ADx_Controller function. One of the tasks for the controller is to perform a validation of the input signals. This is done in a validation filter which has mainly two objects: First is the validation part that checks that the A/D conversion seems to work as expected. Secondly, the filter chooses which of the two signals that shall be sent to the CPU, that is the signal that has the most suitable signal level, the ADx_LO or the 16 times higher ADx_HI. When the signal is within measurable limits on both channels, a direct comparison of the two A/D converter channels can be performed. If the validation fails, the CPU will be informed and an alarm will be given for A/D converter failure. The ADx_Controller also supervise other parts of the A/D converter.

4.2.3

Function block

IEC09000787 V1 EN

Figure 26:

INTERRSIG function block

4.2.4

Output signals
Table 18:
Name FAIL WARNING CPUFAIL CPUWARN

INTERRSIG Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Internal fail Internal warning CPU fail CPU warning

4.2.5

Setting parameters
The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.

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Table 19:
Data Recording manner List size

4.2.6

Self supervision with internal event list


Value Continuous, event controlled 1000 events, first in-first out

4.3
4.3.1

Time synchronization
Introduction
The time synchronization source selector is used to select a common source of absolute time for the IED when it is a part of a protection system. This makes it possible to compare event and disturbance data between all IEDs in a station automation system. Micro SCADA OPC server should not be used as a time synchronization source.

4.3.2
4.3.2.1

Principle of operation
General concepts Time definitions

The error of a clock is the difference between the actual time of the clock, and the time the clock is intended to have. Clock accuracy indicates the increase in error, that is, the time gained or lost by the clock. A disciplined clock knows its own faults and tries to compensate for them.

Design of the time system (clock synchronization)

The time system is based on a software clock, which can be adjusted from external time sources and a hardware clock. The protection and control modules will be timed from a hardware clock, which runs independently from the software clock. See figure 27

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External Synchronization sources Off LON SPA Min. pulse GPS SNTP DNP IRIG-B PPS TimeRegulator (Setting, see technical reference manual)

Time tagging and general synchronisation Protection and control functions

Communication

Events

SW-time Connected when GPS-time is used for differential protection

Off GPS IRIG-B PPS

TimeRegulator (fast or slow)

Synchronization for differential protection (ECHO-mode or GPS) HW-time

A/D converter

Diff.communication

Transducers* *IEC 61850-9-2


IEC08000287-2-en.vsd

IEC08000287 V2 EN

Figure 27:

Design of time system (clock synchronization)

All time tagging is performed by the software clock. When for example a status signal is changed in the protection system with the function based on free running hardware clock, the event is time tagged by the software clock when it reaches the event recorder. Thus the hardware clock can run independently. The echo mode for the differential protection is based on the hardware clock. Thus, there is no need to synchronize the hardware clock and the software clock. The synchronization of the hardware clock and the software clock is necessary only when GPS or IRIG B 00X with optical fibre, IEEE 1344 is used for differential protection. The two clock systems are synchronized by a special clock synchronization unit with two modes, fast and slow. A special feature, an automatic fast clock time regulator is used. The automatic fast mode makes the synchronization time as short as possible during start up or at interruptions/ disturbances in the GPS timing. The setting fast or slow is also available on the local HMI. If a GPS clock is used for 670 series IEDs other than line differential RED670, the hardware and software clocks are not synchronized

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Fast clock synchronization mode
At startup and after interruptions in the GPS or IRIG B time signal, the clock deviation between the GPS time and the internal differential time system can be substantial. A new startup is also required after for example maintenance of the auxiliary voltage system. When the time difference is >16s, the differential function is blocked and the time regulator for the hardware clock automatically uses a fast mode to synchronize the clock systems. The time adjustment is made with an exponential function, that is, big time adjustment steps in the beginning, then smaller steps until a time deviation between the GPS time and the differential time system of >16s has been reached. Then the differential function is enabled and the synchronization remains in fast mode or switches to slow mode, depending on the setting.

Slow clock synchronization mode


During normal service, a setting with slow synchronization mode is normally used, which prevents the hardware clock to make too big time steps, >16s, emanating from the differential protection requirement of correct timing.

Synchronization principle

From a general point of view synchronization can be seen as a hierarchical structure. A function is synchronized from a higher level and provides synchronization to lower levels.

Synchronization from a higher level

Function

Optional synchronization of modules at a lower level

IEC09000342-1-en.vsd
IEC09000342 V1 EN

Figure 28:

Synchronization principle

A function is said to be synchronized when it periodically receives synchronization messages from a higher level. As the level decreases, the accuracy of the synchronization decreases as well. A function can have several potential sources of synchronization, with different maximum errors. This gives the function the possibility to choose the source with the best quality, and to adjust its internal clock after this source. The maximum error of a clock can be defined as:

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The maximum error of the last used synchronization message The time since the last used synchronization message The rate accuracy of the internal clock in the function.

4.3.2.2

Real-time clock (RTC) operation


The IED has a built-in real-time clock (RTC) with a resolution of one second. The clock has a built-in calendar that handles leap years through 2038.

Real-time clock at power off

During power off, the system time in the IED is kept by a capacitor-backed realtime clock that will provide 35 ppm accuracy for 5 days. This means that if the power is off, the time in the IED may drift with 3 seconds per day, during 5 days, and after this time the time will be lost completely.

Real-time clock at startup Time synchronization startup procedure


The first message that contains the full time (as for instance LON, SNTP and GPS) gives an accurate time to the IED. After the initial setting of the clock, one of three things happens with each of the coming synchronization messages configured as fine: If the synchronization message, which is similar to the other messages, has an offset compared to the internal time in the IED, the message is used directly for synchronization, that is, for adjusting the internal clock to obtain zero offset at the next coming time message. If the synchronization message has an offset that is large compared to the other messages, a spike-filter in the IED removes this time-message. If the synchronization message has an offset that is large, and the following message also has a large offset, the spike filter does not act and the offset in the synchronization message is compared to a threshold that defaults to 100 milliseconds. If the offset is more than the threshold, the IED is brought into a safe state and the clock is set to the correct time. If the offset is lower than the threshold, the clock is adjusted with 1000 ppm until the offset is removed. With an adjustment of 1000 ppm, it takes 100 seconds or 1.7 minutes to remove an offset of 100 milliseconds.

Synchronization messages configured as coarse are only used for initial setting of the time. After this has been done, the messages are checked against the internal time and only an offset of more than 10 seconds resets the time.

Rate accuracy

In the IED, the rate accuracy at cold start is 100 ppm but if the IED is synchronized for a while, the rate accuracy is approximately 1 ppm if the surrounding temperature is constant. Normally, it takes 20 minutes to reach full accuracy.

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Time-out on synchronization sources

All synchronization interfaces has a time-out and a configured interface must receive time-messages regularly in order not to give an error signal (TSYNCERR). Normally, the time-out is set so that one message can be lost without getting a TSYNCERR, but if more than one message is lost, a TSYNCERR is given.

4.3.2.3

Synchronization alternatives
Three main alternatives of external time synchronization are available. The synchronization message is applied: via any of the communication ports of the IED as a telegram message including date and time as a minute pulse connected to a binary input via GPS

The minute pulse is used to fine tune already existing time in the IEDs.

Synchronization via SNTP

SNTP provides a ping-pong method of synchronization. A message is sent from an IED to an SNTP server, and the SNTP server returns the message after filling in a reception time and a transmission time. SNTP operates via the normal Ethernet network that connects IEDs together in an IEC 61850 network. For SNTP to operate properly, there must be an SNTP server present, preferably in the same station. The SNTP synchronization provides an accuracy that gives +/- 1 ms accuracy for binary inputs. The IED itself can be set as an SNTP-time server. SNTP server requirements The SNTP server to be used is connected to the local network, that is not more than 4-5 switches or routers away from the IED. The SNTP server is dedicated for its task, or at least equipped with a real-time operating system, that is not a PC with SNTP server software. The SNTP server should be stable, that is, either synchronized from a stable source like GPS, or local without synchronization. Using a local SNTP server without synchronization as primary or secondary server in a redundant configuration is not recommended.

Synchronization via Serial Communication Module (SLM)

On the serial buses (both LON and SPA) two types of synchronization messages are sent. Coarse message is sent every minute and comprises complete date and time, that is, year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds. Fine message is sent every second and comprises only seconds and milliseconds.

IEC60870-5-103 is not used to synchronize the IED, but instead the offset between the local time in the IED and the time received from 103 is added to all times (in events and so on) sent via 103. In this way the IED acts as if it is synchronized

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from various 103 sessions at the same time. Actually, there is a local time for each 103 session. The SLM module is located on the AD conversion Module (ADM).

Synchronization via binary input

The IED accepts minute pulses to a binary input. These minute pulses can be generated from, for example station master clock. If the station master clock is not synchronized from a world wide source, time will be a relative time valid for the substation. Both positive and negative edge on the signal can be accepted. This signal is also considered as a fine time synchronization signal. The minute pulse is connected to any channel on any Binary Input Module in the IED. The electrical characteristic is thereby the same as for any other binary input. If the objective of synchronization is to achieve a relative time within the substation and if no station master clock with minute pulse output is available, a simple minute pulse generator can be designed and used for synchronization of the IEDs. The minute pulse generator can be created using the logical elements and timers available in the IED. The definition of a minute pulse is that it occurs one minute after the last pulse. As only the flanks are detected, the flank of the minute pulse shall occur one minute after the last flank. Binary minute pulses are checked with reference to frequency. Pulse data: Period time (a) should be 60 seconds. Pulse length (b): Minimum pulse length should be >50 ms. Maximum pulse length is optional.

Amplitude (c) - please refer to section "Binary input module (BIM)".

Deviations in the period time larger than 50 ms will cause TSYNCERR.

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a b

c
en05000251.vsd
IEC05000251 V1 EN

Figure 29:

Binary minute pulses

The default time-out-time for a minute pulse is two minutes, and if no valid minute pulse is received within two minutes a SYNCERR will be given. If contact bounce occurs, only the first pulse will be detected as a minute pulse. The next minute pulse will be registered first 60 s - 50 ms after the last contact bounce. If the minute pulses are perfect, for example, it is exactly 60 seconds between the pulses, contact bounces might occur 49 ms after the actual minute pulse without effecting the system. If contact bounce occurs more than 50 ms, for example, it is less than 59950 ms between the two most adjacent positive (or negative) flanks, the minute pulse will not be accepted. Binary synchronization example An IED is configured to use only binary input, and a valid binary input is applied to a binary input card. The HMI is used to tell the IED the approximate time and the minute pulse is used to synchronize the IED thereafter. The definition of a minute pulse is that it occurs one minute after the previous minute pulse, so the first minute pulse is not used at all. The second minute pulse will probably be rejected due to the spike filter. The third pulse will give the IED a good time and will reset the time so that the fourth minute pulse will occur on a minute border. After the first three minutes, the time in the IED will be good if the coarse time is set properly via the HMI or the RTC backup still keeps the time since last up-time. If the minute pulse is removed for instance for an hour, the internal time will drift by maximum the error rate in the internal clock. If the minute pulse is returned, the first pulse automatically is rejected. The second pulse will possibly be rejected due to the spike filter. The third pulse will either synchronize the time, if the time offset is more than 100 ms, or adjust the time, if the time offset is small enough. If the time is set, the application will be brought to a safe state before the time is set. If the time is adjusted, the time will reach its destination within 1.7 minutes. Synchronization via IRIG-B IRIG-B is a protocol used only for time synchronization. A clock can provide local time of the year in this format. The B in IRIG-B states that 100 bits per second are transmitted, and the message is sent every second. After IRIG-B there numbers stating if and how the signal is modulated and the information transmitted.

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To receive IRIG-B there are two connectors in the IRIG-B module, one galvanic BNC connector and one optical ST connector. IRIG-B 12x messages can be supplied via the galvanic interface, and IRIG-B 00x messages can be supplied via either the galvanic interface or the optical interface, where x (in 00x or 12x) means a number in the range of 1-7. 00 means that a base band is used, and the information can be fed into the IRIGB module via the BNC contact or an optical fiber. 12 means that a 1 kHz modulation is used. In this case the information must go into the module via the BNC connector. If the x in 00x or 12x is 4, 5, 6 or 7, the time message from IRIG-B contains information of the year. If x is 0, 1, 2 or 3, the information contains only the time within the year, and year information has to come from PCM600 or local HMI. The IRIG-B module also takes care of IEEE1344 messages that are sent by IRIG-B clocks, as IRIG-B previously did not have any year information. IEEE1344 is compatible with IRIG-B and contains year information and information of the timezone. It is recommended to use IEEE 1344 for supplying time information to the IRIG-B module. In this case, send also the local time in the messages, as this local time plus the TZ Offset supplied in the message equals UTC at all times.

4.3.3

Function block
TIMEERR TSYNCERR RTCERR IEC05000425-2-en.vsd
IEC05000425 V2 EN

Figure 30:

TIMEERR function block

4.3.4

Output signals
Table 20:
Name TSYNCERR RTCERR

TIMEERR Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Time synchronization error Real time clock error

4.3.5

Setting parameters
Path in the local HMI is located under Main menu/Setting/Time Path in PCM600 is located under Main menu/Settings/Time/Synchronization

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Table 21:
Name CoarseSyncSrc

TIMESYNCHGEN Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) Off SPA LON SNTP DNP Off SPA LON BIN GPS GPS+SPA GPS+LON GPS+BIN SNTP GPS+SNTP IRIG-B GPS+IRIG-B PPS Off SNTP-Server Slow Fast Off GPS IRIG-B PPS NoSynch Synch Class T5 (1us) Class T4 (4us) Unspecified Unit Step Default Off Description Coarse time synchronization source

FineSyncSource

Off

Fine time synchronization source

SyncMaster TimeAdjustRate HWSyncSrc

Off Fast Off

Activate IED as synchronization master Adjust rate for time synchronization Hardware time synchronization source

AppSynch SyncAccLevel

NoSynch Unspecified

Time synchronization mode for application Wanted time synchronization accuracy

Table 22:
Name ModulePosition BinaryInput BinDetection

SYNCHBIN Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 3 - 16 1 - 16 PositiveEdge NegativeEdge Unit Step 1 1 Default 3 1 PositiveEdge Description Hardware position of IO module for time synchronization Binary input number for time synchronization Positive or negative edge detection

Table 23:
Name ServerIP-Add RedServIP-Add

SYNCHSNTP Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 0 - 18 0 - 18 Unit IP Address IP Address Step 1 1 Default 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 Description Server IP-address Redundant server IP-address

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Table 24:
Name MonthInYear

DSTBEGIN Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) January February March April May June July August September October November December Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Last First Second Third Fourth 0 - 172800 Unit Step Default March Description Month in year when daylight time starts

DayInWeek

Sunday

Day in week when daylight time starts

WeekInMonth

Last

Week in month when daylight time starts

UTCTimeOfDay

3600

UTC Time of day in seconds when daylight time starts

Table 25:
Name MonthInYear

DSTEND Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) January February March April May June July August September October November December Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Last First Second Third Fourth 0 - 172800 Unit Step Default October Description Month in year when daylight time ends

DayInWeek

Sunday

Day in week when daylight time ends

WeekInMonth

Last

Week in month when daylight time ends

UTCTimeOfDay

3600

UTC Time of day in seconds when daylight time ends

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Table 26:
Name NoHalfHourUTC

TIMEZONE Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) -24 - 24 Unit Step 1 Default 0 Description Number of half-hours from UTC

Table 27:
Name SynchType TimeDomain Encoding

SYNCHIRIG-B Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) BNC Opto LocalTime UTC IRIG-B 1344 1344TZ MinusTZ PlusTZ Unit Step Default Opto LocalTime IRIG-B Description Type of synchronization Time domain Type of encoding

TimeZoneAs1344

PlusTZ

Time zone as in 1344 standard

4.3.6

Technical data
Table 28:
Function Time tagging resolution, events and sampled measurement values Time tagging error with synchronization once/min (minute pulse synchronization), events and sampled measurement values Time tagging error with SNTP synchronization, sampled measurement values

Time synchronization, time tagging


Value 1 ms 1.0 ms typically 1.0 ms typically

4.4
4.4.1

Parameter setting groups


Introduction
Use the six different groups of settings to optimize the IED operation for different power system conditions. Creating and switching between fine-tuned setting sets, either from the local HMI or configurable binary inputs, results in a highly adaptable IED that can cope with a variety of power system scenarios.

4.4.2

Principle of operation
Parameter setting groups ActiveGroup function has six functional inputs, each corresponding to one of the setting groups stored in the IED. Activation of any of these inputs changes the active setting group. Seven functional output signals are available for configuration purposes, so that up to date information on the active setting group is always available.

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A setting group is selected by using the local HMI, from a front connected personal computer, remotely from the station control or station monitoring system or by activating the corresponding input to the ActiveGroup function block. Each input of the function block can be configured to connect to any of the binary inputs in the IED. To do this PCM600 must be used. The external control signals are used for activating a suitable setting group when adaptive functionality is necessary. Input signals that should activate setting groups must be either permanent or a pulse exceeding 400 ms. More than one input may be activated at the same time. In such cases the lower order setting group has priority. This means that if for example both group four and group two are set to activate, group two will be the one activated. Every time the active group is changed, the output signal SETCHGD is sending a pulse. The parameter MAXSETGR defines the maximum number of setting groups in use to switch between.
ACTIVATE GROUP 6 ACTIVATE GROUP 5 ACTIVATE GROUP 4 ACTIVATE GROUP 3 ACTIVATE GROUP 2 +RL2 ACTIVATE GROUP 1 IOx-Bly1 IOx-Bly2 IOx-Bly3 IOx-Bly4 IOx-Bly5 IOx-Bly6 ActiveGroup ACTGRP1 GRP1 ACTGRP2 ACTGRP3 ACTGRP4 ACTGRP5 ACTGRP6 GRP2 GRP3 GRP4 GRP5 GRP6 SETCHGD

en05000119.vsd
IEC05000119 V2 EN

Figure 31:

Connection of the function to external circuits

The above example also includes seven output signals, for confirmation of which group that is active. SETGRPS function block has an input where the number of setting groups used is defined. Switching can only be done within that number of groups. The number of setting groups selected to be used will be filtered so only the setting groups used will be shown on the Parameter Setting Tool.

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ActiveGroup ACTGRP1 GRP1 ACTGRP2 GRP2 ACTGRP3 GRP3 ACTGRP4 GRP4 ACTGRP5 GRP5 ACTGRP6 GRP6 SETCHGD IEC05000433_2_en.vsd
IEC05000433 V2 EN

4.4.3

Figure 32:

ActiveGroup function block

SETGRPS MAXSETGR IEC05000716_2_en.vsd


IEC05000716 V2 EN

Figure 33:

SETGRPS function block

4.4.4

Input and output signals


Table 29:
Name ACTGRP1 ACTGRP2 ACTGRP3 ACTGRP4 ACTGRP5 ACTGRP6

ActiveGroup Input signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Selects setting group 1 as active Selects setting group 2 as active Selects setting group 3 as active Selects setting group 4 as active Selects setting group 5 as active Selects setting group 6 as active

Table 30:
Name GRP1 GRP2 GRP3 GRP4 GRP5 GRP6 SETCHGD

ActiveGroup Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Setting group 1 is active Setting group 2 is active Setting group 3 is active Setting group 4 is active Setting group 5 is active Setting group 6 is active Pulse when setting changed

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Table 31:
Name t

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters
ActiveGroup Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range) 0.0 - 10.0 Unit s Step 0.1 Default 1.0 Description Pulse length of pulse when setting changed

Table 32:
Name ActiveSetGrp

SETGRPS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) SettingGroup1 SettingGroup2 SettingGroup3 SettingGroup4 SettingGroup5 SettingGroup6 1-6 Unit Step Default SettingGroup1 Description ActiveSettingGroup

MAXSETGR

No

Max number of setting groups 1-6

4.5
4.5.1

ChangeLock function CHNGLCK


Introduction
Change lock function (CHNGLCK) is used to block further changes to the IED configuration and settings once the commissioning is complete. The purpose is to block inadvertent IED configuration changes beyond a certain point in time.

4.5.2

Principle of operation
The Change lock function (CHNGLCK) is configured using ACT. The function, when activated, will still allow the following changes of the IED state that does not involve reconfiguring of the IED: Monitoring Reading events Resetting events Reading disturbance data Clear disturbances Reset LEDs Reset counters and other runtime component states Control operations Set system time Enter and exit from test mode Change of active setting group

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The binary input signal LOCK controlling the function is defined in ACT or SMT:
Binary input 1 0 Function Activated Deactivated

4.5.3

Function block
CHNGLCK LOCK IEC09000946-1-en.vsd
IEC09000946 V1 EN

Figure 34:

CHNGLCK function block

4.5.4

Input and output signals


Table 33:
Name LOCK

CHNGLCK Input signals


Type BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Parameter change lock

4.5.5
Table 34:
Name Operation

Setting parameters
CHNGLCK Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range) LockHMI and Com LockHMI, EnableCom EnableHMI, LockCom Unit Step Default LockHMI and Com Description Operation mode of change lock

4.6
4.6.1

Test mode functionality TEST


Introduction
When the Test mode functionality TESTMODE is activated, all the functions in the IED are automatically blocked. It is then possible to unblock every function(s) individually from the local HMI to perform required tests. When leaving TESTMODE, all blockings are removed and the IED resumes normal operation. However, if during TESTMODE operation, power is removed and later restored, the IED will remain in TESTMODE with the same protection functions blocked or unblocked as before the power was removed. All testing will
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be done with actually set and configured values within the IED. No settings will be changed, thus mistakes are avoided.

4.6.2

Principle of operation
Put the IED into test mode to test functions in the IED. Set the IED in test mode by configuration, activating the input SIGNAL on the function block TESTMODE. setting TestMode to On in the local HMI, under Main menu/TEST/IED test mode.

While the IED is in test mode, the ACTIVE of the function block TESTMODE is activated. The outputs of the function block TESTMODE shows the cause of the Test mode: On state input from configuration (OUTPUT output is activated) or setting from local HMI (SETTING output is activated). While the IED is in test mode, the yellow START LED will flash and all functions are blocked. Any function can be unblocked individually regarding functionality and event signalling. Most of the functions in the IED can individually be blocked by means of settings from the local HMI. To enable these blockings the IED must be set in test mode (output ACTIVE is activated), see example in figure 35. When leaving the test mode, that is entering normal mode, these blockings are disabled and everything is set to normal operation. All testing will be done with actually set and configured values within the IED. No settings will be changed, thus no mistakes are possible. The blocked functions will still be blocked next time entering the test mode, if the blockings were not reset. The blocking of a function concerns all output signals from the actual function, so no outputs will be activated. When a binary input is used to set the IED in test mode and a parameter, that requires restart of the application, is changed, the IED will re-enter test mode and all functions will be blocked, also functions that were unblocked before the change. During the reentering to test mode, all functions will be temporarily unblocked for a short time, which might lead to unwanted operations. This is only valid if the IED is put in TEST mode by a binary input, not by local HMI. The TESTMODE function block might be used to automatically block functions when a test handle is inserted in a test switch. A contact in the test switch (RTXP24 contact 29-30) can supply a binary input which in turn is configured to the TESTMODE function block. Each of the functions includes the blocking from the TESTMODE function block. A typical example from the undervoltage function is shown in figure 35.
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The functions can also be blocked from sending events over IEC 61850 station bus to prevent filling station and SCADA databases with test events, for example during a maintenance test.

Disconnection

Normal voltage U1< U2<

tBlkUV1 < t1,t1Min IntBlkStVal1 IntBlkStVal2 Time Block step 1 Block step 2
en05000466.vsd
IEC05000466 V1 EN

tBlkUV2 < t2,t2Min

Figure 35:

Example of blocking the time delayed undervoltage protection function.

4.6.3

Function block
TESTMODE INPUT ACTIVE OUTPUT SETTING NOEVENT

IEC09000219-1.vsd
IEC09000219 V1 EN

Figure 36:

TESTMODE function block

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Table 35:
Name INPUT

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

TESTMODE Input signals


Type BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Sets terminal in test mode when active

Table 36:
Name ACTIVE OUTPUT SETTING NOEVENT

TESTMODE Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Terminal in test mode when active Test input is active Test mode setting is (On) or not (Off) Event disabled during testmode

4.6.5
Table 37:
Name TestMode EventDisable CmdTestBit

Setting parameters
TESTMODE Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On Off On Off On Unit Step Default Off Off Off Description Test mode in operation (On) or not (Off) Event disable during testmode Command bit for test required or not during testmode

4.7
4.7.1

IED identifiers
Introduction
IED identifiers (TERMINALID) function allows the user to identify the individual IED in the system, not only in the substation, but in a whole region or a country. Use only characters A-Z, a-z and 0-9 in station, object and unit names.

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4.7.2
Table 38:
Name StationName StationNumber ObjectName ObjectNumber UnitName UnitNumber

TERMINALID Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 0 - 18 0 - 99999 0 - 18 0 - 99999 0 - 18 0 - 99999 Unit Step 1 1 1 1 1 1 Default Station name 0 Object name 0 Unit name 0 Description Station name Station number Object name Object number Unit name Unit number

4.8
4.8.1

Product information
Introduction
The Product identifiers function identifies the IED. The function has seven pre-set, settings that are unchangeable but nevertheless very important: IEDProdType ProductDef FirmwareVer SerialNo OrderingNo ProductionDate

The settings are visible on the local HMI , under Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/Product identifiers They are very helpful in case of support process (such as repair or maintenance).

4.8.2

Setting parameters
The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.

4.8.3

Factory defined settings


The factory defined settings are very useful for identifying a specific version and very helpful in the case of maintenance, repair, interchanging IEDs between different Substation Automation Systems and upgrading. The factory made settings can not be changed by the customer. They can only be viewed. The settings are found in the local HMI under Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/Product identifiers The following identifiers are available:
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IEDProdType Describes the type of the IED (like REL, REC or RET). Example: REL670 Describes the firmware version. Example: 1.4.51 Firmware versions numbers are running independently from the release production numbers. For every release numbers (like 1.5.0.17) there can be one or more firmware versions, depending on the small issues corrected in between releases. Main function type code according to IEC 60870-5-103. Example: 128 (meaning line protection). FirmwareVer

IEDMainFunType

SerialNo OrderingNo ProductionDate

4.9
4.9.1

Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI


Introduction
The Signal matrix for binary inputs (SMBI) function is used within the Application Configuration Tool (ACT) in direct relation with the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT), see the application manual to get information about how binary inputs are brought in for one IED configuration.

4.9.2

Principle of operation
The Signal matrix for binary inputs (SMBI) function , see figure 37, receives its inputs from the real (hardware) binary inputs via the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT), and makes them available to the rest of the configuration via its outputs, BI1 to BI10. The inputs and outputs, as well as the whole block, can be given a user defined name. These names will be represented in SMT as information which signals shall be connected between physical IO and SMBI function. The input/ output user defined name will also appear on the respective output/input signal.

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SMBI ^VIN1 ^VIN2 ^VIN3 ^VIN4 ^VIN5 ^VIN6 ^VIN7 ^VIN8 ^VIN9 ^VIN10 ^BI1 ^BI2 ^BI3 ^BI4 ^BI5 ^BI6 ^BI7 ^BI8 ^BI9 ^BI10 IEC05000434-2-en.vsd
IEC05000434 V2 EN

4.9.3

Figure 37:

SMBI function block

4.9.4

Input and output signals


Table 39:
Name VIn1 VIn2 VIn3 VIn4 VIn5 VIn6 VIn7 VIn8 VIn9 VIn10

SMBI Input signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input SMT Connect input

Table 40:
Name BI1 BI2 BI3 BI4 BI5 BI6 BI7 BI8 BI9 BI10

SMBI Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Binary input 1 Binary input 2 Binary input 3 Binary input 4 Binary input 5 Binary input 6 Binary input 7 Binary input 8 Binary input 9 Binary input 10

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4.10
4.10.1

Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO


Introduction
The Signal matrix for binary outputs (SMBO) function is used within the Application Configuration Tool (ACT) in direct relation with the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT), see the application manual to get information about how binary inputs are sent from one IED configuration.

4.10.2

Principle of operation
The Signal matrix for binary outputs (SMBO) function , see figure 38, receives logical signal from the IED configuration, which is transferring to the real (hardware) outputs, via the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT). The inputs in SMBO are BO1 to BO10 and they, as well as the whole function block, can be tag-named. The name tags will appear in SMT as information which signals shall be connected between physical IO and the SMBO. It is important that SMBO inputs are connected when SMBOs are connected to physical outputs through the Signal Matrix Tool. If SMBOs are connected (in SMT) but their inputs not, all the physical outputs will be set by default. This might cause malfunction of primary equipment and/or injury to personnel.

4.10.3

Function block
SMBO BO1 BO2 BO3 BO4 BO5 BO6 BO7 BO8 BO9 BO10 ^BO1 ^BO2 ^BO3 ^BO4 ^BO5 ^BO6 ^BO7 ^BO8 ^BO9 ^BO10 IEC05000439-2-en.vsd
IEC05000439 V2 EN

Figure 38:

SMBO function block

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Table 41:
Name BO1 BO2 BO3 BO4 BO5 BO6 BO7 BO8 BO9 BO10

4.10.4

SMBO Input signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Description Signal name for BO1 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO2 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO3 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO4 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO5 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO6 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO7 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO8 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO9 in Signal Matrix Tool Signal name for BO10 in Signal Matrix Tool

4.11
4.11.1

Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI


Introduction
The Signal matrix for mA inputs (SMMI) function is used within the Application Configuration Tool (ACT) in direct relation with the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT), see the application manual to get information about how milliamp (mA) inputs are brought in for one IED configuration.

4.11.2

Principle of operation
The Signal matrix for mA inputs (SMMI) function, see figure 39, receives its inputs from the real (hardware) mA inputs via the Signal Matrix Tool (SMT), and makes them available to the rest of the configuration via its analog outputs, named AI1 to AI6. The inputs, as well as the whole block, can be tag-named. These tags will be represented in SMT. The outputs on SMMI are normally connected to the IEC61850 generic communication I/O functions (MVGGIO) function for further use of the mA signals.

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SMMI ^VIN1 ^VIN2 ^VIN3 ^VIN4 ^VIN5 ^VIN6 AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AI5 AI6 IEC05000440-2-en.vsd
IEC05000440 V2 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 39:

SMMI function block

4.11.4

Input and output signals


Table 42:
Name VIn1 VIn2 VIn3 VIn4 VIn5 VIn6

SMMI Input signals


Type REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description SMT connected milliampere input SMT connected milliampere input SMT connected milliampere input SMT connected milliampere input SMT connected milliampere input SMT connected milliampere input

Table 43:
Name AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AI5 AI6

SMMI Output signals


Type REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Analog milliampere input 1 Analog milliampere input 2 Analog milliampere input 3 Analog milliampere input 4 Analog milliampere input 5 Analog milliampere input 6

4.12
4.12.1

Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI


Introduction
Signal matrix for analog inputs function (SMAI), also known as the preprocessor function, processes the analog signals connected to it and gives information about all aspects of the analog signals connected, like the RMS value, phase angle, frequency, harmonic content, sequence components and so on. This information is

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then used by the respective functions in ACT (for example protection, measurement or monitoring). The SMAI function is used within PCM600 in direct relation with the Signal Matrix tool or the Application Configuration tool.

4.12.2

Principle of operation
Every Signal matrix for analog inputs function (SMAI) can receive four analog signals (three phases and one neutral value), either voltage or current, see figure 41 and figure 42. SMAI outputs give information about every aspect of the 3ph analog signals acquired (phase angle, RMS value, frequency and frequency derivates etc. 244 values in total). The BLOCK input will reset all outputs to 0. The output signal AI1 to AI4 are direct output of the, in SMT, connected input to GRPxL1, GRPxL2, GRPxL3 and GRPxN, x=1-12. AIN is always the neutral current, calculated residual sum or the signal connected to GRPxN. Note that function block will always calculate the residual sum of current/voltage if the input is not connected in SMT. Applications with a few exceptions shall always be connected to AI3P.

4.12.3

Frequency values
The frequency functions includes a functionality based on level of positive sequence voltage, IntBlockLevel, to validate if the frequency measurement is valid or not. If positive sequence voltage is lower than IntBlockLevel the function is blocked. IntBlockLevel, is set in % of UBase/3 If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-Ph at least two of the inputs GRPxL1, GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 must be connected in order to calculate positive sequence voltage. If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N, all three inputs GRPxL1, GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 must be connected in order to calculate positive sequence voltage. If only one phase-phase voltage is available and SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-Ph the user is advised to connect two (not three) of the inputs GRPxL1, GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 to the same voltage input as shown in figure 40 to make SMAI calculating a positive sequence voltage (that is input voltage/3).

IEC10000060-1-en.vsd
IEC10000060 V1 EN

Figure 40:

Connection example
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The above described scenario does not work if SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N. If only one phase-earth voltage is available, the same type of connection can be used but the SMAI ConnectionType setting must still be Ph-Ph and this has to be accounted for when setting IntBlockLevel. If SMAI setting ConnectionType is Ph-N and the same voltage is connected to all three SMAI inputs, the positive sequence voltage will be zero and the frequency functions will not work properly.

The outputs from the above configured SMAI block shall only be used for Overfrequency protection (SAPTOF), Underfrequency protection (SAPTUF) and Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC) due to that all other information except frequency and positive sequence voltage might be wrongly calculated. The same phase-phase voltage connection principle shall be used for frequency tracking master SMAI block in pump-storage power plant applications when swapping of positive and negative sequence voltages happens during generator/ motor mode of operation.

4.12.4

Function block
SMAI1 BLOCK DFTSPFC ^GRP1L1 ^GRP1L2 ^GRP1L3 ^GRP1N TYPE SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN IEC05000705-2-en.vsd
IEC05000705 V2 EN

Figure 41:
SMAI2 BLOCK ^GRP2L1 ^GRP2L2 ^GRP2L3 ^GRP2N TYPE

SMAI1 function block

AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN IEC07000130-2-en.vsd

IEC07000130 V2 EN

Figure 42:

SMAI2 function block

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Table 44:
Name BLOCK DFTSPFC GRP1L1 GRP1L2 GRP1L3 GRP1N

4.12.5

SMAI1 Input signals


Type BOOLEAN REAL STRING STRING STRING STRING Default 0 20.0 Description Block group 1 Number of samples per fundamental cycle used for DFT calculation Sample input to be used for group 1 phase L1 calculations Sample input to be used for group 1 phase L2 calculations Sample input to be used for group 1 phase L3 calculations Sample input to be used for group 1 residual calculations

Table 45:
Name SPFCOUT AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN

SMAI1 Output signals


Type REAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL Description Number of samples per fundamental cycle from internal DFT reference function Group 1 analog input 3-phase group Group 1 analog input 1 Group 1 analog input 2 Group 1 analog input 3 Group 1 analog input 4 Group 1 analog input residual for disturbance recorder

Table 46:
Name BLOCK GRP2L1 GRP2L2 GRP2L3 GRP2N

SMAI2 Input signals


Type BOOLEAN STRING STRING STRING STRING Default 0 Description Block group 2 Sample input to be used for group 2 phase L1 calculations Sample input to be used for group 2 phase L2 calculations Sample input to be used for group 2 phase L3 calculations Sample input to be used for group 2 residual calculations

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Table 47:
Name AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 AIN

SMAI2 Output signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL Description Group 2 analog input 3-phase group Group 2 analog input 1 Group 2 analog input 2 Group 2 analog input 3 Group 2 analog input 4 Group 2 analog input residual for disturbance recorder

4.12.6

Setting parameters
Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default value InternalDFTRef if no VT inputs are available. Internal nominal frequency DFT reference is then the reference.

Table 48:
Name DFTRefExtOut

SMAI1 Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 AdDFTRefCh2 AdDFTRefCh3 AdDFTRefCh4 AdDFTRefCh5 AdDFTRefCh6 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh8 AdDFTRefCh9 AdDFTRefCh10 AdDFTRefCh11 AdDFTRefCh12 External DFT ref InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 AdDFTRefCh2 AdDFTRefCh3 AdDFTRefCh4 AdDFTRefCh5 AdDFTRefCh6 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh8 AdDFTRefCh9 AdDFTRefCh10 AdDFTRefCh11 AdDFTRefCh12 External DFT ref Ph-N Ph-Ph 1-2 Unit Step Default InternalDFTRef Description DFT reference for external output

DFTReference

InternalDFTRef

DFT reference

ConnectionType TYPE

Ch

Ph-N 1

Input connection type 1=Voltage, 2=Current

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Table 49:
Name Negation

SMAI1 Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) Off NegateN Negate3Ph Negate3Ph+N 5 - 200 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit Step Default Off Description Negation

MinValFreqMeas UBase

% kV

1 0.05

10 400.00

Limit for frequency calculation in % of UBase Base voltage

Table 50:
Name DFTReference

SMAI2 Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 AdDFTRefCh2 AdDFTRefCh3 AdDFTRefCh4 AdDFTRefCh5 AdDFTRefCh6 AdDFTRefCh7 AdDFTRefCh8 AdDFTRefCh9 AdDFTRefCh10 AdDFTRefCh11 AdDFTRefCh12 External DFT ref Ph-N Ph-Ph 1-2 Unit Step Default InternalDFTRef Description DFT reference

ConnectionType TYPE

Ch

Ph-N 1

Input connection type 1=Voltage, 2=Current

Table 51:
Name Negation

SMAI2 Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) Off NegateN Negate3Ph Negate3Ph+N 5 - 200 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit Step Default Off Description Negation

MinValFreqMeas UBase

% kV

1 0.05

10 400.00

Limit for frequency calculation in % of UBase Base voltage

4.13

Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM

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Summation block 3 phase function 3PHSUM is used to get the sum of two sets of three-phase analog signals (of the same type) for those IED functions that might need it.

4.13.2

Principle of operation
Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM receives the three-phase signals from Signal matrix for analog inputs function (SMAI). In the same way, the BLOCK input will reset all the outputs of the function to 0.

4.13.3

Function block
3PHSUM BLOCK DFTSPFC G1AI3P* G2AI3P* AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4 IEC05000441-2-en.vsd
IEC05000441 V2 EN

Figure 43:

3PHSUM function block

4.13.4

Input and output signals


Table 52:
Name BLOCK DFTSPFC G1AI3P G2AI3P

3PHSUM Input signals


Type BOOLEAN REAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL Default 0 0 Description Block Number of samples per fundamental cycle used for DFT calculation Group 1 analog input 3-phase group Group 2 analog input 3-phase group

Table 53:
Name AI3P AI1 AI2 AI3 AI4

3PHSUM Output signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL Description Group analog input 3-phase group Group 1 analog input Group 2 analog input Group 3 analog input Group 4 analog input

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Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default value InternalDFTRef if no VT inputs are available.

4.13.5

Table 54:
Name SummationType

3PHSUM Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) Group1+Group2 Group1-Group2 Group2-Group1 -(Group1+Group2) InternalDFTRef AdDFTRefCh1 External DFT ref Unit Step Default Group1+Group2 Description Summation type

DFTReference

InternalDFTRef

DFT reference

Table 55:
Name FreqMeasMinVal UBase

3PHSUM Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 5 - 200 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit % kV Step 1 0.05 Default 10 400.00 Description Amplitude limit for frequency calculation in % of Ubase Base voltage

4.14
4.14.1

Authority status ATHSTAT


Introduction
Authority status (ATHSTAT) function is an indication function block for user logon activity.

4.14.2

Principle of operation
Authority status (ATHSTAT) function informs about two events related to the IED and the user authorization: the fact that at least one user has tried to log on wrongly into the IED and it was blocked (the output USRBLKED) the fact that at least one user is logged on (the output LOGGEDON)

Whenever one of the two events occurs, the corresponding output (USRBLKED or LOGGEDON) is activated. The output can for example, be connected on Event (EVENT) function block for LON/SPA.The signals are also available on IEC 61850 station bus.

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ATHSTAT USRBLKED LOGGEDON IEC06000503-2-en.vsd
IEC06000503 V2 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 44:

ATHSTAT function block

4.14.4

Output signals
Table 56:
Name USRBLKED LOGGEDON

ATHSTAT Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description At least one user is blocked by invalid password At least one user is logged on

4.14.5

Setting parameters
The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.

4.15
4.15.1

Denial of service DOS


Introduction
The Denial of service functions (DOSFRNT, DOSOEMAB and DOSOEMCD) are designed to limit overload on the IED produced by heavy Ethernet network traffic. The communication facilities must not be allowed to compromise the primary functionality of the device. All inbound network traffic will be quota controlled so that too heavy network loads can be controlled. Heavy network load might for instance be the result of malfunctioning equipment connected to the network.

4.15.2

Principle of operation
The Denial of service functions (DOSFRNT, DOSOEMAB and DOSOEMCD) measures the IED load from communication and, if necessary, limit it for not jeopardizing the IEDs control and protection functionality due to high CPU load. The function has the following outputs: LINKUP indicates the Ethernet link status WARNING indicates that communication (frame rate) is higher than normal ALARM indicates that the IED limits communication

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DOSFRNT LINKUP WARNING ALARM IEC09000749-1-en.vsd
IEC09000749 V1 EN

4.15.3

Figure 45:

DOSFRNT function block

DOSOEMAB LINKUP WARNING ALARM IEC09000750-1-en.vsd


IEC09000750 V1 EN

Figure 46:

DOSOEMAB function block

DOSOEMCD LINKUP WARNING ALARM IEC09000751-1-en.vsd


IEC09000751 V1 EN

Figure 47:

DOSOEMCD function block

4.15.4

Signals
Table 57:
Name LINKUP WARNING ALARM

DOSFRNT Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Ethernet link status Frame rate is higher than normal state Frame rate is higher than throttle state

Table 58:
Name LINKUP WARNING ALARM

DOSOEMAB Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Ethernet link status Frame rate is higher than normal state Frame rate is higher than throttle state

Table 59:
Name LINKUP WARNING ALARM

DOSOEMCD Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Ethernet link status Frame rate is higher than normal state Frame rate is higher than throttle state 101

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The function does not have any parameters available in the local HMI or PCM600.

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Section 5 Differential protection

Section 5

Differential protection

About this chapter


This chapter describes the measuring principles, functions and parameters used in differential protection.

5.1

Generator differential protection GENPDIF


Function description Generator differential protection IEC 61850 identification GENPDIF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 87G

Id>
SYMBOL-NN V1 EN

5.1.1

Introduction
Short circuit between the phases of the stator windings causes normally very large fault currents. The short circuit gives risk of damages on insulation, windings and stator iron core. The large short circuit currents cause large forces, which can cause damage even to other components in the power plant, such as turbine and generatorturbine shaft. To limit the damage due to stator winding short circuits, the fault clearance must be as fast as possible (instantaneous). If the generator block is connected to the power system close to other generating blocks, the fast fault clearance is essential to maintain the transient stability of the non-faulted generators. Normally, the short circuit fault current is very large, that is, significantly larger than the generator rated current. There is a risk that a short circuit can occur between phases close to the neutral point of the generator, thus causing a relatively small fault current. The fault current can also be limited due to low excitation of the generator. Therefore, it is desired that the detection of generator phase-to-phase short circuits shall be relatively sensitive, detecting small fault currents. It is also of great importance that the generator differential protection does not trip for external faults, with large fault currents flowing from the generator. To combine fast fault clearance, as well as sensitivity and selectivity, the generator differential protection is normally the best choice for phase-to-phase generator short circuits.

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Generator differential protection GENPDIF is also well suited to generate fast, sensitive and selective fault clearance, if used to protect shunt reactors or small busduct.

5.1.2

Principle of operation
The task of Generator differential protection GENPDIF is to determine whether a fault is within the protected zone, or outside the protected zone. The protected zone is delimited by the position of current transformers, as shown in figure 48.

IEC06000430-2-en.vsd

IEC06000430 V2 EN

Figure 48:

Position of current transformers; the recommended (default) orientation

If the fault is internal, the faulty generator must be quickly tripped, that is, disconnected from the network, the field breaker tripped and the power to the prime mover interrupted. GENPDIF function always uses reference (default) directions of CTs towards the protected generator as shown in figure 48. Thus, it always measures the currents on the two sides of the generator with the same reference direction towards the generator windings. With the orientation of CTs as in figure 48, the difference of currents flowing in, and out, of a separate stator winding phase is simply obtained by summation of the two currents fed to the differential protection function. Numerical IEDs have brought a large number of advantages and new functionality to the protective relaying. One of the benefits is the simplicity and accuracy of calculating symmetrical components from individual phase quantities. Within the firmware of a numerical IED, it is no more difficult to calculate negative-sequence components than it is to calculate zero-sequence components. Diversity of operation principles integrated in the same protection function enhances the overall performance without a significant increase in cost. A novelty in GENPDIF, namely the negative-sequence-current-based internalexternal fault discriminator, is used with advantage in order to determine whether a fault is internal or external. Indeed, the internal-external fault discriminator not only positively discriminates between internal and external faults, but can independently detect minor faults which may not be felt (until they develop into more serious faults) by the "usual" differential protection based on operate-restrain characteristic. GENPDIF is using fundamental frequency phase current phasors and negative sequence current phasors. These quantities are derived outside the differential protection function block, in the general pre-processing blocks. GENPDIF is also using with advantage the DC component of the instantaneous differential current
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and the 2nd and 5th harmonic components of the instantaneous differential currents. The instantaneous differential currents are calculated from the input samples of the instantaneous values of the currents measured at both ends of the stator winding. The DC and the 2nd and 5th harmonic components of each separate instantaneous differential current are extracted inside the differential protection.

5.1.2.1

Function calculation principles


To make a differential protection as sensitive and stable as possible, the restrained differential characteristic is used. The protection must be provided with a proportional bias, which makes the protection operate for a certain percentage differential current related to the current through the generator stator winding. This stabilizes the protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have good basic sensitivity. The following chapters explain how these quantities are calculated. The fundamental frequency phasors of the phase currents from both sides of the generator (the neutral side and the terminal side) are delivered to the differential protection function by the pre-processing module of the IED.

5.1.2.2

Fundamental frequency differential currents


The fundamental frequency RMS differential current is a vectorial sum (that is, sum of fundamental frequency phasors) of the individual phase currents from the two sides of the protected generator. The magnitude of the fundamental frequency RMS differential current, in phase L1, is as calculated in equation 1:
Idiff _ L1 = [(Re( IL1n + IL1t ))2 + (Im( IL1n + IL1t )) 2 ]
EQUATION2316 V2 EN

(Equation 1)

One common fundamental frequency bias current is used. The bias current is the magnitude of the highest measured current in the protected circuit. The bias current is not allowed to drop instantaneously, instead, it decays exponentially with a predefined time constant. These principles make the differential IED more secure, with less risk to operate for external faults. The maximum principle brings as well more meaning to the breakpoint settings of the operate-restrain characteristic.
Ibias = max( IL1n, IL 2 n, IL3n, IL1t , IL 2t , IL 3t )
EQUATION1666 V1 EN

(Equation 2)

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Section 5 Differential protection


IL1n IL1t

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IL1t

Idiff

IL1n
IEC07000018_3_en.vsd
IEC07000018 V3 EN

Figure 49:

Internal fault

IL1n

IL1t

External fault: IL1n = - IL1t

IL1t Idiff = 0
IEC07000019 V2 EN

IL1n
en07000019-2.vsd

Figure 50:

External fault

Generator differential protection GENPDIF function uses two mutually independent characteristics to which magnitudes of the three fundamental frequency RMS differential currents are compared at each execution of the differential protection function. These two characteristics divide, each of them independently, the operate current restrain current plane into two regions: the operate (trip) region and the restrain (block) region, as shown in figure 52. Two kinds of protection are obtained: the non-stabilized (instantaneous unrestrained) differential protection the stabilized differential protection

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Section 5 Differential protection

The non-stabilized (instantaneous) differential protection is used for very high differential currents, where it must be beyond any doubt, that the fault is internal. This limit, (defined by the setting UnrestrainedLimit), is a constant, not proportional dependent on the bias (restrain) current. No harmonic or any other restrain is applied to this limit, which is, therefore, called the unrestrained limit. The reset ratio of the unrestrained characteristic is equal to 0.95. The stabilized differential protection applies a differential (operate) current, and the common bias (restrain) current, on the operate-restrain characteristic, as shown in figure 52. Here, the actual limit, where the protection can operate, is dependent on the bias (restrain) current. The operate value, is stabilized by the bias current. This operate restrain characteristic is represented by a double-slope, double-breakpoint characteristic. The restrained characteristic is determined by the following 5 settings: IdMin (Sensitivity in section 1, set as multiple of generator rated current) EndSection1 (End of section 1, set as multiple of generator rated current) EndSection2 (End of section 2, set as multiple of generator rated current) SlopeSection2 (Slope in section 2 of the characteristic, set in percent) SlopeSection3 (Slope in section 3 of the characteristic, set in percent)

slope = D Ioperate 100% D Irestrain


EQUATION1246 V1 EN

(Equation 3)

Note that both slopes are calculated from the characteristics break points. The operate-restrain characteristic is tailor-made, in other words, it can be constructed by the user. A default operate-restrain characteristic is suggested which gives acceptably good results in a majority of applications. The operate-restrain characteristic has in principle three sections with a section-wise proportionality dependence of the operate value to the common restrain (bias) current. The reset ratio is in all parts of the characteristic equal to 0.95. Section 1 is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal currents flow through the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for higher false differential currents is low. With generators the only cause of small false differential currents in this section can be tolerances of the current transformers used on both sides of the protected generator. Slope in section 1 is always zero percent. Normally, with the protected machine at rated load, the restrain, bias current will be around 1 p.u., that is, equal to the machine rated current. In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to cope with false differential currents proportional to higher than normal currents through the current transformers.

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The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher tolerance to substantial current transformer saturation at high through-fault currents, which can be expected in this section. Temporarily decreased sensitivity of differential protection is activated if the binary input DESENSIT is (temporarily) set to 1 (TRUE). In this case, a new, separate limit is superposed to the otherwise unchanged operate-bias characteristic. This limit is called TempIdMin and is a setting. The value of the setting TempIdMin must be given as a multiple of the setting IdMin. In this case no trip command can be issued if all fundamental frequency differential currents are below the value of the setting TempIdMin. AddTripDelay: If the input DESENSIT is activated also the operation time of the protection function can be increased by using the setting AddTripDelay.
operate current [ times IBase ] 5

Operate unconditionally UnrestrainedLimit

Operate conditionally

2 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 SlopeSection3

TempIdMin IdMin

1 SlopeSection2 0 0 EndSection1 EndSection2 1 2 3

Restrain 4 5

restrain current [ times IBase ]

en06000637.vsd
IEC06000637 V2 EN

Figure 52:

Operate-restrain characteristic

GENPDIF can also be temporarily desensitized if the Boolean setting OperDCBiasing is set to 1 (TRUE). In this case, the DC component is extracted online from the instantaneous differential currents. The highest DC component is taken as a kind of bias in the sense that the highest sensitivity of the differential protection is inversely proportional to the ratio of this DC component to the maximum fundamental frequency differential current. Similar to the desensitization described above, a separate (temporary) additional limit is
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activated. The value of this limit is limited to either the generator rated current, or 3 times IdMin, whichever is smaller. This temporary extra limit decays exponentially from its maximum value with a time constant equal to T = 1 second. This feature must be used when unmatched CTs are used on the generator or shunt reactor, especially where a long DC time constant can be expected. The new limit is superposed on the otherwise unchanged operate-bias characteristic, and temporarily determines the highest sensitivity of the differential protection. This temporary sensitivity must be lower than the sensitivity in section 1 of the operatebias characteristic. This DC desensitization is not active, if a disturbance has been detected and characterized as internal fault.

5.1.2.3

Supplementary criteria
To relieve the burden of constructing an exact optimal operate-restrain characteristic, two special features supplement the basic stabilized differential protection function, making Generator differential protection GENPDIF a very reliable one. The supplementary criteria are: Internal/external fault discriminator (enhances, or blocks, the trip command) Harmonic restrain (blocks only)

The internal/external fault discriminator is a very reliable supplementary criterion. It discriminates with a high speed between internal and external faults. The discriminator is the main part of what is here called the negative-sequence-currentbased differential protections. It is recommended that this feature is always used (that is, enabled, OpNegSeqDiff = On). If a fault is classified as internal, then any eventual block signals by the harmonic criterion are ignored, and the differential protection can operate very quickly without any further delay. If a fault (disturbance) is classified as external, then generally, but not unconditionally, a trip command is prevented. If a fault is classified as external, harmonic analysis of the fault conditions is initiated. If all the differential currents which caused their respective start signals to be set, are free of harmonic pollution, that is, if no harmonic block signal has been set, then a (minor) internal fault, simultaneous with a predominant external fault, can be suspected. This conclusion can be drawn because at external faults, major false differential currents can only exist when one or more current transformers saturate transiently. In this case, the false instantaneous differential currents are highly polluted by higher harmonic components, the 2nd, and the 5th.

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The existence of relatively high negative-sequence currents is in itself an indication of a disturbance, as the negative-sequence currents are superimposed, pure-fault quantities. The negative-sequence currents are measurable indications of abnormal conditions. The negative sequence currents are particularly suitable for directional tests. The negative sequence internal or external fault discriminator works satisfactorily even in case of three-phase faults. Because of the fundamental frequency components (50/60 Hz) of the decaying DC offset of the fault currents, the system is not fully symmetrical immediately after the fault. Due to the transient existence of the negative sequence system, faults can be distinguished as internal or external, even for three-phase faults. The internal or external fault discriminator responds to the relative phase angles of the negative sequence fault currents at both ends of the stator winding. Observe that the source of the negative sequence currents at unsymmetrical faults is at the fault point. If the two negative sequence currents, as seen by the differential relay, flow in the same direction (that is with the CTs oriented as in figure 48), the fault is internal. If the two negative sequence currents flow in opposite directions, the fault is external. Under external fault condition, the relative angle is theoretically equal to 180. Under internal fault condition, the angle is ideally 0, but due to possible different negative-sequence impedance angles on both sides of the internal fault, it may differ somewhat from 0.

The setting NegSeqROA, as shown in figure 53, represents the so called Relay Operate Angle, which determines the boundary between the internal and external fault regions. It can be selected in the range 30 to 90, with a step of 1. The default value is 60. The default setting, 60, favors somewhat security in comparison to dependability. Magnitudes of both negative-sequence currents which are to be compared as to their phase positions in the complex plane must be high enough so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. The limit value IMinNegSeq is settable in the range [0.02 0.20] of the protected generator rated current. Adaptability is introduced if the bias current is higher than 150 % rated current. Adaptability is introduced 10 ms after this limit of 150 % rated current has been crossed so that the internal/ external discriminator is given the time to detect correctly a fault before an eventual CT saturation sets in. The threshold IMinNegSeq is dynamically increased by 4 % of the bias current, in case of internal faults, and by 8 % of the bias current in case of external faults. Only if magnitudes of both currents are above the limit IMinNegSeq, the angle between the two currents is calculated. If any of the two currents is too small, no decision is taken regarding the relative position of the fault, and this feature then remains inactive rather than to produce a wrong decision. The relative angle is then assigned the value of 120 (2.094 radians). If this value persists, then this is an indication that no directional comparison has been made. Neither internal, nor external fault (disturbance) is declared in this case.

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Section 5 Differential protection

90 deg 120 deg NegSeqROA (Relay Operate Angle)

Angle could not be measured. One or both currents too small

Internal fault region

180 deg
IminNegSeq

0 deg

External fault region

The characteristic is defined by the settings: IMinNegSeq and NegSeqROA 270 deg

Internal / external fault boundary. Default 60 deg

en06000433-2.vsd
IEC06000433 V2 EN

Figure 53:

NegSeqROA determines the boundary between the internal and external fault regions

Unrestrained negative sequence differential protection

If one or more start signals have been set by the restrained differential protection algorithm, because one or more of the fundamental frequency differential currents entered the operate region of the restrained differential protection, then the internal/ external fault discriminator can enhance the final, common, trip command by the differential protection. If a fault is classified as internal, then any eventual block signals by the harmonic criterion are ignored, and the differential protection operates immediately without any further delay. This makes the overall generator differential protection very fast. Operation of this protection is signaled on the output of GENPDIF as TRNSUNRE.

Sensitive negative sequence differential protection

The difference from the unrestrained negative sequence differential protection, described above, is that the sensitive one does not require any start signal to be set. It is enough that both of the negative sequence currents, contributions to the total negative sequence differential current, which should be compared, are above the setting IMinNegSeq. Thus, this protection can be made very sensitive. Further, an intentional delay of one cycle is added in order not to inadvertently operate for some eventual transients. Further, the sensitive negative sequence differential protection is automatically disabled when the bias current exceeds 1.5 times the rated current of the protected generator. Operation of this protection is signaled on the output of the function as TRNSENS.

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Section 5 Differential protection


5.1.2.4 Harmonic restrain

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Harmonic restrain is the classical restrain method traditionally used with power transformer differential protections. The goal there was to prevent an unwanted trip command due to magnetizing inrush currents at switching operations, due to magnetizing currents at over-voltages, or external faults. Harmonic restrain is just as useful with Generator differential protection GENPDIF. The harmonic analysis is only executed in those phases, where start signals have been set. There is no magnetizing inrush to a generator, but there may be some in case of shunt reactors. The false initial differential currents of a shunt reactor have an appreciable amount of higher harmonic currents. At external faults dangerous false differential currents can arise for different reasons, mainly due to saturation of one or more current transformers. The false differential currents display in this case a considerable amount of higher harmonics, which can, therefore, be used to prevent an unwanted trip of a healthy generator or shunt reactor. If a fault is recognized as external by the internal/external fault discriminator, but nevertheless one or more start signals have been set, the harmonic analysis is initiated in the phases with start signal, as previously described. If all of the instantaneous differential currents, where trip signals have been set, are free of higher harmonics (that is the cross-block principle is imposed temporarily), a (minor) internal fault is assumed to have happened simultaneously with a predominant external one. A trip command is then allowed.

5.1.2.5

Cross-block logic scheme


The cross-block logic says that in order to issue a common trip command, the harmonic contents in all phases with a start signal set (start = TRUE) must be below the limit defined with the setting HarmDistLimit. In the opposite case, no trip command will be issued. The cross-block logic is active if the setting OpCrossBlock = Yes. By always using the cross-block logic, the false trips can be prevented for external faults in cases where the internal or external fault discriminator should for some reason fail to declare an external fault. For internal faults, the higher frequency components of an instantaneous differential current are most often relatively low, compared to the fundamental frequency component. While for an external (heavy) fault, they can be relatively high. For external faults with moderate fault currents, there can be little or no current transformer saturation and only small false differential currents. The principle design of the Generator differential protection GENPDIF is shown in figure 54.

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Phasors IL1N, IL2N,IL3N Calculation Idiff and Ibias

Magnitude Idiff and Ibias

Phasors IL1T, IL2T,IL3T

Diff.prot. characteristic

Start phase selective

TRIP Signals

START Signals

BLOCK Signals Samples IL1N, IL2N,IL3N Calculation instantaneous Idiff Samples Idiff Hamonic analysis: DC, 2nd and 5th Harm. Block

Samples IAT, IBT,ICT

Start and trip logic

INTFAULT EXTFAULT OPENCT OPENCTAL

The sensitive protection is deactivated above bias current > 150 % rated current. Phasor IL1N (neg.seq.) Internal/ External Fault Discriminator and Sensitive differential protection Intern/ extern Fault Analog Outputs

Phasor IL1T (neg.seq.)

Calculation negative sequence Idiff

en06000434-2.vsd
IEC06000434 V3 EN

Figure 54:

Simplified principle design of the Generator differential protection GENPDIF

Simplified logic diagrams of the function are shown in figures 55, 56, 57 and 58.

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BLKUNRES IdUnre IDL1MAG IBIAS BLOCK BLKRES STL1


a b

b>a

AND

TRIPUNREL1

AND

INTFAULT

OR
IDL1
2nd and 5th Harmonic

AND

TRIPRESL1

BLKHL1

Cross Block from L2 or L3 OpCrossBlock=On

AND AND

Cross Block to L2 or L3

en07000020.vsd
IEC07000020 V2 EN

Figure 55:

Generator differential logic diagram 1

Neg.Seq. Diff Current Contributions

Internal/ External Fault discrimin ator

EXTFAULT

INTFAULT

TRNSSENS

OpNegSeqDiff=On
IBIAS
a b

AND

b>a

Constant
BLKNSSEN BLKNSUNR BLOCK STL1 STL2 STL3

AND OR

TRNSUNR

en07000021.vsd
IEC07000021 V2 EN

Figure 56:

Generator differential logic diagram 2

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STL1 STL2 STL3 BLKHL1 BLKHL2 BLKHL3

OR

START

OR

BLKH

en07000022.vsd
IEC07000022 V1 EN

Figure 57:

Generator differential logic diagram 3

TRIPRESL1 TRIPRESL2 TRIPRESL3 TRIPUNREL1 TRIPUNREL2 TRIPUNREL3

OR

TRIPRES

OR

TRIPUNRE

TRNSSENS TRNSUNR

OR

TRIP

en07000023.vsd
IEC07000023 V1 EN

Figure 58:

Generator differential logic diagram 4

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Section 5 Differential protection 5.1.3 Function block


GENPDIF I3PNCT1* TRIP I3PNCT2* TRIPRES I3PTCT1* TRIPUNRE I3PTCT2* TRNSUNR BLOCK TRNSSENS BLKRES START BLKUNRES STL1 BLKNSUNR STL2 BLKNSSEN STL3 DESENSIT BLKH OPENCT OPENCTAL IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IDNSMAG IBIAS IEC11000212-1-en.vsd
IEC11000212 V1 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 59:

GENPDIF function block

5.1.4

Input and output signals


Table 60:
Name I3PNCT1 I3PNCT2 I3PTCT1 I3PTCT2 BLOCK BLKRES BLKUNRES BLKNSUNR BLKNSSEN DESENSIT

GENPDIF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Neutral side input1 Neutral side input2 Terminal side input1 Terminal side input2 Block of function Block of trip command by the restrained diff. protection Block of trip by unrestrained "instantaneous" diff. prot. Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential feature Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential feature Raise pick up: function temporarily desensitized

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Table 61:
Name TRIP TRIPRES TRIPUNRE TRNSUNR TRNSSENS START STL1 STL2 STL3 BLKH OPENCT OPENCTAL IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IDNSMAG IBIAS

GENPDIF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description General, common trip signal Trip signal from restrained differential protection Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection Common start signal from any phase Start signal from phase L1 Start signal from phase L2 Start signal from phase L3 Common harmonic block signal An open CT was detected Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a delay ... Instantaneous differential current L1; in primary Amperes Instantaneous differential current L2; in primary Amperes Instantaneous differential current L3; in primary Amperes Negative Sequence Differential current; in primary Amperes Magnitude of the common Bias current; in primary Amperes

5.1.5
Table 62:
Name Operation IdMin IdUnre OpNegSeqDiff IMinNegSeq

Setting parameters
GENPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 1.00 1.00 - 50.00 No Yes 0.02 - 0.20 Unit IB IB IB Step 0.01 0.01 0.01 Default Off 0.25 10.00 Yes 0.04 Description Operation Off / On Section 1 sensitivity, multiple of generator rated current Unrestr. prot. limit, multiple of generator rated current Negative Sequence Differential Enable Off/On Neg. sequence curr. limit, as multiple of gen. rated curr.

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Table 63:
Name EndSection1 EndSection2 SlopeSection2 SlopeSection3 OpCrossBlock NegSeqROA HarmDistLimit TempIdMin AddTripDelay OperDCBiasing OpenCTEnable tOCTAlarmDelay tOCTResetDelay tOCTUnrstDelay

GENPDIF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.20 - 1.50 1.00 - 10.00 10.0 - 50.0 30.0 - 100.0 No Yes 30.0 - 120.0 5.0 - 100.0 1.0 - 5.0 0.000 - 60.000 Off On Off On 0.100 - 10.000 0.100 - 10.000 0.100 - 100.000 Unit IB IB % % Deg % IdMin s s s s Step 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 1.25 3.00 40.0 80.0 Yes 60.0 10.0 2.0 0.100 Off Off 1.000 0.250 10.000 Description End of section 1, multiple of generator rated current End of section 2, multiple of generator rated current Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain characteristic, in % Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain characteristic, in % Operation On / Off for cross-block logic between phases Operate Angle of int/ext neg. seq. fault discriminator, deg (Total) relative harmonic distorsion limit, percent Temp. Id pickup when input raisePickUp=1, multiple of IdMin Additional trip delay, when input raisePickUp=1 Operation DC biasing On / Off Open CT detection feature Off/On Open CT: time to alarm if an open CT is detected, in sec Reset delay in s. After delay, diff. function is activated Unrestrained diff. protection blocked after this delay, in s

Table 64:
Name IBase InvertCT2Curr

GENPDIF Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 100.0 - 100000.0 No Yes Unit A Step 0.1 Default 5000.0 No Description Rated current of protected generator, Amperes Invert CT 2 curr., yes (1) or no (0). Default is no (0).

5.1.6

Technical data
Table 65:
Function Unrestrained differential current limit Reset ratio Base sensitivity function Table continues on next page

GENPDIF technical data


Range or value (1-50)p.u. of IBase > 95% (0.051.00)p.u. of Accuracy 2.0% of set value 2.0% of Ir

IBase

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Section 5 Differential protection


Function Negative sequence current level Operate time, restrained function Reset time, restrained function Operate time, unrestrained function Reset time, unrestrained function Operate time, negative sequence unrestrained function Critical impulse time, unrestrained function Range or value (0.020.2)p.u. of IBase 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x set level 20 ms typically at 2 to 0 x set level 12 ms typically at 0 to 5 x set level 25 ms typically at 5 to 0 x set level 15 ms typically at 0 to 5 x set level 2 ms typically at 0 to 5 x set level Accuracy 1.0% of Ir -

5.2

Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and T3WPDIF


Function description Transformer differential protection, twowinding IEC 61850 identification T2WPDIF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 87T

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

Transformer differential protection, three-winding

T3WPDIF

87T

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

5.2.1

Introduction
The Transformer differential protection, two-winding (T2WPDIF) and Transformer differential protection, three-winding (T3WPDIF) are provided with internal CT ratio matching and vector group compensation and settable zero sequence current elimination. The function can be provided with up to three-phase sets of current inputs. All current inputs are provided with percentage bias restraint features, making the IED suitable for two- or three-winding transformer in multi-breaker station arrangements.

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Two-winding applications two-winding power transformer


xx05000048.vsd
IEC05000048 V1 EN

xx05000049.vsd
IEC05000049 V1 EN

two-winding power transformer with unconnected delta tertiary winding two-winding power transformer with two circuit breakers on one side two-winding power transformer with two circuit breakers and two CT-sets on both sides

xx05000050.vsd
IEC05000050 V1 EN

xx05000051.vsd
IEC05000051 V1 EN

Three-winding applications three-winding power transformer with all three windings connected

xx05000052.vsd
IEC05000052 V1 EN

three-winding power transformer with two circuit breakers and two CT-sets on one side
xx05000053.vsd
IEC05000053 V1 EN

Autotransformer with two circuit breakers and two CT-sets on two out of three sides

xx05000057.vsd
IEC05000057 V1 EN

Figure 60:

CT group arrangement for differential protection and other protections

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Section 5 Differential protection

The setting facilities cover the application of the differential protection to all types of power transformers and auto-transformers with or without load tap changer as well as shunt reactors and local feeders within the station. An adaptive stabilizing feature is included for heavy through-faults.By introducing the load tap changer position, the differential protection pick-up can be set to optimum sensitivity thus covering internal faults with low fault level. Stabilization is included for inrush and overexcitation currents respectively. Adaptive stabilization is also included for system recovery inrush and CT saturation during external faults. A high set unrestrained differential current protection element is included for a very high speed tripping at a high internal fault currents. Included is an innovative sensitive differential protection element based on the theory of symmetrical components. This element offers the best possible coverage of power transformer windings turn to turn faults.

5.2.2

Principle of operation
The task of the power transformer differential protection is to determine whether a fault is within the protected zone, or outside of the protected zone. The protected zone is limited by the position of current transformers (see figure 61), and in principle can include more objects than just a transformer. If the fault is found to be internal, the faulty power transformer must be quickly disconnected from the system. The main CTs are normally supposed to be star connected. The main CTs can be earthed in anyway (that is, either "ToObject" or "FromObject"). However internally the differential function will always use reference directions towards the protected transformer as shown in figure 61. Thus the IED will always internally measure the currents on all sides of the power transformer with the same reference direction towards the power transformer windings as shown in figure 61.For more information see the Application manual
IW1 Z1S1 IW1 IW2 Z1S2 IW2

E1S1

E1S2

IED

en05000186.vsd
IEC05000186 V1 EN

Figure 61:

Typical CT location and definition of positive current direction

Even in a healthy power transformer, the currents are generally not equal when they flow through it. This is due to the ratio of the number of turns of the windings

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and the connection group of the protected transformer. Therefore the differential protection must first correlate all currents to each other before any calculation can be performed. In numerical differential protections this correlation and comparison is performed mathematically. First, compensation for the protected transformer transformation ratio and connection group is made, and only then are the currents compared phasewise. This makes external auxiliary (interposing) current transformers unnecessary. Conversion of all currents to the common reference side of the power transformer is performed by pre-programmed coefficient matrices, which depends on the protected power transformer transformation ratio and connection group. Once the power transformer vector group, rated currents and voltages have been entered by the user, the differential protection is capable to calculate off-line matrix coefficients required in order to perform the on-line current comparison by means of a fixed equation. Numerical IEDs have brought a large number of well-known advantages and new functionality to protective relaying. One of the benefits is the simplicity and accuracy of calculating symmetrical components from individual phase quantities. Within the firmware of a numerical IED, it is no more difficult to calculate negativesequence components than it is to calculate zero-sequence components. Diversity of operation principles integrated in the same protection function enhances the overall performance without a significant increase in cost. A novelty in power transformer differential protection, namely the negativesequence-current-based internal-external fault discriminator, is used with advantage in order to determine whether a fault is internal or external. Indeed, the internal-external fault discriminator not only positively discriminates between internal and external faults, but can also independently detect minor faults which may not be sensed by the "usual" differential protection based on operate-restrain characteristic. For all differential functions it is the common trip that shall be used to initiate a trip of a breaker. The separate trip signals from the different parts lacks the safety against maloperation. This will in some cases result in a 6 ms time difference between, for example restrained trip is issued and common trip is issued. The separate trip signals shall only be used for information purpose of which part that has caused the trip.

5.2.2.1

Function calculation principles


To make a differential IED as sensitive and stable as possible, restrained differential characteristics have been developed and is now adopted as the general practice in the protection of power transformers. The protection should be provided with a proportional bias, which makes the protection operate for a certain percentage differential current related to the current through the transformer. This

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Section 5 Differential protection

stabilizes the protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have good basic sensitivity. The following chapters explain how these quantities are derived.

Fundamental frequency differential currents

The fundamental frequency differential current is a vectorial sum (sum of fundamental frequency phasors) of the individual phase currents from the different sides of the protected power transformer. Before any differential current can be calculated, the power transformer phase shift, and its transformation ratio, must be accounted for. Conversion of all currents to a common reference is performed in two steps: all current phasors are phase-shifted to (referred to) the phase-reference side, (whenever possible the first winding with star connection) all currents magnitudes are always referred to the first winding of the power transformer (typically transformer high-voltage side)

The two steps of conversion are made simultaneously on-line by the preprogrammed coefficient matrices, as shown in equation 5 for a two-winding power transformer, and in equation 6 for a three-winding power transformer. These are the internal compensation within the differential function. The protected power transformer data is always entered per its nameplate. The Differential function will correlateadapt nameplate data and select proper reference windings.

IDL1 IL1_ W 1 IL1_ W 2 IDL 2 = A IL 2 _ W 1 + Un _ W 2 B IL 2 _ W 2 Un _ W 1 IDL 3 IL 3 _ W 1 IL 3 _ W 2


1
EQUATION1880 V1 EN

(Equation 5)

where: 1. 2. 3. is the resulting Differential Currents is the current contribution from the W1 side is the current contribution from the W2 side

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Section 5 Differential protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IDL1 IL1_ W 1 IL1_ W 2 IL1_ W 3 IDL 2 = A IL 2 _ W 1 + Un _ W 2 B IL 2 _ W 2 + Un _ W 3 C IL 2 _ W 3 Un _ W 1 Un _ W 1 IDL3 IL3 _ W 1 IL3 _ W 2 IL3 _ W 3


1
EQUATION1556 V2 EN

(Equation 6)

where: 1. 2. 3. 4. is the resulting Differential Currents is the current contribution from the W1 side is the current contribution from the W2 side is the current contribution from the W3 side

and where, for equation 5 and equation 6: IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IL1_W1 IL2_W1 IL3_W1 IL1_W2 IL2_W2 IL3_W2 IL1_W3 IL2_W3 IL3_W3 Ur_W1 Ur_W2 Ur_W3 A, B and C is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W1 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W1 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W1 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W2 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W2 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W2 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W3 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W3 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W3 side is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter) is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W2 side (setting parameter) is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W3 side (setting parameter) are three by three matrices with numerical coefficients

Values of the matrix A, B and C coefficients depend on: 1. 2. 3. The Power transformer winding connection type, such as star (Y/y) or delta (D/ d) The Transformer vector group such as Yd1, Dy11, YNautod5, Yy0d5 and so on, which introduce phase displacement between individual windings currents in multiples of 30. The Settings for elimination of zero sequence currents for the individual windings.

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When the end user enters all these parameters, transformer differential function automatically calculates the matrix coefficients. During this calculations the following rules are used: For the phase reference, the first winding with set star (Y) connection is always used. For example, if the power transformer is a Yd1 power transformer, the HV winding (Y) is taken as the phase reference winding. If the power transformer is a Dy1, then the LV winding (y) is taken for the phase reference. If there is no star connected winding, such as in Dd0 type of power transformers, then the HV delta winding (D) is automatically chosen as the phase reference winding. The fundamental frequency differential currents are in general composed of currents of all sequences, that is, the positive-, the negative-, and the zero-sequence currents. If the zero-sequence currents are eliminated (see section "Optional Elimination of zero sequence currents"), then the differential currents can consist only of the positive-, and the negative-sequence currents. When the zero-sequence current is subtracted on one side of the power transformer , then it is subtracted from each individual phase current. As it can be seen from equation 5 and equation 6 the first entered winding (W1) is always taken for ampere level reference (current magnitudes from all other sides are always transferred to W1 side). In other words, within the differential protection function, all differential currents and bias current are always expressed in HV side primary Amperes. It can be shown that the values of the matrix A, B & C coefficients (see equation 5 and equation 6) can be pre-calculated in advance depending on the relative phase shift between the reference winding and other power transformer windings. Table 66 summarizes the values of the matrices for all standard phase shifts between windings.

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Table 66:

Matrices for differential current calculation


Matrix with Zero Sequence Reduction set to On Matrix with Zero Sequence Reduction set to Off

Matrix for Reference Winding

2 -1 -1 1 -1 2 -1 3 -1 -1 2
EQUATION1227 V1 EN

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
(Equation 7)
EQUATION1228 V1 EN

(Equation 8)

Matrix for winding with 30 lagging

1 -1 0 0 1 -1 3 -1 0 1
(Equation 9)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left used.

EQUATION1229 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60 lagging

1 1 1 3 -2

-2 1 1

-2 1
(Equation 10)

0 -1 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 0
EQUATION1231 V1 EN

EQUATION1230 V1 EN

(Equation 11)

Matrix for winding with 90 lagging

0 -1 1 1 0 -1 3 -1 1 0
(Equation 12)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left used.

EQUATION1232 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 120 lagging

-1 -1 2 1 2 -1 -1 3 -1 2 -1
EQUATION1233 V1 EN

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
EQUATION1234 V1 EN

(Equation 13)

(Equation 14)

Matrix for winding with 150 lagging

-1 0 1 1 -1 0 3 0 1 -1
(Equation 15)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left used.

EQUATION1235 V1 EN

Matrix for winding which is in opposite phase

-2 1 1 3 1

-2 1 1 -2
(Equation 16)

-1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -1
EQUATION1237 V1 EN

EQUATION1236 V1 EN

(Equation 17)

Matrix for winding with 150 leading

-1 1 0 0 -1 1 3 1 0 -1
(Equation 18)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left used.

EQUATION1238 V1 EN

Table continues on next page

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Matrix with Zero Sequence Reduction set to On Matrix for winding with 120 leading Matrix with Zero Sequence Reduction set to Off

-1 2 -1 1 -1 -1 2 3 2 -1 -1
EQUATION1239 V1 EN

0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
EQUATION1240 V1 EN

(Equation 19)

(Equation 20)

Matrix for winding with 90 leading

0 1 -1 -1 0 1 3 1 -1 0
(Equation 21)

Not applicable. Matrix on the left used.

EQUATION1241 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60 leading

1 1 -2 3 1

1 1 -2

-2 1 1
(Equation 22)

0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 -1 0
EQUATION1243 V1 EN

EQUATION1242 V1 EN

(Equation 23)

Matrix for winding with 30 leading

1 0 -1 1 -1 1 0 3 0 -1 1
EQUATION1244 V1 EN

Not applicable. Matrix on the left used.

(Equation 24)

By using this table complete equation for calculation of fundamental frequency differential currents for two winding power transformer with YNd5 vector group and enabled zero sequence current reduction on HV side will be derived. From the given power transformer vector group the following is possible to be concluded: 1. 2. The HV star (Y) connected winding will be used as the reference winding and zero sequence currents shall be subtracted on that side The LV winding is lagging for 150

With the help of table 66, the following matrix equation can be written for this power transformer:

IDL1 2 -1 -1 IL1_ W1 -1 0 1 IL1_ W 2 IDL2 = 1 -1 2 -1 IL2 _ W1 + Ur _ W 2 1 1 -1 0 IL2 _ W 2 3 Ur _ W1 3 IDL 3 1 1 2 IL 3_ W 1 0 1 1 IL 3_ W 2


EQUATION2015 V1 EN

(Equation 25)

where: IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IL1_W1 is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W1 side

Table continues on next page 127 Technical reference manual

Section 5 Differential protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IL2_W1 IL3_W1 IL1_W2 IL2_W2 IL3_W2 Ur_W1 Ur_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W1 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W1 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W2 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W2 side is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W2 side is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter) is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W2 side (setting parameter)

As marked in equation 5 and equation 6, the first term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from the W1 side to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift. The second term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from the W2 side to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. The third term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from the W3 side to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. These current contributions are important, because they are used for calculation of common bias current. The fundamental frequency differential currents are the "usual" differential currents, the magnitudes which are applied in a phase-wise manner to the operate restrain characteristic of the differential protection. The magnitudes of the differential currents can be read as service values from the function and they are available as outputs IDL1MAG, IDL2MAG, IDL3MAG from the differential protection function block. Thus they can be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external or internal fault condition.

On-line compensation for load tap changer movement

A load tap changer is a mechanical device, which is used to step-wise change number of turns within one power transformer winding. Consequently the power transformer overall turns ratio is changed. Typically the load tap changer is located within the HV winding (that is, winding 1, W1) of the power transformer. By operating load tap changer, it is possible to step-wise regulate voltage on the LV side of the power transformer. However at the same time the differential protection for power transformer becomes unbalanced. Differential function in the IED has builtin feature to continuously monitor the load tap changer position and dynamically compensate on-line for changes in power transformer turns ratio. Differential currents are calculated as shown in equation 5and equation 6. By setting parameters, the winding location of the OLTC is defined. Also, the voltage change of each step. Thus, if for example the load tap changer is located within winding 1 the no-load voltage Vn_W1 will be treated as a function of the actual load tap changer position in equation 5and equation 6. Thus for every load tap changer position a corresponding value for Ur_W1 will be calculated and used in
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the above mentioned equations. By doing this, complete on-line compensation for load tap changer movement is achieved. Differential protection will be ideally balanced for every load tap changer position and no false differential current will appear irrespective of actual load tap changer position. Typically the minimum differential protection pickup for power transformer with load tap changer is set between 30% to 40%. However with this load tap changer compensation feature it is possible to set the differential protection in the IED more sensitive with a pickup value of 15% to 20%. Load tap changer position is measured within the IED by Tap changer control and supervision, (TCLYLTC). Within this function block, the load tap changer position value is continuously monitored to insure its integrity. When any error in the load tap changer position is detected an alarm is given. This signal shall be connected to the OLTCxAL input of the differential function block. While OLTCxAL input has a logical value of one the differential protection minimum pickup, originally defined by setting parameter IdMin, will be increased by the set range of the load tap changer. Alternatively the differential current alarm feature can be used to alarm for any problems in the whole load tap changer compensation chain. It shall be noted that: two-winding differential protection in the IED can on-line compensate for one load tap changer within the protected power transformer three-winding differential protection in the IED can on-line compensate for up to two load tap changers within the protected power transformer

Fundamental frequency differential current level is monitored all the time within the differential function. As soon as all three fundamental frequency differential currents are above the set threshold defined by setting parameter IDiffAlarm a delay on pickup timer is started. When the pre-set time, defined by setting parameter tAlarmDelay, has expired the differential current alarm is generated and output signal IDALARM is set to logical value one. This feature can be effectively used to provide alarm when load tap changer position compensation is used and something in the whole compensation chain goes wrong. This alarm can be as well used with some additional IED configuration logic to desensitize the differential function.

Differential current alarm

Bias current

The bias current is calculated as the highest current amongst all individual winding current contributions to the total fundamental frequency differential currents, as shown in equation 5 and equation 6. All individual winding current contributions are already referred to the power transformer winding one side (power transformer HV winding) and therefore they can be compared regarding their magnitudes. There are six (or nine in the case of a three-winding transformer) contributions to the total fundamental differential currents, which are the candidates for the
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common bias current. The highest individual current contribution is taken as a common bias (restrain) current for all three phases. This "maximum principle" makes the differential protection more secure, with less risk to operate for external faults and in the same time brings more meaning to the breakpoint settings of the operate - restrain characteristic. It shall be noted that if the zero-sequence currents are subtracted from the separate contributions to the total differential current, then the zero-sequence component is automatically eliminated from the bias current as well. This ensures that for secondary injection from just one power transformer side the bias current is always equal to the highest differential current regardless of the fault type. During normal through-load operation of the power transformer, the bias current is equal to the maximum load current from two (three) -power transformer windings. The magnitudes of the common bias (restrain) current expressed in HV side amperes can be read as service value from the function. At the same time it is available as an output IBIAS from the differential protection function block. It can be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external or internal fault condition. For application with so called "T" configuration, that is, two restraint CT inputs from one side of the protected power transformer, such as in the case of breaker-anda-half schemes the primary CT ratings can be much higher than the rating of the protected power transformer. In order to determine the bias current for such T configuration, the two separate currents flowing in the T-side are scaled down to the protected power transform level by means of additional settings. This is done in order to prevent unwanted de-sensitizing of the overall differential protection. In addition to that, the resultant currents (the sum of two currents) into the protected power transformer winding, which is not directly measured is calculated, and included in the common bias calculation. The rest of the bias calculation procedure is the same as in protection schemes without breaker-and-a-half arrangements.

Optional Elimination of zero sequence currents

To avoid unwanted trips for external earth-faults, the zero sequence currents should be subtracted on the side of the protected power transformer, where the zero sequence currents can flow at external earth-faults. The zero sequence currents can be explicitly eliminated from the differential currents and common bias current calculation by special, dedicated parameter settings, which are available for every individual winding. Elimination of the zero sequence component of current is necessary whenever: the protected power transformer cannot transform the zero sequence currents to the other side. the zero sequence currents can only flow on one side of the protected power transformer.

In most cases, power transformers do not properly transform the zero sequence current to the other side. A typical example is a power transformer of the star-delta
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type, for example YNd1. Transformers of this type do not transform the zero sequence quantities, but zero sequence currents can flow in the earthed starconnected winding. In such cases, an external earth-fault on the star-side causes zero sequence current to flow on the star-side of the power transformer, but not on the other side. This results in false differential currents - consisting exclusively of the zero sequence currents. If high enough, these false differential currents can cause an unwanted disconnection of the healthy power transformer. They must therefore be subtracted from the fundamental frequency differential currents if an unwanted trip is to be avoided. For delta windings this feature shall be enabled only if an earthing transformer exist within the differential zone on the delta side of the protected power transformer. Removing the zero sequence current from the differential currents decreases to some extent the sensitivity of the differential protection for internal earth-faults. In order to counteract this effect to some degree, the zero sequence current is subtracted not only from the three fundamental frequency differential currents, but from the bias current as well.

Restrained and unrestrained limits of the differential protection

The power transformer differential protection function uses two limits, to which actual magnitudes of the three fundamental frequency differential currents are compared at each execution of the function. The unrestrained (that is, non-stabilized, "instantaneous") part of the differential protection is used for very high differential currents, where it should be beyond any doubt, that the fault is internal. This settable limit is constant and not proportional to the bias current. Neither harmonic, nor any other restrain is applied to this limit, which is therefore allowed to trip the power transformer instantaneously. The restrained (stabilized) part of the differential protection compares the calculated fundamental differential (operating) currents and the bias (restrain) current, by applying them to the operate - restrain characteristic. Practically, the magnitudes of the individual fundamental frequency differential currents are compared with an adaptive limit. This limit is adaptive because it is dependent on the bias (that is, restrain) current magnitude. This limit is called the operate restrain characteristic. It is represented by a double-slope, double-breakpoint characteristic, as shown in figure 62. The restrained characteristic is determined by the following 5 settings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IdMin (Sensitivity in section 1, multiple of trans. HV side rated current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1) EndSection1 (End of section 1, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1) EndSection2 (End of section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1) SlopeSection2 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1) SlopeSection3 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
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The restrained characteristic in figure 62 is defined by the settings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IdMin EndSection1 EndSection2 SlopeSection2 SlopeSection3

operate current [ times IBase ] 5

Operate unconditionally UnrestrainedLimit

Operate conditionally

2 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 SlopeSection3

1 IdMin SlopeSection2 0 0 EndSection1 EndSection2 1 2 3

Restrain 4 5

restrain current [ times IBase ]

en05000187-2.vsd
IEC05000187 V2 EN

Figure 62:
where:

Description of the restrained, and the unrestrained operate characteristics

slope = D Ioperate 100% D Irestrain


EQUATION1246 V1 EN

The operate - restrain characteristic is tailor-made and can be designed freely by the user after his needs. The default characteristic is recommended to be used. It gives good results in a majority of applications. The operate - restrain characteristic has in principle three sections with a section-wise proportionality of the operate

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value to the bias (restrain) current. The reset ratio is in all parts of the characteristic equal to 0.95. Section 1: This is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal currents flow through the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for higher false differential currents is relatively low. An un-compensated on-load tapchanger is a typical reason for existence of the false differential currents in this section. The slope in section 1 is always zero percent. Section 2: In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to cope with false differential currents proportional to higher than normal currents through the current transformers. Section 3: The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher tolerance to substantial current transformer saturation at high through-fault currents, which may be expected in this section. The operate - restrain characteristic should be designed so that it can be expected that: for internal faults, the operate (differential) currents are always with a good margin above the operate - restrain characteristic for external faults, the false (spurious) operate currents are with a good margin below the operate - restrain characteristic

Fundamental frequency negative sequence differential currents

Existence of relatively high negative sequence currents is in itself a proof of a disturbance on the power system, possibly a fault in the protected power transformer. The negative-sequence currents are a measurable indication of an abnormal condition, similar to the zero sequence current. One of the several advantages of the negative sequence currents compared to the zero sequence currents is that they provide coverage for phase-to-phase and power transformer turnto-turn faults. Theoretically, the negative sequence currents do not exist during symmetrical three-phase faults, however they do appear during initial stage of such faults for a long enough time (in most cases) for the IED to make the proper decision. Further, the negative sequence currents are not stopped at a power transformer by the Yd, or Dy connection type. The negative sequence currents are always properly transformed to the other side of any power transformer for any external disturbance. Finally, the negative sequence currents are not affected by symmetrical through-load currents. For power transformer differential protection applications, the negative sequence based differential currents are calculated by using exactly the same matrix equations, which are used to calculate the traditional phase-wise fundamental frequency differential currents. The same equation shall be fed by the negative sequence currents from the two power transformer sides instead of individual phase currents, as shown in matrix equation 27 for a case of two-winding, YNd5 power transformer.

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IDL1 _ NS 2 IDL 2 _ NS = 1 -1 3 IDL3 _ NS -1


1
EQUATION1247 V1 EN

-1 2 -1

INS _ W 1 Ur _ W 2 -1 a INS _ W 1 + 2 Ur _ W 1 a INS _ W 1 2


2

-1

-1 1 3 0

0 -1 1

INS _ W 2 0 a INS _ W 2 2 a INS _ W 2 -1


1

3
(Equation 27)

where: 1. 2. 3. is the Negative Sequence Differential Currents is Negative Sequence current contribution from the W1 side is the Negative Sequence current contribution from the W2 side

and where: IDL1_NS IDL2_NS IDL3_NS INS_W1 INS_W2 Ur_W1 Ur_W2 is the negative sequence differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the negative sequence differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the negative sequence differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes) is the negative sequence current on the W1 side in primary amperes (phase L1 reference) is the negative sequence current on the W1 side in primary amperes (phase L1 reference) is the transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter) is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W2 side (setting parameter) is the complex operator for sequence quantities, for example,

a=e

j 120

=-

1 2

+ j

3 2
(Equation 28)

EQUATION1248 V1 EN

Because the negative sequence currents always form the symmetrical three phase current system on each transformer side (that is, negative sequence currents in every phase will always have the same magnitude and be phase displaced for 120 electrical degrees from each other), it is only necessary to calculate the first negative sequence differential current that is, IDL1_NS. As marked in equation 27, the first term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution of the negative sequence current from the W1 side compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift. The second term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution of the negative sequence current from the W2 side compensated for eventual power transformer
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phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. These negative sequence current contributions are phasors, which are further used in directional comparisons, to characterize a fault as internal or external. See section "Internal/ external fault discriminator" for more information. The magnitudes of the negative sequence differential current expressed in the HV side A can be read as service values from the function. In the same time it is available as outputs IDNSMAG from the differential protection function block. Thus, it can be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external or internal fault condition.

Internal/external fault discriminator

The internal/external fault discriminator is a very powerful and reliable supplementary criterion to the traditional differential protection. It is recommended that this feature shall be always used (that is, On) when protecting three-phase power transformers. The internal/external fault discriminator detects even minor faults, with a high sensitivity and at high speed, and at the same time discriminates with a high degree of dependability between internal and external faults. The algorithm of the internal/external fault discriminator is based on the theory of symmetrical components. Already in 1933, Wagner and Evans in their famous book "Symmetrical Components" have stated that:
1. Source of the negative-sequence currents is at the point of fault,
E NS = - I NS Z NS
EQUATION1254 V1 EN

(Equation 29)

2. 3.

Negative-sequence currents distribute through the negative-sequence network Negative-sequence currents obey the first Kirchhoff"s law

The internal/external fault discriminator responds to the magnitudes and the relative phase angles of the negative-sequence fault currents at the different windings of the protected power transformer. The negative sequence fault currents must first be referred to the same phase reference side, and put to the same magnitude reference. This is done by the matrix expression (see equation 27). Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator is based on the relative position of the two phasors representing the winding one (W1) and winding two (W2) negative sequence current contributions, respectively, defined by expression shown in equation 27. It performs a directional comparison between these two phasors. First, the LV side phasor is referred to the HV side (W1 side): both the magnitude, and the phase position are referred to the HV (W1 side). Then the relative phase displacement between the two negative sequence current phasors is calculated. In case of three-winding power transformers, a little more complex algorithm is applied, with two directional tests. The overall directional characteristic of the internal/external fault discriminator is shown in figure 63, where the directional characteristic is defined by two setting parameters:

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1. 2.

IMinNegSeq NegSeqROA
90 deg 120 deg

If one or the other of currents is too low, then no measurement is done, and 120 degrees is mapped

Internal/external fault boundary

NegSeqROA (Relay Operate Angle)

180 deg

0 deg

IMinNegSeq

External fault region

Internal fault region

270 deg
IEC05000188 V3 EN

en05000188-3-en.vsd

Figure 63:

Operating characteristic of the internal/external fault discriminator

In order to perform directional comparison of the two phasors their magnitudes must be high enough so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. On the other hand, in order to guarantee a good sensitivity of the internal/external fault discriminator, the value of this minimum limit must not be too high. Therefore this limit value, called IminNegSeq, is settable in the range of 0.02 to 0.20 times the IBase of the power transformer winding one. The default value is 0.04. Note that, in order to enhance stability at higher fault currents, the relatively very low threshold value IminNegSeq is dynamically increased at currents higher than normal currents: if the bias current is higher than 110% of IBase ,then 10% of the bias current is added to the IminNegSeq. Only if the magnitudes of both negative sequence current contributions are above the actual limit, the relative position between these two phasors is checked. If either of the negative sequence current contributions, which should be compared, is too small (less than the set value for IminNegSeq), no directional comparison is made in order to avoid the possibility to produce a wrong decision. This magnitude check guarantees stability of the algorithm, when the power transformer is energized. The setting NegSeqROA represents the Relay Operate Angle, which determines the boundary between the internal and external fault regions. It can be selected in a range from 30 degrees to 90 degrees, with a step of 0.1 degree. The default value is 60 degrees. The default setting 60 degree favours somewhat security in comparison to dependability somewhat.
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If the above condition concerning magnitudes is fulfilled, the internal/external fault discriminator compares the relative phase angle between the negative sequence current contributions from W1 and W2 sides of the power transformer using the following two rules: If the negative sequence current contributions from the W1 and the W2 sides are in phase, the fault is internal (that is, both phasors are within protected zone) If the negative sequence currents contributions from W1 and W2 sides are 180 degrees out of phase, the fault is external (that is, W1 phasors is outside protected zone)

For example, for any unsymmetrical external fault, ideally the respective negative sequence current contributions from the W1 and W2 power transformer sides will be exactly 180 degrees apart and equal in magnitude, regardless the power transformer turns ratio and phase displacement. An example is shown in figure 64, which shows trajectories of the two separate phasors representing the negative sequence current contributions from the HV and LV sides of an Yd5 power transformer (after compensation of the transformer turns ratio and phase displacement) by using equation 27) for an unsymmetrical external fault. Observe that the relative phase angle between these two phasors is 180 electrical degrees at any point in time. No current transformer saturation was assumed for this case.

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"steady state" for HV side neg. seq. phasor

90 60

150 10 ms

30

180 0.1 kA 10 ms 210 0.2 kA 0.3 kA

0.4 kA

330

240 270

"steady state" for LV side neg. seq. phasor

Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from HV side Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from LV side

en05000189.vsd
IEC05000189 V1 EN

Figure 64:

Trajectories of Negative Sequence Current Contributions from HV and LV sides of Yd5 power transformer during external fault

Under external fault conditions, the relative angle is theoretically equal to 180 degrees. During internal faults, the angle shall ideally be 0 degrees, but due to possible different negative sequence source impedance angles on the W1 and W2 sides of the protected power transformer, it may differ somewhat from the ideal zero value. However, during heavy faults, CT saturation might cause the measured phase angle to differ from 180 degrees for an external, and from 0 degrees for an internal fault. See figure 65 for an example of a heavy internal fault with transient CT saturation.

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Dire ctiona l Compa ris on Crite rion: Inte rna l fa ult a s s e e n from the HV s ide 90 120
35 ms

60

e xcurs ion from 0 de gre e s due to CT s a tura tion 30 de finite ly a n inte rna l fa ult

150

180 e xte rna l fa ult re gion

trip c o mmand in 12 ms Inte rna l fa ult de cla re d 7 ms a fte r inte rna l fa ult occure d

0.5 kA

210
1.0 kA

330

240 270
1.5 kA

300

HV s ide contribution to the tota l ne ga tive s e que nce diffe re ntia l curre nt in kA Dire ctiona l limit (within the re gion de limite d by 60 de gre e s is inte rna l fa ult)

en05000190.vsd
IEC05000190 V1 EN

Figure 65:

Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator for internal fault with CT saturation

It shall be noted that additional security measures are implemented in the internal/ external fault discriminator algorithm in order to guarantee proper operation with heavily saturated current transformers. The trustworthy information on whether a fault is internal or external is typically obtained in about 10ms after the fault inception, depending on the setting IminNegSeq, and the magnitudes of the fault currents. During heavy faults, approximately 5ms time to full saturation of the main CT is sufficient in order to produce a correct discrimination between internal and external faults.

Unrestrained, and sensitive negative sequence protections

Two sub functions, which are based on the internal/external fault discriminator with the ability to trip a faulty power transformer, are parts to the traditional power transformer differential protection. The unrestrained negative sequence differential protection The unrestrained negative sequence protection is activated if one or more start signals have been set by the traditional differential protection algorithm. This happens because one or more of the fundamental frequency differential currents entered the operate region on the operate - restrain characteristic. So, this protection is not independent of the traditional restrained differential protection - it is activated after the first start signal has been placed.

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If the same fault has been positively recognized as internal, then the unrestrained negative sequence differential protection places its own trip request. Any block signals by the harmonic and/or waveform criteria, which can block the traditional differential protection are overridden, and the differential protection operates quickly without any further delay. This logic guarantees a fast disconnection of a faulty power transformer for any internal fault. If the same fault has been classified as external, then generally, but not unconditionally, a trip command is prevented. If a fault is classified as external, the further analysis of the fault conditions is initiated. If all the instantaneous differential currents in phases where start signals have been issued are free of harmonic pollution, then a (minor) internal fault, simultaneous with a predominant external fault can be suspected. This conclusion can be drawn because at external faults, major false differential currents can only exist when one or more current transformers saturate. In this case, the false instantaneous differential currents are polluted by higher harmonic components, the 2nd, the 5th etc. Sensitive negative sequence based turn-to-turn fault protection The sensitive, negative sequence current based turn-to-turn fault protection detects the low level faults, which are not detected by the traditional differential protection until they develop into more severe faults, including power transformer iron core. The sensitive protection is independent from the traditional differential protection and is a very good complement to it. The essential part of this sensitive protection is the internal/external fault discriminator. In order to be activated, the sensitive protection requires no start signal from the traditional power transformer biased differential protection. If magnitudes of HV and LV negative sequence current contributions are above the set limit for IminNegSeq, then their relative positions are determined. If the disturbance is characterized as an internal fault, then a separate trip request will be placed. Any decision on the way to the final trip request must be confirmed several times in succession in order to cope with eventual CT transients. This causes a short additional operating time delay due to this security count. For very low level turn-to-turn faults the overall response time of this protection is about 30ms.

Instantaneous differential currents

The instantaneous differential currents are calculated from the instantaneous values of the input currents in order to perform the harmonic analysis and waveform analysis upon each one of them (see section "Harmonic and waveform block criteria" for more information). The instantaneous differential currents are calculated using the same matrix expression as shown in equation 5 and equation 6. The same matrices A, B and C are used for these calculations. The only difference is that the matrix algorithm is fed by instantaneous values of currents, that is, samples.

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Harmonic and waveform block criteria

The two block criteria are the harmonic restrain and the waveform restrain. These two criteria have the power to block (that is, to prevent) a trip command by the traditional differential protection, which produces start signals by applying the differential currents, and the bias current, to the operate - restrain characteristic. Harmonic restrain The harmonic restrain is the classical restrain method traditionally used with power transformer differential protections. The goal is to prevent an unwanted trip command due to magnetizing inrush currents at switching operations, or due to magnetizing currents at over-voltages. The magnetizing currents of a power transformer flow only on one side of the power transformer (one or the other) and are therefore always the cause of false differential currents. The harmonic analysis (the 2nd and the 5th harmonic) is applied to instantaneous differential currents. Typical instantaneous differential currents during power transformer energizing are shown in figure 66. The harmonic analysis is only applied in those phases, where start signals have been set. For example, if the content of the 2nd harmonic in the instantaneous differential current of phase L1 is above the setting I2/I1Ratio, then a block signal is set for that phase, which can be read as BLK2HL1 output of the differential protection. Waveform restrain The waveform restrain criterion is a good complement to the harmonic analysis. The waveform restrain is a pattern recognition algorithm, which looks for intervals within each fundamental power system cycle with low instantaneous differential current. This interval is often called current gap in protection literature. However, within differential function this criterion actually searches for long-lasting intervals with low rate-of-change in instantaneous differential current, which are typical for the power transformer inrush currents. Block signals BLKWAVLx are set in those phases where such behavior is detected. The algorithm does not require any end user settings. The waveform algorithm is automatically adapted dependent only on the power transformer rated data.

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IEC05000343 V1 EN

Figure 66:

Inrush currents to a transformer as seen by a protective IED. Typical is a high amount of the 2nd harmonic, and intervals of low current, and low rate-of-change of current within each period.

Cross-blocking between phases The basic definition of the cross-blocking is that one of the three phases can block operation (that is, tripping) of the other two phases due to the harmonic pollution of the differential current in that phase (that is, waveform, 2nd or 5th harmonic content). In differential algorithm the user can control the cross-blocking between the phases via the setting parameter CrossBlockEn=On. When parameter CrossBlockEn=On cross blocking between phases is introduced. There is no time settings involved, but the phase with the operating point above the set bias characteristic (in the operate region) will be able to cross-block the other two phases if it is itself blocked by any of the previously explained restrained criteria. As soon as the operating point for this phase is below the set bias characteristic (that is, in the restrain region) cross blocking from that phase will be inhibited. In this way cross-blocking of the temporary nature is achieved. It should be noted that this is the default (recommended) setting value for this parameter. When parameter CrossBlockEn=Off, any cross blocking between phases will be disabled. It is recommended to use the value Off with caution in order to avoid the unwanted tripping during initial energizing of the power transformer.

Switch onto fault feature

Transformer differential function in the IED has a built-in, advanced switch onto fault feature. This feature can be enabled or disabled by a setting parameter SOTFMode. When enabled this feature ensures quick differential protection tripping in cases where a transformer is energized with an internal fault (for example, forgotten earthing on transformer LV side). Operation of this feature is based on the fact that a current gap (term current gap is explained under waveblock feature above) will exist within the first power system cycle when healthy power transformer is energized. If this is not the case the waveblock criterion will reset

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quickly. This quick reset of the waveblock criterion will temporarily disable the second harmonic blocking feature of the differential protection function. This consequently ensures fast operation of the transformer differential function for a switch onto a fault condition. It shall be noted that this feature is only active during initial power transformer energizing, more exactly, under the first 50 ms. When the switch onto fault feature is disabled by the setting parameter SOTFMode, the waveblock and second harmonic blocking features work in parallel and are completely independent from each other.

Open CT detection feature

differential protection has a built-in, advanced open CT detection feature. The open CT circuit condition creates unexpected operations for differential protection under the normal load conditions. It is also possible to damage secondary equipment due to high voltage produced from open CT circuit outputs. Therefore, it is always a requirement from security and reliability points of view to have open CT detection function to block differential protection function in case of open CT conditions and at the same time, produce the alarm signal to the operational personal to make quick remedy actions to correct the open CT condition. The built-in open CT feature can be enabled or disabled by a setting parameter OpenCTEnable (Off/On). When enabled, this feature prevents mal-operation when a loaded main CT connected to differential protection is by mistake open circuited on the secondary side. Note that this feature can only detect interruption of one CT phase current at the time. If two or even all three-phase currents of one set of CT are accidentally interrupted at the same time this feature cannot operate and differential protection generates trip signal, if the false differential current is sufficiently high. To ensure blocking of the differential protection for open CT condition this algorithm must operate within 10 ms in order to be able to prevent unwanted operation of differential protection under all loading conditions. The principle applied to detect an open CT is a simple pattern recognition method, similar to the waveform check which has been with advantage used by the Power Transformer Differential Protection in order to detect the magnetizing inrush condition. The open CT detection principle is based on the fact, that for an open CT, the current in the phase with the open CT suddenly drops (at least theoretically) to zero (that is, as seen by the protection), while the currents of the other two phases continue as before. The open CT function is supposed to detect an open CT under normal conditions, that is, with the protected multi-terminal circuit under normal load. If the load currents are very low or zero, the open CT condition cannot be detected. The open CT algorithm only detects an open CT if the load on the power transformer is from 10% to 110% of the rated load. Outside this range an open CT condition is not even looked for. The search for an open CT starts after 60 seconds (50 seconds in 60 Hz systems) since the bias current enters the 10110% range. The Open CT detection feature can also be explicitly deactivated by setting: OpenCTEnable = 0 (Off).

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If an open CT is detected and the output OPENCT set to 1, then all the differential functions are blocked, except of the unrestrained (instantaneous) differential. An alarm signal is also produced after a settable delay (tOCTAlarmDelay) to report to operational personal for quick remedy actions once the open CT is detected. When the open CT condition is removed (that is, the previously open CT reconnected), the functions remain blocked for a specified interval of time, which is also a setting (tOCTResetDelay). The task of this measure is to prevent an eventual maloperation after the reconnection of the previously open CT secondary circuit. The open CT feature works only during normal loading condition. Thus, the open CT feature must be automatically disabled for all external faults, big overloads and inrush conditions. The open CT algorithm provides detailed information about the location of the defective CT secondary circuit. The algorithm clearly indicates IED side, CT input and phase in which open CT condition has been detected. These indications are provided via the following outputs from Line differential protection function: 1. 2. 3. 4. Output OPENCT provides instant information to indicate that open CT circuit has been detected Output OPENCTAL provides time delayed alarm that the open CT circuit has been detected. Time delay is defined by setting parameter tOCTAlarmDelay. Integer output OPENCTIN provides information on the local HMI regarding which open CT circuit has been detected (1=CT input No 1; 2=CT input No 2) Integer output OPENCTPH provides information on the local HMI regarding in which phase open CT circuit has been detected (1=Phase L1; 2= Phase L2; 3= Phase L3)

Once the open CT condition is declared, the algorithm stops to search for further open CT circuits. It waits until the first open CT circuit has been corrected. Note that once the open CT condition has been detected, it can be automatically reset within the differential function. It is not possible to externally reset open CT condition. To reset the open CT circuit alarm automatically, the following conditions must be fulfilled: Bias current is for at least one minute smaller than 110% Open CT condition in defective CT circuit has been rectified (for example, current asymmetry disappears) Above two conditions are fulfilled for longer time than defined by the setting parameter tOCTResetDelay

After the reset, the open CT detection algorithm starts again to search for any other open CT circuit within the protected zone.

5.2.2.2

Logic diagram
The simplified internal logics, for transformer differential protection are shown in the following figures.

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ADM
A/D conversion scaling with CT ratio

Differential function Trafo Data


Open CT logic on W1 side
IDL1

Phasor calculation of individual phase current

Phasors & samples

Instantaneous (sample based) Differential current, phase L1

Derive equation to calculate differential currents

Instantaneous (sample based) Differential current, phase L2 Instantaneous (sample based) Differential current, phase L3

IDL2

IDL3

A/D conversion scaling with CT ratio

Phasor calculation of individual phase current

Negative sequence diff current & NS current contribution from individual windings

IDNSMAG

Open CT logic on W2 side

Phasors & samples

Fundamental frequency (phasor based) Diff current, phase L1 & phase current contributions from individual windings Fundamental frequency (phasor based) Diff current, phase L2 & phase current contributions from individual windings Fundamental frequency (phasor based) Diff current, phase L3 & phase current contributions from individual windings

IDL1MAG

IDL2MAG

IDL3MAG

MAX

IBIAS

Settings for Zer. Seq. Current Reduction


en06000554-3-en.vsd
IEC06000544 V3 EN

Figure 67:

Treatment of measured currents within IED for transformer differential function

Figure 67 shows how internal treatment of measured currents is done in case of twowinding transformer. The following currents are inputs to the power transformer differential protection function. They must all be expressed in true power system (primary) A, that is, as measured.

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1. 2. 3.

Instantaneous values of currents (samples) from HV, and LV sides for twowinding power transformers, and from the HV, the first LV, and the second LV sides for three-winding power transformers. Currents from all power transformer sides expressed as fundamental frequency phasors, with their real, and imaginary parts. These currents are calculated within the protection function by the fundamental frequency Fourier filters. Negative sequence currents from all power transformer sides expressed as phasors. These currents are calculated within the protection function by the symmetrical components module.

The power transformer differential protection: 1. Calculates three fundamental frequency differential currents, and one common bias current. The zero-sequence component can optionally be eliminated from each of the three fundamental frequency differential currents, and at the same time from the common bias current. Calculates three instantaneous differential currents. They are used for harmonic, and waveform analysis. Instantaneous differential currents are useful for post-fault analysis using disturbance recording Calculates negative-sequence differential current. Contributions to it from both (all three) power transformer sides are used by the internal/external fault discriminator to detect and classify a fault as internal or external.

2. 3.

BLKUNRES IdUnre IDL1MAG IBIAS BLOCK BLKRES STL1


a b

b>a

AND

TRIPUNREL1

AND

AND OR
Switch on to fault logic

TRIPRESL1

1
BLK2HL1 BLKWAVL1 BLK5HL1

IDL1

2nd Harmonic Wave block 5th Harmonic

Cross Block from L2 or L3 OpCrossBlock=On

AND

OR

AND

Cross Block to L2 or L3

en06000545.vsd
IEC06000545 V1 EN

Figure 68:

Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for Phase L1

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IEC05000167-TIFF V1 EN

Figure 69:

Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for external/internal fault discriminator

TRIPRESL1 TRIPRESL2 TRIPRESL3 TRIPUNREL1 TRIPUNREL2 TRIPUNREL3

OR

TRIPRES

OR

TRIPUNRE

TRNSSENS TRNSUNR

OR

TRIP

en05000278.vsd
IEC05000278 V1 EN

Figure 70:

Transformer differential protection internal grouping of tripping signals

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IEC05000279-TIFF V1 EN

Figure 71:

Transformer differential protection internal grouping of logical signals

Logic in figures 68, 69, 70 and 71 can be summarized as follows: 1. The three fundamental frequency differential currents are applied in a phasewise manner to two limits. The first limit is the operate-restrain characteristic, while the other is the high-set unrestrained limit. If the first limit is exceeded, a start signal START is set. If the unrestrained limit is exceeded, an immediate unrestrained trip TRIPUNRE and common trip TRIP are issued. If a start signal is issued in a phase, then the harmonic-, and the waveform block signals are checked. Only a start signal, which is free of all of its respective block signals, can result in a trip command. If the cross-block logic scheme is applied, then only if all phases with set start signal are free of their respective block signals, a restrained trip TRIPRES and common trip TRIP are issued If a start signal is issued in a phase, and the fault has been classified as internal, then any eventual block signals are overridden and a unrestrained negative-sequence trip TRNSUNR and common trip TRIP are issued without any further delay. This feature is called the unrestrained negative-sequence protection 110% bias. The sensitive negative sequence differential protection is independent of any start signals. It is meant to detect smaller internal faults, such as turn-to-turn faults, which are often not detected by the traditional differential protection. The sensitive negative sequence differential protection starts whenever both contributions to the total negative sequence differential current (that must be compared by the internal/external fault discriminator) are higher than the value of the setting IMinNegSeq. If a fault is positively recognized as internal, and the condition is stable with no interruption for at least one fundamental frequency cycle the sensitive negative sequence differential protection TRNSSENS and common trip TRIP are issued. This feature is called the sensitive negative sequence differential protection. If a start signal is issued in a phase (see signal STL1), even if the fault has been classified as an external fault, then the instantaneous differential current

2.

3.

4.

5.

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6.

of that phase (see signal IDL1) is analyzed for the 2nd and the 5th harmonic contents (see the blocks with the text inside: 2nd Harmonic; Wave block and 5th Harmonic). If there is less harmonic pollution, than allowed by the settings I2/I1Ratio, and I5/I1Ratio, (then the outputs from the blocks 2nd harmonic and 5th harmonic is 0) then it is assumed that a minor simultaneous internal fault must have occurred. Only under these conditions a trip command is allowed (the signal TRIPRESL1 is = 1). The cross-block logic scheme is automatically applied under such circumstances. (This means that the cross block signals from the other two phases L2 and L3 is not activated to obtain a trip on the TRIPRESL1 output signal in figure 68) All start and blocking conditions are available as phase segregated as well as common (that is three-phase) signals.

IDL1 MAG I Diff Alarm

a a>b b

IDL2 MAG I Diff Alarm

a a>b b

tAlarm Delay

&

IDALARM

IDL3 MAG I Diff Alarm

a a>b b
en06000546.vsd

IEC06000546 V1 EN

Figure 72:

Differential current alarm logic

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Section 5 Differential protection 5.2.3 Function block


T2WPDIF I3PW1CT1* TRIP I3PW1CT2* TRIPRES I3PW2CT1* TRIPUNRE I3PW2CT2* TRNSUNR TAPOLTC1 TRNSSENS OLTC1AL START BLOCK STL1 BLKRES STL2 BLKUNRES STL3 BLKNSUNR BLK2H BLKNSSEN BLK2HL1 BLK2HL2 BLK2HL3 BLK5H BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 BLKWAV BLKWAVL1 BLKWAVL2 BLKWAVL3 IDALARM OPENCT OPENCTAL IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IDL1MAG IDL2MAG IDL3MAG IBIAS IDNSMAG IEC06000249_2_en.vsd
IEC06000249 V2 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 73:

T2WPDIF function block

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Section 5 Differential protection

T3WPDIF I3PW1CT1* TRIP I3PW1CT2* TRIPRES I3PW2CT1* TRIPUNRE I3PW2CT2* TRNSUNR I3PW3CT1* TRNSSENS I3PW3CT2* START TAPOLTC1 STL1 TAPOLTC2 STL2 OLTC1AL STL3 OLTC2AL BLK2H BLOCK BLK2HL1 BLKRES BLK2HL2 BLKUNRES BLK2HL3 BLKNSUNR BLK5H BLKNSSEN BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 BLKWAV BLKWAVL1 BLKWAVL2 BLKWAVL3 IDALARM OPENCT OPENCTAL IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IDL1MAG IDL2MAG IDL3MAG IBIAS IDNSMAG IEC06000250_2_en.vsd
IEC06000250 V2 EN

Figure 74:

T3WPDIF function block

5.2.4

Input and output signals


Table 67:
Name I3PW1CT1 I3PW1CT2 I3PW2CT1 I3PW2CT2 TAPOLTC1 OLTC1AL BLOCK BLKRES BLKUNRES BLKNSUNR BLKNSSEN

T2WPDIF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL INTEGER BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Three phase winding primary CT1 Three phase winding primary CT2 Three phase winding secondary CT1 Three phase winding secondary CT2 Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 1 OLTC1 alarm Block of function Block of trip for restrained differential feature Block of trip for unrestrained differential feature Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential feature Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential feature

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Table 68:
Name TRIP TRIPRES TRIPUNRE TRNSUNR TRNSSENS START STL1 STL2 STL3 BLK2H BLK2HL1 BLK2HL2 BLK2HL3 BLK5H BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 BLKWAV BLKWAVL1 BLKWAVL2 BLKWAVL3 IDALARM OPENCT OPENCTAL IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IDL1MAG IDL2MAG IDL3MAG IBIAS IDNSMAG

T2WPDIF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description General, common trip signal Trip signal from restrained differential protection Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection Common start signal from any phase Start signal from phase L1 Start signal from phase L2 Start signal from phase L3 Common second harmonic block signal from any phase Second harmonic block signal, phase L1 Second harmonic block signal, phase L2 Second harmonic block signal, phase L3 Common fifth harmonic block signal from any phase Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L1 Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L2 Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L3 Common block signal, waveform criterion, from any phase Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L1 Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L2 Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L3 Alarm for sustained diff currents in all three phases An open CT was detected Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a delay ... Value of the instantaneous differential current, phase L1 Value of the instantaneous differential current, phase L2 Value of the instantaneous differential current, phase L3 Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase L1 Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase L2 Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase L3 Magnitude of the bias current, which is common to all phases Magnitude of the negative sequence differential current

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Table 69:
Name I3PW1CT1 I3PW1CT2 I3PW2CT1 I3PW2CT2 I3PW3CT1 I3PW3CT2 TAPOLTC1 TAPOLTC2 OLTC1AL OLTC2AL BLOCK BLKRES BLKUNRES BLKNSUNR BLKNSSEN

T3WPDIF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL INTEGER INTEGER BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Three phase winding primary CT1 Three phase winding primary CT2 Three phase winding secondary CT1 Three phase winding secondary CT2 Three phase winding tertiary CT1 Three phase winding tertiary CT2 Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 1 Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 2 OLTC1 alarm OLTC2 alarm Block of function Block of trip for restrained differential feature Block of trip for unrestrained differential feature Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential feature Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential feature

Table 70:
Name TRIP TRIPRES TRIPUNRE TRNSUNR TRNSSENS START STL1 STL2 STL3 BLK2H BLK2HL1 BLK2HL2 BLK2HL3 BLK5H

T3WPDIF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description General, common trip signal Trip signal from restrained differential protection Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection Common start signal from any phase Start signal from phase L1 Start signal from phase L2 Start signal from phase L3 Common second harmonic block signal from any phase Second harmonic block signal, phase L1 Second harmonic block signal, phase L2 Second harmonic block signal, phase L3 Common fifth harmonic block signal from any phase

Table continues on next page 153 Technical reference manual

Section 5 Differential protection


Name BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 BLKWAV BLKWAVL1 BLKWAVL2 BLKWAVL3 IDALARM OPENCT OPENCTAL IDL1 IDL2 IDL3 IDL1MAG IDL2MAG IDL3MAG IBIAS IDNSMAG Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L1 Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L2 Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L3 Common block signal, waveform criterion, from any phase Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L1 Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L2 Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L3 Alarm for sustained diff currents in all three phases An open CT was detected Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a delay ... Value of the instantaneous differential current, phase L1 Value of the instantaneous differential current, phase L2 Value of the instantaneous differential current, phase L3 Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase L1 Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase L2 Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase L3 Magnitude of the bias current, which is common to all phases Magnitude of the negative sequence differential current

5.2.5
Table 71:
Name Operation SOTFMode tAlarmDelay IDiffAlarm IdMin IdUnre

Setting parameters
T2WPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On Off On 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.60 1.00 - 50.00 Unit s IB IB IB Step 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.01 Default Off On 10.000 0.20 0.30 10.00 Description Operation Off / On Operation mode for switch onto fault Time delay for diff currents alarm level Dif. cur. alarm, multiple of base curr, usually W1 curr. Section1 sensitivity, multi. of base curr, usually W1 curr. Unrestr. prot. limit, multiple of Winding 1 rated current

Table continues on next page

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Values (Range) Off On Off On 0.02 - 0.20 30.0 - 120.0 Unit IB Deg Step 0.01 0.1 Default On On 0.04 60.0 Description Operation Off/On for cross-block logic between phases Operation Off/On for neg. seq. differential protections Neg. seq. curr. must be higher than this level to be used Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg. seq. fault discriminator

Name CrossBlockEn NegSeqDiffEn IMinNegSeq NegSeqROA

Table 72:
Name EndSection1 EndSection2 SlopeSection2 SlopeSection3 I2/I1Ratio I5/I1Ratio OpenCTEnable tOCTAlarmDelay tOCTResetDelay tOCTUnrstDelay

T2WPDIF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.20 - 1.50 1.00 - 10.00 10.0 - 50.0 30.0 - 100.0 5.0 - 100.0 5.0 - 100.0 Off On 0.100 - 10.000 0.100 - 10.000 0.10 - 6000.00 Unit IB IB % % % % s s s Step 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.01 Default 1.25 3.00 40.0 80.0 15.0 25.0 Off 3.000 0.250 10.00 Description End of section 1, multiple of Winding 1 rated current End of section 2, multiple of Winding 1 rated current Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain characteristic, in % Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain characteristic, in % Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to fundamental harm dif. curr. in % Max. ratio of 5th harm. to fundamental harm dif. curr. in % Open CT detection feature. Open CTEnable Off/On Open CT: time in s to alarm after an open CT is detected Reset delay in s. After delay, diff. function is activated Unrestrained diff. protection blocked after this delay, in s

Table 73:
Name RatedVoltageW1 RatedVoltageW2 RatedCurrentW1 RatedCurrentW2 ConnectTypeW1 ConnectTypeW2

T2WPDIF Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 - 2000.00 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 WYE (Y) Delta (D) WYE (Y) Delta (D) Unit kV kV A A Step 0.05 0.05 1 1 Default 400.00 231.00 577 1000 WYE (Y) WYE (Y) Description Rated voltage of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in kV Rated voltage of transformer winding 2 in kV Rated current of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in A Rated current of transformer winding 2 in A Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta

Table continues on next page

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Section 5 Differential protection


Name ClockNumberW2 Values (Range) 0 [0 deg] 1 [30 deg lag] 2 [60 deg lag] 3 [90 deg lag] 4 [120 deg lag] 5 [150 deg lag] 6 [180 deg] 7 [150 deg lead] 8 [120 deg lead] 9 [90 deg lead] 10 [60 deg lead] 11 [30 deg lead] Off On Off On No Yes 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 No Yes 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 Not Used Winding 1 (W1) Winding 2 (W2) 0 - 10 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 0.01 - 30.00 Unit Step Default 0 [0 deg] Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Phase displacement between W2 & W1=HV winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1 ZSCurrSubtrW2 TconfigForW1 CT1RatingW1 CT2RatingW1 TconfigForW2 CT1RatingW2 CT2RatingW2 LocationOLTC1

A A A A -

1 1 1 1 -

On On No 3000 3000 No 3000 3000 Not Used

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for W1 side, On / Off Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for W2 side, On / Off Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 1, YES / NO CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on transf. W1 side CT primary in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W1 side Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 2, YES / NO CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on transf. W2 side CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W2 side Transformer winding where OLTC1 is located OLTC1 lowest tap position designation (e.g. 1) OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position designation (e.g. 6) OLTC1 highest tap position designation (e.g. 11) OLTC1 end-tap position with winding highest no-load voltage Voltage change per OLTC1 step in percent of rated voltage

LowTapPosOLTC1 RatedTapOLTC1 HighTapPsOLTC1 TapHighVoltTC1 StepSizeOLTC1

1 1 1 1 0.01

1 6 11 1 1.00

Table 74:
Name Operation SOTFMode tAlarmDelay

T3WPDIF Group settings (basic)


Values (Range) Off On Off On 0.000 - 60.000 Unit s Step 0.001 Default Off On 10.000 Description Operation Off / On Operation mode for switch onto fault feature Time delay for diff currents alarm level

Table continues on next page

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Section 5 Differential protection


Values (Range) 0.05 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.60 1.00 - 50.00 Off On Off On 0.02 - 0.20 30.0 - 120.0 Unit IB IB IB IB Deg Step 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 Default 0.20 0.30 10.00 On On 0.04 60.0 Description Dif. cur. alarm, multiple of base curr, usually W1 curr. Section1 sensitivity, multi. of base curr, usually W1 curr. Unrestr. prot. limit, multi. of base curr. usually W1 curr. Operation Off/On for cross-block logic between phases Operation Off/On for neg. seq. differential protections Neg. seq. curr. limit, mult. of base curr, usually W1 curr. Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg. seq. fault discriminator

Name IDiffAlarm IdMin IdUnre CrossBlockEn NegSeqDiffEn IMinNegSeq NegSeqROA

Table 75:
Name EndSection1 EndSection2 SlopeSection2 SlopeSection3 I2/I1Ratio I5/I1Ratio OpenCTEnable tOCTAlarmDelay tOCTResetDelay tOCTUnrstDelay

T3WPDIF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.20 - 1.50 1.00 - 10.00 10.0 - 50.0 30.0 - 100.0 5.0 - 100.0 5.0 - 100.0 Off On 0.100 - 10.000 0.100 - 10.000 0.10 - 6000.00 Unit IB IB % % % % s s s Step 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.01 Default 1.25 3.00 40.0 80.0 15.0 25.0 Off 3.000 0.250 10.00 Description End of section 1, multi. of base current, usually W1 curr. End of section 2, multi. of base current, usually W1 curr. Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain characteristic, in % Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain characteristic, in % Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to fundamental harm dif. curr. in % Max. ratio of 5th harm. to fundamental harm dif. curr. in % Open CT detection feature. Open CTEnable Off/On Open CT: time in s to alarm after an open CT is detected Reset delay in s. After delay, diff. function is activated Unrestrained diff. protection blocked after this delay, in s

Table 76:
Name RatedVoltageW1 RatedVoltageW2 RatedVoltageW3

T3WPDIF Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit kV kV kV Step 0.05 0.05 0.05 Default 400.00 231.00 10.50 Description Rated voltage of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in kV Rated voltage of transformer winding 2 in kV Rated voltage of transformer winding 3 in kV

Table continues on next page

157 Technical reference manual

Section 5 Differential protection


Name RatedCurrentW1 RatedCurrentW2 RatedCurrentW3 ConnectTypeW1 ConnectTypeW2 ConnectTypeW3 ClockNumberW2 Values (Range) 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 WYE (Y) Delta (D) WYE (Y) Delta (D) WYE (Y) Delta (D) 0 [0 deg] 1 [30 deg lag] 2 [60 deg lag] 3 [90 deg lag] 4 [120 deg lag] 5 [150 deg lag] 6 [180 deg] 7 [150 deg lead] 8 [120 deg lead] 9 [90 deg lead] 10 [60 deg lead] 11 [30 deg lead] 0 [0 deg] 1 [30 deg lag] 2 [60 deg lag] 3 [90 deg lag] 4 [120 deg lag] 5 [150 deg lag] 6 [180 deg] 7 [150 deg lead] 8 [120 deg lead] 9 [90 deg lead] 10 [60 deg lead] 11 [30 deg lead] Off On Off On Off On No Yes 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 No Yes 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 Unit A A A Step 1 1 1 Default 577 1000 7173 WYE (Y) WYE (Y) Delta (D) 0 [0 deg] Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Rated current of transformer winding 1 (HV winding) in A Rated current of transformer winding 2 in A Rated current of transformer winding 3 in A Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta Connection type of winding 3: Y-wye or Ddelta Phase displacement between W2 & W1=HV winding, hour notation

ClockNumberW3

5 [150 deg lag]

Phase displacement between W3 & W1=HV winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1 ZSCurrSubtrW2 ZSCurrSubtrW3 TconfigForW1 CT1RatingW1 CT2RatingW1 TconfigForW2 CT1RatingW2 CT2RatingW2

A A A A

1 1 1 1

On On On No 3000 3000 No 3000 3000

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for W1 side, On / Off Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for W2 side, On / Off Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for W3 side, On / Off Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 1, YES / NO CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on transf. W1 side CT primary in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W1 side Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 2, YES / NO CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on transf. W2 side CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W2 side

Table continues on next page 158 Technical reference manual

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Section 5 Differential protection


Values (Range) No Yes 1 - 99999 1 - 99999 Not Used Winding 1 (W1) Winding 2 (W2) Winding 3 (W3) 0 - 10 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 0.01 - 30.00 Not Used Winding 1 (W1) Winding 2 (W2) Winding 3 (W3) 0 - 10 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 0.01 - 30.00 Unit A A Step 1 1 Default No 3000 3000 Not Used Description Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 3, YES / NO CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on transf. W3 side CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W3 side Transformer winding where OLTC1 is located

Name TconfigForW3 CT1RatingW3 CT2RatingW3 LocationOLTC1

LowTapPosOLTC1 RatedTapOLTC1 HighTapPsOLTC1 TapHighVoltTC1 StepSizeOLTC1 LocationOLTC2

% -

1 1 1 1 0.01 -

1 6 11 1 1.00 Not Used

OLTC1 lowest tap position designation (e.g. 1) OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position designation (e.g. 6) OLTC1 highest tap position designation (e.g. 11) OLTC1 end-tap position with winding highest no-load voltage Voltage change per OLTC1 step in percent of rated voltage Transformer winding where OLTC2 is located

LowTapPosOLTC2 RatedTapOLTC2 HighTapPsOLTC2 TapHighVoltTC2 StepSizeOLTC2

1 1 1 1 0.01

1 6 11 1 1.00

OLTC2 lowest tap position designation (e.g. 1) OLTC2 rated tap/mid-tap position designation (e.g. 6) OLTC2 highest tap position designation (e.g. 11) OLTC2 end-tap position with winding highest no-load voltage Voltage change per OLTC2 step in percent of rated voltage

5.2.6

Technical data
Table 77:
Function Operating characteristic Reset ratio Unrestrained differential current limit Base sensitivity function Second harmonic blocking

T2WPDIF, T3WPDIF technical data


Range or value Adaptable >95% (100-5000)% ofIBase on high voltage winding (10-60)% of IBase (5.0-100.0)% of fundamental differential current Accuracy 1.0% of Ir for I < Ir 1.0% of I for I > Ir 1.0% of set value 1.0% of Ir 2.0% of applied harmonic magnitude

Table continues on next page 159 Technical reference manual

Section 5 Differential protection


Function Fifth harmonic blocking Range or value (5.0-100.0)% of fundamental differential current Y or D 011

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Accuracy 5.0% of applied harmonic magnitude -

Connection type for each of the windings Phase displacement between high voltage winding, W1 and each of the windings, W2 and W3. Hour notation Operate time, restrained function Reset time, restrained function Operate time, unrestrained function Reset time, unrestrained function Critical impulse time

25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x set level 20 ms typically at 2 to 0 x set level 12 ms typically at 0 to 5 x set level 25 ms typically at 5 to 0 x set level 2 ms typically at 0 to 5 x Ib

5.3

Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance REFPDIF


Function description Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance IEC 61850 identification REFPDIF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 87N

IdN/I
SYMBOL-AA V1 EN

5.3.1

Introduction
Restricted earth-fault protection, low-impedance function (REFPDIF) can be used on all directly or low-impedance earthed windings. The REFPDIF function provides high sensitivity and high speed tripping as it protects each winding separately and thus does not need inrush stabilization. The low-impedance function is a percentage biased function with an additional zero sequence current directional comparison criterion. This gives excellent sensitivity and stability during through faults. REFPDIF can also protect autotransformers. In this case, the negative sequence current directional comparison must be used. The most typical and the most complicated configuration of an autotransformer is shown in figure 75. Five currents are measured in the case illustrated in figure 75.

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Section 5 Differential protection

CT

CT CB CB

YNdx
CT CB

d
CB Autotransformer

IED

CT

The most typical application

CT

CB

CB

CT

The most complicated application - autotransformer


IEC05000058-2-en.vsd

IEC05000058-2 V1 EN

Figure 75:

Examples of applications of the REFPDIF

5.3.2
5.3.2.1

Operation principle
Fundamental principles of the restricted earthfault protection
Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance function (REFPDIF) must detect earth faults on earthed power transformer windings. REFPDIF is a unit protection of differential type. Since REFPDIF is based on the zero sequence currents, which theoretically only exist in case of an earth-fault, the REFPDIF can be made very sensitive; regardless of normal load currents. It is the fastest protection a power transformer winding can have. It must be borne in mind, however, that the high sensitivity, and the high speed, tend to make such a protection instable, and special measures must be taken to make it insensitive to conditions, for which it should not operate, for example heavy through faults of phase-to-phase type, or heavy external earth faults. REFPDIF is of low impedance type. All three phase power transformer terminal currents, and the power transformer neutral point current, must be fed separately to REFPDIF . These input currents are then conditioned within REFPDIF by mathematical tools. Fundamental frequency components of all currents are extracted from all input currents, while other eventual zero sequence components (for example, the 3rd harmonic currents) are fully suppressed. Then the residual current phasor is constructed from the three line current phasors. This zero sequence current phasor is then vectorially added to the neutral current, in order to obtain differential current. The following facts may be observed from the figure 76 and the figure 77 (where the three-phase line CTs are lumped into a single 3Io current, for the sake of simplicity).

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

zone of protection

s o u r c e

L1 L2 L3 Uzs

Izs1 Izs1 Izs1

Ia = 0 Ib = 0 Ic = 0
Current in the neutral (IN) serves as a directional reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external faults. REFPDIF is a current polarized function
ROA

L1 L2 L3

3Io=3I zs1

IN = -3Izs1

IN

Uzs voltage is max. at the earth-fault

For external fault 3I0 IN


ROA

RCA (Relay Characteristic Angle) RCA = 0 deg. MTA REFPDIF is permanently set to operate for internal earth-faults. REFPDIF should never operate for any faults external to the protected zone. Currents 3Io and IN are theoretically 180o out of phase for any external earth-fault.

Reference is neutral current

Restrain for external fault

Operate for internal fault

IEC09000107-1-en.vsd
IEC09000107 V1 EN

Figure 76:

Currents at an external earth-fault

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Section 5 Differential protection

power system contribution to fault current

zone of protection

s o u r c e

L1 L2 L3
3Io = -3Izs2

Izs2 Izs2 Izs2


Ifault Uz s

Izs1 Izs1 Izs1

Ia = 0 Ib = 0 Ic = 0
Current in the neutral (IN) serves as a directional reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external faults.

L1 L2 L3

IN

IN = - 3Izs1
Return path for 3Izs2 Return path for 3Izs1

ROA

For internal fault 3I0 MTA

currents 3Io and IN are approximately in phase for an internal earth-fault.

IN
ROA

Reference is neutral current

Restrain for external fault


IEC09000108 V1 EN

Operate for internal fault


IEC09000108-1-en.vsd

Figure 77:

Currents at an internal earth fault

1.

2.

For an external earth fault, (figure 76) the residual current 3Io and the neutral conductor current IN have equal magnitude, but they are 180 degree out-ofphase due to internal CT reference directions used in the IED. This is easy to understand, as both CTs ideally measure exactly the same component of the earth fault current. For an internal fault, the total earth-fault current is composed generally of two zero sequence components. One zero sequence component (that is, 3IZS1) flows towards the power transformer neutral point and into the earth, while the other zero sequence component (that is, 3IZS2) flows out into the connected power system. These two primary currents can be expected to be of approximately opposite directions (about the same zero sequence impedance angle is assumed on both sides of the earth-fault). However, on the secondary CT sides they will be approximately in phase due to internal CT reference directions used in the IED. The magnitudes of the two components may be different, dependent on the magnitudes of zero sequence impedances of both sides. No current can flow towards the power system, if the only point where the system is earthed, is at the protected power transformer. Likewise, no current can flow into the power system, if the winding is not connected to the

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

3. 4.

power system (circuit breaker open and power transformer energized from the other side). For both internal and external earth faults, the current in the neutral connection IN has always the same direction, that is, towards the earth. The two measured zero sequence current are 3Io and IN. The vectorial sum between them is the REFPDIF differential current, which is equal to Idiff = IN +3Io.

Since REFPDIF is a differential protection where the line zero sequence (residual) current is constructed from 3 line (terminal) currents, a bias quantity must give stability against false operations due to high through fault currents. An operate bias characteristic (only one) has been devised to the purpose. It is not only external earth faults that REFPDIF should be stable against, but also heavy phase-to-phase faults, not including earth. These faults may also give rise to false zero sequence currents due to saturated line CTs. Such faults, however, produce no neutral current, and can thus be eliminated as a source of danger, at least during the fault. As an additional measure against unwanted operation, a directional check is made in agreement with the above points 1, and 2. An operation is only allowed if currents 3Io and IN (as shown in figure 76 and the figure 77) are both within the operating region. By taking a smaller ROA, REFPDIF can be made more stable under heavy external fault conditions, as well as under the complex conditions, when external faults are cleared by other protections.

5.3.2.2

Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance differential protection


Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance (REFPDIF) is a protection of differential type, a unit protection, whose settings are independent of any other protection. Compared to the transformer differential protection it has some advantages. It is less complicated as no current phase correction and magnitude correction are needed, not even in the case of an eventual On-Load Tap-Changer (OLTC). REFPDIF is not sensitive to inrush and overexcitation currents. The only danger left is an eventual current transformer saturation. REFPDIF has only one operate-bias characteristic, which is described in the table 78, and shown in the figure 78.
Table 78:
Default sensitivity Idmin (zone 1) % IBase 30

Data of the operate - bias characteristic of REFPDIF


Max. base sensitivity Idmin (zone 1) % IBase 5 Min. base sensitivity End of zone First slope Idmin (zone 1) 1 % IBase 100 % IBase 125 % 70 Second slope % 100

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Section 5 Differential protection

The differential protection, REFPDIF calculates a differential current and a bias current. In case of internal earth-faults, the differential current is theoretically equal to the total earth-fault current. The bias current is supposed to give stability to REFPDIF. The bias current is a measure of how high the currents are, or better, a measure of how difficult the conditions are under which the CTs operate. The higher the bias, the more difficult conditions can be suspected, and the more likely that the calculated differential current has a component of a false current, primarily due to CT saturation. This law is formulated by the operate-bias characteristic. This characteristic divides the Idiff - Ibias plane into two parts. The part above the operate - bias characteristic is the so called operate area, while that below is the block area, see the figure 78.

operate current in pu

4
Base Sensitivity Idmin

operate

*************************************
Range : 5 % to 50 % rated current Step : 1 % transformer rated current

zone 1

zone 2

second slope

1
minimum base sensitivity 50 % default base sensitivity 30 % maximum base sensitivity 5 % first slope 0 1 2 1.25 pu 3 4 block 5 6

bias current in per unit


IEC98000017-2-en.vsd

IEC98000017 V3 EN

Figure 78:

Operate - bias characteristic of the Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance REFPDIF

5.3.2.3

Calculation of differential current and bias current


The differential current, (= operate current), as a fundamental frequency phasor, is calculated as (with designations as in the figure 76 and the figure 77)

Idiff = IN + 3 Io
EQUATION1533 V1 EN

(Equation 30)

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

where: IN 3Io current in the power transformer neutral as a fundamental frequency phasor, residual current of the power transformer line (terminal) currents as a phasor.

If there are two three-phase CT inputs on the HV winding side for REFPDIF (such as in breaker-and-a-half configurations), then their respective residual currents are added within REFPDIF function so that: I3PW1 = I3PW1CT1 + I3PW1CT2 where the signals are defined in the input and output signal tables for REFPDIF. The bias current is a measure (expressed as a current in Amperes) of how difficult the conditions are under which the instrument current transformers operate. Dependent on the magnitude of the bias current, the corresponding zone (section) of the operate - bias characteristic is applied, when deciding whether to trip, or not to trip. In general, the higher the bias current, the higher the differential current required to produce a trip. The bias current is the highest current of all separate input currents to REFPDIF, that is, of current in phase L1, phase L2, phase L3, and the current in the neutral point (designated as IN in the figure 76 and in the figure 77). If there are 2 feeders included in the zone of protection of REFPDIF, then the respective bias current is found as the relatively highest of the following currents:
current[1] = max (I3PW1CT1)
EQUATION1526 V1 EN

1 CTFactorPri1
(Equation 31)

current[2] = max (I3PW1CT2)


EQUATION1527 V1 EN

1 CTFactorPri2
(Equation 32)

current[3] = max (I3PW2CT1)


EQUATION1528 V1 EN

1 CTFactorSec1
(Equation 33)

current[4] = max (I3PW2CT2)


EQUATION1529 V1 EN

1 CTFactorSec2
(Equation 34)

current[5] = IN
EQUATION1530 V1 EN

(Equation 35)

The bias current is thus generally equal to none of the input currents. If all primary ratings of the CTs were equal to IBase, then the bias current would be equal to the

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Section 5 Differential protection

highest current in Amperes. IBase shall be set equal to the rated current of the protected winding where REFPDIF function is applied.

5.3.2.4

Detection of external earth faults


External faults are more common than internal earth faults for which the restricted earth-fault protection should operate. It is important that the restricted earth-fault protection remains stable during heavy external earth and phase-to-phase faults, and also when such a heavy external fault is cleared by some other protection such as overcurrent, or earth-fault protection, and so on. The conditions during a heavy external fault, and particularly immediately after the clearing of such a fault may be complex. The circuit breakers poles may not open exactly at the same moment, some of the CTs may still be highly saturated, and so on. The detection of external earth faults is based on the fact that for such a fault a high neutral current appears first, while a false differential current only appears if one or more current transformers saturate. An external earth fault is thus assumed to have occurred when a high neutral current suddenly appears, while at the same time the differential current Idiff remains low, at least for a while. This condition must be detected before a trip request is placed within REFPDIF. Any search for external fault is aborted if a trip request has been placed. A condition for a successful detection is that it takes not less than 4ms for the first CT to saturate. For an internal earth fault, a true differential current develops immediately, while for an external fault it only develops if a CT saturates. If a trip request comes first, before an external fault could be positively established, then it must be an internal fault. If an external earth fault has been detected, then the REFPDIF is temporarily desensitized.

Directional criterion

The directional criterion is applied in order to positively distinguish between internal- and external earth faults. This check is an additional criterion, which should prevent malfunctions at heavy external earth faults, and during the disconnection of such faults by other protections. Earth faults on lines connecting the power transformer occur much more often than earth faults on a power transformer winding. It is important therefore that the Restricted earth faults protection, low impedance (REFPDIF,) must remain stable during an external fault, and immediately after the fault has been cleared by some other protection. For an external earth faults with no CT saturation, the residual current in the lines (3Io) and the neutral current (IN in the figure 76) are theoretically equal in magnitude and are 180 degree out-of-phase. The current in the neutral (IN) serves as a directional reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external earth faults. The directional criterion in REFPDIF protection makes it a current-polarized protection.
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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

If one or more CTs saturate, then the measured currents 3Io and IN may no more be equal, nor will their positions in the complex plane be exactly 180 degree apart. There is a risk that the resulting false differential current Idiff enters the operate area when clearing the external fault. If this happens, a directional test may prevent a malfunction. A directional check is only executed if: 1. 2. a trip request signal has been issued, REFPDIF function START signal set to 1) if the residual current in lines (3Io) is at least 3% of the IBase current.

If a directional check is either unreliable or not possible to do, due to too small currents, then the direction is cancelled as a condition for an eventual trip. If a directional check is executed, the REFPDIF protection operation is only allowed if currents 3Io and IN (as seen in figure 76 and figure 77) are both within the operating region.
RCA = 0 degrees = constant; where RCA stands for Relay Characteristic Angle ROA = 60 to 90 degrees; where ROA stands for Relay Operate Angle.

RCA determines a direction MTA (Maximum Torque Angle) where the line residual current 3Io must lie for an internal earth fault, while ROA sets a tolerance margin.

Second harmonic analysis

At energizing of a transformer, a false differential current may appear in restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance function (REFPDIF). The phase CTs may saturate due to a high dc-component with long duration but the current through the neutral CT does not have either the same dc-component or the same amplitude and the risk for saturation in this CT is not as high. The differential current due to the saturation may be so high that it reaches the operate characteristic. A calculation of the content of 2nd harmonic in the neutral current is made when neutral current, residual current and bias current are within some windows and some timing criteria are fulfilled. If the ratio between second and fundamental harmonic exceeds 60%, REFPDIF is blocked.

5.3.2.5

Algorithm of the restricted earth fault protection


1. 2. 3. 4. Check if current in the neutral Ineutral (IN) is less than 50% of the base sensitivity Idmin. If yes, only service values are calculated, then REFPDIF algorithm is not used. If current in the Ineutral (IN) is more than 50% of Idmin, then determine the bias current Ibias. Determine the differential (operate) current Idiff as a phasor, and calculate its magnitude. Check if the point P(Ibias, Idiff) is above the operate - bias characteristic. If yes, increment the trip request counter by 1. If the point P(Ibias, Idiff) is found
Technical reference manual

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Section 5 Differential protection

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

to be below the operate - bias characteristic, then the trip request counter is reset to 0. If the trip request counter is still 0, search for an eventual heavy external earth fault. The search is only made if the neutral current is at least 50% of the Idmin current. If an external earth fault has been detected, a flag is set which remains set until the external fault has been cleared. The external fault flag is reset to 0 when Ineutral falls below 50% of the base sensitivity Idmin. Any search for external fault is aborted if trip request counter is more than 0. For as long as the external fault persists an additional temporary trip condition is introduced. That means that REFPDIF is temporarily desensitized. If point P(Ibias, Idiff) is found to be above the operate - bias characteristic), so that trip request counter is becomes more than 0, a directional check can be made. The directional check is made only if Iresidual (3Io) is more than 3% of the IBase current. If the result of the check means external fault, then the internal trip request is reset. If the directional check cannot be executed, then direction is no longer a condition for a trip. When neutral current, residual current and bias current are within some windows and some timing criteria are fulfilled, the ratio of 2nd to fundamental tone is calculated. If it is found to be above 60% the trip request counter is reset and TRIP remains zero. Finally, a check is made if the trip request counter is equal to, or higher than 2. If it is, and that at the same instance of time tREFtrip, the actual bias current at this instance of time tREFtrip is at least 50% of the highest bias current Ibiasmax (Ibiasmax is the highest recording of any of the three phase currents measured during the disturbance) then REFPDIF sets output TRIP to 1. If the counter is less than 2, TRIP signal remains 0.

5.3.3

Function block
REFPDIF I3P* I3PW1CT1* I3PW1CT2* I3PW2CT1* I3PW2CT2* BLOCK TRIP START DIROK BLK2H IRES IN IBIAS IDIFF ANGLE I2RATIO IEC06000251_2_en.vsd
IEC06000251 V2 EN

Figure 79:

REFPDIF function block

169 Technical reference manual

Section 5 Differential protection 5.3.4 Input and output signals


Table 79:
Name I3P I3PW1CT1 I3PW1CT2 I3PW2CT1 I3PW2CT2 BLOCK

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

REFPDIF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Group signal for neutral current input Group signal for primary CT1 current input Group signal for primary CT2 current input Group signal for secondary CT1 current input Group signal for secondary CT2 current input Block of function

Table 80:
Name TRIP START DIROK BLK2H IRES IN IBIAS IDIFF ANGLE I2RATIO

REFPDIF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Trip by restricted earth fault protection function Start by restricted earth fault protection function Directional Criteria has operated for internal fault Block due to 2-nd harmonic Magnitude of fund. freq. residual current Magnitude of fund. freq. neutral current Magnitude of the bias current Magnitude of fund. freq. differential current Direction angle from zerosequence feature Second harmonic ratio

5.3.5
Table 81:
Name Operation IBase IdMin CTFactorPri1 CTFactorPri2 CTFactorSec1 CTFactorSec2

Setting parameters
REFPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 4.0 - 100.0 1.0 - 10.0 1.0 - 10.0 1.0 - 10.0 1.0 - 10.0 Unit A %IB Step 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Default Off 3000 10.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Description Operation Off / On Base current Maximum sensitivity in % of Ibase CT factor for HV side CT1 (CT1rated/ HVrated current) CT factor for HV side CT2 (CT2rated/ HVrated current) CT factor for MV side CT1 (CT1rated/ MVrated current) CT factor for MV side CT2 (CT2rated/ MVrated current)

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Section 5 Differential protection

Table 82:
Name ROA

REFPDIF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 60 - 90 Unit Deg Step 1 Default 60 Description Relay operate angle for zero sequence directional feature

5.3.6

Technical data
Table 83:
Function Operate characteristic

REFPDIF technical data


Range or value Adaptable Accuracy 1% of IBase 2% of theoretical operate value (Idiff) if Ibias >= 1.25 IBase (i.e. sections 2 and 3) (The above is valid if IBase is equal to the protected winding rated current). 1 degree at Ibias = IBase 2 degrees at Ibias = 2 * IBase 3 degrees at Ibias = 4 * IBase (The above valid if IBase equal to the protected winding rated current) 2.0% of IrBase

Reset ratio Directional characteristic

0.95 Fixed 180 degrees or 60 to 90 degrees

Operate time, trip function Reset time, trip function Second harmonic blocking

20 ms typically at 0 to 10 x IdMin 25 ms typically at 10 to 0 x IdMin (5.0-100.0)% of fundamental

5.4
5.4.1

1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF


Identification
Function description IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number

1Ph High impedance differential protection

HZPDIF

Id
SYMBOL-CC V2 EN

87

5.4.2

Introduction
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection (HZPDIF) function can be used when the involved CT cores have the same turns ratio and similar magnetizing

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Section 5 Differential protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

characteristics. It utilizes an external CT current summation by wiring, a series resistor, and a voltage dependent resistor which are mounted externally connected to the IED. HZPDIF can be used to protect generator stator windings, tee-feeders or busbars. Six single phase function blocks are available to allow application for two threephase zones busbar protection.

5.4.3

Principle of operation
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection (HZPDIF) function is based on one current input with external stabilizing resistor and voltage dependent resistor. Three functions can be used to provide a three phase differential protection function. The stabilizing resistor value is calculated from the IED function operating value UR calculated to achieve through fault stability. The supplied stabilizing resistor has a link to allow setting of the correct resistance value . See the application manual for operating voltage and sensitivity calculation.

5.4.3.1

Logic diagram
The logic diagram shows the operation principles for the 1Ph High impedance differential protection function HZPDIF, see figure 80. It is a simple one step IED function with an additional lower alarm level. By activating inputs, the HZPDIF function can either be blocked completely, or only the trip output.

IEC05000301 V1 EN

Figure 80:

Logic diagram for 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF

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Section 5 Differential protection Function block


HZPDIF ISI* BLOCK BLKTR TRIP ALARM MEASVOLT IEC05000363-2-en.vsd
IEC05000363 V2 EN

5.4.4

Figure 81:

HZPDIF function block

5.4.5

Input and output signals


Table 84:
Name ISI BLOCK BLKTR

HZPDIF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 Description Group signal for current input Block of function Block of trip

Table 85:
Name TRIP ALARM MEASVOLT

HZPDIF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL Description Trip signal Alarm signal Measured RMS voltage on CT secondary side

5.4.6
Table 86:
Name Operation U>Alarm tAlarm U>Trip SeriesResistor

Setting parameters
HZPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 2 - 500 0.000 - 60.000 5 - 900 10 - 20000 Unit V s V ohm Step 1 0.001 1 1 Default Off 10 5.000 100 250 Description Operation Off / On Alarm voltage level in volts on CT secondary side Time delay to activate alarm Operate voltage level in volts on CT secondary side Value of series resistor in Ohms

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Section 5 Differential protection 5.4.7 Technical data


Table 87:
Function Operate voltage Reset ratio Maximum continuous power Operate time Reset time Critical impulse time

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

HZPDIF technical data


Range or value (20-400) V I=U/R >95% U>Trip2/SeriesResistor 200 W Accuracy 1.0% of Ir -

10 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Ud 105 ms typically at 10 to 0 x Ud 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Ud

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Section 6

Impedance protection

About this chapter


This chapter describes distance protection and associated functions. It includes function blocks, logic diagrams and data tables with information about distance protection, automatic switch onto fault, weak end in-feed and other associated functions.

6.1

Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic ZMHPDIS


Function description IEC 61850 identification ZMHPDIS IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 21

Full-scheme distance protection, mho characteristic

S00346 V1 EN

6.1.1

Introduction
The numerical mho line distance protection is a, up to four zone full scheme protection for back-up detection of short circuit and earth faults. The four zones have fully independent measuring and settings, which gives high flexibility for all types of lines.

The function can be used as under impedance back-up protection for transformers and generators.

6.1.2
6.1.2.1

Principle of operation
Full scheme measurement
The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults are executed in parallel.

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The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current depending on fault type. So each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection function with six measuring elements.

6.1.2.2

Impedance characteristic
The distance function consists of four instances. Each instance can be selected to be either forward or reverse with positive sequence polarized mho characteristic alternatively self polarized offset mho characteristics with reverse offset. The operating characteristic is in accordance to figure 82.
jx X Mho, zone4 Mho, zone3 Zs=0 Mho, zone2 Mho, zone1 R

Zs=Z1 Zs=2Z1

IEC11000223-1-en.vsd
IEC11000223 V1 EN

Figure 82:

Mho characteristic and the source impedance influence on the mho characteristic

The mho characteristic has a dynamic expansion due to the source impedance. Instead of crossing the origin as for the mho to the left of figure 82, which is only valid where the source impedance is zero, the crossing point is moved to the coordinates of the negative source impedance given an expansion of the circle shown to the right of figure 82. The polarization quantities used for the mho circle are 100% memorized positive sequence voltages. This will give a somewhat less dynamic expansion of the mho circle during faults. However, if the source impedance is high, the dynamic expansion of the mho circle might lower the security of the function too much with high loading and mild power swing conditions. The mho distance element has a load encroachment function which cuts off a section of the characteristic when enabled. The function is enabled by setting the

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Section 6 Impedance protection

setting parameter LoadEnchMode to On. Enabling of the load encroachment function increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults without interfering with the load impedance. The algorithm for the load encroachment is located in the Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho function FMPSPDIS, where also the relevant settings can be found. Information about the load encroachment from FMPSPDIS to the zone measurement is given in binary format to the input signal LDCND.

6.1.2.3

Basic operation characteristics


Each impedance zone can be switched On and Off by the setting parameter Operation. Each zone can also be set to Non-directional, Forward or Reverse by setting the parameter DirMode. The operation for phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase fault can be individually switched On and Off by the setting parameter OpModePE and OpModePP. For critical applications such as for lines with high SIRs as well as CVTs, it is possible to improve the security by setting the parameter ReachMode to Underreach. In this mode the reach for faults close to the zone reach is reduced by 20% and the filtering is also introduced to increase the accuracy in the measuring. If the ReachMode is set to Overreach no reduction of the reach is introduced and no extra filtering introduced. The latter setting is recommended for overreaching pilot zone, zone 2 or zone 3 elements and reverse zone where overreaching on transients is not a major issue either because of less likelihood of overreach with higher settings or the fact that these elements do not initiate tripping unconditionally. The offset Mho characteristic can be set in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse by the setting parameter OffsetMhoDir. When Forward or Reverse is selected a directional line is introduced. Information about the directional line is given from the directional element and given to the measuring element as binary coded signal to the input DIRCND. The zone reach for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault is set individually in polar coordinates. The impedance is set by the parameters ZPE and ZPP and the corresponding arguments by the parameters ZAngPE and ZAngPP. Compensation for earth-return path for faults involving earth is done by setting the parameter KNMag and KNAng where KNMag is the magnitude of the earth-return path and KNAng is the difference of angles between KNMag and ZPE.
KNMag =
EQUATION1579 V1 EN

Z0-Z1 3 Z1
(Equation 36)

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KNAng = arg
EQUATION1580 V1 EN

Z 0 - Z1 3 Z1

)
(Equation 37)

where Z0 Z1 is the complex zero sequence impedance of the line in /phase is the complex positive sequence impedance of the line in /phase

The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase measuring loops can be time delayed individually by setting the parameter tPE and tPP respectively. To release the time delay, the operation mode for the timers, OpModetPE and OpModetPP, has to be set to On. This is also the case for instantaneous operation. The operate timers triggering input can be selected by setting the parameter ZnTimerSel. The parameter ZnTimerSel can be set to: Timers seperated: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the respective measuring loop start signals. Timers linked: Start of any of the phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase loops will trigger both the phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase timers. Internal start: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the INTRNST input. Start from PhSel: The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the DIRCND, STCND, LDCND inputs. Each of the three inputs consist binary status information related to the six measuring loops. Hence if any of the measuring loop status is High, then the timers will be triggered. External start: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the EXTNST input.

The function can be blocked in the following ways: activating of input BLOCK blocks the whole function activating of the input BLKZ (fuse failure) blocks all output signals activating of the input BLKZMTD blocks the delta based algorithm activating of the input BLKHSIR blocks the instantaneous part of the algorithm for high SIR values activating of the input BLKTRIP blocks all output signals activating the input BLKPE blocks the phase-to-earth fault loop outputs activating the input BLKPP blocks the phase-to-phase fault loop outputs

The activation of input signal BLKZ can be made by external fuse failure function or from the loss of voltage check in the Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC). In both cases the output BLKZ in the Mho supervision logic shall be connected to the input BLKZ in the Mho distance function block (ZMHPDIS)
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Section 6 Impedance protection

The input signal BLKZMTD is activated during some ms after fault has been detected by ZSMGAPC to avoid unwanted operations due to transients. It shall be connected to the BLKZMTD output signal of ZSMGAPC function. At SIR values >10, the use of electronic CVT might cause overreach due to the builtin resonance circuit in the CVT, which reduce the secondary voltage for a while. The input BLKHSIR shall be connected to the output signal HSIR on ZSMGAPC for increasing of the filtering and high SIR values. This is valid only when permissive underreach scheme is selected by setting ReachMode=Underreach.

6.1.2.4

Theory of operation
The mho algorithm is based on the phase comparison of a operating phasor and a polarizing phasor. When the operating phasor leads the reference polarizing phasor by more than 90 degrees, the function operates and gives a trip output.

Phase-to-phase fault
Mho The plain mho circle has the characteristic as in figure 83. The condition for deriving the angle is according to equation 38.

b = arg(U L1 L 2 - I L1 L 2 ZPP ) - arg(U pol )


EQUATION1789 V1 EN

(Equation 38)

where

U L1L2
EQUATION1790 V2 EN

is the voltage vector difference between phases L1 and L2

I L1L2
EQUATION1791 V2 EN

is the current vector difference between phases L1 and L2 is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault is the polarizing voltage

ZPP Upol

The polarized voltage consists of 100% memorized positive sequence voltage (UL1L2 for phase L1 to L2 fault). The memorized voltage will prevent collapse of the mho circle for close in faults. Operation occurs if 90270

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IL1L2X

Ucomp = UL1L2 - IL1L2 ZPP IL1L2 ZPP

Upol UL1L2

IL1L2R

en07000109.vsd
IEC07000109 V1 EN

Figure 83:

Simplified mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1-toL2 fault

Offset Mho The characteristic for offset mho is a circle where two points on the circle are the setting parameters ZPP and ZRevPP. The vector ZPP in the impedance plane has the settable angle AngZPP and the angle for ZRevPP is AngZPP+180. The condition for operation at phase-to-phase fault is that the angle between the two compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater than or equal to 90 (figure 84). The angle will be 90 for fault location on the boundary of the circle. The angle for L1-to-L2 fault can be defined according to equation 39.

b = arg
EQUATION1792 V1 EN

U-(-IL1L2 ZRevPP)
U -IL1L2 ZPP
(Equation 39)

where

U
EQUATION1800 V1 EN

is the UL1L2 voltage

ZRevPP

is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault in reverse direction

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Section 6 Impedance protection

IL1L2jX

Ucomp1 = UL1L2 - IL1L2 ZPP IL1L2 ZPP

U Ucomp2 = U = IFZF=UL1L2 IL1L2R

- IL1L2 Z RevPP
en07000110.vsd
IEC07000110 V1 EN

Figure 84:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vectors for phase L1-to-L2 fault.

Operation occurs if 90270. Offset mho, forward direction When forward direction has been selected for the offset mho, an extra criteria beside the one for offset mho (90<<270) is introduced, that is the angle between the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second quadrant and fourth quadrant. See figure 85. Operation occurs if 90270 and ArgDirArgNegRes.
where

ArgDir ArgNegRes

is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element, ZDMRDIR. is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element, ZDMRDIR. is calculated according to equation 39

The directional information is brought to the mho distance measurement from the mho directional element as binary coded information to the input DIRCND. See Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) for information about the mho directional element.

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IL1L2jX

ZPP

UL1L2

ArgNegRes

IL1L2
ArgDir

en07000111.vsd
IEC07000111 V1 EN

Figure 85:

Simplified offset mho characteristic in forward direction for phase L1-to-L2 fault

Offset mho, reverse direction The operation area for offset mho in reverse direction is according to figure 86. The operation area in second quadrant is ArgNegRes+180. Operation occurs if 90270 and 180 - ArgDir ArgNegRes + 180 The is derived according to equation 39 for the mho circle and is the angle between the voltage and current.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

X ZPP

ArgNegRes

IL1L2

ArgDir
UL1L2

ZRevPP
en06000469.eps
IEC06000469 V1 EN

Figure 86:

Operation characteristic for reverse phase L1-to-L2 fault

Phase-to-earth fault
Mho The measuring of earth faults uses earth-return compensation applied in a conventional way. The compensation voltage is derived by considering the influence from the earth-return path. For an earth fault in phase L1, the compensation voltage Ucomp can be derived, as shown in figure 87.

Ucomp = U pol - I L1 Z loop


EQUATION1793 V1 EN

(Equation 40)

where Upol Zloop is the polarizing voltage (memorized UL1 for Phase L1-to- earth fault) is the loop impedance, which in general terms can be expressed as

Z1+ZN = Z 1 1 + KN
EQUATION1799 V1 EN

)
(Equation 41)

Table continues on next page

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Section 6 Impedance protection

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where Z1 KN is the positive sequence impedance of the line (Ohm/phase) is the zero-sequence compensator factor

The angle between the Ucomp and the polarize voltage Upol for a L1-to-earth fault is
b = arg [UL1 -(IL1 +3I0 KN ) ZPE ] - arg( Upol)
GUID-A9492CDF-D3B7-4DC5-8E06-6638BEE2540B V1 EN

(Equation 42)

where UL1 IL1 IA 3I0 is the phase voltage in faulty phase L1 is the phase current in faulty phase L1 is the phase current in faulty phase A is the zero-sequence current in faulty phase L1

KN
EQUATION1593 V1 EN

Z0-Z1 3 Z1
EQUATION1594 V1 EN

the setting parameter for the zero sequence compensation consisting of the magnitude KN and the angle KNAng. Upol Vpol is the 100% of positive sequence memorized voltage UL1 is the 100% of positive sequence memorized voltage VA

IL1X IL1ZN

Ucomp

IL1 Zloop
IL1ZPE Upol f IL1 (Ref)

IL1R

en06000472_2.vsd
IEC06000472 V2 EN

Figure 87:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1-to-earth fault

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Operation occurs if 90270. Offset mho The characteristic for offset mho at earth fault is a circle containing the two vectors from the origin ZPE and ZRevPE where ZPE and ZrevPE are the setting reach for the positive sequence impedance in forward respective reverse direction. The vector ZPE in the impedance plane has the settable angle AngZPE and the angle for ZRevPP is AngZPE+180. The condition for operation at phase-to-earth fault is that the angle between the two compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater or equal to 90 see figure 88. The angle will be 90 for fault location on the boundary of the circle. The angle for L1-to-earth fault can be defined as

b = arg
EQUATION1802 V1 EN

UL1-(- IL1 Z Re vPE )


UL1- IL1L ZPE
(Equation 45)

U L1
EQUATION1 805 V1 EN

is the phase L1 voltage

IL1L 2 jX

IL1 ZPE

U comp1 = UL1 - I L1 ZPE

UL1

U comp2 = UL1 - (-IL1 ZRevPE)


IL1L2 R

- I L1 Z Re vPe
en 06000465 .vsd
IEC06000465 V1 EN

Figure 88:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vector for phase L1to-earth fault

Operation occurs if 90270.


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Offset mho, forward direction In the same way as for phase-to-phase fault, selection of forward direction of offset mho will introduce an extra criterion for operation. Beside the basic criteria for offset mho according to equation 45 and 90270, also the criteria that the angle between the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second and fourth quadrant. See figure 89. Operation occurs if 90270 and ArgDirArgNegRes.
where

ArgDir ArgNegRes

is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element, ZDMRDIR. is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element, ZDMRDIR. is calculated according to equation 45

IL1 jX

UL1

ArgNegRes

IL1
ArgDir

IL1R

en 06000466 .vsd
IEC06000466 V1 EN

Figure 89:

Simplified characteristic for offset mho in forward direction for L1-toearth fault

Offset mho, reverse direction In the same way as for offset in forward direction, the selection of offset mho in reverse direction will introduce an extra criterion for operation compare to the normal offset mho. The extra is that the angle between the fault voltage and the fault current shall lie between the blinders in second and fourth quadrant. The operation area in second quadrant is limited by the blinder defined as 180 -ArgDir and in fourth quadrant ArgNegRes+180, see figure 90. The conditions for operation of offset mho in reverse direction for L1-to-earth fault is 90270 and 180-ArgdirArgNegRes+180.
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Section 6 Impedance protection

The is derived according to equation 45 for the offset mho circle and is the angle between the voltage and current.
X ZPE

ArgNegRes IL 1 ArgDir UL1 ZRevPE R

en06000470.eps
IEC06000470 V1 EN

Figure 90:

Simplified characteristic for offset mho in reverse direction for L1-toearth fault

6.1.2.5

Simplified logic diagrams Distance protection zones


The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase. Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N, L2N and L3N. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1. Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one logical signal for each separate measuring loop: Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described above. Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 91.

One type of function block, ZMHPDIS are used in the IED for zone 1 - 5.
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Section 6 Impedance protection

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The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from Phase selection with load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic function FMPSPDIS within the IED, which are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. Input signal STCND is connected to FMPSPDIS function output signal STCNDPHS. The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and reverse direction. The zone measurement function filters out the relevant signals depending on the setting of the parameter DirMode. Input signal DIRCND must be configured to the STDIRCND output signal on ZDMRDIR function.
OffsetMhoDir= Non-directional DirMode=Offset STCND AND

AND

AND T F AND

LoadEnchMode= On/Off LDCND True T F AND DIRCND OffsetMhoDir= Forward/Reverse DirMode= Forward/Reverse

Release

AND

BLKZ BLOCK OR

IEC11000216-1-en.vsd
IEC11000216 V1 EN

Figure 91:

Simplified logic for release start signal

When load encroachment mode is switched on (LoadEnchMode=On) then start signal STCND is also checked against LDCND signal. Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 91. Composition of the phase start signals is presented in figure 92.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Release

OR

STPE

STL1N STL2N STL3N STL1L2 STL2L3 STL3L1

AND OR AND AND OR AND AND OR AND

STL1

STL2

STL3

OR

START

OR

STPP

IEC11000217-1-en.vsd
IEC11000217 V1 EN

Figure 92:

Composition of starting signals

Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in figure 93.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

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Timer tPP=On STPP Timer tPE=On STPE AND AND

tPP t OR tPE t

15ms BLKTRIP AND


t

TRIP

STL1 STL2 STL3

AND AND AND

TRL1 TRL2 TRL3

IEC11000218-1-en.vsd
IEC11000218 V1 EN

Figure 93:

Tripping logic for the distance protection zone

6.1.3

Function block
ZMHPDIS I3P* U3P* CURR_INP* VOLT_INP* POL_VOLT* BLOCK BLKZ BLKZMTD BLKHSIR BLKTRIP BLKPE BLKPP DIRCND STCND LDCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TRPE TRPP START STL1 STL2 STL3 STPE STPP

IEC06000423_3_en.vsd
IEC06000423 V3 EN

Figure 94:

ZMHPDIS function block

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Section 6 Impedance protection Input and output signals


Table 88:
Name I3P U3P CURR_INP VOLT_INP POL_VOLT BLOCK BLKZ BLKZMTD BLKHSIR BLKTRIP BLKPE BLKPP DIRCND STCND LDCND

6.1.4

ZMHPDIS Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER INTEGER INTEGER Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Connection for current sample signals Connection for voltage sample signals Connection for current signals Connection for voltage signals Connection for polarizing voltage Block of function Block due to fuse failure Block signal for blocking of time domaine function Blocks time domain function at high SIR Blocks all operate output signals Blocks phase-to-earth operation Blocks phase-to-phase operation External directional condition External start condition (loop enabler) External load condition (loop enabler)

Table 89:
Name TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TRPE TRPP START STL1 STL2 STL3 STPE STPP

ZMHPDIS Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip General Trip phase L1 Trip phase L2 Trip phase L3 Trip phase-to-earth Trip phase-to-phase Start General Start phase L1 Start phase L2 Start phase L3 Start phase-to-earth Start phase-to-phase

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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.1.5


Table 90:
Name Operation IBase UBase DirMode

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters
ZMHPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 Off Offset Forward Reverse Off On Overreach Underreach Off On 0.005 - 3000.000 10 - 90 0.00 - 3.00 -180 - 180 0.005 - 3000.000 0.000 - 60.000 10 - 30 Off On 0.005 - 3000.000 10 - 90 0.005 - 3000.000 0.000 - 60.000 10 - 30 Unit A kV Step 1 0.05 Default On 3000 400.00 Forward Description Operation Off/On Base current Base voltage Direction mode

LoadEncMode ReachMode OpModePE ZPE ZAngPE KN KNAng ZRevPE tPE IMinOpPE OpModePP ZPP ZAngPP ZRevPP tPP IMinOpPP

ohm/p Deg Deg ohm/p s %IB ohm/p Deg ohm/p s %IB

0.001 1 0.01 1 0.001 0.001 1 0.001 1 0.001 0.001 1

Off Overreach On 30.000 80 0.80 -15 30.000 0.000 20 On 30.000 85 30.000 0.000 20

Load encroachment mode Off/On Reach mode Over/Underreach Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops Positive sequence impedance setting for Phase-Earth loop Angle for positive sequence line impedance for Phase-Earth loop Magnitud of earth return compensation factor KN Angle for earth return compensation factor KN Reverse reach of the phase to earth loop(magnitude) Delay time for operation of phase to earth elements Minimum operation phase to earth current Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops Impedance setting reach for phase to phase elements Angle for positive sequence line impedance for Phase-Phase elements Reverse reach of the phase to phase loop(magnitude) Delay time for operation of phase to phase Minimum operation phase to phase current

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Table 91:
Name OffsetMhoDir

ZMHPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) Non-directional Forward Reverse Off On Off On Unit Step Default Non-directional Description Direction mode for offset mho

OpModetPE OpModetPP

On On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer, Ph-E Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer, Ph-ph

6.1.6

Technical data
Table 92:
Function Number of zones with selectable directions Minimum operate current Positive sequence impedance, phase-to-earth loop Positive sequence impedance angle, phase-to-earth loop Reverse reach, phase-to-earth loop (Magnitude) Magnitude of earth return compensation factor KN Angle for earth compensation factor KN Dynamic overreach Timers Operate time Reset ratio Reset time

ZMHPDIS technical data


Range or value Max 4 with selectable direction (1030)% of IBase (0.0053000.000) W/phase (1090) degrees (0.0053000.000) /phase (0.003.00) (-180180) degrees <5% at 85 degrees measured with CVTs and 0.5<SIR<30 (0.000-60.000) s 20 ms typically (with static outputs) 105% typically 30 ms typically 0.5% 10 ms Accuracy 2.0% static accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir Angle: 85 degrees

6.2

Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR


Function description Directional impedance element for mho characteristic IEC 61850 identification ZDMRDIR IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 21D

S00346 V1 EN

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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.2.1 Introduction

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

The phase-to-earth impedance elements can be optionally supervised by a phase unselective directional function based on symmetrical components.

6.2.2
6.2.2.1

Principle of operation
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR). Equation 46 and equation 47 are used to classify that the fault is in the forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phaseto-phase fault respectively.

- ArgDir < arg


EQUATION1617 V1 EN

0.85 U1L1 + 0.15 U1L1M I L1

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 46)

- ArgDir < arg


EQUATION1619 V1 EN

0.85 U1L1L 2 + 0.15 U1L1L 2 M I L1L 2

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 47)

Where: ArgDir ArgNegRes U1L1 U1L1M IL1 U1L1L2 U1L1L2M IL1L2 Setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) Setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set to 115 degrees, see figure 95 for mho characteristics. Positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1 Positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 Phase current in phase L1 Voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) Memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) Current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

The default settings for ArgDir and ArgNegRes are 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively (see figure 95) and they should not be changed unless system studies show the necessity. If one sets DirEvalType to Comparator (which is recommended when using the mho characteristic) then the directional lines are computed by means of a comparatortype calculation, meaning that the directional lines are based on mho-circles (of infinite radius). The default setting value Impedance otherwise means that the

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directional lines are implemented based on an impedance calculation equivalent to the one used for the quadrilateral impedance characteristics. When Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) is used together with Fullscheme distance protection, mho characteristic (ZMHPDIS) the following settings for parameter DirEvalType is vital: alternative Comparator is strongly recommended alternative Imp/Comp should generally not be used alternative Impedance should not be used. This altenative is intended for use together with Distance protection zone, quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS)

X Zset reach point

ArgNegRes

-ArgDir

-Zs
en06000416.vsd
IEC06000416 V1 EN

Figure 95:

Setting angles for discrimination of forward fault

The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. For close-in three-phase faults, the U1L1M memory voltage, based on the same positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination. The memory voltage is used for 100ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. After 100ms, the following occurs:

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If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current the condition seals in. If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation.

If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, no directional indications will be given until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.

The Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function has the following output signals: The STDIRCND output provides an integer signal that depends on the evaluation and is derived from a binary coded signal as follows:
bit 11 (2048) STRVL3L1= 1 bit 5 (32) STFWL3L1= 1 bit 10 (1024) STRVL2L3= 1 bit 4 (16) STFWL2L3= 1 bit 9 (512) STRVL1L2= 1 bit 3 (8) STFWL1L2= 1 bit 8 (256) STRVL3N=1 bit 2 (4) STFWL3N=1 bit 7 (128) STRVL2N=1 bit 1 (2) STFWL2N=1 bit 6 (64) STRVL1N=1 bit 0 (1) STFWL1N=1

The STFW output is a logical signal with value 1 or 0. It is made up as an ORfunction of all the forward starting conditions, that is, STFWL1N, STFWL2N, STFWL3N, STFWL1L2, STFWL2L3 and STFWL3L1. The STRV output is similar to the STFW output, the only difference being that it is made up as an ORfunction of all the reverse starting conditions, that is, STRVL1N, STRVL2N, STRVL3N, STRVL1L2, STRVL2L3 and STRVL3L1. Values for the following parameters are calculated, and may be viewed as service values: resistance phase L1 reactance phase L1 resistance phase L2 reactance phase L2 resistance phase L3 reactance phase L3 direction phase L1 direction phase L2 direction phase L3

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ZDMRDIR I3P* U3P* DIR_CURR DIR_VOLT DIR_POL STFW STRV STDIRCND IEC06000422_2_en.vsd
IEC06000422 V2 EN

6.2.3

Figure 96:

ZDMRDIR function block

6.2.4

Input and output signals


Table 93:
Name I3P U3P

ZDMRDIR Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL Default Description group connection for current abs 1 group connection for voltage abs 1

Table 94:
Name DIR_CURR DIR_VOLT DIR_POL STFW STRV STDIRCND

ZDMRDIR Output signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER Description Group connection Group connection Group connection Start in forward direction Start in reverse direction Binary coded directional information per measuring loop

6.2.5
Table 95:
Name IBase UBase DirEvalType

Setting parameters
ZDMRDIR Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 Impedance Comparator Imp/Comp 90 - 175 Unit Step 1 0.05 Default 3000 400.00 Comparator Description Base setting for current level Base setting for voltage level Directional evaluation mode Impedance / Comparator Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction

ArgNegRes

Deg

115

Table continues on next page

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Name ArgDir IMinOpPE IMinOpPP Values (Range) 5 - 45 5 - 30 5 - 30 Unit Deg %IB %IB Step 1 1 1 Default 15 5 10 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

6.3

Pole slip protection PSPPPAM


Function description Pole slip protection IEC 61850 identification PSPPPAM IEC 60617 identification Ucos ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 78

6.3.1

Introduction
The phenomenon pole slip, also named out of step conditions, occurs when there is phase opposition between different parts of a power system. This is often shown in a simplified way as two equivalent generators connected to each other via an equivalent transmission line and the phase difference between the equivalent generators is 180.
Angle = 90 Angle = -90

Centre of Pole Slip


en07000003.vsd
IEC07000003 V1 EN

Figure 97:

The centre of pole slip

The centre of the pole slip can occur in the generator itself or somewhere in the power system. When a pole slip occurs within the generator it is essential to trip the generator. If the centre of pole slip occurs outside any generator the power system

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should be split into two different parts that could have the ability to get stable operating conditions. Pole slip protection (PSPPPAM) function in the IED can be used both for generator protection application as well as, line protection applications. The situation with pole slip of a generator can be caused by different reasons. A short circuit may occur in the external power grid, close to the generator. If the fault clearing time is too long, the generator will accelerate so much, that the synchronism cannot be maintained. Un-damped oscillations occur in the power system, where generator groups at different locations, oscillate against each other. If the connection between the generators is too weak the magnitude of the oscillations will increase until the angular stability is lost. The operation of a generator having pole slip will give risk of damages to the generator, shaft and turbine. At each pole slip there will be significant torque impact on the generatorturbine shaft. In asynchronous operation there will be induction of currents in parts of the generator normally not carrying current, thus resulting in increased heating. The consequence can be damages on insulation and stator/rotor iron.

The Pole slip protection (PSPPPAM) function shall detect pole slip conditions and trip the generator as fast as possible if the locus of the measured impedance is inside the generator-transformer block. If the centre of pole slip is outside in the power grid, the first action should be to split the network into two parts, after line protection action. If this fails there should be operation of the generator PSPPPAM in zone 2, to prevent further damages to the generator, shaft and turbine.

6.3.2

Principle of operation
If the generator is faster than the power system, the rotor movement in the impedance and voltage diagram is from right to left and generating is signalled. If the generator is slower than the power system, the rotor movement is from left to right and motoring is signalled (the power system drives the generator as if it were a motor). The movements in the impedance plain can be seen in figure 98. The transient behaviour is described by the transient EMF's EA and EB, and by X'd, XT and the transient system impedance ZS.

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Zone 1 EB Xd IED jX XT

Zone 2 XS EA

A XS

Pole slip impedance movement

XT

Apparent generator impedance

Xd B

IEC06000437_2_en.vsd
IEC06000437 V2 EN

Figure 98:
where: X'd XT ZS

Movements in the impedance plain

= transient reactance of the generator = short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer = impedance of the power system A

The detection of rotor angle is enabled when: the minimum current exceeds 0.10 IN (IN is IBase parameter set under general setting). the maximum voltage falls below 0.92 UBase the voltage Ucos (the voltage in phase with the generator current) has an angular velocity of 0.2...8 Hz and the corresponding direction is not blocked.

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en07000004.vsd
IEC07000004 V1 EN

Figure 99:

Different generator quantities as function of the angle between the equivalent generators

An alarm is given when movement of the rotor is detected and the rotor angle exceeds the angle set for 'WarnAngle'. Slipping is detected when: a change of rotor angle of min. 50 ms is recognized the slip line is crossed between ZA and ZB.

When the impedance crosses the slip line between ZB and ZC it counts as being in zone 1 and between ZC and ZA in zone 2. The entire distance ZA-ZB becomes zone 1 when signal EXTZONE1 is high (external device detects the direction of the centre of slipping). After the first slip, the signals ZONE1 or ZONE2 and depending on the direction of slip - either GEN or MOTOR are issued. Every time pole slipping is detected, the impedance of the point where the slip line is crossed and the instantaneous slip frequency are displayed as measurements. Further slips are only detected, if they are in the same direction and if the rate of rotor movement has reduced in relation to the preceding slip or the slip line is crossed in the opposite direction outside ZA-ZB. A further slip in the opposite direction within ZA-ZB resets all the signals and is then signalled itself as a first slip.

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The TRIP1 tripping command and signal are generated after N1 slips in zone 1, providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle. The TRIP2 signal is generated after N2 slips in zone 2, providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle. All signals are reset if: the direction of movement reverses the rotor angle detector resets without a slip being counted or no rotor relative movement was detected during the time ResetTime.

Imin > 0.10 IBase

Ucosj < 0.92 UBase

AND AND START

0.2 Slip.Freq. 8 Hz

d startAngle ZONE1

Z cross line ZA - ZC

AND

Z cross line ZC - ZB

AND

ZONE2

Counter N1Limit

a b

ab

AND

TRIP1

d tripAngle Counter N2Limit

OR a b ab

TRIP

AND

TRIP2

en07000005.vsd
IEC07000005 V1 EN

Figure 100:

Simplified logic diagram for pole slip protection PSPPPAM

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PSPPPAM I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKGEN BLKMOTOR EXTZONE1 TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START ZONE1 ZONE2 GEN MOTOR SFREQ SLIPZOHM SLIPZPER UCOS UCOSPER

6.3.3

IEC10000045-1-en.vsd
IEC10000045 V1 EN

Figure 101:

PSPPPAM function block

6.3.4

Input and output signals


Table 96:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLKGEN BLKMOTOR EXTZONE1

PSPPPAM Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 Description Current group connection Voltage group connection Block of function Block operation in generating direction Block operation in motor direction Extension of zone1 with zone2 region

Table 97:
Name TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START ZONE1 ZONE2 GEN MOTOR SFREQ SLIPZOHM SLIPZPER UCOS UCOSPER

PSPPPAM Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Common trip signal Trip1 after the N1Limit slip in zone1 Trip2 after the N2Limit slip in zone2 Common start signal First slip in zone1 region First slip in zone2 region Generator is faster than the system Generator is slower than the system Slip frequency Slip impedance in ohms Slip impedance in percent of ZBase UCosPhi voltage UCosPhi voltage in percent of UBase

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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.3.5


Table 98:
Name Operation OperationZ1 OperationZ2 ImpedanceZA ImpedanceZB ImpedanceZC AnglePhi StartAngle TripAngle N1Limit N2Limit

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters
PSPPPAM Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On Off On Off On 0.00 - 1000.00 0.00 - 1000.00 0.00 - 1000.00 72.00 - 90.00 0.0 - 180.0 0.0 - 180.0 1 - 20 1 - 20 Unit % % % Deg Deg Deg Step 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 1 1 Default Off On On 10.00 10.00 10.00 85.00 110.0 90.0 1 3 Description Operation On / Off Operation Zone1 On / Off Operation Zone2 On / Off Forward impedance in % of Zbase Reverse impedance in % of Zbase Impedance of zone1 limit in % of Zbase Angle of the slip impedance line Rotor angle for the start signal Rotor angle for the trip1 and trip2 signals Count limit for the trip1 signal Count limit for the trip2 signal

Table 99:
Name ResetTime

PSPPPAM Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 Unit s Step 0.001 Default 5.000 Description Time without slip to reset all signals

Table 100:
Name IBase UBase MeasureMode

PSPPPAM Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 0.1 - 99999.9 0.1 - 9999.9 PosSeq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 No Yes Unit A kV Step 0.1 0.1 Default 3000.0 20.0 PosSeq Description Base Current (primary phase current in Amperes) Base Voltage (primary phase-to-phase voltage in kV) Measuring mode (PosSeq, L1L2, L2L3, L3L1)

InvertCTcurr

No

Invert current direction

6.3.6

Technical data
Table 101:
Function Impedance reach Characteristic angle Start and trip angles Zone 1 and Zone 2 trip counters

PSPPPAM technical data


Range or value (0.001000.00)% of Zbase (72.0090.00) degrees (0.0180.0) degrees (1-20) Accuracy 2.0% of Ur/Ir 5.0 degrees 5.0 degrees -

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6.4

Loss of excitation LEXPDIS


Function description Loss of excitation IEC 61850 identification LEXPDIS IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 40

<
SYMBOL-MM V1 EN

6.4.1

Introduction
There are limits for the under-excited operation of a synchronous machine. A reduction of the excitation current weakens the coupling between the rotor and the stator. The machine may lose the synchronism and start to operate like an induction machine. Then, the reactive power consumption will increase. Even if the machine does not loose synchronism it may not be acceptable to operate in this state for a long time. Reduction of excitation increases the generation of heat in the end region of the synchronous machine. The local heating may damage the insulation of the stator winding and the iron core. To prevent damages to the generator it should be tripped when excitation is lost.

6.4.2

Principle of operation
The Loss of excitation (LEXPDIS) protection in the IED measures the apparent impedance seen out from the generator.The measurement loop of apparent impedance can be chosen as the positive sequence loop or any one of the three phaseto-phase loops depending on the available current and voltage signals. It is recommended to use positive sequence quantities for function operation.

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Section 6 Impedance protection


Measured mode Measured apparent impedance

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Zposseq

U posseq I posseq
(Equation 48)

EQUATION1771 V1 EN

ZL1L2

U L1 - U L 2 I L1 - I L 2
(Equation 49)

EQUATION1772 V1 EN

ZL2L3

U L 2 - U L3 I L 2 - I L3
(Equation 50)

EQUATION1773 V1 EN

ZL3L1

U L 3 - U L1 I L 3 - I L1
(Equation 51)

EQUATION1774 V1 EN

There are three characteristics in LEXPDIS protection as shown in figure 102. Naimly: Offset mho circle for Z1 Offset mho circle for Z2 Directional blinder

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X

UnderexitationProtection protection Underexcitation Restrain area Restrain area R

R Directional blinder

Z1, Fast zone Z2, Slow zone


IEC06000455-2-en.vsd
IEC06000455 V2 EN

Figure 102:

Three characteristics in LEXPDIS protection

When the apparent impedance reaches the zone Z1 this zone will operate, normally with a short delay. The zone is related to the dynamic stability of the generator. When the apparent impedance reaches the zone Z2 this zone will operate, normally with a longer delay. The zone is related to the static stability of the generator. LEXPDIS protection also has a directional blinder (supervision). See figure 102. In LEXPDIS function the zone measurement is done as shown in figure 103.

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Offset

R XoffsetZ1 Z (apparent impedance)

Z1diameter

Z1 = Z - (XoffsetZ1 + Z1diameter/2)

Z1 or Z2

en06000456-2.vsd
IEC06000456 V2 EN

Figure 103:

Zone measurement in LEXPDIS protection function

The impedance Z1 is constructed from the measured apparent impedance Z and the impedance corresponding to the centre point of the impedance characteristic (Z1 or Z2). If the amplitude of this impedance is less than the radius (diameter/2) of the characteristic, this part of the protection will operate. If the directional restrain is set Off the impedance zone operation will start the appropriate timer and LEXPDIS will trip after the set delay (tZ1 or tZ2). If the directional restrain is set On the directional release function must also operate to enable operation. A new impedance is constructed from the measured apparent impedance Z and the XoffsetDirLine point on the y-axis. If the phase angle of this impedance is less than the set DirAngle LEXPDIS function will be released, see figure 104.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Underexcitation Protection Restrain area

XoffsetDirLine DirAngle

Z (apparent impedance)

en06000457.vsd
IEC06000457 V1 EN

Figure 104:

Impedance constructed as XoffsetDirLine in LEXPDIS protection

LEXPDIS function is schematically described in figure 105.


tZ1 t

Positive sequence current phasor Positive sequence voltage phasor Apparent impedance calculation Z

Z in Z1 char.

&

startZ1

TripZ1

Z in Z2 char.

&

startZ2

tZ2 t

TripZ2

Dir. Restrain Dir.Restrain ON 1

en06000458-2.vsd
IEC06000458 V3 EN

Figure 105:

Simplified logic diagram of LEXPDIS protection

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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.4.3 Function block


LEXPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKTRZ1 BLKTRZ2 TRIP TRZ1 TRZ2 START STZ1 STZ2 XOHM XPERCENT ROHM RPERCENT IEC07000031_2_en.vsd
IEC07000031 V2 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 106:

LEXPDIS function block

6.4.4

Input and output signals


Table 102:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLKTRZ1 BLKTRZ2

LEXPDIS Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Current group connection Voltage group connection Block of function Block trip of zone Z1 Block trip of zone Z2

Table 103:
Name TRIP TRZ1 TRZ2 START STZ1 STZ2 XOHM XPERCENT ROHM RPERCENT

LEXPDIS Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Common trip signal Trip signal from impedance zone Z1 Trip signal from impedance zone Z2 Common start signal Start signal from impedance zone Z1 Start signal from impedance zone Z2 Reactance in Primary Ohms Reactance in percent of Zbase Resistance in Primary Ohms Resistance in percent of Zbase

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Section 6 Impedance protection Setting parameters

6.4.5
Table 104:
Name Operation OperationZ1 XoffsetZ1 Z1diameter tZ1 OperationZ2 XoffsetZ2 Z2diameter tZ2

LEXPDIS Group settings (basic)


Values (Range) Off On Off On -1000.00 - 1000.00 0.01 - 3000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 Off On -1000.00 - 1000.00 0.01 - 3000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 Unit % % s % % s Step 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Default Off On -10.00 100.00 0.01 On -10.00 200.00 1.00 Description Operation Off / On Operation Off/On zone Z1 Offset of Z1 circle top point along X axis in % of Zbase Diameter of impedance circle for Z1 in % of Zbase Trip time delay for Z1 Operation Off/On zone Z2 Offset of Z2 circle top point along X axis in % of Zbase Diameter of impedance circle for Z2 in % of Zbase Trip time delay for Z2

Table 105:
Name DirSuperv XoffsetDirLine DirAngle

LEXPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) Off On -1000.00 - 3000.00 -180.0 - 180.0 Unit % Deg Step 0.01 0.1 Default Off 0.00 -13.0 Description Operation Off/On for additional directional criterion Offset of directional line along X axis in % of Zbase Angle between directional line and Raxis in degrees

Table 106:
Name IBase UBase MeasureMode

LEXPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 0.1 - 99999.9 0.1 - 9999.9 PosSeq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 Unit A kV Step 0.1 0.1 Default 3000 20 PosSeq Description Base Current (primary phase current in Amperes) Base Voltage (primary phase-to-phase voltage in kV) Measuring mode (PosSeq, L1L2, L2L3, L3L1)

Table 107:
Name InvertCTcurr

LEXPDIS Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) No Yes Unit Step Default No Description Invert CT current

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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.4.6 Technical data


Table 108:
Function X offset of Mho top point Diameter of Mho circle Timers

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

LEXPDIS technical data


Range or value (1000.001000.00)% of ZBase (0.003000.00)% of ZBase (0.006000.00) s Accuracy 2.0% of Ur/Ir 2.0% of Ur/Ir 0.5% 10 ms

6.5

Sensitive rotor earth fault protection, injection based ROTIPHIZ


Function description Sensitive rotor earth fault protection, injection based IEC 61850 identification ROTIPHIZ IEC 60617 identification Rre< ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 64R

6.5.1

Introduction
The sensitive rotor earth fault protection (ROTIPHIZ) is used to detect earth faults in the rotor windings of generators. ROTIPHIZ is applicable for all types of synchronous generators. To implement the above concept, a separate injection box is required. The injection box generates a square wave voltage signal at a certain preset frequency which is fed into the rotor winding. The magnitude of the injected voltage signal and the resulting injected current is measured through a resistive shunt located within the injection box. These two measured values are fed to the IED. Based on these two measured quantities, the protection IED determines the rotor winding resistance to ground. The resistance value is then compared with the preset fault resistance alarm and trip levels. The protection function can detect earth faults in the entire rotor winding and associated connections. Requires injection unit REX060 and a coupling capacitor unit REX061 for correct operation.

6.5.2

Principle of operation
The protection principle is based on injection of voltage to the exciter point of the field circuit.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

8 4
Step-up Transformer

U>

3 1

Uinj
Rshunt

~
6

Generator

ROTOR EF

REX061

I
RN

REX060/RIM module

REG670 Generator Protection Panel


IEC11000014 V1 EN

IEC11000014-4-en.vsd

Figure 107:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Example installation for rotor injection

Generator unit consisting of a synchronous generator and a step-up transformer Generator field winding Capacitor coupling unit which is used to provide insulation barrier between rotor circuit and injection equipment Cable used to inject the square-wave signal into the rotor circuit Connection for measurement of injected current. This signal is amplified in REX060 before it is passed on to IED for evaluation. Connection for measurement of injected voltage. This signal is amplified in REX060 before it is passed on to IED for evaluation. Two VT inputs into IED which are used to measure injected current and voltage Protection for excessive over-voltages posed by generator. REX060 can withstand without damage maximum voltage of 120V and when used together with REX062 up to 240V.

The injection signals are generated in a separate unit, REX060. The signals have square wave form and are injected to the generator via the coupling capacitor unit REX061 to the excitation circuit. In the REX060 unit the injection voltage and current signals are amplified to a level adapted to the analogue voltage inputs of IED. In IED the measured signals evaluated to detect rotor earth faults.

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Section 6 Impedance protection


6.5.2.1 The injection unit REX060
IED and Injection connectors Top view Power connector X11 Back view

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Front view Keylock LED

1 5

X61

X81

Injection Stator

Injection Rotor

18

PSM

X62

18

1 5

X82

Power

Stator

Backplane HMI with logic Front-plate

Rotor

Injection LED

Injection switch

IEC11000015-1-en.vsd
IEC11000015 V1 EN

Figure 108:

Injection unit REX060

The REX060 unit is a common unit that can be configured for either rotor or stator earth fault protection, or for both. The REX060 have separate modules for rotor and stator protection. The REX060 generate square wave signals, where one is used for injection to the stator neutral point and the other to the field winding circuit (rotor circuit), if configured for both stator and rotor protection. The injected voltage and currents are measured by the unit and amplified, resulting in voltage signals both for the injected voltage and current, and adapted to the analogue inputs of IED. The injection unit REX060 shall be located close to the IED, preferably in the same cubicle. For the Sensitive rotor earth fault protection, there are some settings necessary for REX060: System frequency: 50/60 Hz Injected frequency for rotor circuit injection is settable in 1 Hz steps 75 250 Hz. Gain factor in four steps

REX060 will also continuously check the measured signal for detection of saturation which could cause error in the evaluation in IED. If saturation level is reached a binary signal, connected to IED, is activated. Also other errors in the injection circuit will initiate a binary signal to IED for blocking of the function. Rotor injection output is protected against high voltages by a relay blocking the injection circuit. This blocking remains blocked by stored status in non-volatile memory. The output is also protected by a fuse. If this fuse is blown, it is caused by external voltage source, since the injection unit cannot provide enough energy to blow this fuse.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Refer to the Hardware section in this manual for a detailed description of REX060.

6.5.2.2

Rotor Earth Fault Protection function


The injection to the rotor is schematically shown in figure 109.

Iinj DC Rf AC REX061 Rf Iinj + U inj Rotor Reference Im pedance Crot + Uinj -

Crot

IEC11000065-1-en.vsd

IEC11000065 V1 EN

Figure 109:

Equivalent diagram for Sensitive rotor earth fault protection principle

The impedance ZMeasured is equal to the capacitive reactance between the rotor winding and earth (1/Crot) and the earth fault resistance (Rf). The series resistance in the injection circuit is eliminated. Rf is very large in the non-faulted case and the measured impedance, called the rotor reference impedance and can be calculated as :

Z ref = - j
EQUATION2510 V1 EN

1 wCrot

alternative

1 = jwCrot Z ref
EQUATION2511 V1 EN

Where

w = 2p finj
EQUATION2512 V1 EN

The injected frequency finj of the square wave, is a set value, deviating from the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The injected frequency can be set within the range 75 250 Hz with the recommended value 113 Hz in 50 Hz systems and 137 Hz in 60 Hz systems.

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Section 6 Impedance protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Rseries is a resistance in the REX061 unit used to protect against overvoltage to the injection unit. Such overvoltages can occur if the unit is fed from static excitation system. The injection unit REX060 is connected to the generator and to IED as shown in figure 107.

6.5.2.3

General measurement of earth fault impedance


From the REX060 the injected voltage and current are delivered as AC voltages to IED. The injected voltage and current is measured and analyzed in the protection function software within IED. The measured injected voltage and current are first processed by means of special filtering so that the signals are referred to the injected frequency only. The bare complex impedance is, see fig 110:

Z bare =

U Inj I Inj

EQUATION2500 V1 EN

An equivalent circuit for the measured impedance is shown in figure 110.

ZMeasured

ZBare Z series Iinj +

Rf

Z shunt

Uinj -

IEC11000003-2-en.vsd
IEC11000003 V1 EN

Figure 110:

Equivalent of the impedance measurement

In non-faulted operation Rf is very large. A healthy impedance is calculated as:

Z Measured = k1 Z bare + k 2
EQUATION2501 V1 EN

For definition of k1 and k2, see figure 111

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Section 6 Impedance protection

The factors k1 and k2 [] are derived from measurements during commissioning, where calibration to known fault resistance will be used to convert the measurement to true primary impedance. The factor k1 will compensate for transformer ratio and other factors to achieve impedance values related to the primary system. The factor k2 [] will compensate for the series impedance Zseries The healthy impedance measured at non-faulted conditions is referred to as the reference impedance in further text. In IED the measured impedance is compared to the reference impedance. In case of an earth fault, the fault impedance is estimated and compared to the set values RAlarm and RTrip. The measured values are transferred to the primary impedance values by taking the actual impedance value through the complex transformation given by the equation.
Ztrue = k1 Z measured + k2
GUID-20ADF3F6-6A89-4B5F-B0DA-9740C4FD5482 V1 EN

The factors k1 and k2 [] are derived during the calibration measurements under commissioning. As support for the calibration, the Injection Commissioning tool must be used. This tool is an integrated part of the PCM600 tool. In connection to this calibration, the reference impedance is also derived. In case of a rotor earth fault with fault impedance Zf, the measured admittance is:
1 1 1 = + Z Z ref Z f = 1 1 1 = Zf Z Z ref
EQUATION2405 V1 EN

The real part gives the fault conductance.


1 1 1 = Re Rf Z Z ref
EQUATION2421 V1 EN

RAlarm and RTrip are the two resistance levels given in the settings. The values of RAlarm and RTrip are given in . An alarm signal ALARM is given after a set delay tAlarm if Rf < RAlarm A start signal START is given if Rf < RTrip See figure 113

217 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection


6.5.2.4 Simplified logic diagram
ROTIPHIZ

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Uinj
Rshunt

2 6 5 4 3

I Inj Rf
Z Measured
Compare & Evaluate

u_i_ref

Z Bare

K1

I
U Inj
u_u_ref

7
ZRef1 ZRef2

K2

REX060

REG670
IEC10000327-2-en.vsd

IEC10000327 V1 EN

Figure 111:
1 2

Simplified logic diagram for sensitive rotor earth fault protection, injection based ROTIPHIZ

The sensitive rotor earth fault protection function receives amplified injected voltage and current via the REX060 unit as two voltages signals. (Voltage inputs in the IED) The phasor of injected voltage UInj and phasor of injected current IInj is calculated by using special filter from raw samples. Observe that phasors are calculated for the injected frequency. The complex bare impedance is calculated from Uinj / Iinj. The complex measured impedance is derived as ZMeasured = Zbare*k1 + k2 []. The fault resistance (Rf) is calculated from the complex measured impedance and a selected complex reference. Selection of one (out of maximum 2) ZRef.

3 4, 5 6 7

218 Technical reference manual

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Rf

a b

tAlarm a<b t
OR

ALARM

RAlarm

a b

a<b

TRIP

RTrip

IEC10000326-2-en.vsd
IEC10000326 V1 EN

Figure 112:

ROTIPHIZ Alarm and trip logic

If the fault resistance Rf is smaller than RAlarm and longer than alarm delay (using delay-on), output ALARM is set. If the fault resistance Rf is smaller than RTrip, using internal trip time characteristic, output signal TRIP is set after the calculated time. For trip time delay, see fig 113 When 1s filter length is used and the fault resistance is equal to the set value RTrip, the trip time is about 10 s. If the fault resistance is estimated to be 0 , the trip delay is 2 s. For values in between, the delay follows the linear interpolation describing the fault resistance time characteristic.

219 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Trip time

10 FilterLength

2 FilterLength

Fault resistance

RTrip
IEC11000002 V1 EN

RAlarm
IEC11000002-1-en.vsd

Figure 113:

Trip time characteristic as function of fault resistance

A third high level step for the detection of excitation system earth faults on the AC side of the excitation rectifier is available. This step uses the network frequency (50 or 60 Hz) for the evaluation. If an earth fault occurs at the AC side of the excitation system rectifier, there is a fundamental frequency component at the measured voltage and current injection points. The third high level step is not applicable if mixed signals are used, that is when the REX060 is used for both rotor and stator earth fault protection and only two, instead of four, analog inputs on the IED are used.

6.5.2.5

Commissioning tool ICT


The sensitive rotor earth fault protection function in IED require a number of settings. The settings k1, k2 and the reference impedance require measurements on the generator performed by the ICT (injection commissioning tool). The factors are derived in connection to the calibration measurements during commissioning. ICT is an integrated part of the PCM600 tool. Furthermore, ICT also assists the commissioning engineer to perform a successful installation because of its structure and validating capabilities. During installation, commissioning and calibration, ICT performs various tests to verify that the installation is acceptable and the calibration successful. Besides carrying out the actual tests, ICT also provides the commissioning engineer with tips if needed during the commissioning.

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When ICT is started, rotor earth fault protection is chosen. There are five different parts of the ICT tool to be performed at commissioning and operation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Installing Calibrating Commissioning Monitoring Auditing

Before proceeding make sure that all necessary connections are in place.

Installing
When the injection is started, check that the injected voltage and current are within the permissible limits. If not, adjust the settings in the injection unit REX060. The ICT tool will check automatically for slight differences between actual injected and set injection frequency (for example, due to accuracy of the REX060 hardware). Set manually the actual frequency value measured by ICT in the IED via PST. The high accuracy of this frequency is essential for proper operation of the protection under different operating conditions.

Calibrating
The calibration is based on three measurement steps: 1. 2. 3. The injection is made to the faultless generator and the measured complex impedance is stored. A known resistance is connected between one rotor pole (see Figure 114) and earth. The injection is made to the generator and the measured complex impedance is stored. The one rotor pole (see Figure 114) is directly short-circuited to the earth. The injection is made to the generator and the measured complex impedance is stored.

The sequence of the commissioning calibration measurements is shown in the figure below.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

C rot

DC AC

C rot

DC AC

C rot

DC AC

REX 061

I inj

REX061

I inj

REX 061

Iinj

RTest

IEC11000205-1-en.vsd
IEC11000205 V1 EN

Figure 114:

Different steps at calibration measurements


221

Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

The sequence of the calibration session follows a scheme shown in the tool. Calibration sequence 1: The injection must be activated and the rotor must be left with no impedance connected. The ICT now makes consecutive measurements until the statistical error reaches an acceptable value. This is graphically shown in a diagram. The user stops the sequence by acceptance of the measurement. The result is stored for later calculations. Calibration sequence 2: A known resistor is connected between the rotor winding and earth. The value of the resistance is the input to ICT. The ICT now makes consecutive measurements until the statistical error reaches an acceptable value. This is graphically shown in a diagram. The user stops the sequence by acceptance of the measurement. The result is stored for later calculations. Calibration sequence 3: The generator rotor winding is now directly connected to earth. The ICT now makes consecutive measurements until the statistical error reaches an acceptable value. This is graphically shown in a diagram. The user stops the sequence by acceptance of the measurement. The result is stored for later calculations.

After the three measurements ICT calculates the complex factors k1 and k2. The reference impedance RefR1 + jRefX1 is also calculated. After this the values are downloaded to the parameter setting in PCM600. From PCM600 the settings are downloaded to IED. During the three measurements described above a check is made that there are sufficient changes in the measured impedance in order to guarantee that there is no primary fault from the beginning or other problems due to the installation or calibration procedure. Now the reference impedance is derived for one operational state. It might be necessary to make measurements to derive reference impedance for other operational cases. For information on this, see Commissioning below.

Commissioning
There is a possibility to have two different reference impedances. The need to change the reference impedance is due to different operating conditions of the machine. In the commissioning part of ICT this can be done. For each operation state of interest a measurement is performed. If the reference impedance differs from the first one, calculated under the calibration session, the new reference impedance is stored by the command; Submit toParameter Setting. If more than one reference impedance are to be used, there must be a logic configured to detect such changes in the operation states that requires a change of reference impedance.

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Monitoring
In the monitoring part the calibration can be checked by applying the known fault resistance and compare it with the actual function measurement. It is also possible to identify operational states where change of reference impedance is required.

Auditing
In the auditing part calibration and commissioning reports are made.

6.5.3

Description of input signals


The inputs to the sensitive rotor earth-fault protection function block are as shown in table 109.
Table 109:
Input signal USU

Description of various inputs


Description The measured injection voltage. This signal is taken from a pre-processor block, the AI output. The analog voltage input AI1 is linked to the phase L1 in the pre-processor block in the Signal Matrix tool. The measured injection current. This signal is taken from a pre-processor block, the AI output. In the pre-configured version, the analog voltage input AI2 is linked to the phase L2 in the pre-processor block in the Signal Matrix tool. Input to block the function The selection of any of the predefined reference impedances. There is a possibility to change from one set reference impedance to another. Two different reference impedances are available.

USI

BLOCK ZREFSEL

6.5.4

Description of output signals


The outputs of the sensitive rotor earth-fault protection function block are as shown in table 110.
Table 110:
Output signal TRIP TRIPDC TRIPAC START STARTDC STARTAC ALARM ERROR ERRSTAT

Description of various outputs


Description Common trip command signal is the trip command signal at DC-side earth fault is the trip command signal at AC-side earth fault is a common signal for both AC and DC side of exciter is the start signal at DC-side earth fault is the start signal at AC-side earth fault Signal activated after a set time delay, if the calculated fault resistance gets lower than the set alarm level Error signal which is boolean with values 0 and 1 Status coded signal giving type of error. See table 111

Table continues on next page

223 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection


Output signal RAVE XAVE FREQU RFAULT ZREF ZREFRE ZREFIM URMSSTAT Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Measured resistance to earth in at an injected frequency (real part of the complex impedance) Measured reactance to earth in at the injected frequency (imaginary part of the complex impedance) Measured frequency of the injected voltage Estimated fault resistance in Selected reference impedance number The real part (resistance) of the used reference impedance The imaginary part (reactance) of the used reference impedance This signal is set true, if the measured RMS voltage is larger than the set limit

ULimRMS

ERRSTAT output signal Convert the integer output signal to binary and see table below for interpretation of individual bits:
Table 111:
Priority 3 Bit 7 Interference detected

Definition of errors
ERRSTAT output integer Priority 2 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Undervoltage Overcurrent Overvoltage Priority 3 Bit 2 Frequency difference Priority 1 Bit 1 Bit 0 No current No voltage

Bit 6 Undercurrent

The ERRSTAT description will be shown in clear text in ICT. The priority of the signals is set that the group priority 1 overrides the group priority 2 and 3, and priority 2 overrides priority 3. Note that the ERRSTAT signal can enable several error cases at the same time. Following errors is detected and derived in the Error block: B0 = Injected voltage signal not found B1 = Injected current signal not found B2 = Voltage and current signal frequency differs B3 = Measured total RMS voltage too high B4 = Measured total RMS current too high B5 = Injected voltage signal too low B6 = Injected current signal too low B7 = External interference voltage detected

ERRSTAT = BitToInt[B7,,B1,B0] The priority of the error conditions that will be flagged out:

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Prio1 = B0, B1 Prio2 = B3, B4, B5, B6 Prio3 = B2, B7

6.5.5

Function block
ROTIPHIZ USU* USI* BLOCK ZREFSEL TRIP TRIPDC TRIPAC START STARTDC STARTAC ALARM ERROR ERRSTAT RAVE XAVE FREQU RFAULT ZREF ZREFRE ZREFIM URMSSTAT IEC10000297-2-en.vsd
IEC10000297 V1 EN

Figure 115:

ROTIPHIZ function block

6.5.6

Input and output signals


Table 112:
Name USU USI BLOCK ZREFSEL

ROTIPHIZ Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN INTEGER Default 0 1 Description Injected voltage signal Injected current signal (voltage over shunt) Block of function Reference impedance selection

Table 113:
Name TRIP TRIPDC TRIPAC START STARTDC STARTAC ALARM

ROTIPHIZ Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip (common AC and DC side of exciter) Trip for DC side of exciter Trip for AC side of exciter Start (common AC and DC side of exciter) Start for DC side of exciter Start for AC side of exciter Alarm

Table continues on next page 225 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection


Name ERROR ERRSTAT RAVE XAVE FREQU RFAULT ZREF ZREFRE ZREFIM URMSSTAT Type BOOLEAN INTEGER REAL REAL REAL REAL INTEGER REAL REAL BOOLEAN Description Error

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

b7=Interf,b6=I<,b5=U<,b4=IR>,b3=UR>,b2=F Diff,b1=NoI,b0=NoU Measured resistance to earth in Ohm at inj freq Measured reactance to earth in Ohm at inj freq Measured frequency of injected voltage into rotor Estimated fault resistance in Ohm Selected reference impedance number Used reference impedance real part in Ohm Used reference impedance imaginary part in Ohm RMS voltage status, TRUE when > ULimRMS

6.5.7
Table 114:
Name Operation RTrip RAlarm tAlarm FactACLim tTripAC ULimRMS

Setting parameters
ROTIPHIZ Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 100 - 100000 100 - 1000000 0.00 - 600.00 0.01 - 2.00 0.000 - 60.000 1 - 1000 Unit ohm ohm s s V Step 1 1 1.00 0.01 1.000 1 Default Off 1000 10000 30.00 0.25 10.000 100 Description Operation (On / Off) of function Trip limit of fault resistance in Ohm Alarm limit of fault resistance in Ohm Alarm time delay Scale factor for rotor earth fault on AC side of exciter Time delay for trip on AC side of exciter RMS voltage level

Table 115:
Name FreqInjected

ROTIPHIZ Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 75.000 - 250.000 Unit Hz Step 0.001 Default 113.000 Description Injected frequency

Table 116:
Name k1Real k1Imag k2Real k2Imag

ROTIPHIZ Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 Unit ohm ohm Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 10000.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Description Multiplication factor k1 for calibration, real part Multiplication factor k1 for calibration, imaginary part Addition factor k2 for calibration, real part in Ohm Addition factor k2 for calibration, imaginary part in Ohm

Table continues on next page

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Section 6 Impedance protection


Values (Range) 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 Unit ohm ohm ohm ohm Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 1000000.000 2000.000 1000000.000 2000.000 Description Reference resistance R1 in ohm Reference reactance X1 in ohm Reference resistance R2 in ohm Reference reactance X2 in ohm

Name RefR1 RefX1 RefR2 RefX2

Table 117:
Name FilterLength

ROTIPHIZ Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 1s 2s Unit Step Default 1s Description Length of filter buffer

6.5.8

Technical data
Table 118:
Function Fault resistance sensitivity

ROTIPHIZ technical data


Range or value Can be reached Typically Accuracy 500 k 50 k 0.1 Hz 5% of 1 k at Rf 1 k 5% of set value at 1 k < Rf 20 k 10% of set value at Rf > 20 k 5% of 1 k at Rf 1 k 5% of 10 k at 1 k < Rf 20 k 10% of set value at 20 k < Rf 200 k 0.5% 10 ms

Injection frequency Trip limit of fault resistance

(75.000 - 250.000) Hz (100 - 100000)

Alarm limit of fault resistance

(100 - 1000000)

Operate time, start Operate time, trip Alarm time delay

1.00 s typically 2.00 s typically (0.00 - 600.00) s

6.6

100% stator earth fault protection, injection based STTIPHIZ


Function description 100% stator earth fault protection, injection based IEC 61850 identification STTIPHIZ IEC 60617 identification Rse< ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 64S

227 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection 6.6.1 Introduction

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

The 100% stator earth-fault protection STTIPHIZ is used to detect earth faults in the stator windings of generators and motors. STTIPHIZ is applicable for generators connected to the power system through a unit transformer in a block connection. An independent signal with a certain frequency different from the generator rated frequency is injected into the stator circuit. The responce of this injected signal is used to detect stator earth faults. To implement the above concept, a separate injection box is required. The injection box generates a square wave voltage signal which for example can be fed into the secondary winding of the generator neutral point voltage transformer or grounding transformer. This signal propagates through this transformer into the stator circuit. The magnitude of the injected voltage signal is measured on the secondary side of the neutral point voltage transformer or grounding transformer. In addition, the resulting injected current is measured through a resistive shunt located within the injection box. These two measured values are fed to the IED. Based on these two measured quantities, the IED determines the stator winding resistance to ground. The resistance value is then compared with the preset fault resistance alarm and trip levels. The protection function can not only detect the earth fault at the generator star point, but also along the stator windings and at the generator terminals, including the connected components such as voltage transformers, circuit breakers, excitation transformer and so on. The measuring principle used is not influenced by the generator operating mode and is fully functional even with the generator at standstill. It is still required to have a standard 95% stator earth-fault protection, based on the neutral point fundamental frequency displacement voltage, operating in parallel with the 100% stator earth-fault protection function. Requires injection unit REX060 and optional shunt resistor unit REX062 for correct operation.

6.6.2

Principle of operation
The protection function is based on signal injection into a stator winding. These square wave signals are generated in a separate injection unit REX060. The injection signals are connected to the stator winding via: secondary winding of a voltage transformer (VT) located at the stator neutral point open delta winding of a three-phase VT set located at generator terminals secondary winding of a distribution transformer (DT) located at the stator neutral point; note that REX062 is typically required for such arrangement open delta winding of a three-phase grounding transformer (GT) located at generator terminals; note that REX062 is typically required for such arrangement

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Section 6 Impedance protection

In the REX060 unit the injection voltage and current signals are amplified to a level adapted to the analogue voltage inputs of IED. In IED the measured signals are processed and evaluation will give detection of stator faults.

6.6.2.1

Configuration principle
Figure 116 shows a typical installation for stator injection.
10 4
Step-up Transformer

U>

Uinj
Rshunt

1 5

~
6

Generator

100% SEF

I
RN

REX060/SIM module

8 3

95 % SEF

REG670
IEC11000067 V1 EN

Generator Protection Panel

IEC11000067-2-en.vsd

Figure 116:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Example installation for stator injection

Generator unit consisting of a synchronous generator and a step-up transformer Grounding resistor for the stator winding Neutral point VT which is used as injection point and also to provide galvanic separation between primary circuit and injection equipment Cable used to inject the square-wave signal into the stator circuit Connection for measurement of injected current. This signal is amplified in REX060 before it is given to REG670 for evaluation. Cable for measurement of injected voltage at the injection point. This signal is amplified in REX060 before it is given to REG670 for evaluation. Two VT inputs into REG670 which are used to measure injected current and voltage Cable for 95% stator earth-fault protection Separate VT input in REG670 used for 95% stator earth-fault protection Protection for excessive over-voltages posed by generator. REX060 can withstand without damage maximum voltage of 120V and when used together with REX062 up to 240V.

229 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection


The injection unit REX060
IED and Injection connectors Top view Power connector X11 Back view

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Front view Keylock LED

1 5

X61

X81

Injection Stator

Injection Rotor

18

PSM

X62

18

1 5

X82

Power

Stator

Backplane HMI with logic Front-plate

Rotor

Injection LED

Injection switch

IEC11000015-1-en.vsd
IEC11000015 V1 EN

Figure 117:

Injection unit REX060

The REX060 unit is a common unit that can be equipped for either rotor or stator earth fault protection, or for both. The REX060 has specific injection modules for rotor and stator protection. The REX060 generates square wave signals, where one is used for injection to the stator neutral point and the other to the field winding circuit (rotor circuit), if configured for both stator and rotor protection. The injected voltages and currents are measured by the unit and amplified, giving voltage signals both for the injected voltage and current, and adapted to the analogue inputs of IED. The injection unit REX060 shall be located close to the IED. For the stator earth fault protection, there are some settings necessary for REX060: System frequency: 50/60 Hz Injected frequency for stator neutral point is settable in 1 Hz steps 50 250 Hz. VT/DT maximum fundamental frequency voltage during earth fault in the stator winding

REX060 will also continuously check the measured signal for detection of saturation which could cause error in the evaluation in IED. If saturation level is reached, a binary output contact is activated, which is connected to IED. Also other errors in injection will activate another output contact to IED for blocking the function. Stator injection output is protected against voltages exceeding maximum operating range (10% of rated VT/DT) by a relay blocking the injection circuit. This blocking remains blocked by stored status in non-volatile memory. Note REX060 is designed to cope with such voltages of up to 120V. When optional REX062 resistor unit is used, REX060 can cope with voltages of up to 240V at injection point. The output is also protected by a fuse. If this fuse is blown, it is caused by external voltage source, since the injection unit cannot provide enough energy to blow this fuse.
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Section 6 Impedance protection

Refer to the Hardware section in this manual for a detailed description of REX060.

6.6.2.2

Generator system earthing methods


There are several principles for system earthing of synchronous generators. The choice of earthing method depends on different factors: Limitation of earth fault current at stator earth fault Damping of transient overvoltages in the generator system Required insulation level to withstand overvoltage in healthy phases at single phase earth fault or Y coupled stator windings Connection of a single generator via a step up transformer or connection of more than one generator via a common step up transformer

Normally the generator system has some kind of high resistance earthing, giving earth fault current within the range 5 20 A, thus preventing serious damages in case of stator earth faults. Direct earthing will give too high earth fault current level. Isolated generator system will give risk of transient overvoltages. Below some alternatives for generator system earthing are shown;

A
IEC11000066 V1 EN

C
IEC110000066-1-en.vsd

Figure 118:
A B C

Generator earthing alternatives

High-resistance earthing with a neutral point resistor Effective high-resistance earthing via a distribution transformer High-resistance earthing via a delta, grounded-wye transformer

These earthing alternatives are characterized by the following properties:


231 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

A: High-resistance earthing with a neutral point resistor This earthing method utilizes a high resistance in the primary circuit by inserting resistor RN between the generator neutral and the ground. The actual resistance value of RN is generally in order of k. Such high resistance is required in order to limit the primary earth fault current to a quite small value (i.e. always < 20A and quite often < 10A primary). Actual primary earth fault current can be calculated as follows:
= U
G _ Ph - Ph

EF_Max

3 RN

EQUATION2515 V1 EN

where:

RN UG_Ph-Ph

is the ohmic value of the primary resistor is the protected generator rated phase-to-phase voltage

Typically a VT is connected in parallel with this resistor in order to measure voltage in the stator neutral point. This VT typically has rating around 100VA and rated secondary winding voltage of up to 120V. Note that maximum voltage on the secondary side of this VT for an earth fault at generator terminals can be calculated as follows:

U EF_Max =
EQUATION2516 V1 EN

U G _ Ph - Ph 3

U2 U1

where:

U2/U1 UG_Ph-Ph

is the turn (i.e. rated voltage) ratio of the VT is the protected generator rated phase to phase voltage

B: Effective high-resistance earthing via a distribution transformer This earthing method utilizes a distribution transformer that provides high resistance in the primary circuit by utilizing a small resistor RN connected to the secondary winding of the distribution transformer. The primary winding of the distribution transformer is connected between the generator neutral and ground. The actual resistance value RN is generally extremely small (i.e. typically < 1); however, the imposed ohmic value to the primary circuit becomes quite high (i.e. in the order of k). The equivalent resistance in the primary circuit can be calculated as follows:

232 Technical reference manual

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Section 6 Impedance protection

U1 REq = RN U2
EQUATION2517 V1 EN

where:

U1/U2 RN

is the turn (i.e. rated voltage) ratio of the distribution transformer is the ohmic value of the resistor connected to the secondary winding

The distribution transformer typically has rating of several kVA (e.g. 33kVA) and rated secondary winding voltage of up to 240V. Note that maximum voltage on the secondary side of the distribution transformer for an earth fault at generator terminals can be calculated as follows:

U EF_Max =
EQUATION2516 V1 EN

U G _ Ph - Ph 3

U2 U1

where:

U2/U1 UG_Ph-Ph

is the turn (i.e. rated voltage) ratio of the distribution transformer is the protected generator rated phase to phase voltage

Note that in case of an earth fault in the stator, the secondary current through the RN resistor will be often in order of couple of hundred amperes. This maximum secondary current can be calculated as follows:

I EF _ Sec =
EQUATION2518 V1 EN

U EF _ Max RN

C: High-resistance earthing via a delta, grounded-wye transformer This earthing method utilizes a specially constructed three-phase, five-limb power transformer that provides high resistance in the primary circuit by utilizing a relatively small resistor RN connected to the secondary open-delta connected windings. The primary windings of this transformer is star (i.e. wye) connected and this neutral point is directly connected to ground. The actual resistance value RN is relatively small (i.e. typically < 5); however, the imposed ohmic value to the primary circuit becomes quite high (i.e. in the order of k). The equivalent resistance in the primary circuit can be calculated as follows:

233 Technical reference manual

Section 6 Impedance protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

U1 REq = RN 3 U 2
EQUATION2519 V1 EN

where:

U1/U2

is the turn (i.e. rated voltage) ratio of one phase of the power transformer, e.g.
8 kV 3 500V 3
EQUATION2521 V1 EN

RN

is the ohmic value of a resistor connected to the secondary open-delta windings

The three-phase power transformer typically has rating of several tens of kVA (e.g. 129kVA) and rated secondary winding voltage of up to 550V. Note that maximum voltage across secondary resistor RN for an earth fault at generator terminals can be calculated as follows:

U EF_Max =
EQUATION2520 V1 EN

3 U G _ Ph - Ph

U2 U1

where:

U2/U1

is the turn (i.e. rated voltage) ratio of one phase of the power transformer, e.g.
500V 3 8 kV 3
EQUATION2522 V1 EN

UG_Ph-Ph

is the protected generator rated phase to phase voltage

Note that in case of an earth fault in the stator, the secondary current through the RN resistor will be often in order of couple of hundred amperes. This maximum secondary current can be calculated as follows:

I EF _ Sec =
EQUATION2518 V1 EN

U EF _ Max RN

For all the alternatives the 100% stator earth fault protection can be applied.

234 Technical reference manual

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Section 6 Impedance protection


100% Stator earth fault protection function
The injection to the stator is schematically shown in figure 119. It should be observed that in this figure injection equivalent circuit is also shown with all impedances and injection generator related to the primary side of the neutral point voltage transformer. Points a & b indicate connection terminals for the injection equipment. Similar equivalent circuit can be drawn for all other types of generator stator earthing shown in latter figures.

6.6.2.3

Z Bare Z Measured
Z series Cstat R fault Iinj

a
UN

+ Uinj -

Rf

Cstat

RN

ZmT

b
Iinj + RN Uinj Stator Reference Impedance ZRef

b
IEC11000008-4-en.vsd

IEC11000008 V1 EN

Figure 119:

High-resistance generator earthing with a neutral point resistor

There are some alternatives for connection of the neutral point resistor as shown in figure 120 (low voltage neutral point resistor connected via a DT).

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Cstat

Iinj + RN Uinj -

b
IEC11000009-2-en.vsd
IEC11000009 V1 EN

Figure 120:

Effective high-resistance generator earthing via a distribution transformer

Another alternative is shown in figure 121 (High-resistance earthing via a delta, grounded-wye transformer). In this case the transformer must withstand the large secondary current caused by primary earth fault. The resistor typically has to be divided as shown in figure 121 to limit the voltage to the injection equipment in case of earth fault at the generator terminal. This voltage is often in the range 400 500 V. As the open delta connection gives three times the zero sequence phase voltage this gives too high voltage at the injection point if the resistance is not divided as shown in the figure 121 . By dividing the resistor in two parts it shall be ensured that maximum voltage imposed back on injection equipment is equal to or less than 240V.

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I inj RN C stat + U inj -

IEC11000010-3-en.vsd
IEC11000010 V1 EN

Figure 121:

High-resistance generator earthing via a delta, grounded-wye transformer

It is also possible to make the injection via VT open delta connection, as shown in figure 122.

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U1 / U2 Y Y

Y
I inj + Rd U a

inj

C
stat

U1 R d >> R N U2

RN

IEC11000011-3-en.vsd

IEC11000011 V1 EN

Figure 122:

Injection via open delta VT connection

It must be observed that the resistor Rd is normally applied for ferro-resonance damping. The resistance Rd is will have very little contribution to the earth fault current as it has high resistance. This injection principle can be used for applications with various generator system earthing methods. It is therefore

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recommended to make the injection via the open delta VT on the terminal side in most applications. Accuracy for STTIPHIZ is installation dependent and it mainly depends on the characteristic of grounding or voltage transformer used to inject signal into the stator. Note that large variation of the ambient temperature and variation of stator capacitance and conductance to ground between standstill and fully loaded machine will also limit the possible setting level for the alarm stage. As a consequence 10 k sensitivity can be typically reached without problem. Depending on particular installation alarm sensitivity of up to 50 k may be reached at steady state operating condition of the machine. Note that it is possible to connect two REG670 in parallel to the REX060 injection unit in order to obtain redundant measurement in two separate IEDs. However, at commissioning both REG670 IEDs must be connected during calibration procedure.

6.6.2.4

General measurement of earth fault impedance


From the REX060 the injected voltage and current are delivered as AC voltages to IED. The injected voltage and current is measured and analyzed in the protection function software within IED. The measured injected voltage and current are first processed by means of special filtering so that the signals are referred to the injected frequency only. The bare complex impedance is, see fig 119:

Z bare =

U Inj I Inj

EQUATION2500 V1 EN

An equivalent circuit for the measured impedance is shown in figure 110.

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ZMeasured

ZBare Z series Iinj +

Rf

Z shunt

Uinj -

IEC11000003-2-en.vsd
IEC11000003 V1 EN

Figure 123:

Equivalent of the impedance measurement

In non-faulted operation Rf is very large. A healthy impedance is calculated as:

Z Measured = k1 Z bare + k 2
EQUATION2501 V1 EN

For definition of k1 and k2, see figure 111 The factors k1 and k2 [] are derived from measurements during commissioning, where calibration to known fault resistance will be used to convert the measurement to true primary impedance. The factor k1 will compensate for transformer ratio and other factors to achieve impedance values related to the primary system. The factor k2 [] will compensate for the series impedance Zseries The healthy impedance measured at non-faulted conditions is referred to as the reference impedance in further text. In IED the measured impedance is compared to the reference impedance. In case of an earth fault, the fault impedance is estimated and compared to the set values RAlarm and RTrip. If the measured impedance is larger than the setting openCircuitLimit, the output OPCIRC is set TRUE. If OPCIRC is set, it means there is a strong likelihood that the generator neutral resistor is not anymore connected to ground, since only the capacitive part in the circuit is left. The open circuit is only applied on the stator winding protection. To make the open circuit limit more stable a hysteresis is added. If OPCIRC is TRUE, the measured fault impedance must drop below open circuit limit * (1 - OpenCircLim) to reset. The hysteresis is hidden and set to a default value of 10% of open Circuit limit for the stator.

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Open- circuit characteristics


no open - circuit open- circuit

Open Circuit Hysteresis

{Z

Measured

} re

openCircuitLimit
IEC11000073-1-en.vsd
IEC11000073 V1 EN

Figure 124:

Open circuit characteristics

Blocking: The output OPCIRC is blocked during an error occurring and during initialization of function. Detailed Set: If the total measured real part of the impedance is greater than the setting OpenCircLim the output OPCIRC is TRUE, see figure 110.

6.6.2.5

Measuring reference impedance


The healthy impedance is equal to the parallel connection of the neutral point resistor (RN), the capacitive reactance between the stator windings and earth (1/ Cstat), the transformer magnetization impedance (ZmT) and the earth fault resistance (Rf). The series resistance in the injection circuit is eliminated by k2. Rf is very large in the non-faulted case and the measured impedance is equal to the stator reference impedance:

1 Z ref

1 RN

+ jw C stat +

1 Z mT

EQUATION2502 V1 EN

Where

w = 2p finj
EQUATION2503 V1 EN

The injected frequency finj of the square wave, is a set value, deviating from the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The injected frequency can be set within the range 50 250 Hz with recommend value 87 Hz in 50 Hz systems and 103 Hz in 60 Hz systems. The reference impedance can vary depending on the operational state. The reason for this can be the following:

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The influence from the impedance ZmT will be different when the generator is stand-still and when it is in operation The capacitance to earth will vary if the generator breaker is open or closed The capacitance will vary if the generator is energized or not depending on stator end winding corona protection Non-linearity of used injection transformer, different properties at low and high total voltage and temperature changes Impedance to ground is affected by auxiliary loads connected between generator and unit transformer. If these loads vary, the estimated earth fault resistance will be affected.

The difference from the first reference impedance is identified by monitoring impedance (RAVE + jXRAVE) during different operation modes. This impedance is available as a service value from the stator function both on built-in HMI and in ICT tool. If the difference is significant more than one reference impedance is required. In the ICT up to five different sets of reference impedances can be derived during commissioning for different states of operation and downloaded to the protection function as different values of the reference impedance; RefRn and RefXn where n = 1, 2, and up to 5. Switching of reference impedance can be made automatically. During commissioning ICT also makes cross-calculations between acquired references, giving basically the calculated fault resistance between each existing reference combination. This would be the fault resistance measured by the function when the reference change occurs from one reference to another if the real generator impedance stays the same, in other words a worst case scenario. RMS voltage (rmsVolt) value at the injection point can be used for detecting when a reference needs to be changed and logical outputs can be set to reflect whether the RMS voltage is higher or lower than a prescribed value. There is one such output for the voltage signal and one for the current signal. It is advantageous to use RMS to determine a change of machine condition because the RMS makes a distinction between the measured values and the total amplitude of the signal. The standstill condition only contains the injected frequency, while the full load condition and full speed condition contains other frequencies, which amplitudes may change under varying machine conditions. In case of a stator earth fault with fault impedance Zf the measured admittance will be:

1 Z

1 Z ref

1 Zf

EQUATION2513 V1 EN

and this gives:

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Section 6 Impedance protection

1 Zf

1 Z

1 Z ref

EQUATION2514 V1 EN

and the real part gives the fault conductance:


1 1 1 = Re Rf Z Z ref
EQUATION2421 V1 EN

In the settings there are given two resistance levels: RAlarm given in . If

R f < RAlarm
EQUATION2524 V1 EN

an alarm signal ALARM is given after a set delay tAlarm. RTrip given in . If

R f < RTrip
EQUATION2523 V1 EN

a start signal START is given. If the fault resistance is slightly below the set value RTrip the trip time will be about 10 s with default filter length of 1 s. If the fault resistance is estimated to 0 the trip delay will be 2 s with default filter length of 1 s. For values in between the delay will follow linear interpolation describing the fault resistance time relation, as shown in figure 125. Note that actual tripping time is dependent on the set parameter FilterLength which has default value of 1s.

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Trip time

10 FilterLength

2 FilterLength

Fault resistance

RTrip
IEC11000002 V1 EN

RAlarm
IEC11000002-1-en.vsd

Figure 125:

Trip time characteristic as function of fault resistance

During run-up and shut down of the generator, i.e. when the rotational speed of the generator changes, there will occur harmonic voltages with varying frequency at the injection equipment connection point (for example see voltage generator Un in Figure 119). If such frequencies interfere with the injected frequency this might create an error in the fault resistance estimation. Such situations are identified in the function and the function is automatically stabilized to prevent unwanted operation of the protection. In connection with this calibration the reference impedance is also derived. It is possible to have up to five different reference impedances. The need to change reference impedance is due to different operating conditions for the generator, for instance: 1. 2. 3. Generator stand still Generator running, not synchronized to the power network Generator in normal operation, synchronized to the power network

The following automatic choice for the actual reference impedance can for example be made:

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Generator voltage < set value and generator circuit breaker open: Reference impedance 1 Generator voltage > set value and generator circuit breaker open: Reference impedance 2 Generator voltage > set value and generator circuit breaker closed: Reference impedance 3

The monitoring, enabled in ICT, will give indication if several reference impedance values are needed. From the measured impedance the stator earth fault resistance can be estimated since the reference impedance is known. An alarm level () is set at a higher value and the ALARM signal is activated after a set alarm delay time. A trip level () is also set at a lower value. When the trip level is reached a TRIP signal is activated as shown in figure 125.

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6.6.2.6 Simplified logic diagram
STTIPHIZ

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Uinj
Rshunt

2 6 5 4 3

I Inj
Rf

u_i_sef

Z Measured
Compare & Evaluate

Z Bare
S
X K2 ZRef1 ZRef2 ZRef3 ZRef4 ZRef5 K1

I
U Inj
u_u_sef

REX060

SELECT REFERENCE

95% Trip

tON=0.5s t

a a>b b

UN

un

UN> = 5%

REG670
IEC10000325 V1 EN

95% Stator earth fault protection


IEC10000325-2-en.vsd

Figure 126:
1 2

Simplified logic diagram for 100% stator earth fault protection STTIPHIZ

The 100% stator earth fault protection function receives amplified injected voltage and current via the REX060 unit as two voltage signals. (Voltage inputs in the REG670). The phasor of injected voltage UInj and phasor of injected current IInj is calculated by using special filter from raw samples. Observe that phasors are calculated for the injected frequency. The complex bare impedance is calculated from Uinj / Iinj. The complex measured impedance is derived as ZMeasured = Zbare*k1 + k2. The fault resistance (RFault) is calculated from the complex measured impedance and a selected complex reference. Selection of one (out of maximum 5) ZRef. Fourier filter to derive the phasor of zero sequence voltage at fundamental frequency The 95% stator earth fault zero sequence over voltage function must operate in parallel with STTIPHIZ.

3 4, 5 6 7 8 9

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Rf

a b

tAlarm a<b t
OR

ALARM

RAlarm

a b

a<b

TRIP

RTrip

IEC10000326-2-en.vsd
IEC10000326 V1 EN

Figure 127:

STTIPHIZ alarm and trip logic

If the fault impedance Rf is smaller than RAlarm and last longer than set alarm delay (using delay-on), output ALARM is set. If the fault impedance Rf is smaller than RTrip, output signal TRIP is set after the calculated time. For trip time delay, see fig 125

6.6.2.7

The commissioning tool ICT


The 100% earth fault protection function in REG670 require a number of settings. The settings k1, k2 and the reference impedance require measurements made on the generator and protection set-up. This has to be done during commissioning of the protection. The factors are derived in connection to calibration measurements during commissioning. In connection with this calibration also the reference impedance is derived. To do this the ICT tool (Injection Commissioning Tool) has to be used. This tool is an integrated part of the PCM600 tool. Further more, ICT also helps the commissioning engineer to perform successful installation trough its validating capabilities. Underneath the shell, during installation, commissioning and calibration, ICT performs various tests using signal analysis, to verify that the installation itself is acceptable and calibration has been performed in the right manner. Besides carrying out the actual tests, ICT also gives the commissioning engineer tips if possible issues may occur during the commissioning stage. When ICT is started, 100% stator earth fault protection is chosen for the commissioning of this function.
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There are five different parts that needs to be performed using the ICT tool: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Installing Calibrating Commissioning Monitoring Auditing

Installing The injection is started and level of injected voltage and current is checked if they are within the permissible range. If not the settings of the injection unit REX060 must be adjusted. Also the injection frequency is checked and stored for use in ICT and in IED. Calibration The calibration is based on three measurement sessions:
Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Injection is made to the non-faulted generator and the measured complex impedance is stored. A resistor with known resistance is connected between the primary object (stator circuit). Injection is made to the generator and the measured complex impedance is stored. The primary object (stator circuit) is directly short circuited to earth. Injection is made to the generator and the measured complex impedance is stored.

The sequence of the calibration session follows a scheme shown in the tool. After the three measurements ICT calculates the complex factors k1 and k2. The first reference impedance RefR1 + jRefX1 is also calculated. After this the values are downloaded to the parameter setting part of the PCM600 tool. From PCM600 the setting can be downloaded to IED. It is important to save the settings after download to IED, otherwise the ICT cannot perform the correct calculations. ICT compares settings in PCM600 and IED each time a measurement is started, if these are not equal, no measurement should be made. During the three measurements described above a check is made that there are sufficient changes in the measured impedance in order to guarantee that the function is capable of detecting a fault in the actual installation. Now the reference impedance is derived for one operational state. It might be reasonable to make measurements to derive reference impedance for other operational cases. This is done under the point Commissioning described below. Commissioning There is a possibility to have up to five different reference impedances. The need to change reference impedance is different operating conditions for the generator:

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Section 6 Impedance protection

Generator stand still Generator running up, not synchronized to the network Generator normal operation

Comment: The capacitance will change when switching in breaker between step-up transformer and generator. It might therefore be necessary to find reference impedances for different operation states. In the commissioning part of ICT this can be done. For each operation state of interest a measurement is performed. If the reference impedance differs from the first one, calculated under the calibration session, the new reference impedance is stored by the command; Submit to Parameter setting. It is possible to derive up to 5 different reference impedances to be used at different operation states of the generator. Neutral point RMS voltage (rmsVolt) can be used for detecting when a reference needs to be changed and logical outputs can be set to reflect whether the RMS voltage is higher or lower than a prescribed value. There is one such output for the voltage signal and one for the current signal If more than one reference impedance is to be used there must be logics configured to detect changes in operation states where the reference impedance shall be changed. Further, the monitoring part should be consulted if the sensitivity to earth faults is to be set at the highest possible value as this depends on the properties of the individual site. Monitoring In the monitoring part the calibration can be checked. It is also possible to identify operational states where change of reference impedances is required. Auditing In the auditing part reports from calibration and commissioning are made.

6.6.3

Description of input signals


The inputs to the 100% stator earth fault protection function block are as shown in the table.

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Table 119:
Input signal USU

Description of various inputs


Description The measured injection voltage. This signal is taken from a pre-processor block, the AI output. The analog voltage input AI1 is linked to the phase L1 in the pre-processor block in the Signal Matrix tool. The measured injection current. This signal is taken from a pre-processor block, the AI output. In the pre-configured version, the analog voltage input AI2 is linked to the phase L2 in the pre-processor block in the Signal Matrix tool. Input to block the function The selection of any of the pre-defined reference impedances. The reference impedance can differ, for example, with the generator breaker open or closed. Therefore, there is a possibility to change from one set reference impedance to another. Five different reference impedances are available.

USI

BLOCK ZREFSEL

6.6.4

Description of output signals


The outputs of the 100% stator earth fault protection function block are as shown in the table.
Table 120:
Output signal TRIP START ALARM OPCIRC ERROR ERRSTAT RAVE XAVE FREQU RFAULT ZREF ZREFRE ZREFIM URMSSTAT IRMSSTAT

Description of various outputs


Description Trip command signal Signal activated, if the calculated fault resistance gets lower than the set level Signal activated after a set time delay, if the calculated fault resistance gets lower than the set alarm level Signal indicating open stator injection circuit (interruption) Error signal which is boolean with values 0 and 1 Status coded signal giving type of error. See below table Measured stator resistance to earth in at an injected frequency (real part of the complex impedance) Measured stator reactance to earth in at the injected frequency (imaginary part of the complex impedance) Measured frequency of the injected voltage Estimated fault resistance in Selected reference impedance number The real part (resistance) of the used reference impedance The imaginary part (reactance) of the used reference impedance This signal is set true, if the measured RMS voltage is larger than the set limit ULimRMS This signal is set true, if the measured RMS current is larger than the set limit ILimRMS

ERRSTAT output signal Convert the integer output signal to binary and see table below for interpretation of individual bits:

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Table 121:
Priority 3 Bit 7 Interference detected

Definition of errors
ERRSTAT output integer Priority 2 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Undervoltage Overcurrent Overvoltage Priority 3 Bit 2 Frequency difference Priority 1 Bit 1 Bit 0 No current No voltage

Bit 6 Undercurrent

The ERRSTAT description will be shown in clear text in ICT. The priority of the signals is set that the group priority 1 overrides the group priority 2 and 3, and priority 2 overrides priority 3. Note that the ERRSTAT signal can enable several error cases at the same time. Following errors is detected and derived in the Error block: B0 = Injected voltage signal not found B1 = Injected current signal not found B2 = Voltage and current signal frequency differs B3 = Measured total RMS voltage too high B4 = Measured total RMS current too high B5 = Injected voltage signal too low B6 = Injected current signal too low B7 = External interference voltage detected

ERRSTAT = BitToInt[B7,,B1,B0] The priority of the error conditions that will be flagged out: Prio1 = B0, B1 Prio2 = B3, B4, B5, B6 Prio3 = B2, B7

6.6.5

Function block
STTIPHIZ USU* USI* BLOCK ZREFSEL TRIP START ALARM OPCIRC ERROR ERRSTAT RAVE XAVE FREQU RFAULT ZREF ZREFRE ZREFIM URMSSTAT

IEC10000298-2-en.vsd
IEC10000298 V1 EN

Figure 128:

STTIPHIZ function block


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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.6.6 Input and Output signals


Table 122:
Name USU USI BLOCK ZREFSEL

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

STTIPHIZ Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN INTEGER Default 0 1 Description Injected voltage signal Injected current signal (voltage over shunt) Block of function Reference impedance selection

Table 123:
Name TRIP START ALARM OPCIRC ERROR ERRSTAT RAVE XAVE FREQU RFAULT ZREF ZREFRE ZREFIM URMSSTAT

STTIPHIZ Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER REAL REAL REAL REAL INTEGER REAL REAL BOOLEAN Description Trip Start Alarm Injection circuit open Error b7=Interf,b6=I<,b5=U<,b4=IR>,b3=UR>,b2=F Diff,b1=NoI,b0=NoU Measured resistance to earth in Ohm at inj freq Measured reactance to earth in Ohm at inj freq Measured frequency of injected voltage into stator Estimated fault resistance in Ohm Selected reference impedance number Used reference impedance real part in Ohm Used reference impedance imaginary part in Ohm RMS voltage status, TRUE when > ULimRMS

6.6.7
Table 124:
Name Operation RTrip RAlarm tAlarm OpenCircLim ULimRMS

Setting parameters
STTIPHIZ Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 100 - 10000 100 - 100000 0.00 - 600.00 100 - 10000000 1 - 1000 Unit ohm ohm s ohm V Step 1 1 1.00 1 1 Default Off 1000 5000 30.00 10000000 100 Description Operation (On / Off) of function Trip limit of fault resistance in Ohm Alarm limit of fault resistance in Ohm Alarm time delay Open circuit limit in Ohm RMS voltage level

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Table 125:
Name FreqInjected

STTIPHIZ Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 50.000 - 250.000 Unit Hz Step 0.001 Default 87.000 Description Injected frequency

Table 126:
Name k1Real k1Imag k2Real k2Imag RefR1 RefX1 RefR2 RefX2 RefR3 RefX3 RefR4 RefX4 RefR5 RefX5

STTIPHIZ Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 -10000000000.000 - 10000000000.000 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 0.001 1000000000.000 -1000000.000 1000000.000 Unit ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm ohm Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 10000.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1000.000 2000.000 1000.000 2000.000 1000.000 2000.000 1000.000 2000.000 1000.000 2000.000 Description Multiplication factor k1 for calibration, real part Multiplication factor k1 for calibration, imaginary part Addition factor k2 for calibration, real part in Ohm Addition factor k2 for calibration, imaginary part in Ohm Reference resistance R1 in ohm Reference reactance X1 in ohm Reference resistance R2 in ohm Reference reactance X2 in ohm Reference resistance R3 in ohm Reference reactance X3 in ohm Reference resistance R4 in ohm Reference reactance X4 in ohm Reference resistance R5 in ohm Reference reactance X5 in ohm

Table 127:
Name FilterLength

STTIPHIZ Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 1s 2s Unit Step Default 1s Description Length of filter buffer

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Section 6 Impedance protection 6.6.8 Technical data


Table 128:
Function Fault resistance sensitivity

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

STTIPHIZ technical data


Range or value Can be reached at steady state operating condition of the machine Typically Accuracy 50 k

10 k 0.1 Hz 5% of 1 k at Rf 1 k 10% of set value at Rf > 1 k 5% of 1 k at Rf 1 k 10% of 10 k at 1 k < Rf 10 k 50% of set value at Rf > 10 k 0.5% 10 ms

Injection frequency Trip limit of fault resistance Alarm limit of fault resistance

(50.000 - 250.000) Hz (100 - 10000) (100 - 100000)

Operate time, start Operate time, trip Alarm time delay

1.00 s typically 2.00 s typically (0.00 - 600.00) s

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Section 7 Current protection

Section 7

Current protection

About this chapter


This chapter describes current protection functions. These include functions like Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection, Four step phase overcurrent protection, Pole discordance protection and Residual overcurrent protection.

7.1

Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3phase output PHPIOC


Function description Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output IEC 61850 identification PHPIOC IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 50

3I>>
SYMBOL-Z V1 EN

7.1.1

Introduction
The instantaneous three phase overcurrent function has a low transient overreach and short tripping time to allow use as a high set short-circuit protection function.

7.1.2

Principle of operation
The sampled analogue phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter (DFT) block. The RMS value of each phase current is derived from the fundamental frequency components, as well as sampled values of each phase current. These phase current values are fed to the instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output function PHPIOC. In a comparator the RMS values are compared to the set operation current value of the function (IP>>). If a phase current is larger than the set operation current a signal from the comparator for this phase is set to true. This signal will, without delay, activate the output signal TRLn (n=1,2,3) for this phase and the TRIP signal that is common for all three phases. There is an operation mode (OpMode) setting: 1 out of 3 or 2 out of 3. If the parameter is set to 1 out of 3 any phase trip signal will be activated. If the parameter is set to 2 out of 3 at least two phase signals must be activated for trip.

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There is also a possibility to activate a preset change of the set operation current (StValMult) via a binary input (ENMULT). In some applications the operation value needs to be changed, for example due to transformer inrush currents. PHPIOC can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK.

7.1.3

Function block
PHPIOC I3P* BLOCK ENMULT TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 IEC04000391-2-en.vsd
IEC04000391 V2 EN

Figure 129:

PHPIOC function block

7.1.4

Input and output signals


Table 129:
Name I3P BLOCK ENMULT

PHPIOC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 Description Three phase current Block of function Enable current start value multiplier

Table 130:
Name TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3

PHPIOC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip signal from any phase Trip signal from phase L1 Trip signal from phase L2 Trip signal from phase L3

7.1.5
Table 131:
Name Operation IBase OpMode IP>>

Setting parameters
PHPIOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 2 out of 3 1 out of 3 1 - 2500 Unit A %IB Step 1 1 Default Off 3000 1 out of 3 200 Description Operation Off / On Base current Select operation mode 2-out of 3 / 1-out of 3 Operate phase current level in % of IBase

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Table 132:
Name StValMult

PHPIOC Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.5 - 5.0 Unit Step 0.1 Default 1.0 Description Multiplier for operate current level

7.1.6

Technical data
Table 133:
Function Operate current Reset ratio Operate time Reset time Critical impulse time Operate time Reset time Critical impulse time Dynamic overreach

PHPIOC technical data


Range or value (1-2500)% of lBase > 95% 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset 35 ms typically at 10 to 0 x Iset 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset < 5% at t = 100 ms Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir -

7.2

Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC


Function description Four step phase overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification OC4PTOC
4 4

IEC 60617 identification


3I> alt

ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 51/67

TOC-REVA V1 EN

7.2.1

Introduction
The four step phase overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC has an inverse or definite time delay independent for step 1 and 4 separately. Step 2 and 3 are always definite time delayed. All IEC and ANSI inverse time characteristics are available together with an optional user defined time characteristic. The directional function is voltage polarized with memory. The function can be set to be directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps. A 2nd harmonic blocking can be set individually for each step.
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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

The Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC is divided into four different sub-functions, one for each step. For each step x , where x is step 1, 2, 3 and 4, an operation mode is set by DirModex: Off/Non-directional/Forward/ Reverse. The protection design can be decomposed in four parts: The direction element The harmonic Restraint Blocking function The four step over current function The mode selection If VT inputs are not available or not connected, setting parameter DirModex shall be left to default value, Non-directional.

faultState I3P U3P

Direction Element

dirPh1Flt dirPh2Flt dirPh3Flt

4 step over current element One element for each step

faultState

START

TRIP

I3P

Harmonic Restraint Element

harmRestrBlock

enableDir Mode Selection enableStep1-4 DirectionalMode1-4

en05000740.vsd
IEC05000740 V1 EN

Figure 130:

Functional overview of OC4PTOC

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Section 7 Current protection

A common setting for all steps, StartPhSel, is used to specify the number of phase currents to be high to enable operation. The settings can be chosen: 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3. The sampled analogue phase currents are processed in a pre-processing function block. Using a parameter setting MeasType within the general settings for the four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output function OC4PTOC, it is possible to select the type of the measurement used for all overcurrent stages. It is possible to select either discrete Fourier filter (DFT) or true RMS filter (RMS). If DFT option is selected then only the RMS value of the fundamental frequency components of each phase current is derived. Influence of DC current component and higher harmonic current components are almost completely suppressed. If RMS option is selected then the true RMS values is used. The true RMS value in addition to the fundamental frequency component includes the contribution from the current DC component as well as from higher current harmonic. The selected current values are fed to OC4PTOC. In a comparator, for each phase current, the DFT or RMS values are compared to the set operation current value of the function (I1>, I2>, I3> or I4>). If a phase current is larger than the set operation current, outputs START, STx, STL1, STL2 and STL3 are, without delay, activated. Output signals STL1, STL2 and STL3 are common for all steps. This means that the lowest set step will initiate the activation. The START signal is common for all three phases and all steps. It shall be noted that the selection of measured value (DFT or RMS) do not influence the operation of directional part of OC4PTOC. Service value for individually measured phase currents are also available on the local HMI for OC4PTOC function, which simplifies testing, commissioning and in service operational checking of the function. A harmonic restrain of the function can be chosen. A set 2nd harmonic current in relation to the fundamental current is used. The 2nd harmonic current is taken from the pre-processing of the phase currents and the relation is compared to a set restrain current level. The function can be directional. The direction of the fault current is given as current angle in relation to the voltage angle. The fault current and fault voltage for the directional function is dependent of the fault type. To enable directional measurement at close in faults, causing low measured voltage, the polarization voltage is a combination of the apparent voltage (85%) and a memory voltage (15%). The following combinations are used.
Phase-phase short circuit:

U refL1L 2 = U L1 - U L 2
EQUATION1449 V1 EN

I dirL1L 2 = I L1 - I L 2
(Equation 52)

U refL 2 L 3 = U L 2 - U L 3
EQUATION1450 V1 EN

I dirL 2 L 3 = I L 2 - I L 3
(Equation 53)

Table continues on next page 259 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

U refL 3 L1 = U L 3 - U L1
EQUATION1451 V1 EN

I dirL 3 L1 = I L 3 - I L1
(Equation 54)

Phase-earth short circuit:

U refL1 = U L1
EQUATION1452 V1 EN

I dirL1 = I L1
(Equation 55)

U refL 2 = U L 2
EQUATION1453 V1 EN

I dirL 2 = I L 2
(Equation 56)

U refL 3 = U L 3
EQUATION1454 V1 EN

I dirL 3 = I L 3
(Equation 57)

The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds 4% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. For close-in three-phase faults, the U1L1M memory voltage, based on the same positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination. The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. After 100 ms, the following occurs: If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current (between 10 and 30% of the set terminal rated current IBase), the condition seals in. If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation.

If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.

The directional setting is given as a characteristic angle AngleRCA for the function and an angle window AngleROA.

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Section 7 Current protection

Reverse

Uref RCA

ROA

ROA

Forward

Idir

en05000745.vsd
IEC05000745 V1 EN

Figure 131:

Directional characteristic of the phase overcurrent protection

The default value of AngleRCA is 65. The parameters AngleROA gives the angle sector from AngleRCA for directional borders. A minimum current for directional phase start current signal can be set: IminOpPhSel. If no blockings are given the start signals will start the timers of the step. The time characteristic for each step can be chosen as definite time delay or inverse time characteristic. A wide range of standardized inverse time characteristics is available. It is also possible to create a tailor made time characteristic. The possibilities for inverse time characteristics are described in section "Inverse characteristics". All four steps in OC4PTOC can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The binary input BLKSTx (x=1, 2, 3 or 4) blocks the operation of respective step.

261 Technical reference manual

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

|IOP| Ix>

Characteristx=DefTime
a b AND a>b

AND

OR

tx

TRx

STx

BLKSTx BLOCK

txmin
AND

Inverse

Characteristx=Inverse DirModex=Off DirModex=Non-directional DirModex=Forward DirModex=Reverse FORWARD_Int


AND OR OR

STAGEx_DIR_Int

REVERSE_Int

AND

IEC12000008-1-en.vsd IEC12000008-1-en.vsd
IEC12000008 V1 EN

Figure 132:

Simplified logic diagram for OC4PTOC

Different types of reset time can be selected as described in section "Inverse characteristics". There is also a possibility to activate a preset change (IxMult x= 1, 2, 3 or 4) of the set operation current via a binary input (enable multiplier). In some applications the operation value needs to be changed, for example due to changed network switching state. The function can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The start signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKST. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR.

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Section 7 Current protection Function block


OC4PTOC I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 TRIP TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 TR3L1 TR3L2 TR3L3 TR4L1 TR4L2 TR4L3 START ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 STL1 STL2 STL3 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 ST3L1 ST3L2 ST3L3 ST4L1 ST4L2 ST4L3 2NDHARM DIRL1 DIRL2 DIRL3 IEC06000187-2-en.vsd
IEC06000187 V2 EN

7.2.3

Figure 133:

OC4PTOC function block

7.2.4

Input and output signals


Table 134:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2

OC4PTOC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 Description Group signal for current input Group signal for voltage input Block of function Block of trip Block of Step1 Block of Step2

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Block of Step3 Block of Step4

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step1 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step2 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step3 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step4

Table 135:
Name TRIP TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 TR3L1 TR3L2 TR3L3 TR4L1 TR4L2 TR4L3 START ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 STL1 STL2

OC4PTOC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Common trip signal from step1 Common trip signal from step2 Common trip signal from step3 Common trip signal from step4 Trip signal from phase L1 Trip signal from phase L2 Trip signal from phase L3 Trip signal from step1 phase L1 Trip signal from step1 phase L2 Trip signal from step1 phase L3 Trip signal from step2 phase L1 Trip signal from step2 phase L2 Trip signal from step2 phase L3 Trip signal from step3 phase L1 Trip signal from step3 phase L2 Trip signal from step3 phase L3 Trip signal from step4 phase L1 Trip signal from step4 phase L2 Trip signal from step4 phase L3 General start signal Common start signal from step1 Common start signal from step2 Common start signal from step3 Common start signal from step4 Start signal from phase L1 Start signal from phase L2

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name STL3 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 ST3L1 ST3L2 ST3L3 ST4L1 ST4L2 ST4L3 2NDHARM DIRL1 DIRL2 DIRL3 Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER INTEGER INTEGER Description Start signal from phase L3 Start signal from step1 phase L1 Start signal from step1 phase L2 Start signal from step1 phase L3 Start signal from step2 phase L1 Start signal from step2 phase L2 Start signal from step2 phase L3 Start signal from step3 phase L1 Start signal from step3 phase L2 Start signal from step3 phase L3 Start signal from step4 phase L1 Start signal from step4 phase L2 Start signal from step4 phase L3 Block from second harmonic detection Direction for phase1 Direction for phase2 Direction for phase3

7.2.5
Table 136:
Name Operation IBase UBase AngleRCA AngleROA StartPhSel

Setting parameters
OC4PTOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 40 - 65 40 - 89 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse Unit A kV Deg Deg Step 1 0.05 1 1 Default Off 3000 400.00 55 80 1 out of 3 Description Operation Off / On Base current Base voltage Relay characteristic angle (RCA) Relay operation angle (ROA) Number of phases required for op (1 of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) Directional mode of step 1 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

DirMode1

Non-directional

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name Characterist1 Values (Range) ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1 - 10000 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 Unit Step Default ANSI Def. Time Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

I1> t1 k1 IMin1 t1Min I1Mult DirMode2

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1 0.001 0.1 -

1000 0.000 0.05 100 0.000 2.0 Non-directional

Phase current operate level for step1 in % of IBase Definitive time delay of step 1 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 Minimum operate current for step1 in % of IBase Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 Multiplier for current operate level for step 1 Directional mode of step 2 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Characterist2

ANSI Def. Time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 2

I2> t2

%IB s

1 0.001

500 0.400

Phase current operate level for step2 in % of IBase Definitive time delay of step 2

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Values (Range) 0.05 - 999.00 1 - 10000 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1 - 10000 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse Unit %IB s Step 0.01 1 0.001 0.1 Default 0.05 50 0.000 2.0 Non-directional Description Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 Minimum operate current for step2 in % of IBase Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 Multiplier for current operate level for step 2 Directional mode of step 3 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Name k2 IMin2 t2Min I2Mult DirMode3

Characterist3

ANSI Def. Time

Selection of time delay curve type for step 3

I3> t3 k3 IMin3 t3Min I3Mult DirMode4

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1 0.001 0.1 -

250 0.800 0.05 33 0.000 2.0 Non-directional

Phase current operate level for step3 in % of IBase Definitive time delay of step 3 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 3 Minimum operate current for step3 in % of IBase Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 Multiplier for current operate level for step 3 Directional mode of step 4 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Table continues on next page

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Name Characterist4 Values (Range) ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1 - 10000 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Unit Step Default ANSI Def. Time Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Selection of time delay curve type for step 4

I4> t4 k4 IMin4 t4Min I4Mult

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1 0.001 0.1

175 2.000 0.05 17 0.000 2.0

Phase current operate level for step4 in % of IBase Definitive time delay of step 4 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 4 Minimum operate current for step4 in % of IBase Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 4 Multiplier for current operate level for step 4

Table 137:
Name IMinOpPhSel 2ndHarmStab ResetTypeCrv1

OC4PTOC Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 1 - 100 5 - 100 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 Unit %IB %IB Step 1 1 Default 7 20 Instantaneous Description Minimum current for phase selection in % of IBase Operate level of 2nd harm restrain op in % of Fundamental Selection of reset curve type for step 1

tReset1 tPCrv1 tACrv1 tBCrv1 tCCrv1 tPRCrv1

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500

Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Values (Range) 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off On Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off On Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off On Unit Step 0.001 0.1 Default 13.500 1.0 Off Instantaneous Description Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain Selection of reset curve type for step 2

Name tTRCrv1 tCRCrv1 HarmRestrain1 ResetTypeCrv2

tReset2 tPCrv2 tACrv2 tBCrv2 tCCrv2 tPRCrv2 tTRCrv2 tCRCrv2 HarmRestrain2 ResetTypeCrv3

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 -

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Off Instantaneous

Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain Selection of reset curve type for step 3

tReset3 tPCrv3 tACrv3 tBCrv3 tCCrv3 tPRCrv3 tTRCrv3 tCRCrv3 HarmRestrain3

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 -

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Off

Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 3 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 Enable block of step3 from harmonic restrain

Table continues on next page

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Name ResetTypeCrv4 Values (Range) Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off On Unit Step Default Instantaneous Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Selection of reset curve type for step 4

tReset4 tPCrv4 tACrv4 tBCrv4 tCCrv4 tPRCrv4 tTRCrv4 tCRCrv4 HarmRestrain4

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 -

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Off

Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 4 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 4 Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain

Table 138:
Name MeasType

OC4PTOC Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) DFT RMS Unit Step Default DFT Description Selection between DFT and RMS measurement

7.2.6

Technical data
Table 139:
Function Operate current Reset ratio Min. operating current Relay characteristic angle (RCA) Maximum forward angle Minimum forward angle 2nd harmonic blocking Independent time delay Minimum operate time Table continues on next page

OC4PTOC technical data


Setting range (1-2500)% of lBase > 95% (1-100)% of lBase (-70.0 -50.0) degrees (40.070.0) degrees (75.090.0) degrees (5100)% of fundamental (0.000-60.000) s (0.000-60.000) s Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 2.0 degrees 2.0 degrees 2.0 degrees 2.0% of Ir 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms

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Section 7 Current protection


Function Inverse characteristics, see table 588, table 589 and table 590 Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Critical impulse time Impulse margin time Setting range 19 curve types Accuracy See table 588, table 589 and table 590 -

25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 15 ms typically

7.3

Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC


Function description Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification EFPIOC IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 50N

IN>>
IEF V1 EN

7.3.1

Introduction
The Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC has a low transient overreach and short tripping times to allow the use for instantaneous earth-fault protection, with the reach limited to less than the typical eighty percent of the line at minimum source impedance. EFPIOC can be configured to measure the residual current from the three-phase current inputs or the current from a separate current input. EFPIOC can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK.

7.3.2

Principle of operation
The sampled analog residual currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter (DFT) block. From the fundamental frequency components of the residual current, as well as from the sample values the equivalent RMS value is derived. This current value is fed to the Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection (EFPIOC). In a comparator the RMS value is compared to the set operation current value of the function (IN>>). If the residual current is larger than the set operation current a signal from the comparator is set to true. This signal will, without delay, activate the output signal TRIP. There is also a possibility to activate a preset change of the set operation current via a binary input (enable multiplier MULTEN). In some applications the operation value needs to be changed, for example due to transformer inrush currents.

271 Technical reference manual

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

EFPIOC function can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKAR, that can be activated during single pole trip and autoreclosing sequences.

7.3.3

Function block
EFPIOC I3P* BLOCK BLKAR MULTEN TRIP

IEC06000269-2-en.vsd
IEC06000269 V2 EN

Figure 134:

EFPIOC function block

7.3.4

Input and output signals


Table 140:
Name I3P BLOCK BLKAR MULTEN

EFPIOC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Three phase currents Block of function Block input for auto reclose Enable current multiplier

Table 141:
Name TRIP

EFPIOC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN Description Trip signal

7.3.5
Table 142:
Name Operation IBase IN>>

Setting parameters
EFPIOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 1 - 2500 Unit A %IB Step 1 1 Default Off 3000 200 Description Operation Off / On Base current Operate residual current level in % of IBase

Table 143:
Name StValMult

EFPIOC Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.5 - 5.0 Unit Step 0.1 Default 1.0 Description Multiplier for operate current level

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Section 7 Current protection Technical data


Table 144:
Function Operate current Reset ratio Operate time Reset time Critical impulse time Operate time Reset time Critical impulse time Dynamic overreach

7.3.6

EFPIOC technical data


Range or value (1-2500)% of lBase > 95% 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset 35 ms typically at 10 to 0 x Iset 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset < 5% at t = 100 ms Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir -

7.4

Four step residual overcurrent protection, zero, negative sequence direction EF4PTOC
Function description Four step residual overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification EF4PTOC IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 51N/67N

IN 4 4 alt

TEF-REVA V1 EN

7.4.1

Introduction
The four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC has an inverse or definite time delay independent for each step separately. All IEC and ANSI time-delayed characteristics are available together with an optional user defined characteristic. EF4PTOC can be set directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps. IDir, UPol and IPol can be independently selected to be either zero sequence or negative sequence. Second harmonic blocking can be set individually for each step. EF4PTOC can be used as main protection for phase-to-earth faults.

273 Technical reference manual

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

EF4PTOC can also be used to provide a system back-up for example, in the case of the primary protection being out of service due to communication or voltage transformer circuit failure. Directional operation can be combined together with corresponding communication logic in permissive or blocking teleprotection scheme. Current reversal and weak-end infeed functionality are available as well. EF4PTOC can be configured to measure the residual current from the three-phase current inputs or the current from a separate current input.

7.4.2

Principle of operation
This function has the following three Analog Inputs on its function block in the configuration tool: 1. 2. 3. I3P, input used for Operating Quantity. U3P, input used for Voltage Polarizing Quantity. I3PPOL, input used for Current Polarizing Quantity.

These inputs are connected from the corresponding pre-processing function blocks in the Configuration Tool within PCM600.

7.4.2.1

Operating quantity within the function


The function always uses Residual Current (3I0) for its operating quantity. The residual current can be: 1. directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function input I3P). This dedicated IED CT input can be for example, connected to: parallel connection of current instrument transformers in all three phases (Holm-Green connection). one single core balance, current instrument transformer (cable CT). one single current instrument transformer located between power system star point and earth (that is, current transformer located in the star point of a star connected transformer winding). one single current instrument transformer located between two parts of a protected object (that is, current transformer located between two star points of double star shunt capacitor bank).

2.

calculated from three-phase current input within the IED (when the fourth analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function Analog Input I3P is not connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I0 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula (will take I2 from same SMAI AI3P connected to I3PDIR input (same SMAI AI3P connected to I3P input)):

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Section 7 Current protection

If zero sequence current is selected,

Iop = 3I0 = IL1 + IL2 + IL3


EQUATION1874 V2 EN

(Equation 58)

where: IL1, IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents.

The residual current is pre-processed by a discrete Fourier filter. Thus the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the residual current is derived. The phasor magnitude is used within the EF4PTOC protection to compare it with the set operation current value of the four steps (IN1>, IN2>, IN3> or IN4>). If the residual current is larger than the set operation current and the step is used in nondirectional mode a signal from the comparator for this step is set to true. This signal will, without delay, activate the output signal STINx (x=step 1-4) for this step and a common START signal.

7.4.2.2

Internal polarizing
A polarizing quantity is used within the protection in order to determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). The function can be set to use voltage polarizing, current polarizing or dual polarizing.

Voltage polarizing
When voltage polarizing is selected the protection will use either the residual voltage -3U0 or the negative sequence voltage -3U2 as polarizing quantity U3P. This voltage can be: 1. directly measured (when a dedicated VT input of the IED is connected in PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function input U3P). This dedicated IED VT input shall be then connected to open delta winding of a three phase main VT. calculated from three phase voltage input within the IED (when the fourth analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC analog function input U3P is NOT connected to a dedicated VT input of the IED in PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate -3U2 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:

2.

UPol = -3U 0 = -(UL1 + UL2 + UL3)


EQUATION1875 V2 EN

(Equation 60)

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

where: UL1, UL2 and UL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase voltages. In order to use this, all three phase-to-earth voltages must be connected to three IED VT inputs.

The residual voltage is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus, the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the residual voltage is derived. This phasor is used together with the phasor of the operating directional current, in order to determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). In order to enable voltage polarizing the magnitude of polarizing voltage shall be bigger than a minimum level defined by setting parameter UpolMin. It shall be noted that residual voltage (-3U0) or negative sequence voltage (-3U2) is used to determine the location of the earth fault. This insures the required inversion of the polarizing voltage within the earth-fault function.

Current polarizing
When current polarizing is selected the function will use an external residual current (3I0) as polarizing quantity IPol. This current can be: 1. directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function input I3PPOL). This dedicated IED CT input is then typically connected to one single current transformer located between power system star point and earth (current transformer located in the star point of a star connected transformer winding). For some special line protection applications this dedicated IED CT input can be connected to parallel connection of current transformers in all three phases (Holm-Green connection).

2.

calculated from three phase current input within the IED (when the fourth analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function analog input I3PPOL is NOT connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in PCM600). In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I0 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:

IPol = 3I0 = IL1 + IL2 + IL3


EQUATION2018 V2 EN

(Equation 62)

where: IL1, IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents.

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Section 7 Current protection

The residual current is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the polarizing current is derived. This phasor is then multiplied with pre-set equivalent zero-sequence source Impedance in order to calculate equivalent polarizing voltage UIPol in accordance with the following formula:
UIPol = Z 0s IPol = (RNPol + j XNPol) IPol
EQUATION1877 V2 EN

(Equation 63)

which will be then used, together with the phasor of the operating current, in order to determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). In order to enable current polarizing the magnitude of polarizing current shall be bigger than a minimum level defined by setting parameter IPolMin.

Dual polarizing
When dual polarizing is selected the function will use the vectorial sum of the voltage based and current based polarizing in accordance with the following formula:
UTotPol = UUPol + UIPol = -3U 0 + Z 0 s IPol = -3U 0 + ( RNPol + jXNPol ) IPol
EQUATION1878 V3 EN

(Equation 64)

Upol and Ipol can be either zero sequence component or negative sequence component depending upon the user selection. Then the phasor of the total polarizing voltage UTotPol will be used, together with the phasor of the operating current, to determine the direction of the earth fault (Forward/Reverse).

7.4.2.3

External polarizing for earth-fault function


The individual steps within the protection can be set as non-directional. When this setting is selected it is then possible via function binary input BLKSTx to provide external directional control (that is, torque control) by for example using one of the following functions if available in the IED: 1. 2. Distance protection directional function. Negative sequence polarized General current and voltage multi purpose protection function.

7.4.2.4

Base quantities within the protection


The base quantities shall be entered as setting parameters for every earth-fault function. Base current (IBase) shall be entered as rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes. Base voltage (UBase) shall be entered as rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in primary kV.

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Section 7 Current protection


7.4.2.5 Internal earth-fault protection structure
The protection is internally divided into the following parts: 1. 2. 3. 4.

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Four residual overcurrent steps. Directional supervision element for residual overcurrent steps with integrated directional comparison step for communication based earth-fault protection schemes (permissive or blocking). Second harmonic blocking element with additional feature for sealed-in blocking during switching of parallel transformers. Switch on to fault feature with integrated Under-Time logic for detection of breaker problems during breaker opening or closing sequence.

Each part is described separately in the following sections.

7.4.2.6

Four residual overcurrent steps


Each overcurrent step uses operating quantity Iop (residual current) as measuring quantity. Each of the four residual overcurrent steps has the following built-in facilities: Directional mode can be set to Off/Non-directional/Forward/Reverse. By this parameter setting the directional mode of the step is selected. It shall be noted that the directional decision (Forward/Reverse) is not made within the residual overcurrent step itself. The direction of the fault is determined in common directional supervision element. Residual current start value. Type of operating characteristic (inverse or definite time). By this parameter setting it is possible to select inverse or definite time delay for the earth-fault protection. Most of the standard IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics are available. For the complete list of available inverse curves please refer to section "Inverse characteristics". Type of reset characteristic (Instantaneous / IEC Reset / ANSI Reset). By this parameter setting it is possible to select the reset characteristic of the step. For the complete list of available reset curves please refer to section "Inverse time characteristics". Time delay related settings. By these parameter settings the properties like definite time delay, minimum operating time for inverse curves, reset time delay and parameters to define user programmable inverse curve are defined. Supervision by second harmonic blocking feature (On/Off). By this parameter setting it is possible to prevent operation of the step if the second harmonic content in the residual current exceeds the preset level. Multiplier for scaling of the set residual current pickup value by external binary signal. By this parameter setting it is possible to increase residual current pickup value when function binary input ENMULTx has logical value 1.

Simplified logic diagram for one residual overcurrent step is shown in figure 135.
278 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 7 Current protection

BLKTR IMinx

X
|IOP|

T F

Characteristx=DefTime
b a a b AND a>b OR a>b

tx t

AND

TRINx

INxMult INx> BLKSTx BLOCK

T F

AND

STINx

AND

Inverse
AND

Characteristx=Inverse txmin 2ndHarm_BLOCK_Int


OR

HarmRestrainx=Off DirModex=Off DirModex=Non-directional DirModex=Forward DirModex=Reverse FORWARD_Int


AND OR OR

STEPx_DIR_Int

REVERSE_Int

AND

IEC10000008-3-en.vsd

IEC10000008 V3 EN

Figure 135:

Simplified logic diagram for residual overcurrent step x, where x = step 1, 2, 3 or 4

The protection can be completely blocked from the binary input BLOCK. Output signals for respective step, and STINx and TRINx, can be blocked from the binary input BLKSTx. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR.

7.4.2.7

Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison function


It shall be noted that at least one of the four residual overcurrent steps shall be set as directional in order to enable execution of the directional supervision element and the integrated directional comparison function. The protection has integrated directional feature. As the operating quantity current lop is always used. The polarizinwcg method is determined by the parameter setting polMethod. The polarizing quantity will be selected by the function in one of the following three ways: 1. 2. 3. When polMethod = Voltage, UPol will be used as polarizing quantity. When polMethod = Current, IPol will be used as polarizing quantity. WhenpolMethod = Dual, UPol + IPol ZNPol will be used as polarizing quantity.

The operating and polarizing quantity are then used inside the directional element, as shown in figure 136, in order to determine the direction of the earth fault.

279 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Operating area

STRV
0.6 * IN>DIR Characteristic for reverse release of measuring steps -RCA -85 deg Characteristic for STRV
40% of IN>DIR

RCA +85 deg

RCA 65

Upol = -3U 0

-RCA +85 deg

RCA -85 deg

Characteristic for forward release of measuring steps

IN>DIR

STFW
I op = 3I0 Operating area Characteristic for STFW
IEC11000243 V1 EN

IEC11000243-1-en.ai

Figure 136:

Operating characteristic for earth-fault directional element using the zero sequence components

Two relevant setting parameters for directional supervision element are: Directional element will be internally enabled to operate as soon as Iop is bigger than 40% of I>Dir and directional condition is fulfilled in set direction. Relay characteristic angle AngleRCA, which defines the position of forward and reverse areas in the operating characteristic.

Directional comparison step, built-in within directional supervision element, will set EF4PTOC function output binary signals: 1. 2. STFW=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos( - AngleRCA) is bigger than setting parameter I>Dir and directional supervision element detects fault in forward direction. STRV=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos( - AngleRCA) is bigger than 60% of setting parameter I>Dir and directional supervision element detects fault in reverse direction.

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Section 7 Current protection

These signals shall be used for communication based earth-fault teleprotection communication schemes (permissive or blocking). Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step is shown in figure 137:
| IopDir |

a a>b b

REVERSE_Int
a

AND

STRV

0.6 I>Dir 0.4

X
a>b b

FORWARD_Int

AND

STFW

FWD polMethod=Voltage polMethod=Dual polMethod=Current IPol 0.0 RNPol XNPol BLOCK OR T F X UIPol 0.0 T F STAGE1_DIR_Int STAGE2_DIR_Int STAGE3_DIR_Int STAGE4_DIR_Int AngleRCA
Directional Characteristic

AND

FORWARD_Int

OR UPol

UPolMin T 0.0 F IPolMin I3PDIR UTotPol

RVS

AND

REVERSE_Int

Complex Number

OR AND

IEC07000067-5-en.vsd

IEC07000067 V5 EN

Figure 137:

Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step

7.4.2.8

Second harmonic blocking element


A harmonic restrain of the Four step residual overcurrent protection function EF4PTOC can be chosen. If the ratio of the 2nd harmonic component in relation to the fundamental frequency component in the residual current exceeds the pre-set level (defined by parameter setting 2ndHarmStab) any of the four residual overcurrent stages can be selectively blocked by a parameter setting HarmRestrainx. When 2nd harmonic restraint feature is active the EF4PTOC function output signal 2NDHARMD will be set to logical value one.

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

In addition to the basic functionality explained above the 2nd harmonic blocking can be set in such way to seal-in until residual current disappears. This feature might be required to stabilize EF4PTOC during switching of parallel transformers in the station. In case of parallel transformers there is a risk of sympathetic inrush current. If one of the transformers is in operation, and the parallel transformer is switched in, the asymmetric inrush current of the switched in transformer will cause partial saturation of the transformer already in service. This is called transferred saturation. The 2nd harmonic of the inrush currents of the two transformers will be in phase opposition. The summation of the two currents will thus give a small 2nd harmonic current. The residual fundamental current will however be significant. The inrush current of the transformer in service before the parallel transformer energizing, will be a little delayed compared to the first transformer. Therefore we will have high 2nd harmonic current component initially. After a short period this current will however be small and the normal 2nd harmonic blocking will reset. If the BlkParTransf function is activated the 2nd harmonic restrain signal will be latched as long as the residual current measured by the relay is larger than a selected step current level. This feature has been called Block for Parallel Transformers. This 2nd harmonic sealin feature will be activated when all of the following three conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: 1. 2. 3. Feature is enabled by entering setting parameter BlkParTransf = On. Basic 2nd harmonic restraint feature has been active for at least 70ms. Residual current magnitude is higher than the set start value for one of the four residual overcurrent stages. By a parameter setting UseStartValue it is possible to select which one of the four start values that will be used (IN1> or IN2> or IN3> or IN4>).

Once Block for Parallel Transformers is activated the basic 2nd harmonic blocking signal will be sealed-in until the residual current magnitude falls below a value defined by parameter setting UseStartValue (see condition 3 above). Simplified logic diagram for 2nd harmonic blocking feature is shown in figure 138.

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Section 7 Current protection

BLOCK

IOP

Extract second harmonic current component Extract fundamental current component

a>b

OR

2NDHARMD

2ndHarmStab

q-1

t=70ms t BlkParTransf=On
|IOP|
a b a>b

OR

AN D

OR

2ndH_BLOCK_Int

UseStartValue IN1> IN2> IN3> IN4>

en07000068-2.vsd
IEC07000068 V2 EN

Figure 138:

Simplified logic diagram for 2nd harmonic blocking feature and Block for Parallel Transformers feature

7.4.2.9

Switch on to fault feature


Integrated in the four step residual overcurrent protection are Switch on to fault logic (SOTF) and Under-Time logic. The setting parameter SOTF is set to activate either SOTF or Under-Time logic or both. When the circuit breaker is closing there is a risk to close it onto a permanent fault, for example during an autoreclosing sequence. The SOTF logic will enable fast fault clearance during such situations. The time during which SOTF and Under-Time logics will be active after activation is defined by the setting parameter t4U. The SOTF logic uses the start signal from step 2 or step 3 for its operation, selected by setting parameter StepForSOTF. The SOTF logic can be activated either from change in circuit breaker position or from circuit breaker close command pulse. The setting parameter ActivationSOTF can be set for activation of CB position open change, CB position closed change or CB close command. In case of a residual current start from step 2 or 3 (dependent on setting) the function will give a trip after a set delay tSOTF. This delay is normally set to a short time (default 200 ms). The Under-Time logic always uses the start signal from the step 4. The UnderTime logic will normally be set to operate for a lower current level than the SOTF

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

function. The Under-Time logic can also be blocked by the 2nd harmonic restraint feature. This enables high sensitivity even if power transformer inrush currents can occur at breaker closing. This logic is typically used to detect asymmetry of CB poles immediately after switching of the circuit breaker. The Under-Time logic is activated either from change in circuit breaker position or from circuit breaker close and open command pulses. This selection is done by setting parameter ActUnderTime. In case of a start from step 4 this logic will give a trip after a set delay tUnderTime. This delay is normally set to a relatively short time (default 300 ms). Practically the Under-Time logic acts as circuit breaker pole-discordance protection, but it is only active immediately after breaker switching. The UnderTime logic can only be used in solidly or low impedance grounded systems.
SOTF

Open t4U Closed Close command


AND AND

ActivationSOTF
tSOTF
t

STIN2 STIN3 StepForSOTF

OperationMode BLOCK UNDERTIME tUnderTime 2nd Harmonic OFF SOTF UnderTime


AND

TRIP SOTF or UnderTime

HarmResSOFT

OR

Open Close
OR

t4U Close command STIN4


IEC06000643-3-en.vsd
IEC06000643 V3 EN

ActUnderTime

AND

Figure 139:

Simplified logic diagram for SOTF and Under-Time features

EF4PTOC Logic Diagram Simplified logic diagram for the complete EF4PTOC function is shown in figure 140:

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Section 7 Current protection

Directional Check Element

signal to communication scheme

INPol 3U0 3I0 DirMode enableDir

Direction Element

operatingCurrent earthFaultDirection angleValid

4 step over current element One element for each step

TRIP

3I0

Harmonic Restraint Element

harmRestrBlock

start step 2, 3 and 4 Blocking at parallel transformers SwitchOnToFault CB pos or cmd TRIP

Mode Selection

DirMode enableDir enableStep1-4 DirectionalMode1-4

en06000376.vsd
IEC06000376 V1 EN

Figure 140:

Functional overview of EF4PTOC

7.4.3

Function block
EF4PTOC I3P* U3P* I3PPOL* BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 CBPOS CLOSECB OPENCB TRIP TRIN1 TRIN2 TRIN3 TRIN4 TRSOTF START STIN1 STIN2 STIN3 STIN4 STSOTF STFW STRV 2NDHARMD

IEC06000424-2-en.vsd
IEC06000424 V2 EN

Figure 141:

EF4PTOC function block

285 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection 7.4.4 Input and output signals


Table 145:
Name I3P U3P I3PPOL BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 CBPOS CLOSECB OPENCB

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

EF4PTOC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Three Phase Current Group Connection Three Phase Voltage Group Connection Three Phase Polarisation Current General block Block of trip Block of step 1 (Start and trip) Block of step 2 (Start and trip) Block of step 3 (Start and trip) Block of step 4 (Start and trip) When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step1 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step2 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step3 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step4 Breaker position Breaker close command Breaker open command

Table 146:
Name TRIP TRIN1 TRIN2 TRIN3 TRIN4 TRSOTF START STIN1 STIN2 STIN3 STIN4 STSOTF

EF4PTOC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Trip signal from step 1 Trip signal from step 2 Trip signal from step 3 Trip signal from step 4 Trip signal from earth fault switch onto fault function General start signal Start signal step 1 Start signal step 2 Start signal step 3 Start signal step 4 Start signal from earth fault switch onto fault function

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name STFW STRV 2NDHARMD Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Forward directional start signal Reverse directional start signal 2nd harmonic block signal

7.4.5
Table 147:
Name Operation IBase UBase AngleRCA polMethod

Setting parameters
EF4PTOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 -180 - 180 Voltage Current Dual 1 - 100 2 - 100 0.50 - 1000.00 0.50 - 3000.00 1 - 100 5 - 100 Off On IN1> IN2> IN3> IN4> Off SOTF UnderTime SOTF&UnderTime Open Closed CloseCommand Step 2 Step 3 Off On 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit A kV Deg Step 1 0.05 1 Default Off 3000 400 65 Voltage Description Operation Off / On Base value for current settings Base value for voltage settings Relay characteristic angle (RCA) Type of polarization

UPolMin IPolMin RNPol XNPol IN>Dir 2ndHarmStab BlkParTransf UseStartValue

%UB %IB ohm ohm %IB % -

1 1 0.01 0.01 1 1 -

1 5 5.00 40.00 10 20 Off IN4>

Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of UBase Minimum current level for polarization in % of IBase Real part of source Z to be used for current polarisation Imaginary part of source Z to be used for current polarisation Residual current level for Direction release in % of IBase Second harmonic restrain operation in % of IN amplitude Enable blocking at parallel transformers Current level blk at parallel transf (step1, 2, 3 or 4)

SOTF

Off

SOTF operation mode (Off/SOTF/ Undertime/SOTF&Undertime)

ActivationSOTF

Open

Select signal that shall activate SOTF

StepForSOTF HarmResSOTF tSOTF t4U

s s

0.001 0.001

Step 2 Off 0.200 1.000

Selection of step used for SOTF Enable harmonic restrain function in SOTF Time delay for SOTF Switch-onto-fault active time

Table continues on next page 287 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection


Name ActUnderTime tUnderTime DirMode1 Values (Range) CB position CB command 0.000 - 60.000 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 Off On 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 Unit s Step 0.001 Default CB position 0.300 Non-directional Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Select signal to activate under time (CB Pos/CBCommand) Time delay for under time Directional mode of step 1 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Characterist1

ANSI Def. Time

Time delay curve type for step 1

IN1> t1 k1 IMin1 t1Min IN1Mult ResetTypeCrv1

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

100 0.000 0.05 100.00 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate residual current level for step 1 in % of IBase Independent (defenite) time delay of step 1 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 1 Minimum current for step 1 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 1 Reset curve type for step 1

tReset1 HarmRestrain1 tPCrv1 tACrv1 tBCrv1 tCCrv1 tPRCrv1

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001

0.020 On 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500

Reset time delay for step 1 Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Values (Range) 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 Off On 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 Unit Step 0.001 0.1 Default 13.500 1.0 Non-directional Description Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Directional mode of step 2 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Name tTRCrv1 tCRCrv1 DirMode2

Characterist2

ANSI Def. Time

Time delay curve type for step 2

IN2> t2 k2 IMin2 t2Min IN2Mult ResetTypeCrv2

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

50 0.400 0.05 50 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate residual current level for step 2 in % of IBase Independent (definitive) time delay of step 2 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 2 Minimum current for step 2 Minimum operate time for inverse curves step 2 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 2 Reset curve type for step 2

tReset2 HarmRestrain2 tPCrv2 tACrv2 tBCrv2 tCCrv2

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1

0.020 On 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0

Reset time delay for step 2 Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name tPRCrv2 tTRCrv2 tCRCrv2 DirMode3 Values (Range) 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 Off On 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 Unit Step 0.001 0.001 0.1 Default 0.500 13.500 1.0 Non-directional Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Directional mode of step 3 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Characterist3

ANSI Def. Time

Time delay curve type for step 3

IN3> t3 k3 IMin3 t3Min IN3Mult ResetTypeCrv3

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

33 0.800 0.05 33 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate residual current level for step 3 in % of IBase Independent time delay of step 3 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 3 Minimum current for step 3 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 3 Reset curve type for step 3

tReset3 HarmRestrain3 tPCrv3 tACrv3 tBCrv3 tCCrv3

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1

0.020 On 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0

Reset time delay for step 3 Enable block of step 3 from harmonic restrain Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 3

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Values (Range) 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 Off On 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 Unit Step 0.001 0.001 0.1 Default 0.500 13.500 1.0 Non-directional Description Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 3 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 3 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 Directional mode of step 4 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Name tPRCrv3 tTRCrv3 tCRCrv3 DirMode4

Characterist4

ANSI Def. Time

Time delay curve type for step 4

IN4> t4 k4 IMin4 t4Min IN4Mult ResetTypeCrv4

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

17 1.200 0.05 17 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate residual current level for step 4 in % of IBase Independent (definitive) time delay of step 4 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 4 Minimum current for step 4 Minimum operate time in inverse curves step 4 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 4 Reset curve type for step 4

tReset4 HarmRestrain4 tPCrv4 tACrv4 tBCrv4

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01

0.020 On 1.000 13.500 0.00

Reset time delay for step 4 Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter A for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name tCCrv4 tPRCrv4 tTRCrv4 tCRCrv4 Values (Range) 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Unit Step 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 Default 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve step 4

7.4.6

Technical data
Table 148:
Function Operate current Reset ratio Operate current for directional comparison Timers Inverse characteristics, see table 588, table 589 and table 590 Second harmonic restrain operation Relay characteristic angle Minimum polarizing voltage Minimum polarizing current Real part of source Z used for current polarization Imaginary part of source Z used for current polarization Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Critical impulse time Impulse margin time

EF4PTOC technical data


Range or value (1-2500)% of lBase > 95% (1100)% of lBase (0.000-60.000) s 18 curve types (5100)% of fundamental (-180 to 180) degrees (1100)% of UBase (1-30)% of IBase (0.50-1000.00) W/phase (0.503000.00) W/phase 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 15 ms typically Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I < Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 1.0% of Ir 0.5% 10 ms See table 588, table 589 and table 590 2.0% of Ir 2.0 degrees 0.5% of Ur 0.25 % of Ir -

7.5

Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC

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Function description Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification NS4PTOC
4 4 alt

IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number

I2

46I2

IEC10000053 V1 EN

7.5.1

Introduction
Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection (NS4PTOC) has an inverse or definite time delay independent for each step separately. All IEC and ANSI time delayed characteristics are available together with an optional user defined characteristic. The directional function is voltage polarized or dual polarized. NS4PTOC can be set directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps. NS4PTOC can be used as main protection for unsymmetrical fault; phase-phase short circuits, phase-phase-earth short circuits and single phase earth faults. NS4PTOC can also be used to provide a system back-up for example, in the case of the primary protection being out of service due to communication or voltage transformer circuit failure. Directional operation can be combined together with corresponding communication logic in permissive or blocking teleprotection scheme. The same logic as for directional zero sequence current can be used. Current reversal and weakend infeed functionality are available.

7.5.2

Principle of operation
Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC function has the following three Analog Inputs on its function block in the configuration tool: 1. 2. 3. I3P, input used for Operating Quantity. U3P, input used for Voltage Polarizing Quantity. I3PPOL, input used for Polarizing Quantity.

These inputs are connected from the corresponding pre-processing function blocks in the Configuration Tool within PCM600.

7.5.2.1

Operating quantity within the function


Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC function always uses negative sequence current (I2) for its operating quantity. The negative
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sequence current is calculated from three-phase current input within the IED. The pre-processing block calculates I2 from the first three inputs into the preprocessing block by using the following formula:
I2 = 1 3 IL1 + a IL 2 + a IL 3
2

)
(Equation 65)

EQUATION2266 V2 EN

where: IL1, IL2 and IL3 a a2 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents. is so called operator which gives a phase shift of 120 deg, that is, a = 1120 deg similarly gives a phase shift of 240 deg, that is, a2 = 1240 deg

The negative sequence current is pre-processed by a discrete Fourier filter. Thus, the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the negative sequence current is derived. The phasor magnitude is used within the NS4PTOC protection to compare it with the set operation current value of the four steps (I1>, I2>, I3> or I4>). If the negative sequence current is larger than the set operation current and the step is used in non-directional mode a signal from the comparator for this step is set to true. This signal, without delay, activates the output signal STx (x=1 - 4) for this step and a common START signal.

7.5.2.2

Internal polarizing facility of the function


A polarizing quantity is used within the protection to determine the direction to the fault (Forward/Reverse). Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC function can be set to use voltage polarizing or dual polarizing.

Voltage polarizing
When voltage polarizing is selected, NS4PTOC uses the negative sequence voltage -U2 as polarizing quantity U3P. This voltage is calculated from three phase voltage input within the IED. The pre-processing block calculates -U2 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula:
UPol = -U 2 = EQUATION2267 V2 EN

1 (UL1 + a 2 UL 2 + a UL3 ) 3

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where: UL1, UL2 and UL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase voltages. To use this all three phase-to-earth voltages must be connected to three IED VT inputs.

The negative sequence voltage is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. Thus, the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the negative sequence voltage is derived. This phasor is used together with the phasor of the operating current, in order to determine the direction to the fault (Forward/Reverse).To enable voltage polarizing the magnitude of polarizing voltage must be bigger than a minimum level defined by setting UpolMin. Note that U2 is used to determine the location of the fault. This ensures the required inversion of the polarizing voltage within the function.

Dual polarizing
When dual polarizing is selected, the function uses the vectorial sum of the voltage based and current based polarizing in accordance with the following formula:
UTotPol = UUPol + UIPol = -U 2 + ZPol IPol = -U 2 + ( RPol + jXPol ) IPol
IECEQUATION2315 V1 EN

(Equation 66)

Then the phasor of the total polarizing voltage UTotPol is used, together with the phasor of the operating current, to determine the direction to the fault (Forward/ Reverse).

7.5.2.3

External polarizing for negative sequence function


The individual steps within the protection can be set as non-directional. When this setting is selected it is then possible via function binary input BLKSTx (where x indicates the relevant step within the protection) to provide external directional control (that is, torque control) by for example using one of the following functions if available in the IED: Distance protection directional function Negative sequence polarized general current and voltage multi purpose protection function

7.5.2.4

Base quantities within the function


The base quantities must be entered as setting parameters for every function. Base current (IBase) must be entered as rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes. In line protections the primary rated current of the CT is chosen.
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Base voltage UBase must be entered as rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in primary kV. In line protections the primary rated voltage of the VT is chosen.

7.5.2.5

Internal negative sequence protection structure


The protection is internally divided into the following parts: Four negative sequence overcurrent steps Directional supervision element for negative sequence overcurrent steps with integrated directional comparison step for communication based negative sequence protection schemes (permissive or blocking)

Each part is described separately in the following sections.

7.5.2.6

Four negative sequence overcurrent stages


Each overcurrent stage uses Operating Quantity I2 (negative sequence current) as measuring quantity. Every of the four overcurrent stage has the following built-in facilities: Operating mode (Off/ Non-directional /Forward / Reverse). By this parameter setting the operating mode of the stage is selected. Note that the directional decision (Forward/Reverse) is not made within the overcurrent stage itself. The direction of the fault is determined in common Directional Supervision Element described in the next paragraph. Negative sequence current pickup value. Type of operating characteristic (Inverse or Definite Time). By this parameter setting it is possible to select Inverse or definite time delay for negative sequence overcurrent function. Most of the standard IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics are available. For the complete list of available inverse curves, refer to Chapter "Inverse time characteristics" Type of reset characteristic (Instantaneous / IEC Reset /ANSI reset).By this parameter setting it is possible to select the reset characteristic of the stage. For the complete list of available reset curves, refer to Chapter "Inverse time characteristics" Time delay related settings. By these parameter settings the properties like definite time delay, minimum operating time for inverse curves, reset time delay and parameters to define user programmable inverse curve are defined. Multiplier for scaling of the set negative sequence current pickup value by external binary signal. By this parameter setting it is possible to increase negative sequence current pickup value when function binary input ENMULTx has logical value 1.

Simplified logic diagram for one negative sequence overcurrent stage is shown in the following figure:

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BLKTR Characteristx=DefTime
a b a>b

|IOP| ENMULTx IxMult Ix> BLKSTx BLOCK

AND

OR

tx

AND

TRx

T F

AND

STx

txmin
AND

Inverse

Characteristx=Inverse DirModex=Off DirModex=Non-directional DirModex=Forward DirModex=Reverse FORWARD_Int


AND OR OR

STAGEx_DIR_Int

REVERSE_Int

AND

IEC09000683-3-en.vsd
IEC09000683 V2 EN

Figure 142:

Simplified logic diagram for negative sequence overcurrent stage x , where x=1, 2, 3 or 4

NS4PTOC can be completely blocked from the binary input BLOCK. The start signals from NS4PTOC for each stage can be blocked from the binary input BLKSTx. The trip signals from NS4PTOC can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR.

7.5.2.7

Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison function


At least one of the four negative sequence overcurrent steps must be set as directional in order to enable execution of the directional supervision element and the integrated directional comparison function. NS4PTOC has integrated directional feature. As the operating quantity current Iop is always used. The polarizing method is determined by the setting polMethod. The polarizing quantity can be selected by NS4PTOC in one of the following two ways: When polMethod=Voltage, UVPol is used as polarizing quantity When polMethod=Dual, UTotPol is used as polarizing quantity

The operating and polarizing quantity are then used inside the directional element, as shown in figure 136, to determine the direction of the fault.

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Reverse Area

AngleRCA

Upol=-U2

Forward Area Iop = I2

IEC10000031-1-en.vsd
IEC10000031 V1 EN

Figure 143:

Operating characteristic for fault directional element

Two relevant setting parameters for directional supervision element are: Directional element is internally enable to operate as soon as IOp is bigger than 40% of I>Dir and the directional condition is fulfilled in set direction. Relay characteristic angle AngleRCA which defines the position of forward and reverse areas in the operating characteristic.

Directional comparison step, built-in within directional supervision element, set NS4PTOC output binary signals: 1. 2. STFW=1 when tip of I2 phasor (operating quantity magnitude) is in forward area, see fig 136 (Operating quantity magnitude is bigger than setting I>Dir) STRV=1 when tip of I2 phasor (operating quantity magnitude) is in the reverse area, see fig 136. (Operating quantity magnitude is bigger than 60% of setting I>Dir)

These signals must be used for communication based fault teleprotection communication schemes (permissive or blocking).

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Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step is shown in figure 137:
|Iop| a a> b b STRV

REVERSE_Int

AND

0.6 I>Dir 0.4

X a a> b b X FORWARD_Int AND STFW

FWD polMethod=Voltage polMethod=Dual OR UPol


D i r e c ti o n a l t C h a r a c e ri s ti c

AngleRCA UPolMin T 0.0 F IPolMin Iop UTotPol UIPol 0.0 T F

AND

FORWARD_Int

IPol

RVS RNPol XNPol Complex Number X

AND

REVERSE_Int

STAGE1_DIR_Int STAGE2_DIR_Int STAGE3_DIR_Int STAGE4_DIR_Int

OR AND

BLOCK

IEC07000067-4-en.vsd
IEC07000067-4 V1 EN

Figure 144:

Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step

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NS4PTOC I3P* U3P* I3PPOL* BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 TRIP TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 START ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 STFW STRV IEC10000054-1-en.vsd
IEC10000054 V1 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 145:

NS4PTOC function block

7.5.4

Input and output signals


Table 149:
Name I3P U3P I3PPOL BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4

NS4PTOC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Negative Sequence 3 phase current Negative Sequence 3 phase voltage Negative Sequence 3 phase polarisation current General block Block of trip Block of step 1 (Start and trip) Block of step 2 (Start and trip) Block of step 3 (Start and trip) Block of step 4 (Start and trip) When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step1 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step2 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step3 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for step4

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Table 150:
Name TRIP TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 START ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 STFW STRV

NS4PTOC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Trip signal from step 1 Trip signal from step 2 Trip signal from step 3 Trip signal from step 4 General start signal Start signal step 1 Start signal step 2 Start signal step 3 Start signal step 4 Forward directional start signal Reverse directional start signal

7.5.5
Table 151:
Name Operation IBase UBase AngleRCA polMethod UPolMin IPolMin RPol XPol I>Dir DirMode1

Setting parameters
NS4PTOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 -180 - 180 Voltage Dual 1 - 100 2 - 100 0.50 - 1000.00 0.50 - 3000.00 1 - 100 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse Unit A kV Deg %UB %IB ohm ohm %IB Step 1 0.05 1 1 1 0.01 0.01 1 Default Off 3000 400 65 Voltage 5 5 5.00 40.00 10 Non-directional Description Operation Off / On Base value for current settings Base value for voltage settings Relay characteristic angle (RCA) Type of polarization Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of UBase Minimum current level for polarization in % of IBase Real part of neg. seq. source imp. to be used for current polarisation Imaginary part of neg. seq. source imp. to be used for current polarisation Neg. seq. curr. I2 level for Direction release in % of IBase Directional mode of step 1 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Table continues on next page

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Name Characterist1 Values (Range) ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse Unit Step Default ANSI Def. Time Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Time delay curve type for step 1

I1> t1 k1 IMin1 t1Min I1Mult ResetTypeCrv1

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

100 0.000 0.05 100.00 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate neg. seq. curr. I2 level for step 1 in % of IBase Independent (defenite) time delay of step 1 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 1 Minimum current for step 1 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 1 Reset curve type for step 1

tReset1 tPCrv1 tACrv1 tBCrv1 tCCrv1 tPRCrv1 tTRCrv1 tCRCrv1 DirMode2

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 -

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Non-directional

Reset time delay for step 1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Directional mode of step 2 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Table continues on next page

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Values (Range) ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse Unit Step Default ANSI Def. Time Description Time delay curve type for step 2

Name Characterist2

I2> t2 k2 IMin2 t2Min I2Mult ResetTypeCrv2

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

50 0.400 0.05 50 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate neg. seq. curr. I2 level for step 2 in % of IBase Independent (definitive) time delay of step 2 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 2 Minimum current for step 2 Minimum operate time for inverse curves step 2 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 2 Reset curve type for step 2

tReset2 tPCrv2 tACrv2 tBCrv2 tCCrv2 tPRCrv2 tTRCrv2 tCRCrv2 DirMode3

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 -

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Non-directional

Reset time delay for step 2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 Directional mode of step 3 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Table continues on next page

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Name Characterist3 Values (Range) ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse Unit Step Default ANSI Def. Time Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Time delay curve type for step 3

I3> t3 k3 IMin3 t3Min I3Mult ResetTypeCrv3

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

33 0.800 0.05 33 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate neg. seq. curr. I2 level for step 3 in % of IBase Independent time delay of step 3 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 3 Minimum current for step 3 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 3 Reset curve type for step 3

tReset3 tPCrv3 tACrv3 tBCrv3 tCCrv3 tPRCrv3 tTRCrv3 tCRCrv3 DirMode4

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 -

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0 Non-directional

Reset time delay for step 3 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 3 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 3 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 3 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 Directional mode of step 4 (off, nodir, forward, reverse)

Table continues on next page

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Values (Range) ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type 1 - 2500 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 999.00 1.00 - 10000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Unit Step Default ANSI Def. Time Description Time delay curve type for step 4

Name Characterist4

I4> t4 k4 IMin4 t4Min I4Mult ResetTypeCrv4

%IB s %IB s -

1 0.001 0.01 1.00 0.001 0.1 -

17 1.200 0.05 17 0.000 2.0 Instantaneous

Operate neg. seq. curr. I2 level for step 4 in % of IBase Independent (definitive) time delay of step 4 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for step 4 Minimum current for step 4 Minimum operate time in inverse curves step 4 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 4 Reset curve type for step 4

tReset4 tPCrv4 tACrv4 tBCrv4 tCCrv4 tPRCrv4 tTRCrv4 tCRCrv4

s -

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1

0.020 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 0.500 13.500 1.0

Reset time delay for step 4 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter A for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4 Parameter C for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve step 4 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve step 4

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Table 152:
Function Operate value, negative sequence current, step 1-4 Reset ratio Timers Inverse characteristics, see table 588, table 589 and table 590 Minimum operate current for step 1 - 4 Operate value, negative current for directional release Relay characteristic angle Minimum polarizing voltage Minimum polarizing current Real part of negative sequence source impedance used for current polarization Imaginary part of negative sequence source impedance used for current polarization Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Critical impulse time, start function Impulse margin time, start function Transient overreach

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

NS4PTOC technical data


Range or value (1-2500)% of lBase > 95% (0.000-60.000) s 18 curve types (1.00 - 10000.00)% of IBase (1100)% of IBase (-180 to 180) degrees (1100)% of UBase (2-100)% of IBase (0.50-1000.00) W/phase Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 0.5% 10 ms See table 588, table 589 and table 590 1.0% of Ir at I < Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 1.0% of Ir 2.0 degrees 0.5% of Ur 1.0% of Ir -

(0.503000.00) W/phase

25 ms typically at 0.5 to 2 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0.5 x Iset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 15 ms typically <10% at = 100 ms

7.6

Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection SDEPSDE


Function description Sensitive directional residual over current and power protection IEC 61850 identification SDEPSDE IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 67N

7.6.1

Introduction
In networks with high impedance earthing, the phase-to-earth fault current is significantly smaller than the short circuit currents. Another difficulty for earth-

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fault protection is that the magnitude of the phase-to-earth fault current is almost independent of the fault location in the network. Directional residual current can be used to detect and give selective trip of phase-toearth faults in high impedance earthed networks. The protection uses the residual current component 3I0 cos , where is the angle between the residual current and the residual voltage (-3U0), compensated with a characteristic angle. Alternatively, the function can be set to strict 3I0 level with a check of angle 3I0 and cos . Directional residual power can also be used to detect and give selective trip of phaseto-earth faults in high impedance earthed networks. The protection uses the residual power component 3I0 3U0 cos , where is the angle between the residual current and the reference residual voltage, compensated with a characteristic angle. A normal non-directional residual current function can also be used with definite or inverse time delay. A back-up neutral point voltage function is also available for non-directional sensitive back-up protection. In an isolated network, that is, the network is only coupled to earth via the capacitances between the phase conductors and earth, the residual current always has -90 phase shift compared to the reference residual voltage. The characteristic angle is chosen to -90 in such a network. In resistance earthed networks or in Petersen coil earthed, with a parallel resistor, the active residual current component (in phase with the residual voltage) should be used for the earth-fault detection. In such networks the characteristic angle is chosen to 0. As the amplitude of the residual current is independent of the fault location the selectivity of the earth-fault protection is achieved by time selectivity. When should the sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection be used and when should the sensitive directional residual power protection be used? Consider the following facts: Sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection gives possibility for better sensitivity. The setting possibilities of this function are down to 0.25 % of IBase, 1 A or 5 A. This sensitivity is in most cases sufficient in high impedance network applications, if the measuring CT ratio is not too high. Sensitive directional residual power protection gives possibility to use inverse time characteristics. This is applicable in large high impedance earthed networks, with large capacitive earth-fault current In some power systems a medium size neutral point resistor is used, for example, in low impedance earthed system. Such a resistor will give a resistive earth-fault current component of about 200 - 400 A at a zero resistive phase-to-

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earth fault. In such a system the directional residual power protection gives better possibilities for selectivity enabled by inverse time power characteristics.

7.6.2
7.6.2.1

Principle of operation
Function inputs
The function is using phasors of the residual current and voltage. Group signals I3P and U3P containing phasors of residual current and voltage is taken from preprocessor blocks. The sensitive directional earth fault protection has the following sub-functions included:

Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0cos


is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I0 and the reference voltage. Uref = -3U0 ejRCADir, that is -3U0 rotated by the set characteristic angle RCADir (=ang(3I0)-ang(Uref) ). RCADir is normally set equal to 0 in a high impedance earthed network with a neutral point resistor as the active current component is appearing out on the faulted feeder only. RCADir is set equal to -90 in an isolated network as all currents are mainly capacitive. The function operates when 3I0cos gets larger than the set value.
RCADir = 0 , ROADir = 0

3I0

= ang(3I0 ) ang(3Uref )

3I0 cos

3U0 = Uref

IEC06000648-3-en.vsd
IEC06000648 V3 EN

Figure 146:

RCADir set to 0

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Section 7 Current protection


Uref

RCADir = 90 , ROADir = 90

3I0

3I0 cos
= ang (3I0 ) ang (Uref )

3U0

IEC06000649_3_en.vsd
IEC06000649 V3 EN

Figure 147:

RCADir set to -90

For trip, both the residual current 3I0cos and the release voltage 3U0, must be larger than the set levels: INCosPhi> and UNRel>. Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR. When the function is activated binary output signals START and STDIRIN are activated. If the output signals are active after the set delay tDef the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated. The trip from this sub-function has definite time delay. There is a possibility to increase the operate level for currents where the angle is larger than a set value as shown in figure 148. This is equivalent to blocking of the function if > ROADir. This option is used to handle angle error for the instrument transformers.

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RCADir = 0o

3I0

Operate area

j 3I0 cos j -3U0 = Uref

ROADir

IEC06000650_2_en.vsd
IEC06000650 V2 EN

Figure 148:

Characteristic with ROADir restriction

The function indicates forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is defined as 3I0cos ( + 180) the set value. It is also possible to tilt the characteristic to compensate for current transformer angle error with a setting RCAComp as shown in the figure 149:

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Section 7 Current protection

RCADir = 0

Operate area

-3U0 =Uref

Instrument transformer angle error

RCAcomp Characteristic after angle compensation

3I0 (prim)

3I0 (to prot)

en06000651.vsd
IEC06000651 V2 EN

Figure 149:

Explanation of RCAComp

Directional residual power protection measuring 3I0 3U0 cos


is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I0 and the reference voltage compensated with the set characteristic angle RCADir (=ang(3I0)ang(Uref) ). Uref = -3U0 e-jRCA. The function operates when 3I0 3U0 cos gets larger than the set value. For trip, both the residual power 3I0 3U0 cos , the residual current 3I0 and the release voltage 3U0, shall be larger than the set levels (SN>, INRel> and UNRel>). Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR. When the function is activated binary output signals START and STDIRIN are activated. If the output signals are active after the set delay tDef or after the inverse time delay (setting kSN) the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated. The function shall indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is defined as 3I0 3U0cos ( + 180) the set value.

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This variant has the possibility of choice between definite time delay and inverse time delay. The inverse time delay is defined as:
t inv = kSN (3I0 3U 0 cos j(reference)) 3I0 3U 0 cos j(measured)
(Equation 67)

EQUATION1942 V2 EN

Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0 and


The function will operate if the residual current is larger that the set value and the angle = ang(3I0)-ang(Uref) is within the sector RCADir ROADir
RCADir = 0 ROADir = 80

Operate area 3I0 -3U0

IEC06000652-3-en.vsd
IEC06000652 V3 EN

Figure 150:

Example of characteristic

For trip, both the residual current 3I0 and the release voltage 3U0, shall be larger than the set levels INDir> and UNREL> and the angle shall be in the set sector ROADir and RCADir. Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR. When the function is activated binary output signals START and STDIRIN are activated. If the output signals are active after the set delay tDef the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN are activated. The function indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. Reverse direction is defined as is within the angle sector: RCADir + 180 ROADir This variant has definite time delay.

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Section 7 Current protection


Directional functions

For all the directional functions there are directional start signals STFW: fault in the forward direction, and STRV: start in the reverse direction. Even if the directional function is set to operate for faults in the forward direction a fault in the reverse direction will give the start signal STRV. Also if the directional function is set to operate for faults in the reverse direction a fault in the forward direction will give the start signal STFW.

Non-directional earth fault current protection

This function will measure the residual current without checking the phase angle. The function will be used to detect cross-country faults. This function can serve as alternative or back-up to distance protection with phase preference logic. To assure selectivity the distance protection can block the non-directional earth fault current function via the input BLKNDN. The non-directional function is using the calculated residual current, derived as sum of the phase currents. This will give a better ability to detect cross-country faults with high residual current, also when dedicated core balance CT for the sensitive earth fault protection will saturate. This variant has the possibility of choice between definite time delay and inverse time delay. The inverse time delay shall be according to IEC 60255-3. For trip, the residual current 3I0 shall be larger than the set level (INNonDir>). Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKNDN. When the function is activated binary output signal STNDIN is activated. If the output signal is active after the set delay tINNonDir or after the inverse time delay the binary output signals TRIP and TRNDIN are activated.

Residual overvoltage release and protection

The directional function shall be released when the residual voltage gets higher than a set level. There shall also be a separate trip, with its own definite time delay, from this level set voltage level. For trip, the residual voltage 3U0 shall be larger than the set level (UN>). Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKUN. When the function is activated binary output signal STUN is activated. If the output signals are active after the set delay tUNNonDir TRIP and TRUN are activated. A simplified logical diagram of the total function is shown in figure 151.

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INNonDir> t UN> t
OpMODE=3I0cosfi

STNDIN TRNDIN STUN TRUN

IN> INcosPhi>
OpMODE=3I03U0cosfi

&

& INUNcosPhi> Phi in RCA +- ROA


OpMODE=3I0 and fi

&
t

STARTDIRIN

SN TimeChar = InvTime

&

TRDIRIN

&
TimeChar = DefTime

&

DirMode = Forward Forward DirMode = Reverse Reverse

&

1 STFW

& STRV
en06000653.vsd

IEC06000653 V2 EN

Figure 151:

Simplified logical diagram of the sensitive earth-fault current protection

7.6.3

Function block
SDEPSDE I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKTR BLKTRDIR BLKNDN BLKUN TRIP TRDIRIN TRNDIN TRUN START STDIRIN STNDIN STUN STFW STRV STDIR UNREL IEC07000032-2-en.vsd
IEC07000032 V2 EN

Figure 152:

SDEPSDE function block

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Section 7 Current protection Input and output signals


Table 153:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLKTR BLKTRDIR BLKNDN BLKUN

7.6.4

SDEPSDE Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 Description Group signal for current Group signal for voltage Blocks all the outputs of the function Blocks the operate outputs of the function Blocks the directional operate outputs of the function Blocks the Non directional current residual outputs Blocks the Non directional voltage residual outputs

Table 154:
Name TRIP TRDIRIN TRNDIN TRUN START STDIRIN STNDIN STUN STFW STRV STDIR UNREL

SDEPSDE Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER BOOLEAN Description General trip of the function Trip of the directional residual over current function Trip of non directional residual over current Trip of non directional residual over voltage General start of the function Start of the directional residual over current function Start of non directional residual over current Start of non directional residual over voltage Start of directional function for a fault in forward direction Start of directional function for a fault in reverse direction Direction of fault. A general signal common to all three mode of residual over current protection Residual voltage release of operation of all directional modes

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Section 7 Current protection 7.6.5


Table 155:
Name Operation OpMode

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters
SDEPSDE Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 3I0Cosfi 3I03U0Cosfi 3I0 and fi Forward Reverse -179 - 180 -10.0 - 10.0 0 - 90 0.25 - 200.00 0.25 - 200.00 0.25 - 200.00 0.000 - 60.000 0.03 - 200.00 0.00 - 2.00 Off On 1.00 - 400.00 0.000 - 60.000 ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type Unit Step Default Off 3I0Cosfi Description Operation Off / On Selection of operation mode for protection

DirMode RCADir RCAComp ROADir INCosPhi> SN> INDir> tDef SRef kSN OpINNonDir> INNonDir> tINNonDir TimeChar

Deg Deg Deg %IB %SB %IB s %SB %IB s -

1 0.1 1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001 -

Forward -90 0.0 90 1.00 10.00 5.00 0.100 10.00 0.10 Off 10.00 1.000 IEC Norm. inv.

Direction of operation forward or reverse Relay characteristic angle RCA, in deg Relay characteristic angle compensation Relay open angle ROA used as release in phase mode, in deg Set level for 3I0cosFi, directional res over current, in %Ib Set level for 3I03U0cosFi, starting inv time count, in %Sb Set level for directional residual over current prot, in %Ib Definite time delay directional residual overcurrent, in sec Reference value of res power for inverse time count, in %Sb Time multiplier setting for directional residual power mode Operation of non-directional residual overcurrent protection Set level for non directional residual over current, in %Ib Time delay for non-directional residual over current, in sec Operation curve selection for IDMT operation

Table continues on next page

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Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 0.00 - 2.00 Off On 1.00 - 200.00 0.000 - 60.000 0.25 - 200.00 0.01 - 200.00 Unit s %UB s %IB %UB Step 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.01 Default 0.040 1.00 Off 20.00 0.100 1.00 3.00 Description Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT curves, in sec IDMT time mult for non-dir res over current protection Operation of non-directional residual overvoltage protection Set level for non-directional residual over voltage, in %Ub Time delay for non-directional residual over voltage, in sec Residual release current for all directional modes, in %Ib Residual release voltage for all direction modes, in %Ub

Name tMin kIN OpUN> UN> tUN INRel> UNRel>

Table 156:
Name tReset tPCrv tACrv tBCrv tCCrv ResetTypeCrv

SDEPSDE Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.00 - 20.00 0.1 - 10.0 Immediate IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 100.000 0.1 - 10.0 Unit s Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 Default 0.040 1.000 13.500 0.00 1.0 IEC Reset Description Time delay used for reset of definite timers, in sec Setting P for customer programmable curve Setting A for customer programmable curve Setting B for customer programmable curve Setting C for customer programmable curve Reset mode when current drops off.

tPRCrv tTRCrv tCRCrv

0.001 0.001 0.1

0.500 13.500 1.0

Setting PR for customer programmable curve Setting TR for customer programmable curve Setting CR for customer programmable curve

Table 157:
Name IBase UBase SBase

SDEPSDE Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 200000000.00 Unit A kV kVA Step 1 0.05 0.05 Default 100 63.50 6350.00 Description Base Current, in A Base Voltage, in kV Phase to Neutral Base Power, in kVA. IBase*Ubase

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Table 158:
Name RotResU

SDEPSDE Non group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0 deg 180 deg Unit Step Default 180 deg Description Setting for rotating polarizing quantity if necessary

7.6.6

Technical data
Table 159:
Function Operate level for 3I0cosj directional residual overcurrent

SDEPSDE technical data


Range or value (0.25-200.00)% of lBase Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir At low setting: (0.25-1.00)% of Ir: 0.05% of Ir (1.00-5.00)% of Ir: 0.1% of Ir

Operate level for 3I03U0 cosj directional residual power

(0.25-200.00)% of SBase

1.0% of Sr at S Sr 1.0% of S at S > Sr At low setting: (0.25-5.00)% of SBase 10% of set value

Operate level for 3I0 and j residual overcurrent

(0.25-200.00)% of lBase

1.0% of Ir at Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir At low setting: (0.25-1.00)% of Ir: 0.05% of Ir (1.00-5.00)% of Ir: 0.1% of Ir

Operate level for nondirectional overcurrent

(1.00-400.00)% of lBase

1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir At low setting <5% of Ir: 0.1% of Ir

Operate level for nondirectional residual overvoltage Residual release current for all directional modes

(1.00-200.00)% of UBase

0.5% of Ur at UUr 0.5% of U at U > Ur 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir At low setting: (0.25-1.00)% of Ir: 0.05% of Ir (1.00-5.00)% of Ir: 0.1% of Ir

(0.25-200.00)% of lBase

Residual release voltage for all directional modes Reset ratio Timers Inverse characteristics, see table 588, table 589 and table 590 Relay characteristic angle RCA Table continues on next page 318

(0.01-200.00)% of UBase > 95% (0.000-60.000) s 19 curve types

0.5% of Ur at UUr 0.5% of U at U > Ur 0.5% 10 ms See table 588, table 589 and table 590 2.0 degrees

(-179 to 180) degrees

Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 7 Current protection


Function Relay open angle ROA Operate time, non-directional residual over current Reset time, non-directional residual over current Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Range or value (0-90) degrees 60 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 60 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 150 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 50 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset Accuracy 2.0 degrees -

7.7

Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR


Function description Thermal overload protection, two time constants IEC 61850 identification TRPTTR IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 49

SYMBOL-A V1 EN

7.7.1

Introduction
If a power transformer or generator reaches very high temperatures the equipment might be damaged. The insulation within the transformer/generator will have forced ageing. As a consequence of this the risk of internal phase-to-phase or phaseto-earth faults will increase. High temperature will degrade the quality of the transformer/generator insulation. The thermal overload protection estimates the internal heat content of the transformer/ generator (temperature) continuously. This estimation is made by using a thermal model of the transformer/generator with two time constants, which is based on current measurement. Two warning levels are available. This enables actions in the power system to be done before dangerous temperatures are reached. If the temperature continues to increase to the trip value, the protection initiates a trip of the protected transformer/ generator.

7.7.2

Principle of operation
The sampled analogue phase currents are pre-processed and for each phase current the true RMS value of each phase current is derived. These phase current values are fed to the Thermal overload protection, two time constants (TRPTTR).

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From the largest of the three phase currents a relative final temperature (heat content) is calculated according to the expression:

Q final

I = I ref

EQUATION1171 V1 EN

(Equation 68)

where: I Iref is the largest phase current is a given reference current

If this calculated relative temperature is larger than the relative temperature level corresponding to the set operate (trip) current a start output signal START is activated. The actual temperature at the actual execution cycle is calculated as:
If

Q final > Q n
EQUATION1172 V1 EN

(Equation 69)

Qn = Qn -1 + ( Q final
EQUATION1173 V1 EN

Dt - Q n-1 ) 1 - e t

(Equation 70)

If

Q final < Qn
EQUATION1174 V1 EN

(Equation 71)
Dt

Qn = Q final - ( Q final - Q n -1 ) e
EQUATION1175 V1 EN

(Equation 72)

where: Qn Qn-1 Qfinal Dt t is the calculated present temperature is the calculated temperature at the previous time step is the calculated final (steady state) temperature with the actual current is the time step between calculation of the actual and final temperature is the set thermal time constant Tau1 or Tau2 for the protected transformer

The calculated transformer relative temperature can be monitored as it is exported from the function as a real figure HEATCONT.

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Section 7 Current protection

When the transformer temperature reaches any of the set alarm levels Alarm1 or Alarm2 the corresponding output signals ALARM1 or ALARM2 are activated. When the temperature of the object reaches the set trip level which corresponds to continuous current equal to ITrip the output signal TRIP is activated. There is also a calculation of the present time to operation with the present current. This calculation is only performed if the final temperature is calculated to be above the operation temperature:

Q - Qoperate toperate = -t ln final Q final - Q n


EQUATION1176 V1 EN

(Equation 73)

The calculated time to trip can be monitored as it is exported from the function as a real figure TTRIP. After a trip, caused by the thermal overload protection, there can be a lockout to reconnect the tripped circuit. The output lockout signal LOCKOUT is activated when the temperature of the object is above the set lockout release temperature setting ResLo. The time to lockout release is calculated, That is, a calculation of the cooling time to a set value.

Q - Qlockout _ release tlockout _ release = -t ln final Q final - Q n


EQUATION1177 V1 EN

(Equation 74)

In the above equation, the final temperature is calculated according to equation 68. Since the transformer normally is disconnected, the current I is zero and thereby the final is also zero. The calculated component temperature can be monitored as it is exported from the function as a real figure, TRESLO. When the current is so high that it has given a start signal START, the estimated time to trip is continuously calculated and given as analogue output TTRIP. If this calculated time get less than the setting time Warning, set in minutes, the output WARNING is activated. In case of trip a pulse with a set duration tPulse is activated.

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Final Temp > TripTemp

START

Calculation of heat content

actual heat comtent

I3P Calculation of final temperature

Actual Temp > Alarm1,Alarm2 Temp

ALARM1 ALARM2

Current base used TRIP Actual Temp > TripTemp Binary input: Forced cooling On/Off S R Actual Temp < Recl Temp LOCKOUT

Management of setting parameters: Tau, IBase

Tau used

Calculation of time to trip

time to trip warning if time to trip < set value

Calculation of time to reset of lockout

time to reset of lockout

en05000833.vsd
IEC05000833 V1 EN

Figure 153:

Functional overview of TRPTTR

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Section 7 Current protection Function block


TRPTTR I3P* BLOCK COOLING ENMULT RESET TRIP START ALARM1 ALARM2 LOCKOUT WARNING IEC06000272_2_en.vsd
IEC06000272 V2 EN

7.7.3

Figure 154:

TRPTTR function block

7.7.4

Input and output signals


Table 160:
Name I3P BLOCK COOLING ENMULT RESET

TRPTTR Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 Description Group signal for current input Block of function Cooling input Off / On. Changes Ib setting and time constant Enable Multiplier for currentReference setting Reset of function

Table 161:
Name TRIP START ALARM1 ALARM2 LOCKOUT WARNING

TRPTTR Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Signal Start signal First level alarm signal Second level alarm signal Lockout signal Warning signal: Trip within set warning time

7.7.5
Table 162:
Name Operation IBase IRef IRefMult

Setting parameters
TRPTTR Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 10.0 - 1000.0 0.01 - 10.00 Unit A %IB Step 1 1.0 0.01 Default Off 3000 100.0 1.00 Description Operation Off / On Base current in A Reference current in % of IBASE Multiplication Factor for reference current

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Name IBase1 IBase2 Tau1 Tau2 IHighTau1 Tau1High ILowTau1 Tau1Low IHighTau2 Tau2High ILowTau2 Tau2Low ITrip Alarm1 Alarm2 ResLo ThetaInit Warning tPulse Values (Range) 30.0 - 250.0 30.0 - 250.0 1.0 - 500.0 1.0 - 500.0 30.0 - 250.0 5 - 2000 30.0 - 250.0 5 - 2000 30.0 - 250.0 5 - 2000 30.0 - 250.0 5 - 2000 50.0 - 250.0 50.0 - 99.0 50.0 - 99.0 10.0 - 95.0 0.0 - 95.0 1.0 - 500.0 0.01 - 0.30 Unit %IB %IB Min Min %IB1 %tC1 %IB1 %tC1 %IB2 %tC2 %IB2 %tC2 %IBx %Itr %Itr %Itr % Min s Step 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1 1.0 1 1.0 1 1.0 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.1 0.01 Default 100.0 100.0 60.0 60.0 100.0 100 100.0 100 100.0 100 100.0 100 110.0 80.0 90.0 60.0 50.0 30.0 0.10 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Base current,IBase1 without Cooling inpout in % of IBASE Base Current,IBase2, with Cooling input ON in % of IBASE Time constant without cooling input in min, with IBase1 Time constant with cooling input in min, with IBase2 Current Sett, in % of IBase1 for rescaling TC1 by TC1-IHIGH Multiplier in % to TC1 when current is > IHIGH-TC1 Current Set, in % of IBase1 for rescaling TC1 by TC1-ILOW Multiplier in % to TC1 when current is < ILOW-TC1 Current Set, in % of IBase2 for rescaling TC2 by TC2-IHIGH Multiplier in % to TC2 when current is >IHIGH-TC2 Current Set, in % of IBase2 for rescaling TC2 by TC2-ILOW Multiplier in % to TC2 when current is < ILOW-TC2 Steady state operate current level in % of IBasex First alarm level in % of heat content trip value Second alarm level in % of heat content trip value Lockout reset level in % of heat content trip value Initial Heat content, in % of heat content trip value Time setting, below which warning would be set (in min) Length of the pulse for trip signal (in msec).

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Section 7 Current protection Technical data


Table 163:
Function Base current 1 and 2 Operate time:

7.7.6

TRPTTR technical data


Range or value (30250)% of IBase Ip = load current before overload occurs Time constant = (1500) minutes Accuracy 1.0% of Ir IEC 602558, 5% + 200 ms

I 2 - I p2 t = t ln 2 I - Ib 2
EQUATION1356 V1 EN

(Equation 75)

I = Imeasured Alarm level 1 and 2 Operate current Reset level temperature (5099)% of heat content trip value (50250)% of IBase (1095)% of heat content trip 2.0% of heat content trip 1.0% of Ir 2.0% of heat content trip

7.8

Breaker failure protection CCRBRF


Function description Breaker failure protection IEC 61850 identification CCRBRF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 50BF

3I>BF
SYMBOL-U V1 EN

7.8.1

Introduction
Breaker failure protection (CCRBRF) ensures fast back-up tripping of surrounding breakers in case the own breaker fails to open. CCRBRF can be current based, contact based, or an adaptive combination of these two conditions. Current check with extremely short reset time is used as check criterion to achieve high security against unnecessary operation. Contact check criteria can be used where the fault current through the breaker is small. CCRBRF can be single- or three-phase initiated to allow use with single phase tripping applications. For the three-phase version of CCRBRF the current criteria can be set to operate only if two out of four for example, two phases or one phase plus the residual current start. This gives a higher security to the back-up trip command.

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CCRBRF function can be programmed to give a single- or three-phase re-trip of the own breaker to avoid unnecessary tripping of surrounding breakers at an incorrect initiation due to mistakes during testing.

7.8.2

Principle of operation
Breaker failure protection CCRBRF is initiated from protection trip command, either from protection functions within the IED or from external protection devices. The start signal can be phase selective or general (for all three phases). Phase selective start signals enable single pole re-trip function. This means that a second attempt to open the breaker is done. The re-trip attempt can be made after a set time delay. For transmission lines single pole trip and autoreclosing is often used. The re-trip function can be phase selective if it is initiated from phase selective line protection. The re-trip function can be done with or without current check. With the current check the re-trip is only performed if the current through the circuit breaker is larger than the operate current level. The start signal can be an internal or external protection trip signal. This signal will start the back-up trip timer. If the opening of the breaker is successful this is detected by the function, by detection of either low current through RMS evaluation and a special adapted current algorithm or by open contact indication. The special algorithm enables a very fast detection of successful breaker opening, that is, fast resetting of the current measurement. If the current and/or contact detection has not detected breaker opening before the back-up timer has run its time a back-up trip is initiated. Further the following possibilities are available: The minimum length of the re-trip pulse, the back-up trip pulse and the backup trip pulse 2 are settable. The re-trip pulse, the back-up trip pulse and the backup trip pulse 2 will however sustain as long as there is an indication of closed breaker. In the current detection it is possible to use three different options: 1 out of 3 where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole, 1 out of 4 where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole or high residual current and 2 out of 4 where at least two current (phase current and/ or residual current) shall be high for breaker failure detection. The current detection level for the residual current can be set different from the setting of phase current detection. It is possible to have different back-up time delays for single-phase faults and for multi-phase faults. The back-up trip can be made without current check. It is possible to have this option activated for small load currents only. It is possible to have instantaneous back-up trip function if a signal is high if the circuit breaker is insufficient to clear faults, for example at low gas pressure.

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Section 7 Current protection

START STL1

30 ms
OR

BFP Started L1
150 ms
AND S R OR

BLOCK Reset L1

SR

AND

Time out L1

Retrip Time Out L1 BackupTrip L1


OR

IEC09000976-1-en.vsd
IEC09000976 V1 EN

Figure 155:
IP>

Simplified logic scheme of the CCRBRF starting logic

a b

a>b
OR AND

FunctionMode

Current Contact

OR

Reset L1

Time out L1
Current and Contact
OR AND

Current High L1
CB Closed L1
OR

IL1

AND

BFP Started L1
a

I>BlkCont CBCLDL1

a>b

AND

OR

AND

AND

AND

Contact Closed L1

IEC09000977-1-en.vsd
IEC09000977 V1 EN

Figure 156:

Simplified logic scheme of the CCRBRF, CB position evaluation

BFP Started L1

t1
t

Retrip Time Out L1


AND

From other phases

TRRETL3 TRRETL2
OR

TRRET TRRETL1

RetripMode

200 ms
OR OR

No CBPos Check
1

OR

AND

CBFLT

CB Pos Check CB Closed L1

AND

IEC09000978-1-en.vsd

IEC09000978 V2 EN

Figure 157:

Simplified logic scheme of the retrip logic function

327 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

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IN IN> BUTripMode
1

a b

a>b

AND

From other phases CBFLT

2 out of 4 1 out of 4 1 out of 3 Current High L2 Current High L3

Contact Closed L1
OR OR

Current High L1
AND

AND

t2

BFP Started L1

t2MPh
AND
t

OR

AND

Backup Trip L1

OR

AND

OR

200 ms
OR OR

From other phases

BFP Started L2 BFP Started L3

From other Backup Trip L2 phases Backup Trip L3


2 of 3

TRBU

200 ms t3
S AND R

SR

OR

TRBU2

IEC09000979-2-en.vsd

IEC09000979 V2 EN

Figure 158:

Simplified logic scheme of the back-up trip logic function

Internal logical signals Current High L1, Current High L2, Current High L3 have logical value 1 when current in respective phase has magnitude larger than setting parameter IP>.

7.8.3

Function block
CCRBRF I3P* BLOCK START STL1 STL2 STL3 CBCLDL1 CBCLDL2 CBCLDL3 CBFLT TRBU TRBU2 TRRET TRRETL1 TRRETL2 TRRETL3 CBALARM

IEC06000188-2-en.vsd
IEC06000188 V2 EN

Figure 159:

CCRBRF function block

328 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection Input and output signals


Table 164:
Name I3P BLOCK START STL1 STL2 STL3 CBCLDL1 CBCLDL2 CBCLDL3 CBFLT

7.8.4

CCRBRF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 Description Three phase group signal for current inputs Block of function Three phase start of breaker failure protection function Start signal of phase L1 Start signal of phase L2 Start signal of phase L3 Circuit breaker closed in phase L1 Circuit breaker closed in phase L2 Circuit breaker closed in phase L3 CB faulty, unable to trip. Back-up trip instantaneously

Table 165:
Name TRBU TRBU2 TRRET TRRETL1 TRRETL2 TRRETL3 CBALARM

CCRBRF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Back-up trip by breaker failure protection function Second back-up trip by breaker failure protection function Retrip by breaker failure protection function Retrip by breaker failure protection function phase L1 Retrip by breaker failure protection function phase L2 Retrip by breaker failure protection function phase L3 Alarm for faulty circuit breaker

7.8.5
Table 166:
Name Operation IBase FunctionMode

Setting parameters
CCRBRF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 Current Contact Current&Contact Unit A Step 1 Default Off 3000 Current Description Operation Off / On Base current Detection principle for back-up trip

Table continues on next page

329 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection


Name BuTripMode Values (Range) 2 out of 4 1 out of 3 1 out of 4 Retrip Off CB Pos Check No CBPos Check 5 - 200 2 - 200 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit Step Default 1 out of 3 Description Back-up trip mode

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

RetripMode

Retrip Off

Operation mode of re-trip logic

IP> IN> t1 t2 t2MPh tPulse

%IB %IB s s s s

1 1 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

10 10 0.000 0.150 0.150 0.200

Operate phase current level in % of IBase Operate residual current level in % of IBase Time delay of re-trip Time delay of back-up trip Time delay of back-up trip at multi-phase start Trip pulse duration

Table 167:
Name I>BlkCont t3 tCBAlarm

CCRBRF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 5 - 200 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit %IB s s Step 1 0.001 0.001 Default 20 0.030 5.000 Description Current for blocking of CB contact operation in % of IBase Additional time delay to t2 for a second back-up trip Time delay for CB faulty signal

7.8.6

Technical data
Table 168:
Function Operate phase current Reset ratio, phase current Operate residual current Reset ratio, residual current Phase current level for blocking of contact function Reset ratio Timers Operate time for current detection Reset time for current detection

CCRBRF technical data


Range or value (5-200)% of lBase > 95% (2-200)% of lBase > 95% (5-200)% of lBase Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 1.0% of Ir at I Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir 0.5% 10 ms -

> 95% (0.000-60.000) s 10 ms typically 15 ms maximum

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Section 7 Current protection

7.9

Pole discordance protection CCRPLD


Function description Pole discordance protection IEC 61850 identification CCRPLD IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 52PD

PD
SYMBOL-S V1 EN

7.9.1

Introduction
An open phase can cause negative and zero sequence currents which cause thermal stress on rotating machines and can cause unwanted operation of zero sequence or negative sequence current functions. Normally the own breaker is tripped to correct such a situation. If the situation persists the surrounding breakers should be tripped to clear the unsymmetrical load situation. The Polediscordance protection function CCRPLD operates based on information from auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker for the three phases with additional criteria from unsymmetrical phase currents when required.

7.9.2

Principle of operation
The detection of pole discordance can be made in two different ways. If the contact based function is used an external logic can be made by connecting the auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker so that a pole discordance is indicated, see figure 160.
circuit breaker

Pole discordance signal from circuit breaker


en05000287.vsd
IEC05000287 V2 EN

Figure 160:

Pole discordance external detection logic

This binary signal is connected to a binary input of the IED. The appearance of this signal will start a timer that will give a trip signal after the set time delay.

331 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

There is also a possibility to connect all phase selective auxiliary contacts (phase contact open and phase contact closed) to binary inputs of the IED, see figure 161.
C.B.

poleOneClosed from C.B. poleTwoClosed from C.B. poleThreeClosed from C.B. + poleOneOpened from C.B. poleTwoOpened from C.B. poleThreeOpened from C.B.
en05000288.vsd
IEC05000288 V1 EN

Figure 161:

Pole discordance signals for internal logic

In this case the logic is realized within the function. If the inputs are indicating pole discordance the trip timer is started. This timer will give a trip signal after the set delay. Pole discordance can also be detected by means of phase selective current measurement. The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter (DFT) block. From the fundamental frequency components of each phase current the RMS value of each phase current is derived. The smallest and the largest phase current are derived. If the smallest phase current is lower than the setting CurrUnsymLevel times the largest phase current the settable trip timer (tTrip) is started. The tTrip timer gives a trip signal after the set delay. The TRIP signal is a pulse 150 ms long. The current based pole discordance function can be set to be active either continuously or only directly in connection to breaker open or close command. The function also has a binary input that can be configured from the autoreclosing function, so that the pole discordance function can be blocked during sequences with a single pole open if single pole autoreclosing is used. The simplified block diagram of the current and contact based Pole discordance protection function CCRPLD is shown in figure 162.

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Section 7 Current protection

BLOCK BLKDBYAR OR

PolPosAuxCont POLE1OPN POLE1CL POLE2OPN POLE2CL POLE3OPN POLE3CL AND Discordance detection AND OR PD Signal from CB EXTPDIND CLOSECMD OPENCMD OR AND Unsymmetry current detection en05000747.vsd
IEC05000747 V1 EN

t t

150 ms TRIP

AND

t+200 ms

Figure 162:

Simplified block diagram of pole discordance function CCRPLD contact and current based

CCRPLDis blocked if: The IED is in TEST mode and CCRPLD has been blocked from the local HMI The input signal BLOCK is high The input signal BLKDBYAR is high

The BLOCK signal is a general purpose blocking signal of the pole discordance protection. It can be connected to a binary input in the IED in order to receive a block command from external devices or can be software connected to other internal functions in the IED itself in order to receive a block command from internal functions. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and internal function outputs. The BLKDBYAR signal blocks the pole discordance operation when a single phase autoreclosing cycle is in progress. It can be connected to the output signal 1PT1 on SMBRRECfunction block. If the autoreclosing function is an external device, then BLKDBYAR has to be connected to a binary input in the IED and this binary input is connected to a signalization 1phase autoreclosing in progress from the external autoreclosing device. If the pole discordance protection is enabled, then two different criteria can generate a trip signal TRIP: Pole discordance signaling from the circuit breaker. Unsymmetrical current detection.

333 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection


7.9.2.1 Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

If one or two poles of the circuit breaker have failed to open or to close the pole discordance status, then the function input EXTPDIND is activated from the pole discordance signal derived from the circuit breaker auxiliary contacts (one NO contact for each phase connected in parallel, and in series with one NC contact for each phase connected in parallel) and, after a settable time interval tTrip (0-60 s), a 150 ms trip pulse command TRIP is generated by the Polediscordance function.

7.9.2.2

Unsymmetrical current detection


Unsymmetrical current indicated if: any phase current is lower than CurrUnsymLevel of the highest current in the three phases. the highest phase current is greater than CurrRelLevel of IBase.

If these conditions are true, an unsymmetrical condition is detected and the internal signal INPS is turned high. This detection is enabled to generate a trip after a set time delay tTrip if the detection occurs in the next 200 ms after the circuit breaker has received a command to open trip or close and if the unbalance persists. The 200 ms limitation is for avoiding unwanted operation during unsymmetrical load conditions. The pole discordance protection is informed that a trip or close command has been given to the circuit breaker through the inputs CLOSECMD (for closing command information) and OPENCMD (for opening command information). These inputs can be connected to terminal binary inputs if the information are generated from the field (that is from auxiliary contacts of the close and open push buttons) or may be software connected to the outputs of other integrated functions (that is close command from a control function or a general trip from integrated protections).

7.9.3

Function block
CCRPLD I3P* BLOCK BLKDBYAR CLOSECMD OPENCMD EXTPDIND POLE1OPN POLE1CL POLE2OPN POLE2CL POLE3OPN POLE3CL TRIP START

IEC06000275-2-en.vsd
IEC06000275 V2 EN

Figure 163:

CCRPLD function block

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Section 7 Current protection Input and output signals


Table 169:
Name I3P BLOCK BLKDBYAR CLOSECMD OPENCMD EXTPDIND POLE1OPN POLE1CL POLE2OPN POLE2CL POLE3OPN POLE3CL

7.9.4

CCRPLD Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Description Three phase currents Block of function Block of function at CB single phase auto reclosing cycle Close order to CB Open order to CB Pole discordance signal from CB logic Pole one opened indication from CB Pole one closed indication from CB Pole two opened indication from CB Pole two closed indication from CB Pole three opened indication from CB Pole three closed indication from CB

Table 170:
Name TRIP START

CCRPLD Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip signal to CB Trip condition TRUE, waiting for time delay

7.9.5
Table 171:
Name Operation IBase tTrip ContSel

Setting parameters
CCRPLD Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.000 - 60.000 Off PD signal from CB Pole pos aux cont. Off CB oper monitor Continuous monitor 0 - 100 0 - 100 Unit s Step 1 0.001 Default Off 3000 0.300 Off Description Operation Off / On Base current Time delay between trip condition and trip signal Contact function selection

CurrSel

Off

Current function selection

CurrUnsymLevel CurrRelLevel

% %IB

1 1

80 10

Unsym magn of lowest phase current compared to the highest. Current magnitude for release of the function in % of IBase

335 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection 7.9.6 Technical data


Table 172:
Function Operate current Time delay

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

CCRPLD technical data


Range or value (0100)% of IBase (0.000-60.000) s Accuracy 1.0% of Ir 0.5% 10 ms

7.10

Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP


Function description Directional underpower protection IEC 61850 identification GUPPDUP IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 37

P<
SYMBOL-LL V1 EN

7.10.1

Introduction
The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy. Sometimes, the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. Then, the synchronous generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the rest of the power system. This operating state, where individual synchronous machines operate as motors, implies no risk for the machine itself. If the generator under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power, it may be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system. Often, the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous state. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to protect the generator itself. Figure 164 illustrates the low forward power and reverse power protection with underpower and overpower functions respectively. The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide better dependability. On the other hand, the risk for unwanted operation immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the underpower IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. One should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the generator is higher than 1% depending on the type of turbine. When IED with a metering class input CTs is used pickup can be set to more sensitive value (e.g.0,5% or even to 0,2%).

336 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection

Underpower IED Q

Overpower IED Q

Operate Line Margin

Operate Line Margin

Operating point without turbine torque

Operating point without turbine torque

IEC06000315-2-en.vsd
IEC06000315 V2 EN

Figure 164:

Protection with underpower IED and overpower IED

7.10.2

Principle of operation
A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is shown in figure 165. The function has two stages with individual settings.

Chosen current phasors Complex power calculation

P Derivation of S(composant) in Char angle S(angle) S(angle) < Power1 t TRIP1 START1

Chosen voltage phasors

S(angle) < Power2

TRIP2 START2

P = POWRE Q = POWIM

IEC09000018-2-en.vsd
IEC09000018 V2 EN

Figure 165:

Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function

The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing blocks. The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as shown in table 173.

337 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Table 173:
Set value: Mode L1, L2, L3

Complex power calculation


Formula used for complex power calculation

S = U L1 I L1* + U L 2 I L 2* + U L 3 I L 3*
EQUATION1697 V1 EN

(Equation 76)

Arone

S = U L1L 2 I L1* - U L 2 L 3 I L 3*
EQUATION1698 V1 EN

(Equation 77)

PosSeq

S = 3 U PosSeq I PosSeq *
EQUATION1699 V1 EN

(Equation 78)

L1L2

S = U L1L 2 ( I L1* - I L 2* )
EQUATION1700 V1 EN

(Equation 79)

L2L3

S = U L 2 L 3 ( I L 2* - I L 3* )
EQUATION1701 V1 EN

(Equation 80)

L3L1

S = U L 3 L1 ( I L 3* - I L1* )
EQUATION1702 V1 EN

(Equation 81)

L1

S = 3 U L1 I L1*
EQUATION1703 V1 EN

(Equation 82)

L2

S = 3 U L 2 I L 2*
EQUATION1704 V1 EN

(Equation 83)

L3

S = 3 U L 3 I L 3*
EQUATION1705 V1 EN

(Equation 84)

The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for monitoring and fault recording. The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is calculated. If this angle is 0 the active power component P is calculated. If this angle is 90 the reactive power component Q is calculated. The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting Power1(2). For directional underpower protection, a start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power component is smaller than the pick up value. For directional overpower protection, a start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power component is larger than the pick up value. After a set time delay TripDelay1(2) a trip TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the start signal is still active. At activation of any of the two stages a common signal START will be activated. At trip from any of the two stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated. To avoid instability there is a settable hysteresis in the power function. The absolute hysteresis of the stage1(2) is Hysteresis1(2) = abs (Power1(2) + droppower1(2)). For generator low forward power protection the power setting is very

338 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 7 Current protection

low, normally down to 0.02 p.u. of rated generator power. The hysteresis should therefore be set to a smaller value. The drop-power value of stage1 can be calculated with the Power1(2), Hysteresis1(2): drop-power1(2) = Power1(2) + Hysteresis1(2) For small power1 values the hysteresis1 may not be too big, because the droppower1(2) would be too small. In such cases, the hysteresis1 greater than (0.5 Power1(2)) is corrected to the minimal value. If the measured power drops under the drop-power1(2) value, the function will reset after a set time DropDelay1(2). The reset means that the start signal will drop out and that the timer of the stage will reset.

7.10.2.1

Low pass filtering


In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is possible to introduce the recursive, low pass filtering of the measured values for S (P, Q). This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the measured quantity. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following recursive formula:
S = k SOld + (1 - k ) SCalculated
EQUATION1959 V1 EN

(Equation 85)

Where S Sold is a new measured value to be used for the protection function is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle

SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle k TD is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties

Default value for parameter k is 0.00. With this value the new calculated value is immediately given out without any filtering (that is without any additional delay). When k is set to value bigger than 0, the filtering is enabled. A typical value for k=0.92 in case of slow operating functions.

7.10.2.2

Calibration of analog inputs


Measured currents and voltages used in the Power function can be calibrated to get class 0.5 measuring accuracy. This is achieved by amplitude and angle compensation at 5, 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage. The compensation below 5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between, see example in figure 166.

339 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IEC05000652 V2 EN

Figure 166:

Calibration curves

The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference and the amplitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals. Analog outputs (Monitored data) from the function can be used for service values or in the disturbance report. The active power is provided as MW value: P, or in percent of base power: PPERCENT. The reactive power is provided as Mvar value: Q, or in percent of base power: QPERCENT.

7.10.3

Function block
GUPPDUP I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLOCK1 BLOCK2 TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START START1 START2 P PPERCENT Q QPERCENT IEC07000027-2-en.vsd
IEC07000027 V2 EN

Figure 167:

GUPPDUP function block

340 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection Input and output signals


Table 174:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLOCK1 BLOCK2

7.10.4

GUPPDUP Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Current group connection Voltage group connection Block of function Block of stage 1 Block of stage 2

Table 175:
Name TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START START1 START2 P PPERCENT Q QPERCENT

GUPPDUP Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Common trip signal Trip of stage 1 Trip of stage 2 Common start Start of stage 1 Start of stage 2 Active Power in MW Active power in % of SBASE Reactive power in Mvar Reactive power in % of SBASE

7.10.5
Table 176:
Name Operation OpMode1 Power1 Angle1 TripDelay1 DropDelay1 OpMode2 Power2 Angle2 TripDelay2 DropDelay2

Setting parameters
GUPPDUP Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On Off UnderPower 0.0 - 500.0 -180.0 - 180.0 0.010 - 6000.000 0.010 - 6000.000 Off UnderPower 0.0 - 500.0 -180.0 - 180.0 0.010 - 6000.000 0.010 - 6000.000 Unit %SB Deg s s %SB Deg s s Step 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 Default Off UnderPower 1.0 0.0 1.000 0.060 UnderPower 1.0 0.0 1.000 0.060 Description Operation Off / On Operation mode 1 Power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase Angle for stage 1 Trip delay for stage 1 Drop delay for stage 1 Operation mode 2 Power setting for stage 2 in % of Sbase Angle for stage 2 Trip delay for stage 2 Drop delay for stage 2 341

Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Table 177:
Name k Hysteresis1 Hysteresis2 IAmpComp5 IAmpComp30 IAmpComp100 UAmpComp5 UAmpComp30 UAmpComp100 IAngComp5 IAngComp30 IAngComp100

GUPPDUP Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 0.999 0.2 - 5.0 0.2 - 5.0 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 Unit pu pu % % % % % % Deg Deg Deg Step 0.001 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 0.000 0.5 0.5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Description Low pass filter coefficient for power measurement, P and Q Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % Sbase Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % Sbase Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 5% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 30% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 100% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 5% of Ur Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 30% of Ur Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 100% of Ur Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir

Table 178:
Name IBase UBase Mode

GUPPDUP Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 L1, L2, L3 Arone Pos Seq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1 L2 L3 Unit A kV Step 1 0.05 Default 3000 400.00 Pos Seq Description Base setting for current level Base setting for voltage level Selection of measured current and voltage

342 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection Technical data


Table 179:
Function Power level

7.10.6

GUPPDUP technical data


Range or value (0.0500.0)% of SBase When TRM module with measuring current transformer inputs is used the following accuracy can be obtained for low pickup settings which are typical for reverse power protection application: Accuracy 1.0% of Sr at S < Sr 1.0% of S at S > Sr Pickup value=0.5% of Sr accuracy of 0.20% of Sr*) Pickup value=0.25% of Sr accuracy of 0.15% of Sr*) where: Sr=3 x Ur x Ir 2 degrees 0.5% 10 ms

Characteristic angle Timers

(-180.0180.0) degrees (0.00-6000.00) s

*) To achieve this accuracy for reverse power protection it is also recommended to apply setting AngleN=-179.3 degrees instead of standard 180 degrees. This setting will help to minimize the overall measurement error ensuring the above stated accuracy for this application.

7.11

Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP


Function description Directional overpower protection IEC 61850 identification GOPPDOP IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 32

P>
DOCUMENT172362-IMG158942 V1 EN

7.11.1

Introduction
The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy. Sometimes, the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. Then, the synchronous generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the rest of the power system. This operating state, where individual synchronous machines operate as motors, implies no risk for the machine itself. If the generator under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power, it may be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system. Often, the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous state. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to protect the generator itself.

343 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 168 illustrates the low forward power and reverse power protection with underpower and overpower functions respectively. The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide better dependability. On the other hand, the risk for unwanted operation immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the underpower IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. One should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the generator is higher than 1%. When IED with a metering class input CTs is used pickup can be set to more sensitive value (e.g.0,5% or even to 0,2%).
Underpower IED Q Overpower IED Q

Operate Line Margin

Operate Line Margin

Operating point without turbine torque

Operating point without turbine torque

IEC06000315-2-en.vsd
IEC06000315 V2 EN

Figure 168:

Reverse power protection with underpower IED and overpower IED

7.11.2

Principle of operation
A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is shown in figure 169. The function has two stages with individual settings.

344 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection

Chosen current phasors Complex power calculation

P Derivation of S(composant) in Char angle S(angle) S(angle) > Power1 t TRIP1 START1

Chosen voltage phasors

S(angle) > Power2

TRIP2 START2

P = POWRE Q = POWIM

IEC06000567-2-en.vsd
IEC06000567 V2 EN

Figure 169:

Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function

The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing blocks. The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as shown in table 180.
Table 180:
Set value: Mode L1, L2, L3

Complex power calculation


Formula used for complex power calculation

S = U L1 I L1* + U L 2 I L 2* + U L 3 I L 3*
EQUATION1697 V1 EN

(Equation 86)

Arone

S = U L1L 2 I L1* - U L 2 L 3 I L 3*
EQUATION1698 V1 EN

(Equation 87)

PosSeq

S = 3 U PosSeq I PosSeq *
EQUATION1699 V1 EN

(Equation 88)

L1L2

S = U L1L 2 ( I L1* - I L 2* )
EQUATION1700 V1 EN

(Equation 89)

L2L3

S = U L 2 L 3 ( I L 2* - I L 3* )
EQUATION1701 V1 EN

(Equation 90)

L3L1

S = U L 3 L1 ( I L 3* - I L1* )
EQUATION1702 V1 EN

(Equation 91)

Table continues on next page

345 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection


Set value: Mode L1

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Formula used for complex power calculation

S = 3 U L1 I L1*
EQUATION1703 V1 EN

(Equation 92)

L2

S = 3 U L 2 I L 2*
EQUATION1704 V1 EN

(Equation 93)

L3

S = 3 U L 3 I L 3*
EQUATION1705 V1 EN

(Equation 94)

The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for monitoring and fault recording. The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is calculated. If this angle is 0 the active power component P is calculated. If this angle is 90 the reactive power component Q is calculated. The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting Power1(2). A start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power component is larger than the pick up value. After a set time delay TripDelay1(2) a trip TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the start signal is still active. At activation of any of the two stages a common signal START will be activated. At trip from any of the two stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated. To avoid instability there is a settable hysteresis in the power function. The absolute hysteresis of the stage1(2) is Hysteresis1(2) = abs (Power1(2) droppower1(2)). For generator reverse power protection the power setting is very low, normally down to 0.02 p.u. of rated generator power. The hysteresis should therefore be set to a smaller value. The drop-power value of stage1 can be calculated with the Power1(2), Hysteresis1(2): drop-power1(2) = Power1(2) Hysteresis1(2) For small power1 values the hysteresis1 may not be too big, because the droppower1(2) would be too small. In such cases, the hysteresis1 greater than (0.5 Power1(2)) is corrected to the minimal value. If the measured power drops under the drop-power1(2) value the function will reset after a set time DropDelay1(2). The reset means that the start signal will drop out ant that the timer of the stage will reset.

7.11.2.1

Low pass filtering


In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is possible to introduce the recursive, low pass filtering of the measured values for S (P, Q). This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the measured quantity. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following recursive formula:

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Section 7 Current protection

S = k SOld + (1 - k ) SCalculated
EQUATION1959 V1 EN

(Equation 95)

Where S Sold is a new measured value to be used for the protection function is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle

SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle k is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties

Default value for parameter k is 0.00. With this value the new calculated value is immediately given out without any filtering (that is, without any additional delay). When k is set to value bigger than 0, the filtering is enabled. A typical value for k = 0.92 in case of slow operating functions.

7.11.2.2

Calibration of analog inputs


Measured currents and voltages used in the Power function can be calibrated to get class 0.5 measuring accuracy. This is achieved by amplitude and angle compensation at 5, 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage. The compensation below 5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between, see example in figure 170.

347 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

IEC05000652 V2 EN

Figure 170:

Calibration curves

The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference and the amplitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals. Analog outputs from the function can be used for service values or in the disturbance report. The active power is provided as MW value: P, or in percent of base power: PPERCENT. The reactive power is provided as Mvar value: Q, or in percent of base power: QPERCENT.

7.11.3

Function block
GOPPDOP I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLOCK1 BLOCK2 TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START START1 START2 P PPERCENT Q QPERCENT IEC07000028-2-en.vsd
IEC07000028 V2 EN

Figure 171:

GOPPDOP function block

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Section 7 Current protection Input and output signals


Table 181:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLOCK1 BLOCK2

7.11.4

GOPPDOP Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Current group connection Voltage group connection Block of function Block of stage 1 Block of stage 2

Table 182:
Name TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START START1 START2 P PPERCENT Q QPERCENT

GOPPDOP Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Common trip signal Trip of stage 1 Trip of stage 2 Common start Start of stage 1 Start of stage 2 Active Power in MW Active power in % of SBASE Reactive power in Mvar Reactive power in % of SBASE

7.11.5
Table 183:
Name Operation OpMode1 Power1 Angle1 TripDelay1 DropDelay1 OpMode2 Power2 Angle2 TripDelay2 DropDelay2

Setting parameters
GOPPDOP Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On Off OverPower 0.0 - 500.0 -180.0 - 180.0 0.010 - 6000.000 0.010 - 6000.000 Off OverPower 0.0 - 500.0 -180.0 - 180.0 0.010 - 6000.000 0.010 - 6000.000 Unit %SB Deg s s %SB Deg s s Step 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 Default Off OverPower 120.0 0.0 1.000 0.060 OverPower 120.0 0.0 1.000 0.060 Description Operation Off / On Operation mode 1 Power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase Angle for stage 1 Trip delay for stage 1 Drop delay for stage 1 Operation mode 2 Power setting for stage 2 in % of Sbase Angle for stage 2 Trip delay for stage 2 Drop delay for stage 2 349

Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Table 184:
Name k Hysteresis1 Hysteresis2 IAmpComp5 IAmpComp30 IAmpComp100 UAmpComp5 UAmpComp30 UAmpComp100 IAngComp5 IAngComp30 IAngComp100

GOPPDOP Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 0.999 0.2 - 5.0 0.2 - 5.0 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 -10.000 - 10.000 Unit pu pu % % % % % % Deg Deg Deg Step 0.001 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 0.000 0.5 0.5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Description Low pass filter coefficient for power measurement, P and Q Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % of Sbase Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % of Sbase Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 5% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 30% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate current at 100% of Ir Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 5% of Ur Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 30% of Ur Amplitude factor to calibrate voltage at 100% of Ur Angle calibration for current at 5% of Ir Angle calibration for current at 30% of Ir Angle calibration for current at 100% of Ir

Table 185:
Name IBase UBase Mode

GOPPDOP Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 L1, L2, L3 Arone Pos Seq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1 L2 L3 Unit A kV Step 1 0.05 Default 3000 400.00 Pos Seq Description Base setting for current level Base setting for voltage level Selection of measured current and voltage

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Section 7 Current protection Technical data


Table 186:
Function Power level

7.11.6

GOPPDOP technical data


Range or value (0.0500.0)% of Sbase When TRM module with measuring current transformer inputs is used the following accuracy can be obtained for low pickup settings which are typical for reverse power protection application: Accuracy 1.0% of Sr at S < Sr 1.0% of S at S > Sr Pickup value=0.5% of Sr accuracy of 0.20% of Sr*) Pickup value=0.25% of Sr accuracy of 0.15% of Sr*) where: Sr=3 x Ur x Ir 2 degrees 0.5% 10 ms

Characteristic angle Timers

(-180.0180.0) degrees (0.00-6000.00) s

*) To achieve this accuracy for reverse power protection it is also recommended to apply setting AngleN=-179.3 degrees instead of standard 180 degrees. This setting will help to minimize the overall measurement error ensuring the above stated accuracy for this application.

7.12

Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC


Function description Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines IEC 61850 identification NS2PTOC IEC 60617 identification 2I2> ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 46I2

7.12.1

Introduction
Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines NS2PTOC is intended primarily for the protection of generators against possible overheating of the rotor caused by negative sequence current in the stator current. The negative sequence currents in a generator may, among others, be caused by: Unbalanced loads Line to line faults Line to earth faults Broken conductors Malfunction of one or more poles of a circuit breaker or a disconnector

NS2PTOC can also be used as a backup protection, that is, to protect the generator in case line protections or circuit breakers fail to clear unbalanced system faults.

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To provide an effective protection for the generator for external unbalanced conditions, NS2PTOC is able to directly measure the negative sequence current. NS2PTOC also has a time delay characteristic which matches the heating
2 characteristic of the generator I 2 t = K as defined in standard IEEE C50.13.
where: I2 t K is negative sequence current expressed in per unit of the rated generator current is operating time in seconds is a constant which depends of the generators size and design

NS2PTOC has a wide range of K settings and the sensitivity and capability of detecting and tripping for negative sequence currents down to the continuous capability of a generator. A separate output is available as an alarm feature to warn the operator of a potentially dangerous situation.

7.12.2

Principle of operation
The negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines (NS2PTOC) function directly measures the amplitude of the negative phase sequence component of the measured current. NS2PTOC sets the START, ST1 or ST2 outputs active and starts to count trip time only when the measured negative sequence current value rises above the set value of parameters I2-1> or I2-2> respectively. To avoid oscillation in the output signals, a certain hysteresis has been included. For both steps, the reset ratio is 0.97. Step 1 of NS2PTOC can operate in the Definite Time (DT) or Inverse Time (IDMT) mode depending on the selected value for the CurveType1 parameter. If CurveType1= Definite, NS2PTOC operates with a Definite Time Delay characteristic and if CurveType1 = Inverse, NS2PTOC operates with an Inverse Time Delay characteristic. Step 2 can only operate in the Definite Time (DT) mode. The characteristic defines the time period between the moment when measured negative sequence current exceeds the set start levels in parameter I2-1> or I2-2> until the trip signal is initiated. Definite time delay is not dependent on the magnitude of measured negative sequence current. Once the measured negative sequence current exceeds the set level, the settable definite timer t1 or t2 respectively, starts to count and the corresponding trip signal gets activated after the pre-set definite time delay has elapsed. Reset time in definite time mode is determined by the setting parameters tResetDef1 or tResetDef2 respectively. If NS2PTOC has already started but not tripped and measured negative sequence current drops below the start value, the start outputs remains active for the time defined by the resetting parameters.

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Section 7 Current protection

A BLOCK input signal resets NS2PTOC momentarily. When the parameter CurveType1 is set to Inverse, an inverse curve is selected according to selected value for parameter K1. The minimum trip time setting of parameter t1Min and reset time parameter ResetMultip1 also influence step operation. However, to match the heating characteristics of the generator, the reset time is depending on the setting of parameter K1, which must be set according to the generators negative sequence current capacity.

K = I 2 2t
EQUATION2112 V1 EN

Where: I2 t K is negative sequence current expressed in per unit of the rated generator current is operating time in seconds is a constant [s], which depends on generator size and design

Operate time

t1Max (Default= 1000 s)

t1Min (Default= 5 s)

K1

Current I2-1>
IEC09000691-2-en.vsd
IEC09000691 V2 EN

Figure 172:

Inverse time characteristic with t1Min and t1Max

For a detailed description of inverse time characteristic, see chapter "Inverse characteristics". The reset time is exponential and is given by the following expression:

353 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

ResetMultip ResetTime [ s ] = K1 I 2 NS 1 I Start


EQUATION2111 V2 EN

(Equation 96)

Where INS IStart is the measured negative sequence current is the desired start level in pu of rated generator current is multiplier of the generator capability constant K equal to setting K1 and thus defines reset time of inverse time characteristic

ResetMultip

7.12.2.1

Start sensitivity
The trip start levels Current I2-1> and I2-2> of NS2PTOC are freely settable over a range of 3 to 500 % of rated generator current IBase. The wide range of start setting is required in order to be able to protect generators of different types and sizes. After start, a certain hysteresis is used before resetting start levels. For both steps the reset ratio is 0.97.

7.12.2.2

Alarm function
The alarm function is operated by START signal and used to warn the operator for an abnormal situation, for example, when generator continuous negative sequence current capability is exceeded, thereby allowing corrective action to be taken before removing the generator from service. A settable time delay tAlarm is provided for the alarm function to avoid false alarms during short-time unbalanced conditions.

354 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection


Logic diagram
DT time selected Negative sequence current
a b a>b

7.12.2.3

t1 OR

TR1

I2-1>

AND
Inverse

ST1

Operation=ON BLKST1 Inverse time selected

BLOCK

IEC08000466-2-en.vsd
IEC08000466-1-EN V2 EN

Figure 173:

Simplified logic diagram for step 1 of Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines (NS2PTOC)

Step 2 for Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines (NS2PTOC) is similar to step 1 above except that it lacks the inverse characteristic.

ST1 ST2

OR tAlarm

START

ALARM

TR1 TR2

OR

TRIP

IEC09000690-2-en.vsd
IEC09000690 V2 EN

Figure 174:

Simplified logic diagram for the START, ALARM and TRIP signals for NS2PTOC

7.12.3

Function block
NS2PTOC I3P* BLOCK BLKST1 BLKST2 TRIP TR1 TR2 START ST1 ST2 ALARM NSCURR IEC08000359-2-en.vsd
IEC08000359-1-EN V2 EN

Figure 175:

NS2PTOC function block

355 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection 7.12.4 Input and output signals


Table 187:
Name I3P BLOCK BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKTR

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

NS2PTOC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 Description Group connection for neg seq. Block of function Block of step 1 Block of step 2 Block of trip signals

Table 188:
Name TRIP TR1 TR2 START ST1 ST2 ALARM NSCURR

NS2PTOC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL Description Common trip signal Trip signal for step 1 Trip signal for step 2 Common start signal Start signal for step 1 Start signal for step 2 Alarm signal Negative sequence current in primary amps

7.12.5
Table 189:
Name Operation IBase tAlarm OpStep1 I2-1> CurveType1 t1 tResetDef1 K1

Setting parameters
NS2PTOC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.00 - 6000.00 Off On 3 - 500 Definite Inverse 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 99.0 Unit A s %IB s s s Step 1 0.01 1 0.01 0.001 0.1 Default Off 3000 3.00 On 10 Definite 10.00 0.000 10.0 Description Operation Off / On Rated generator current in primary Amperes Time delay for Alarm (operated by START signal), in sec Enable execution of step 1 Step 1 Neg. Seq. Current pickup level, in % of IBase Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri. for step 1 Definite time delay for trip of step 1, in sec Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 1, in sec Neg. seq. capability value of generator for step 1, in sec

Table continues on next page

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Section 7 Current protection


Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 0.00 - 6000.00 0.01 - 20.00 Off On 3 - 500 Definite Inverse 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 1.0 - 99.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.00 - 6000.00 0.01 - 20.00 Unit s s %IB s s s s s Step 0.001 0.01 0.01 1 0.01 0.001 0.1 0.001 0.01 0.01 Default 5.000 1000.00 1.00 On 10 Definite 10.00 0.000 10.0 5.000 1000.00 1.00 Description Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 1, in sec Maximum trip delay for step 1, in sec Reset multiplier for K1, defines reset time of inverse curve Enable execution of step 2 Step 2 Neg. Seq. Current pickup level, in % of IBase Selection of definite or inverse timecharacteri. for step 2 Definite time delay for trip of step 2, in sec Time delay for reset of definite timer of step 2, in sec Neg. seq. capability value of generator for step 2, in sec Minimum trip time for inverse delay of step 2, in sec Maximum trip delay for step 2, in sec Reset multiplier for K2, defines reset time of inverse curve

Name t1Min t1Max ResetMultip1 OpStep2 I2-2> CurveType2 t2 tResetDef2 K2 t2Min t2Max ResetMultip2

7.12.6

Technical data
Table 190:
Function Operate value, step 1 and 2, negative sequence overcurrent Reset ratio, step 1 and 2 Operate time, start Reset time, start Time characteristics Inverse time characteristic step 1, I 22t = K Reset time, inverse characteristic step 1, I 22t = K

NS2PTOC technical data


Range or value (3-500)% of IBase Accuracy 1.0% of Ir at I < Ir 1.0% of I at I > Ir

>95% 20 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 15 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset 30 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset Definite or Inverse K=1.0-99.0

5% + 40 ms

K=0.01-20.00

10% + 40 ms

Table continues on next page

357 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection


Function Maximum trip delay, step 1 IDMT Minimum trip delay, step 1 IDMT Timers Range or value (0.00-6000.00) s (0.000-60.000) s (0.00-6000.00) s Accuracy

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms

7.13

Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator AEGGAPC


Function description Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator IEC 61850 identification AEGGAPC IEC 60617 identification U<I> ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 50AE

7.13.1

Introduction
Inadvertent or accidental energizing of off-line generators has occurred often enough due to operating errors, breaker head flashovers, control circuit malfunctions, or a combination of these causes. Inadvertently energized generator operates as induction motor drawing a large current from the system. The voltage supervised overcurrent protection is used to protect the inadvertently energized generator. Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator (AEGGAPC) takes the maximum phase current input from the generator terminal side or from generator neutral side and maximum phase to phase voltage inputs from the terminal side. AEGGAPC is enabled when the terminal voltage drops below the specified voltage level for the preset time.

7.13.2

Principle of operation
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator AEGGAPC function is connected to three phase current input either from the generator terminal side or from generator neutral point side and three phase voltage from the generator terminals. The maximum of the three phase-to-phase voltages and maximum of the three phase currents are measured. When the maximum phase-to-phase voltage is less than the ArmU< for the period tArm, it is ensured that the generator is off-line. The ARMED signal will initiate the overcurrent function. If the calculated maximum current of the three phases is larger than I> for the period tOC then the TRIP signal becomes activated. Also START signal becomes activated when overcurrent is detected.

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Section 7 Current protection

When the maximum phase-to-phase voltage is larger than DisarmU> for the period tDisarm, it is ensured generator is on line. During this state, undervoltage operation is disarmed, blocking the overcurrent operation and thus the function becomes inoperative. BLOCK input can be used to block AEGGAPC . In addition, the BLKTR input that blocks the TRIP signal is also present. The input BLKTR can be used if AEGGAPC is to be used only for monitoring purposes.
Imax_DFT I> Operation = ON BLOCK START

a a>b b AND t tOC TRIP

ARMED

Uph-ph_max_DFT a a<b ArmU< b

tArm t AND ON - Delay tDisarm a a>b t ON - Delay


IEC09000784-2-en.vsd

S R

OUT NOUT

OR

DisarmU>

IEC09000784 V2 EN

Figure 176:

AEGGAPC logic diagram

7.13.3

Function block
AEGGAPC I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKTR TRIP START ARMED

IEC09000783-1-en.vsd
IEC09000783 V1 EN

Figure 177:

AEGGAPC Function block

359 Technical reference manual

Section 7 Current protection 7.13.4 Input and output signals


Table 191:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLKTR

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

AEGGAPC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 Description Three Phase Current input Three Phase Voltage input Block of function Block of trip

Table 192:
Name TRIP START ARMED

AEGGAPC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip signal from accidental energizing protection Start signal from accidental energizing protection One when accidental energizing protection is armed

7.13.5
Table 193:
Name Operation IBase UBase I> tOC ArmU< tArm DisarmU> tDisarm

Setting parameters
AEGGAPC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 2 - 900 0.000 - 60.000 2 - 200 0.000 - 60.000 2 - 200 0.000 - 60.000 Unit A kV %IB s %UB s %UB s Step 1 0.05 1 0.001 1 0.001 1 0.001 Default Off 3000 20.00 120 0.030 50 5.000 80 0.500 Description Operation Off / On Base current (primary phase current in A) Base voltage (primary phase-to-phase voltage in kV) Operate phase current level in % of IBase Trip time delay for over current level Under-voltage level to arm protection in % of UBase Time delay to arm protection with U< level Over-voltage level to disarm protection in % of UBase Time delay to disarm protection with U> level

360 Technical reference manual

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Section 7 Current protection Technical data


Table 194:
Function Operate value, overcurrent Reset ratio, overcurrent Transient overreach, overcurrent function Critical impulse time, overcurrent Impulse margin time, overcurrent Operate value, undervoltage Critical impulse time, undervoltage Impulse margin time, undervoltage Operate value, overvoltage Timers

7.13.6

AEGGAPC technical data


Range or value (2-900)% of IBase >95% <10% at = 100 ms 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 10 ms typically (2-200)% of UBase 10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Uset 15 ms typically (2-200)% of UBase (0.000-60.000) s Accuracy 1,0% of Ir at I<Ir 1.0% of I at I>Ir 0.5% of Ur at U<Ur 0.5% of U at U>Ur 0.5% of Ur at U<Ur 0.5% of U at U>Ur 0.5% 10 ms

361 Technical reference manual

362

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Section 8 Voltage protection

Section 8

Voltage protection

About this chapter


This chapter describes voltage related protection functions. The way the functions work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are included for each function.

8.1

Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV


Function description Two step undervoltage protection IEC 61850 identification UV2PTUV IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 27

3U<
SYMBOL-R-2U-GREATER-THAN V2 EN

8.1.1

Introduction
Undervoltages can occur in the power system during faults or abnormal conditions. Two step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV) function can be used to open circuit breakers to prepare for system restoration at power outages or as long-time delayed back-up to primary protection. UV2PTUV has two voltage steps, each with inverse or definite time delay.

8.1.2

Principle of operation
Two-step undervoltage protection (UV2PTUV) is used to detect low power system voltage. UV2PTUV has two voltage measuring steps with separate time delays. If one, two or three phase voltages decrease below the set value, a corresponding START signal is generated. UV2PTUV can be set to START/TRIP based on 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 of the measured voltages, being below the set point. If the voltage remains below the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted trip due to disconnection of the related high voltage equipment, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available, that is, if the voltage is lower than the set blocking level the function is blocked and no START or TRIP signal is generated.The time delay characteristic is individually chosen for each step and can be either definite time delay or inverse time delay.

363 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

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UV2PTUV can be set to measure phase-to-earth fundamental value, phase-to-phase fundamental value, phase-to-earth true RMS value or phase-to-phase true RMS value. The choice of the measuring is done by the parameter ConnType. The voltage related settings are made in percent of base voltage which is set in kV phaseto-phase voltage. This means operation for phase-to-earth voltage under:

U < (%) UBase(kV ) 3


EQUATION1429 V2 EN

(Equation 97)

and operation for phase-to-phase voltage under:


U < (%) UBase(kV)
EQUATION1990 V1 EN

(Equation 98)

When phase-to-earth voltage measurement is selected the function automatically introduces division of the base value by the square root of three.

8.1.2.1

Measurement principle
Depending on the set ConnType value, UV2PTUV measures phase-to-earth or phaseto-phase voltages and compare against set values, U1< and U2<. The parameters OpMode1 and OpMode2 influence the requirements to activate the START outputs. Either 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3, or 3 out of 3 measured voltages have to be lower than the corresponding set point to issue the corresponding START signal. To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.

8.1.2.2

Time delay
The time delay for the two steps can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse time delay (IDMT). For the inverse time delay three different modes are available: inverse curve A inverse curve B customer programmable inverse curve

The type A curve is described as:

t=

k Un < -U Un <
(Equation 99)

EQUATION1431 V2 EN

364 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

where: Un< U Set value for step 1 and step 2 Measured voltage

The type B curve is described as:


t= k 480 Un < - U - 0.5 32 Un <
2.0

+ 0.055

EQUATION1432 V2 EN

(Equation 100)

The customer programmable curve can be created as:

kA t= +D p Un < - U -C B Un <
EQUATION1433 V2 EN

(Equation 101)

When the denominator in the expression is equal to zero the time delay will be infinity. There will be an undesired discontinuity. Therefore a tuning parameter CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. In the voltage interval Un< down to Un< (1.0 CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: Un< (1.0 CrvSatn/ 100). If the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that:

CrvSatn -C > 0 100


(Equation 102)

EQUATION1435 V1 EN

The lowest voltage is always used for the inverse time delay integration. The details of the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section 22.3 "Inverse characteristics".

365 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Voltage

UL1 UL2 UL3

IDMT Voltage

Time
IEC12000186-1-en.vsd
IEC12000186 V1 EN

Figure 178:

Voltage used for the inverse time characteristic integration

Trip signal issuing requires that the undervoltage condition continues for at least the user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite time mode (DT) and by some special voltage level dependent time curves for the inverse time mode (IDMT). If the start condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined reset time (tReset1 and tReset2 for the definite time and tIReset1 and tIReset2pickup for the inverse time) the corresponding start output is reset. Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the start condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area. Note that for the undervoltage function the IDMT reset time is constant and does not depend on the voltage fluctuations during the drop-off period. However, there are three ways to reset the timer, either the timer is reset instantaneously, or the timer value is frozen during the reset time, or the timer value is linearly decreased during the reset time. See figure 179 and figure 180.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

tIReset1 Voltage

tIReset1
START HystAbs1 TRIP

Measured Voltage

U1<

Time START TRIP t

Time Integrator t

Frozen Timer

Instantaneous

Linearly decreased

Time
IEC05000010-4-en.vsd

IEC05000010 V4 EN

Figure 179:

Voltage profile not causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay at different reset types

367 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Voltage START

tIReset1 tIReset1 START HystAbs1 TRIP Measured Voltage

U1<

Time START t

TRIP

Time Integrator t

Frozen Timer

Time Instantaneous Linearly decreased


IEC05000011-en-3.vsd
IEC05000011 V3 EN

Figure 180:

Voltage profile causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay at different reset types

Definite timer delay When definite time delay is selected the function will operate as shown in figure 181. Detailed information about individual stage reset/operation behavior is shown in figure 182 and figure 183 respectively. Note that by setting tResetn = 0.0s, instantaneous reset of the definite time delayed stage is ensured.

368 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

ST1

U U1<

a a<b b

tReset1 t OFF Delay t

t1 TR1 AND ON Delay

IEC09000785-2-en.vsd
IEC09000785 V2 EN

Figure 181:

Detailed logic diagram for step 1, DT operation

U1<

START

TRIP tReset1

t1

IEC10000039-2-en.vsd
IEC10000039 V2 EN

Figure 182:

Example for Definite Time Delay stage1 reset

369 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

U1<

START

TRIP

tReset1

t1

IEC10000040-2-en.vsd
IEC10000040 V2 EN

Figure 183:

Example for Definite Time Delay stage1 operation

8.1.2.3

Blocking
It is possible to block Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV partially or completely, by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: BLKTR1: BLKST1: BLKTR2: BLKST2: blocks all outputs blocks all trip outputs of step 1 blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 1 blocks all trip outputs of step 2 blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 2

If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlkStVal1, either the trip output of step 1, or both the trip and the START outputs of step 1, are blocked. The characteristic of the blocking is set by the IntBlkSel1 parameter. This internal blocking can also be set to Off resulting in no voltage based blocking. Corresponding settings and functionality are valid also for step 2. In case of disconnection of the high voltage component the measured voltage will get very low. The event will START both the under voltage function and the blocking function, as seen in figure 184. The delay of the blocking function must be set less than the time delay of under voltage function.

370 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 8 Voltage protection

Disconnection

Normal voltage U1< U2<

tBlkUV1 < t1,t1Min IntBlkStVal1 IntBlkStVal2 Time Block step 1 Block step 2
en05000466.vsd
IEC05000466 V1 EN

tBlkUV2 < t2,t2Min

Figure 184:

Blocking function

8.1.2.4

Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the three phase-to-neutral voltages or the three phase-to-phase voltages. Recursive fourier filters or true RMS filters of input voltage signals are used. The voltages are individually compared to the set value, and the lowest voltage is used for the inverse time characteristic integration. A special logic is included to achieve the 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 and 3 out of 3 criteria to fulfill the START condition. The design of Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV is schematically shown in Figure 185.

371 Technical reference manual

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

UL1

Comparator
UL1 < U1<

UL2

Comparator
UL2 < U1<

Voltage Phase Selector OpMode1 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 IntBlkStVal1


START

ST1L1
Phase 1

ST1L2
Phase 2 Phase 3

UL3

Comparator
UL3 < U1<

Start t1 t1Reset & Trip Output Logic Step 1

ST1L3 ST1 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR1

OR

Time integrator MinVoltSelector


tIReset1 ResetTypeCrv1

TRIP

OR Comparator
UL1 < U2<

Comparator
UL2 < U2<

Comparator
UL3 < U2<

Voltage Phase Selector OpMode2 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 IntBlkStVal2


START Time integrator tIReset2 ResetTypeCrv2

ST2L1
Phase 1

ST2L2
Phase 2 Phase 3

Start t2 t2Reset & Trip Output Logic Step 2

ST2L3 ST2 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 TR2 OR START

OR

TRIP

MinVoltSelector

OR

OR

TRIP

IEC05000834-2-en.vsd
IEC05000834 V2 EN

Figure 185:

Schematic design of Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV

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Section 8 Voltage protection Function block


UV2PTUV U3P* BLOCK BLKTR1 BLKST1 BLKTR2 BLKST2 TRIP TR1 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 START ST1 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 IEC06000276-2-en.vsd
IEC06000276 V2 EN

8.1.3

Figure 186:

UV2PTUV function block

8.1.4

Input and output signals


Table 195:
Name U3P BLOCK BLKTR1 BLKST1 BLKTR2 BLKST2

UV2PTUV Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 Description Three phase voltages Block of function Block of operate signal, step 1 Block of step 1 Block of operate signal, step 2 Block of step 2

Table 196:
Name TRIP TR1 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 START

UV2PTUV Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Common trip signal from step1 Trip signal from step1 phase L1 Trip signal from step1 phase L2 Trip signal from step1 phase L3 Common trip signal from step2 Trip signal from step2 phase L1 Trip signal from step2 phase L2 Trip signal from step2 phase L3 General start signal

Table continues on next page

373 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection


Name ST1 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Common start signal from step1 Start signal from step1 phase L1 Start signal from step1 phase L2 Start signal from step1 phase L3 Common start signal from step2 Start signal from step2 phase L1 Start signal from step2 phase L2 Start signal from step2 phase L3

8.1.5
Table 197:
Name Operation UBase OperationStep1 Characterist1

Setting parameters
UV2PTUV Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 2000.00 Off On Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Prog. inv. curve 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 1 - 100 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.10 Off Block of trip Block all 1 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 0.0 - 100.0 Off On Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Prog. inv. curve Unit kV Step 0.05 Default Off 400.00 On Definite time Description Operation Off / On Base voltage Enable execution of step 1 Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

OpMode1

1 out of 3

Number of phases required for op (1 of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase, step 1 Definitive time delay of step 1 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 Internal (low level) blocking mode, step 1

U1< t1 t1Min k1 IntBlkSel1

%UB s s -

1 0.01 0.001 0.01 -

70 5.00 5.000 0.05 Off

IntBlkStVal1 tBlkUV1 HystAbs1 OperationStep2 Characterist2

%UB s %UB -

1 0.001 0.1 -

20 0.000 0.5 On Definite time

Voltage setting for internal blocking in % of UBase, step 1 Time delay of internal (low level) blocking for step 1 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 1 Enable execution of step 2 Selection of time delay curve type for step 2

Table continues on next page

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Section 8 Voltage protection


Values (Range) 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 1 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.10 Off Block of trip Block all 1 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 0.0 - 100.0 Unit Step Default 1 out of 3 Description Number of phases required for op (1 of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 2 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase, step 2 Definitive time delay of step 2 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 Internal (low level) blocking mode, step 2

Name OpMode2

U2< t2 t2Min k2 IntBlkSel2

%UB s s -

1 0.001 0.001 0.01 -

50 5.000 5.000 0.05 Off

IntBlkStVal2 tBlkUV2 HystAbs2

%UB s %UB

1 0.001 0.1

20 0.000 0.5

Voltage setting for internal blocking in % of UBase, step 2 Time delay of internal (low level) blocking for step 2 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 2

Table 198:
Name tReset1 ResetTypeCrv1

UV2PTUV Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.50 - 100.00 0.0 - 1.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 3.000 0 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 200.000 Unit s Step 0.001 Default 0.025 Instantaneous Description Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 1 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Tuning param for prog. under voltage IDMT curve, step 1 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 2 Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 2 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2

tIReset1 ACrv1 BCrv1 CCrv1 DCrv1 PCrv1 CrvSat1 tReset2 ResetTypeCrv2

s % s -

0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 1 0.001 -

0.025 1.000 1.00 0.0 0.000 1.000 0 0.025 Instantaneous

tIReset2 ACrv2

s -

0.001 0.001

0.025 1.000

Table continues on next page

375 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection


Name BCrv2 CCrv2 DCrv2 PCrv2 CrvSat2 Values (Range) 0.50 - 100.00 0.0 - 1.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 3.000 0 - 100 Unit % Step 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 1 Default 1.00 0.0 0.000 1.000 0 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Tuning param for prog. under voltage IDMT curve, step 2

Table 199:
Name ConnType

UV2PTUV Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) PhN DFT PhPh RMS PhN RMS PhPh DFT Unit Step Default PhN DFT Description Group selector for connection type

8.1.6

Technical data
Table 200:
Function Operate voltage, low and high step Absolute hysteresis Internal blocking level, step 1 and step 2 Inverse time characteristics for step 1 and step 2, see table 592 Definite time delay, step 1 Definite time delays Minimum operate time, inverse characteristics Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Critical impulse time Impulse margin time

UV2PTUV technical data


Range or value (1100)% of UBase (0100)% of UBase (1100)% of UBase Accuracy 0.5% of Ur 0.5% of Ur 0.5% of Ur

See table 592

(0.00 - 6000.00) s (0.000-60.000) s (0.00060.000) s

0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms

25 ms typically at 2 x Uset to 0 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 10 ms typically at 2 x Uset to 0 15 ms typically

376 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

8.2

Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV


Function description Two step overvoltage protection IEC 61850 identification OV2PTOV IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 59

3U>
SYMBOL-C-2U-SMALLER-THAN V2 EN

8.2.1

Introduction
Overvoltages may occur in the power system during abnormal conditions such as sudden power loss, tap changer regulating failures, open line ends on long lines etc. Two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV) function can be used to detect open line ends, normally then combined with a directional reactive over-power function to supervise the system voltage. When triggered, the function will cause an alarm, switch in reactors, or switch out capacitor banks. OV2PTOV has two voltage steps, each of them with inverse or definite time delayed. OV2PTOV has an extremely high reset ratio to allow settings close to system service voltage.

8.2.2

Principle of operation
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV is used to detect high power system voltage. OV2PTOV has two steps with separate time delays. If one-, two- or threephase voltages increase above the set value, a corresponding START signal is issued. OV2PTOV can be set to START/TRIP, based on 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 of the measured voltages, being above the set point. If the voltage remains above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. The time delay characteristic is individually chosen for the two steps and can be either, definite time delay or inverse time delay. The voltage related settings are made in percent of the global set base voltage UBase, which is set in kV, phase-to-phase. OV2PTOV can be set to measure phase-to-earth fundamental value, phase-to-phase fundamental value, phase-to-earth RMS value or phase-to-phase RMS value. The choice of measuring is done by the parameter ConnType. The setting of the analog inputs are given as primary phase-to-earth or phase-tophase voltage. OV2PTOV will operate if the voltage gets higher than the set

377 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

percentage of the set base voltage UBase. This means operation for phase-to-earth voltage over:

U > (%) UBase( kV ) 3


EQUATION1434 V1 EN

(Equation 103)

and operation for phase-to-phase voltage over:


U > (%) UBase(kV)
EQUATION1993 V1 EN

(Equation 104)

When phase-to-earth voltage measurement is selected the function automatically introduces division of the base value by the square root of three.

8.2.2.1

Measurement principle
All the three voltages are measured continuously, and compared with the set values, U1> and U2>. The parameters OpMode1 and OpMode2 influence the requirements to activate the START outputs. Either 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 measured voltages have to be higher than the corresponding set point to issue the corresponding START signal. To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.

8.2.2.2

Time delay
The time delay for the two steps can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse time delay (IDMT). For the inverse time delay four different modes are available: inverse curve A inverse curve B inverse curve C customer programmable inverse curve

The type A curve is described as:

t=

k U -U > U>
(Equation 105)

IEC09000051 V1 EN

The type B curve is described as:

378 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 8 Voltage protection

t=

k 480

32 U - U > - 0.5 U >

2.0

- 0.035

IECEQUATION2287 V1 EN

(Equation 106)

The type C curve is described as:


t= k 480 + 0.035

32 U - U > - 0.5 U >

3.0

IECEQUATION2288 V1 EN

(Equation 107)

The customer programmable curve can be created as:

t=

kA U -Un > -C B Un >


p

+D

EQUATION1439 V2 EN

(Equation 108)

When the denominator in the expression is equal to zero the time delay will be infinity. There will be an undesired discontinuity. Therefore, a tuning parameter CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. In the voltage interval U< down to U< (1.0 CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: U< (1.0 CrvSatn/100). If the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that:

CrvSatn -C > 0 100


(Equation 109)

EQUATION1435 V1 EN

The highest phase (or phase-to-phase) voltage is always used for the inverse time delay integration, see figure 187. The details of the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section "Inverse characteristics"

379 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Voltage IDMT Voltage

UL1 UL2 UL3

Time
IEC05000016-2-en.vsd
IEC05000016 V2 EN

Figure 187:

Voltage used for the inverse time characteristic integration

Trip signal issuing requires that the overvoltage condition continues for at least the user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite time mode (DT) and by selected voltage level dependent time curves for the inverse time mode (IDMT). If the START condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined reset time (tReset1 and tReset2 for the definite time and tIReset1 and tIReset2 for the inverse time) the corresponding START output is reset, after that the defined reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area. The hysteresis value for each step is settable (HystAbs2) to allow an high and accurate reset of the function. It should be noted that for Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV the IDMT reset time is constant and does not depend on the voltage fluctuations during the drop-off period. However, there are three ways to reset the timer, either the timer is reset instantaneously, or the timer value is frozen during the reset time, or the timer value is linearly decreased during the reset time..

380 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

tIReset1 Voltage START tIReset1 TRIP

U1>

HystAbs1

Measured Voltage

Time START t

TRIP

Time Integrator Frozen Timer t

Linearly decreased

Instantaneous
IEC09000055 V2 EN

Time
IEC09000055-2-en.vsd

Figure 188:

Voltage profile not causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay

381 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Voltage START

tIReset1 START HystAbs1 TRIP

tIReset1

U1> Measured Voltage

Time START t

TRIP

Time Integrator

Frozen Timer

Time Instantaneous
IEC05000020 V3 EN

Linearly decreased

IEC05000020-3-en.vsd

Figure 189:

Voltage profile causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay

Definite time delay When definite time delay is selected the function will operate as shown in figure 190. Detailed information about individual stage reset/operation behavior is shown in figure 182 and figure 183 receptively. Note that by setting tResetn = 0.0s instantaneous reset of the definite time delayed stage is ensured

382 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

ST1

U U1>

a a>b b

tReset1 t OFF Delay t

t1 TR1 AND ON Delay

IEC10000100-2-en.vsd
IEC10000100 V2 EN

Figure 190:

Detailed logic diagram for step 1, DT operation

U1>

START

TRIP tReset1

t1

IEC10000037-2-en.vsd
IEC10000037 V2 EN

Figure 191:

Example for Definite Time Delay stage rest

383 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

U1>

START

TRIP

tReset1

t1

IEC10000038-2-en.vsd
IEC10000038 V2 EN

Figure 192:

Example for Definite Time Delay stage operation

8.2.2.3

Blocking
It is possible to block Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV partially or completely, by binary input signals where:
BLOCK: BLKTR1: BLKST1: BLKTR2: BLKST2: blocks all outputs blocks all trip outputs of step 1 blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 1 blocks all trip outputs of step 2 blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 2

8.2.2.4

Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the three phase-to-earth voltages or the three phase-to-phase voltages. Recursive Fourier filters filter the input voltage signals. The phase voltages are individually compared to the set value, and the highest voltage is used for the inverse time characteristic integration. A special logic is included to achieve the 1 out of 3, 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3 criteria to fulfill the START condition. The design of Two step overvoltage protection (OV2PTOV) is schematically described in figure 193.

384 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

UL1

Comparator UL1 > U1> Comparator UL2 > U1> Comparator UL3 > U1>

ST1L1 Voltage Phase Selector OpMode1 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3


Phase 1

UL2

ST1L2
Phase 2 Phase 3

UL3

START Time integrator tIreset1 ResetTypeCrv1

Start t1 t1Reset & Trip Output Logic Step 1

ST1L3 ST1 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR1

OR

MaxVoltSelect

TRIP

OR

Comparator UL1 > U2> Comparator UL2 > U2> Comparator UL3 > U2>

Voltage Phase Selector OpMode2 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

ST2L1 ST2L2 Start t2 t2Reset & Trip Output Logic Step 2 ST2L3 ST2 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 TR2
START

OR

START Time integrator tIreset2 ResetTypeCrv2

MaxVoltSelect

TRIP

OR OR

OR

TRIP

IEC05000013-2-en.vsd
IEC05000013-WMF V2 EN

Figure 193:

Schematic design of Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV

385 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection 8.2.3 Function block


OV2PTOV U3P* BLOCK BLKTR1 BLKST1 BLKTR2 BLKST2 TRIP TR1 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 START ST1 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 IEC06000277-2-en.vsd
IEC06000277 V2 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 194:

OV2PTOV function block

8.2.4

Input and output signals


Table 201:
Name U3P BLOCK BLKTR1 BLKST1 BLKTR2 BLKST2

OV2PTOV Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 Description Group signal for three phase voltage input Block of function Block of operate signal, step 1 Block of step 1 Block of operate signal, step 2 Block of step 2

Table 202:
Name TRIP TR1 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 START

OV2PTOV Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Common trip signal from step1 Trip signal from step1 phase L1 Trip signal from step1 phase L2 Trip signal from step1 phase L3 Common trip signal from step2 Trip signal from step2 phase L1 Trip signal from step2 phase L2 Trip signal from step2 phase L3 General start signal

Table continues on next page

386 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection


Name ST1 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Common start signal from step1 Start signal from step1 phase L1 Start signal from step1 phase L2 Start signal from step1 phase L3 Common start signal from step2 Start signal from step2 phase L1 Start signal from step2 phase L2 Start signal from step2 phase L3

8.2.5
Table 203:
Name Operation UBase OperationStep1 Characterist1

Setting parameters
OV2PTOV Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 2000.00 Off On Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. inv. curve 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 1 - 200 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.10 0.0 - 100.0 Off On Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. inv. curve 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 1 - 200 Unit kV Step 0.05 Default Off 400.00 On Definite time Description Operation Off / On Base voltage Enable execution of step 1 Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

OpMode1

1 out of 3

Number of phases required for op (1 of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase, step 1 Definitive time delay of step 1 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 1 Enable execution of step 2 Selection of time delay curve type for step 2

U1> t1 t1Min k1 HystAbs1 OperationStep2 Characterist2

%UB s s %UB -

1 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.1 -

120 5.00 5.000 0.05 0.5 On Definite time

OpMode2

1 out of 3

Number of phases required for op (1 of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 2 Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT) in % of UBase, step 2

U2>

%UB

150

Table continues on next page

387 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection


Name t2 t2Min k2 HystAbs2 Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.10 0.0 - 100.0 Unit s s %UB Step 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 Default 5.000 5.000 0.05 0.5 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Definitive time delay of step 2 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 2

Table 204:
Name tReset1 ResetTypeCrv1

OV2PTOV Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.50 - 100.00 0.0 - 1.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 3.000 0 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.50 - 100.00 0.0 - 1.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 3.000 0 - 100 Unit s Step 0.001 Default 0.025 Instantaneous Description Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 1 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Tuning param for prog. over voltage IDMT curve, step 1 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 2 Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 2 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Tuning param for prog. over voltage IDMT curve, step 2

tIReset1 ACrv1 BCrv1 CCrv1 DCrv1 PCrv1 CrvSat1 tReset2 ResetTypeCrv2

s % s -

0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 1 0.001 -

0.025 1.000 1.00 0.0 0.000 1.000 0 0.025 Instantaneous

tIReset2 ACrv2 BCrv2 CCrv2 DCrv2 PCrv2 CrvSat2

s %

0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 1

0.025 1.000 1.00 0.0 0.000 1.000 0

388 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

Table 205:
Name ConnType

OV2PTOV Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) PhN DFT PhPh DFT PhN RMS PhPh RMS Unit Step Default PhN DFT Description Group selector for connection type

8.2.6

Technical data
Table 206:
Function Operate voltage, step 1 and 2 Absolute hysteresis Inverse time characteristics for steps 1 and 2, see table 591 Definite time delay, step 1 Definite time delays Minimum operate time, Inverse characteristics Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Critical impulse time Impulse margin time

OV2PTOV technical data


Range or value (1-200)% of UBase (0100)% of UBase Accuracy 0.5% of Ur at U < Ur 0.5% of U at U > Ur 0.5% of Ur at U < Ur 0.5% of U at U > Ur See table 591

(0.00 - 6000.00) s (0.000-60.000) s (0.000-60.000) s

0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms

25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Uset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 15 ms typically

8.3

Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV


Function description Two step residual overvoltage protection IEC 61850 identification ROV2PTOV IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 59N

3U0
TRV V1 EN

389 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection 8.3.1 Introduction

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Residual voltages may occur in the power system during earth faults. Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV function calculates the residual voltage from the three-phase voltage input transformers or measures it from a single voltage input transformer fed from an open delta or neutral point voltage transformer. ROV2PTOV has two voltage steps, each with inverse or definite time delay. Reset delay ensures operation for intermittent earth faults.

8.3.2

Principle of operation
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV is used to detect high singlephase voltage, such as high residual voltage, also called 3U0. The residual voltage can be measured directly from a voltage transformer in the neutral of a power transformer or from a three-phase voltage transformer, where the secondary windings are connected in an open delta. Another possibility is to measure the threephase voltages and internally in the IED calculate the corresponding residual voltage and connect this calculated residual voltage to ROV2PTOV. ROV2PTOV has two steps with separate time delays. If the single-phase (residual) voltage remains above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding TRIP signal is issued. The time delay characteristic is individually chosen for the two steps and can be either, definite time delay or inverse time delay. The voltage related settings are made in percent of the base voltage, which is set in kV, phase-phase.

8.3.2.1

Measurement principle
The residual voltage is measured continuously, and compared with the set values, U1> and U2>. To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.

8.3.2.2

Time delay
The time delay for the two steps can be either definite time delay (DT) or inverse time delay (IDMT). For the inverse time delay four different modes are available: inverse curve A inverse curve B inverse curve C customer programmable inverse curve

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Section 8 Voltage protection

The type A curve is described as:


t= k U - Un > Un >
(Equation 110)

IECEQUATION2422 V1 EN

where: Un> U Set value for step 1 and step 2 Measured voltage

The type B curve is described as:


t= k 480 U - Un > - 0.5 32 Un >
2.0

- 0.035

IECEQUATION2423 V1 EN

(Equation 111)

The type C curve is described as:


t= k 480 U - Un > - 0.5 32 U >
3.0

+ 0.035

IECEQUATION2421 V1 EN

(Equation 112)

The customer programmable curve can be created as:

t=

kA U -Un > -C B Un >


p

+D

EQUATION1439 V2 EN

(Equation 113)

When the denominator in the expression is equal to zero the time delay will be infinity. There will be an undesired discontinuity. Therefore a tuning parameter CrvSatn is set to compensate for this phenomenon. In the voltage interval Un> up to Un> (1.0 + CrvSatn/100) the used voltage will be: Un> (1.0 + CrvSatn/100). If the programmable curve is used this parameter must be calculated so that:

CrvSatn -C > 0 100


(Equation 114)

EQUATION1440 V1 EN

The details of the different inverse time characteristics are shown in section "Inverse characteristics".

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TRIP signal issuing requires that the residual overvoltage condition continues for at least the user set time delay. This time delay is set by the parameter t1 and t2 for definite time mode (DT) and by some special voltage level dependent time curves for the inverse time mode (IDMT). If the START condition, with respect to the measured voltage ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined reset time (tReset1 and tReset2 for the definite time and tIReset1 and tIReset2 for the inverse time) the corresponding START output is reset, after that the defined reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area. Also notice that for the overvoltage function IDMT reset time is constant and does not depend on the voltage fluctuations during the drop-off period. However, there are three ways to reset the timer, either the timer is reset instantaneously, or the timer value is frozen during the reset time, or the timer value is linearly decreased during the reset time. See figure 188 and figure 189.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

tIReset1 Voltage START tIReset1 TRIP

U1>

HystAbs1

Measured Voltage

Time START t

TRIP

Time Integrator Frozen Timer t

Linearly decreased

Instantaneous

Time
IEC09000055-2-en.vsd

IEC09000055 V2 EN

Figure 195:

Voltage profile not causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay

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Voltage START

tIReset1 START HystAbs1 TRIP

tIReset1

U1> Measured Voltage

Time START t

TRIP

Time Integrator

Frozen Timer

Time Instantaneous
IEC05000020 V3 EN

Linearly decreased

IEC05000020-3-en.vsd

Figure 196:

Voltage profile causing a reset of the START signal for step 1, and inverse time delay

Definite timer delay When definite time delay is selected, the function will operate as shown in figure 197. Detailed information about individual stage reset/operation behavior is shown in figure 182 and figure 183 respectively. Note that by setting tResetn = 0.0s, instantaneous reset of the definite time delayed stage is ensured.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

ST1

U U1>

a a>b b

tReset1 t OFF Delay t

t1 TR1 AND ON Delay

IEC10000100-2-en.vsd
IEC10000100 V2 EN

Figure 197:

Detailed logic diagram for step 1, Definite time delay, DT operation

U1<

START

TRIP tReset1

t1

IEC10000039-2-en.vsd
IEC10000039 V2 EN

Figure 198:

Example for Definite Time Delay stage 1 reset

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

U1<

START

TRIP

tReset1

t1

IEC10000040-2-en.vsd
IEC10000040 V2 EN

Figure 199:

Example for Definite Time Delay stage 1 operation

8.3.2.3

Blocking
It is possible to block Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV partially or completely, by binary input signals where:
BLOCK: BLKTR1: BLKST1: BLKTR2: BLKST2: blocks all outputs blocks all trip outputs of step 1 blocks all start and trip outputs related to step 1 blocks all trip outputs of step 2 blocks all START and trip inputs related to step 2

8.3.2.4

Design
The voltage measuring elements continuously measure the residual voltage. Recursive Fourier filters filter the input voltage signal. The single input voltage is compared to the set value, and is also used for the inverse time characteristic integration. The design of Two step residual overvoltage protection (ROV2PTOV) is schematically described in figure 200.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

UN

Comparator UN > U1> START

Phase 1 Start t1 tReset1 & Trip Output Logic Step 1

ST1 TR1

Time integrator tIReset1 ResetTypeCrv1

TRIP

Comparator UN > U2> START

Phase 1 Start t2 tReset2 & Trip Output Logic Step 2 OR

ST2 TR2

OR

START

Time integrator tIReset2 ResetTypeCrv2

TRIP

TRIP

IEC05000748_2_en.vsd
IEC05000748 V2 EN

Figure 200:

Schematic design of Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV

8.3.3

Function block
ROV2PTOV U3P* BLOCK BLKTR1 BLKST1 BLKTR2 BLKST2 TRIP TR1 TR2 START ST1 ST2 IEC06000278-2-en.vsd
IEC06000278 V2 EN

Figure 201:

ROV2PTOV function block

397 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection 8.3.4 Input and output signals


Table 207:
Name U3P BLOCK BLKTR1 BLKST1 BLKTR2 BLKST2

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

ROV2PTOV Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 Description Three phase voltages Block of function Block of operate signal, step 1 Block of step 1 Block of operate signal, step 2 Block of step 2

Table 208:
Name TRIP TR1 TR2 START ST1 ST2

ROV2PTOV Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip Common trip signal from step1 Common trip signal from step2 General start signal Common start signal from step1 Common start signal from step2

8.3.5
Table 209:
Name Operation UBase OperationStep1 Characterist1

Setting parameters
ROV2PTOV Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 2000.00 Off On Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. inv. curve 1 - 200 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.10 0.0 - 100.0 Unit kV Step 0.05 Default Off 400.00 On Definite time Description Operation Off / On Base voltage Enable execution of step 1 Selection of time delay curve type for step 1

U1> t1 t1Min k1 HystAbs1

%UB s s %UB

1 0.01 0.001 0.01 0.1

30 5.00 5.000 0.05 0.5

Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT), step 1 in % of UBase Definitive time delay of step 1 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 1

Table continues on next page

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Section 8 Voltage protection


Values (Range) Off On Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. inv. curve 1 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.05 - 1.10 0.0 - 100.0 Unit Step Default On Definite time Description Enable execution of step 2 Selection of time delay curve type for step 2

Name OperationStep2 Characterist2

U2> t2 t2Min k2 HystAbs2

%UB s s %UB

1 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1

45 5.000 5.000 0.05 0.5

Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT), step 2 in % of UBase Definitive time delay of step 2 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase, step 2

Table 210:
Name tReset1 ResetTypeCrv1

ROV2PTOV Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.50 - 100.00 0.0 - 1.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 3.000 0 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.000 - 60.000 0.005 - 200.000 0.50 - 100.00 0.0 - 1.0 Unit s Step 0.001 Default 0.025 Instantaneous Description Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1 Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 1 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 Tuning param for prog. over voltage IDMT curve, step 1 Time delay in DT reset (s), step 2 Selection of used IDMT reset curve type for step 2 Time delay in IDMT reset (s), step 2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2

tIReset1 ACrv1 BCrv1 CCrv1 DCrv1 PCrv1 CrvSat1 tReset2 ResetTypeCrv2

s % s -

0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1 0.001 0.001 1 0.001 -

0.025 1.000 1.00 0.0 0.000 1.000 0 0.025 Instantaneous

tIReset2 ACrv2 BCrv2 CCrv2

s -

0.001 0.001 0.01 0.1

0.025 1.000 1.00 0.0

Table continues on next page

399 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection


Name DCrv2 PCrv2 CrvSat2 Values (Range) 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 3.000 0 - 100 Unit % Step 0.001 0.001 1 Default 0.000 1.000 0 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Parameter D for customer programmable curve for step 2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 Tuning param for prog. over voltage IDMT curve, step 2

8.3.6

Technical data
Table 211:
Function Operate voltage, step 1 and step 2 Absolute hysteresis Inverse time characteristics for low and high step, see table 593 Definite time setting, step 1 Definite time setting Minimum operate time Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Critical impulse time Impulse margin time

ROV2PTOV technical data


Range or value (1-200)% of UBase (0100)% of UBase Accuracy 0.5% of Ur at U < Ur 1.0% of U at U > Ur 0.5% of Ur at U < Ur 1.0% of U at U > Ur See table 593

(0.006000.00) s (0.00060.000) s (0.000-60.000) s 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Uset 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 15 ms typically

0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms -

8.4

Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH


Function description Overexcitation protection IEC 61850 identification OEXPVPH IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 24

U/f >
SYMBOL-Q V1 EN

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Section 8 Voltage protection Introduction


When the laminated core of a power transformer or generator is subjected to a magnetic flux density beyond its design limits, stray flux will flow into nonlaminated components not designed to carry flux and cause eddy currents to flow. The eddy currents can cause excessive heating and severe damage to insulation and adjacent parts in a relatively short time. The function has settable inverse operating curves and independent alarm stages.

8.4.1

8.4.2

Principle of operation
The importance of Overexcitation protection (OEXPVPH) function is growing as the power transformers as well as other power system elements today operate most of the time near their designated limits. Modern design transformers are more sensitive to overexcitation than earlier types. This is a result of the more efficient designs and designs which rely on the improvement in the uniformity of the excitation level of modern systems. Thus, if emergency that causes overexcitation does occur, transformers may be damaged unless corrective action is promptly taken. Transformer manufacturers recommend an overexcitation protection as a part of the transformer protection system. Overexcitation results from excessive applied voltage, possibly in combination with below-normal frequency. Such condition may occur when a transformer unit is on load, but are more likely to arise when it is on open circuit, or at a loss of load occurrence. Transformers directly connected to generators are in particular danger to experience overexcitation condition. It follows from the fundamental transformer equation, see equation 115, that peak flux density Bmax is directly proportional to induced voltage E, and inversely proportional to frequency f, and turns n.
E = 4.44 f n Bmax A
EQUATION898 V2 EN

(Equation 115)

The relative excitation M is therefore according to equation 116.


M ( p.u.) =
IECEQUATION2296 V1 EN

E f

( Ur ) ( fr )
(Equation 116)

Disproportional variations in quantities E and f may give rise to core overfluxing. If the core flux density Bmax increases to a point above saturation level (typically 1.9 Tesla), the flux will no longer be contained within the core, but will extend into other (non-laminated) parts of the power transformer and give rise to eddy current circulations. Overexcitation will result in:

401 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

overheating of the non-laminated metal parts a large increase in magnetizing currents an increase in core and winding temperature an increase in transformer vibration and noise

Protection against overexcitation is based on calculation of the relative volt per hertz (V/Hz) ratio. Protection initiates a reduction of excitation, and if this fails, or if this is not possible, the TRIP signal will disconnect the transformer from the source after a delay ranging from seconds to minutes, typically 5-10 seconds. Overexcitation protection may be of particular concern on directly connected generator unit transformers. Directly connected generator-transformers are subjected to a wide range of frequencies during the acceleration and deceleration of the turbine. In such cases, OEXPVPH (24) may trip the field breaker during a startup of a machine, by means of the overexcitation ALARM signal. If this is not possible, the power transformer can be disconnected from the source, after a delay, by the TRIP signal. The IEC 60076 - 1 standard requires that transformers operate continuously at not more than 10% above rated voltage at no load, and rated frequency. At no load, the ratio of the actual generator terminal voltage to the actual frequency should not exceed 1.1 times the ratio of transformer rated voltage to the rated frequency on a sustained basis, see equation 117.
E ------- 1.1 Ur fr f
EQUATION900 V1 EN

(Equation 117)

or equivalently, with 1.1 Ur = V/Hz> according to equation 118.


E f V Hz > fr
(Equation 118)

IECEQUATION2297 V2 EN

where:

V/Hz>

is the maximum continuously allowed voltage at no load, and rated frequency.

V/Hz> is a setting parameter. The setting range is 100% to 180%. If the user does not know exactly what to set, then the default value for V/Hz> = 110 % given by the IEC 60076-1 standard shall be used. In OEXPVPH, the relative excitation M is expressed according to equation 119.
M ( p.u. ) =
IECEQUATION2299 V1 EN

E f Ur fr
(Equation 119)

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Section 8 Voltage protection

It is clear from the above formula that, for an unloaded power transformer, M = 1 for any E and f, where the ratio E/f is equal to Ur/fr. A power transformer is not overexcited as long as the relative excitation is M V/Hz>, V/Hz> expressed in % of Ur/fr. The overexcitation protection algorithm is fed with an input voltage U which is in general not the induced voltage E from the fundamental transformer equation. For no load condition, these two voltages are the same, but for a loaded power transformer the internally induced voltage E may be lower or higher than the voltage U which is measured and fed to OEXPVPH , depending on the direction of the power flow through the power transformer, the power transformer side where OEXPVPH is applied, and the power transformer leakage reactance of the winding. It is important to specify in the application configuration on which side of the power transformer OEXPVPH is placed. As an example, at a transformer with a 15% short circuit impedance Xsc, the full load, 0.8 power factor, 105% voltage on the load side, the actual flux level in the transformer core, will not be significantly different from that at the 110% voltage, no load, rated frequency, provided that the short circuit impedance X can be equally divided between the primary and the secondary winding: Xleak = Xleak1 = Xleak2 = Xsc / 2 = 0.075 pu. OEXPVPH calculates the internal induced voltage E if Xleak (meaning the leakage reactance of the winding where OEXPVPH is connected) is known to the user. The assumption taken for two-winding power transformers that Xleak = Xsc / 2 is unfortunately most often not true. For a two-winding power transformer the leakage reactances of the two windings depend on how the windings are located on the core with respect to each other. In the case of three-winding power transformers the situation is still more complex. If a user has the knowledge on the leakage reactance, then it should applied. If a user has no idea about it, Xleak can be set to Xc/2. OEXPVPH protection will then take the given measured voltage U, as the induced voltage E. It is assumed that overexcitation is a symmetrical phenomenon, caused by events such as loss-of-load, etc. It will be observed that a high phase-to-earth voltage does not mean overexcitation. For example, in an unearthed power system, a single phaseto-earth fault means high voltages of the healthy two phases-to-earth, but no overexcitation on any winding. The phase-to-phase voltages will remain essentially unchanged. The important voltage is the voltage between the two ends of each winding.

8.4.2.1

Measured voltage
If one phase-to-phase voltage is available from the side where overexcitation protection is applied, then Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH shall be set to measure this voltage, MeasuredU. The particular voltage which is used determines the two currents that must be used. This must be chosen with the setting MeasuredI.

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It is extremely important that MeasuredU and MeasuredI are set to same value. If, for example, voltage UL1L2 is fed to OEXPVPH, then currents IL1, and IL2 must be applied. From these two input currents, current IL1L2 = IL1 - IL2 is calculated internally by the OEXPVPH algorithm. The phase-to-phase voltage must be higher than 70% of the rated value, otherwise the protection algorithm exits without calculating the excitation. ERROR output is set to 1, and the displayed value of relative excitation V/Hz shows 0.000. If three phase-to-earth voltages are available from the side where overexcitation is connected, then OEXPVPH shall be set to measure positive sequence voltage and current. In this case the positive sequence voltage and the positive sequence current are used by OEXPVPH. A check is made if the positive sequence voltage is higher than 70% of rated phase-to-earth voltage, when below this value, OEXPVPH exits immediately, and no excitation is calculated. ERROR output is set to 1, and the displayed value of relative excitation V/Hz shows 0.000. The frequency value is received from the pre-processing block. The function operates for frequencies within the range of 33-60 Hz and of 42-75 Hz for 50 Hz and 60 Hz respectively. OEXPVPH can be connected to any power transformer side, independent from the power flow. The side with a possible load tap changer must not be used.

8.4.2.2

Operate time of the overexcitation protection


The operate time of OEXPVPH is a function of the relative overexcitation. Basically there are two different delay laws available to choose between: the so called IEEE law, and a tailor-made law.

The so called IEEE law approximates a square law and has been chosen based on analysis of the various transformers overexcitation capability characteristics. They can match the transformer core capability well. The square law is according to equation 120.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

top =

0.18 k

M V Hz> - 1

0.18 k overexcitation
2

IECEQUATION2298 V2 EN

(Equation 120)

where: M the relative excitation is maximum continuously allowed voltage at no load, and rated frequency, in pu and is time multiplier for inverse time functions, see figure 203. Parameter k (time multiplier setting) selects one delay curve from the family of curves.

V/Hz>
k

The relative excitation M is calculated using equation121

Umeasured fmeasured =

UBase UBase fmeasured frated


(Equation 121)

Umeasured

frated

IECEQUATION2404 V1 EN

An analog overexcitation relay would have to evaluate the following integral expression, which means to look for the instant of time t = top according to equation 122.
top

(M (t) - V
0

Hz > ) dt 0.18 k
2

IECEQUATION2300 V1 EN

(Equation 122)

A digital, numerical relay will instead look for the lowest j (that is, j = n) where it becomes true that:
n

Dt

( M(j)
j=k

V/Hz> ) 0.18 k
(Equation 123)

EQUATION906 V1 EN

where: Dt is the time interval between two successive executions of OEXPVPH and M(j) - V/Hz> is the relative excitation at (time j) in excess of the normal (rated) excitation which is given as Ur/fr.

405 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

As long as M > V/Hz> (that is, overexcitation condition), the above sum can only be larger with time, and if the overexcitation persists, the protected transformer will be tripped at j = n. Inverse delays as per figure 203, can be modified (limited) by two special definite delay settings, namely tMax and tMin, see figure 202.
delay in s tMax

under excitation

inverse delay law

overexcitation tMin 0 M=V/Hz> V/Hz> Mmax - V/Hz> Overexcitation M-V/Hz> Mmax Emax Excitation M E (only if f = fr = const) 99001067.vsd
IEC99001067 V1 EN

Figure 202:

Restrictions imposed on inverse delays by tMax and tMin

A definite maximum time, tMax, can be used to limit the operate time at low degrees of overexcitation. Inverse delays longer than tMax will not be allowed. In case the inverse delay is longer than tMax, OEXPVPH trips after tMax seconds. A definite minimum time, tMin, can be used to limit the operate time at high degrees of overexcitation. In case the inverse delay is shorter than tMin, OEXPVPH function trips after tMin seconds. The inverse delay law is not valid for values exceeding Mmax. The delay will be tMin, irrespective of the overexcitation level, when values exceed Mmax (that is, M>V/Hz>).

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Section 8 Voltage protection

Time (s)

IEEE OVEREXCITATION CURVES

1000

100 k = 60

k = 20

10

k = 10 k=9 k=8 k=7 k=6 k=5 k=4 k=3 k=2

k=1 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40

OVEREXCITATION IN %

(M-Emaxcont)*100)
en01000373.vsd

IEC01000373 V1 EN

Figure 203:

Delays inversely proportional to the square of the overexcitation

The critical value of excitation M is determined indirectly via OEXPVPH setting V/ Hz>>. V/Hz>> can be thought of as a no-load voltage at rated frequency, where the inverse law should be replaced by a short definite delay, tMin. If, for example, V/Hz>> = 140 %, then M is according to equation 124.
M=

(V

Hz>> ) / f Ur/fr

= 1.40
(Equation 124)

IECEQUATION2286 V1 EN

The Tailor-Made law allows a user to design an arbitrary delay characteristic. In this case the interval between M = V/Hz>, and M = Mmax is automatically divided into five equal subintervals, with six delays. (settings t1, t2, t3, t4, t5 and t6) as shown in figure 204. These times should be set so that t1 => t2 => t3 => t4 => t5 => t6.

407 Technical reference manual

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

delay in s

tMax

underexcitation 0 Emaxcont
IEC99001068 V1 EN

tMin Overexcitation M-Emaxcont Mmax - Emaxcont Excitation M Mmax 99001068.vsd

Figure 204:

An example of a Tailor-Made delay characteristic

Delays between two consecutive points, for example t3 and t4, are obtained by linear interpolation. Should it happen that tMax be lower than, for example, delays t1, and t2, the actual delay would be tMax. Above Mmax, the delay can only be tMin.

8.4.2.3

Cooling
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH is basically a thermal protection; therefore a cooling process has been introduced. Exponential cooling process is applied. Parameter Setting tool is an OEXPVPH setting, with a default time constant tCooling of 20 minutes. This means that if the voltage and frequency return to their previous normal values (no more overexcitation), the normal temperature is assumed to be reached not before approximately 5 times tCooling minutes. If an overexcitation condition would return before that, the time to trip will be shorter than it would be otherwise.

8.4.2.4

Overexcitation protection function measurands


A monitored data value, TMTOTRIP, is available on the local HMI and in PCM600. This value is an estimation of the remaining time to trip (in seconds), if the overexcitation remained on the level it had when the estimation was done. This information can be useful during small or moderate overexcitations. If the overexcitation is so low that the valid delay is tMax, then the estimation of the remaining time to trip is done against tMax. The relative excitation M, shown on the local HMI and in PCM600 has a monitored data value VPERHZ, is calculated from the expression:
M ( p.u. ) =
IECEQUATION2299 V1 EN

E f Ur fr
(Equation 125)

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Section 8 Voltage protection

If VPERHZ value is less than setting V/Hz> (in %), the power transformer is underexcited. If VPERHZ is equal to V/Hz> (in %), the excitation is exactly equal to the power transformer continuous capability. If VPERHZ is higher than V/Hz>, the protected power transformer is overexcited. For example, if VPERHZ = 1.100, while V/Hz> = 110 %, then the power transformer is exactly on its maximum continuous excitation limit. Monitored data value THERMSTA shows the thermal status of the protected power transformer iron core. THERMSTA gives the thermal status in % of the trip value which corresponds to 100%. THERMSTA should reach 100% at the same time, as TMTOTRIP reaches 0 seconds. If the protected power transformer is then for some reason not switched off, THERMSTA shall go over 100%. If the delay as per IEEE law, or Tailor-made Law, is limited by tMax, and/or tMin, then the Thermal status will generally not reach 100% at the same time, when tTRIP reaches 0 seconds. For example, if, at low degrees of overexcitation, the very long delay is limited by tMax, then the OEXPVPH TRIP output signal will be set to 1 before the Thermal status reaches 100%.

8.4.2.5

Overexcitation alarm
A separate step, AlarmLevel, is provided for alarming purpose. It is normally set 2% lower than (V/Hz>) and has a definite time delay, tAlarm. This will give the operator an early abnormal voltages warning.

8.4.2.6

Logic diagram
BLOCK
AlarmLevel tAlarm

t
M>V/Hz>

&

ALARM

&
V/Hz> U3P I3P Calculation of internal induced voltage Ei

TRIP

Ei

M= (Ei / f) (Ur / fr)

IEEE law M Tailor-made law M>V/Hz>>

&
tMax

t
tMin

Xleak V/Hz>>

M = relative V/Hz as service value


IEC05000162-3-en.vsd
IEC05000162 V3 EN

Figure 205:

A simplified logic diagram of the Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH

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Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Simplification of the diagram is in the way the IEEE and Tailor-made delays are calculated. The cooling process is not shown. It is not shown that voltage and frequency are separately checked against their respective limit values.

8.4.3

Function block
OEXPVPH I3P* U3P* BLOCK RESET TRIP START ALARM

IEC05000329-2-en.vsd
IEC05000329 V3 EN

Figure 206:

OEXPVPH function block

8.4.4

Input and output signals


Table 212:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK RESET

OEXPVPH Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 Description Current connection Voltage connection Block of function Reset operation

Table 213:
Name TRIP START ALARM

OEXPVPH Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Trip from overexcitation function Overexcitation above set operate level (instantaneous) Overexcitation above set alarm level (delayed)

8.4.5
Table 214:
Name Operation IBase UBase V/Hz>

Setting parameters
OEXPVPH Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 100.0 - 180.0 Unit A kV %UB/f Step 1 0.05 0.1 Default Off 3000 400.00 110.0 Description Operation Off / On Base current (rated phase current) in A Base voltage (main voltage) in kV Operate level of V/Hz at no load and rated freq in % of (Ubase/frated)

Table continues on next page

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Section 8 Voltage protection


Values (Range) 100.0 - 200.0 0.000 - 200.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.00 - 9000.00 0.10 - 9000.00 IEEE Tailor made 1 - 60 50.0 - 120.0 0.00 - 9000.00 Unit %UB/f ohm s s s s % s Step 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.01 1 0.1 0.01 Default 140.0 0.000 0.100 7.000 1800.00 1200.00 IEEE 1 100.0 5.00 Description High level of V/Hz above which tMin is used, in % of (Ubase/frated) Winding leakage reactance in primary ohms Length of the pulse for trip signal (in sec) Minimum trip delay for V/Hz inverse curve, in sec Maximum trip delay for V/Hz inverse curve, in sec Transformer magnetic core cooling time constant, in sec Inverse time curve selection, IEEE/Tailor made Time multiplier for IEEE inverse type curve Alarm operate level as % of operate level Alarm time delay, in sec

Name V/Hz>> XLeak TrPulse tMin tMax tCooling CurveType kForIEEE AlarmLevel tAlarm

Table 215:
Name t1Tailor t2Tailor t3Tailor t4Tailor t5Tailor t6Tailor

OEXPVPH Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.00 - 9000.00 0.00 - 9000.00 0.00 - 9000.00 0.00 - 9000.00 0.00 - 9000.00 0.00 - 9000.00 Unit s s s s s s Step 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Default 7200.00 3600.00 1800.00 900.00 450.00 225.00 Description Time delay t1 (longest) for tailor made curve, in sec Time delay t2 for tailor made curve, in sec Time delay t3 for tailor made curve, in sec Time delay t4 for tailor made curve, in sec Time delay t5 for tailor made curve, in sec Time delay t6 (shortest) for tailor made curve, in sec

Table 216:
Name MeasuredU

OEXPVPH Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) PosSeq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 PosSeq Unit Step Default L1L2 Description Selection of measured voltage

MeasuredI

L1L2

Selection of measured current

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Section 8 Voltage protection 8.4.6 Technical data


Table 217:
Function Operate value, start Operate value, alarm Operate value, high level Curve type

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

OEXPVPH technical data


Range or value (100180)% of (UBase/frated) (50120)% of start level (100200)% of (UBase/frated) IEEE or customer defined
IEEE : t = (0.18 k ) ( M - 1) 2

Accuracy 0.5% of U 0.5% of Ur at U Ur 0.5% of U at U > Ur 0.5% of U 5% + 40 ms

EQUATION1319 V1 EN

(Equation 126)

where M = (E/f)/(Ur/fr) Minimum time delay for inverse function Maximum time delay for inverse function Alarm time delay (0.00060.000) s (0.009000.00) s (0.009000.00) 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms

8.5

Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV


Function description Voltage differential protection IEC 61850 identification VDCPTOV IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 60

8.5.1

Introduction
A voltage differential monitoring function is available. It compares the voltages from two three phase sets of voltage transformers and has one sensitive alarm step and one trip step.

8.5.2

Principle of operation
The Voltage differential protection function VDCPTOV (60) is based on comparison of the amplitudes of the two voltages connected in each phase. Possible differences between the ratios of the two Voltage/Capacitive voltage transformers can be compensated for with a ratio correction factors RFLx. The voltage difference is evaluated and if it exceeds the alarm level UDAlarm or trip level UDATrip signals for alarm (ALARM output) or trip (TRIP output) is given after definite time delay tAlarm respectively tTrip. The two three phase voltage supplies are also supervised with undervoltage settings U1Low and U2Low. The outputs for loss of voltage U1LOW resp U2LOW will be activated. The U1 voltage

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Section 8 Voltage protection

is supervised for loss of individual phases whereas the U2 voltage is supervised for loss of all three phases. Loss of all U1or all U2 voltages will block the differential measurement. This blocking can be switched off with setting BlkDiffAtULow = No. VDCPTOV function can be blocked from an external condition with the binary BLOCK input. It can for example, be activated from Fuse failure supervision function SDDRFUF. To allow easy commissioning the measured differential voltage is available as service value. This allows simple setting of the ratio correction factor to achieve full balance in normal service. The principle logic diagram is shown in figure 207.
UDTripL1>

AND O R tReset tTrip t t

UDTripL2>

AND

AND

TRIP

UDTripL3>

AND AND

START

UDAlarmL1>

AND O R tAlarm

UDAlarmL2>

AND

AND

ALARM

UDAlarmL3>

AND

U1<L1 U1<L2 U1<L3 BlkDiffAtULow U2<L1 U2<L2 U2<L3 BLOCK AND t1 t AND U2LOW OR AND tAlarm t AND U1LOW

AND

en06000382-2.vsd
IEC06000382 V3 EN

Figure 207:

Principle logic for Voltage differential function VDCPTOV

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Section 8 Voltage protection 8.5.3 Function block


VDCPTOV U3P1* U3P2* BLOCK TRIP START ALARM U1LOW U2LOW UL1DIFF UL2DIFF UL3DIFF IEC06000528-2-en.vsd
IEC06000528 V2 EN

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Figure 208:

VDCPTOV function block

8.5.4

Input and output signals


Table 218:
Name U3P1 U3P2 BLOCK

VDCPTOV Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Bus voltage Capacitor voltage Block of function

Table 219:
Name TRIP START ALARM U1LOW U2LOW UL1DIFF UL2DIFF UL3DIFF

VDCPTOV Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL Description Voltage differential protection operated Start of voltage differential protection Voltage differential protection alarm Loss of U1 voltage Loss of U2 voltage Differential Voltage phase L1 Differential Voltage phase L2 Differential Voltage phase L3

8.5.5
Table 220:
Name Operation UBase BlkDiffAtULow

Setting parameters
VDCPTOV Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.50 - 2000.00 No Yes Unit kV Step 0.01 Default Off 400.00 Yes Description Operation Off/On Base Voltage Block operation at low voltage

Table continues on next page

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Section 8 Voltage protection


Values (Range) 0.0 - 100.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.0 - 100.0 0.0 - 100.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.0 - 100.0 0.000 - 60.000 Unit %UB s s %UB %UB s %UB s Step 0.1 0.001 0.001 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.1 0.001 Default 5.0 1.000 0.000 70.0 70.0 0.000 2.0 2.000 Description Operate level, in % of UBase Time delay for voltage differential operate, in milliseconds Time delay for voltage differential reset, in seconds Input 1 undervoltage level, in % of UBase Input 2 undervoltage level, in % of UBase Reset time for undervoltage block Alarm level, in % of UBase Time delay for voltage differential alarm, in seconds

Name UDTrip tTrip tReset U1Low U2Low tBlock UDAlarm tAlarm

Table 221:
Name RFL1 RFL2 RFL3

VDCPTOV Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 0.000 - 3.000 0.000 - 3.000 0.000 - 3.000 Unit Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default 1.000 1.000 1.000 Description Ratio compensation factor phase L1 U2L1*RFL1=U1L1 Ratio compensation factor phase L2 U2L2*RFL2=U1L2 Ratio compensation factor phase L3 U2L3*RFL3=U1L3

8.5.6

Technical data
Table 222:
Function Voltage difference for alarm and trip Under voltage level Timers

VDCPTOV technical data


Range or value (0.0100.0) % of UBase (0.0100.0) % of UBase (0.00060.000)s Accuracy 0.5 % of Ur 0.5% of Ur 0.5% 10 ms

8.6

100% Stator earth fault protection, 3rd harmonic based STEFPHIZ


Function description 100% Stator earth fault protection, 3rd harmonic based IEC 61850 identification STEFPHIZ IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 59THD

415 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection 8.6.1 Introduction

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Stator earth fault is a fault type having relatively high fault rate. The generator systems normally have high impedance earthing, that is, earthing via a neutral point resistor. This resistor is normally dimensioned to give an earth fault current in the range 3 15 A at a solid earth-fault directly at the generator high voltage terminal. The relatively small earth fault currents give much less thermal and mechanical stress on the generator, compared to the short circuit case, which is between conductors of two phases. Anyhow, the earth faults in the generator have to be detected and the generator has to be tripped, even if longer fault time compared to internal short circuits, can be allowed. In normal non-faulted operation of the generating unit the neutral point voltage is close to zero, and there is no zero sequence current flow in the generator. When a phase-to-earth fault occurs the neutral point voltage will increase and there will be a current flow through the neutral point resistor. To detect an earth fault on the windings of a generating unit one may use a neutral point overvoltage protection, a neutral point overcurrent protection, a zero sequence overvoltage protection or a residual differential protection. These protections are simple and have served well during many years. However, at best these simple schemes protect only 95% of the stator winding. They leave 5% close to the neutral end unprotected. Under unfavorable conditions the blind zone may extend up to 20% from the neutral. The 95% stator earth fault protection measures the fundamental frequency voltage component in the generator star point and it operates when it exceeds the preset value. By applying this principle approximately 95% of the stator winding can be protected. In order to protect the last 5% of the stator winding close to the neutral end the 3rd harmonic voltage measurement can be performed. In 100% Stator E/F 3rd harmonic protection either the 3rd harmonic voltage differential principle, the neutral point 3rd harmonic undervoltage principle or the terminal side 3rd harmonic overvoltage principle can be applied. However, differential principle is strongly recommended. Combination of these two measuring principles provides coverage for entire stator winding against earth faults.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

stator winding N x E3 (1- x) E3

CB 1 may not exist T CB 1 CB 2

RN

Rf

Transformer

uN
Samples of the neutral voltage from which the fundamental and 3rd harmonic voltages are filtered out

1- x 1 or 100 %
Neutral point fundamental frequency over-voltage protection 5% - 100%

uT
Samples of the terminal voltage from which the 3rd harmonic voltage is filtered out

over- voltage protection 10% 100%


3rd harmonic Differential differential 0% 30% 0% - 30%

IEC10000202-1-en.vsd

IEC10000202 V1 EN

Figure 209:

Protection principles for STEFPHIZ function

8.6.2

Principle of operation
The protection is a combination of the 95% fundamental frequency earth fault protection and the 3 rd harmonic based stator earth fault protection, (STEFPHIZ). The 3rd harmonic based 100% stator earth fault protection is using the 3rd harmonic voltage generated by the generator itself. To assure reliable function of the protection it is necessary that the 3rd harmonic voltage generation is at least 0.8 V RMS on VT secondary side. The 3rd harmonic voltage generated by the generator has the same phase angle in the three phases. It has the characteristic of a zero sequence component. If the generator is connected to the power system via a block transformer that cannot transform zero sequence voltages between the voltage levels, the 3rd harmonic voltage, that is U3N and U3T in fig 210, in the generator system is not influenced by the external power system. At normal operation the generator third harmonic voltage characteristic can be described as in figure 210. Note that angle between U3N and U3T is typically close to 180.

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Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

- DU3 +

U3

+ U3T,L1 -

U3N

+ U3T,L2 -

+ U3T,L3 -

U3T

U3N

en06000448.vsd
IEC06000448 V2 EN

Figure 210:

Generator 3rd harmonic voltage characteristic at normal operation

The generator is modeled as parts of a winding where a 3rd harmonic voltage is induced along the winding, represented by the end voltages U3N (voltage drop across resistor) and U3T in the figure. Via the winding capacitances to earth and the neutral point resistor there will be a small 3rd harmonic current flow, giving the voltages U3N and U3T. It can easily be seen that the 3rd harmonic voltage in the generator neutral point (U3N) will be close to zero in case of a stator earth-fault close to the neutral. This fact alone can be used as an indication of stator earthfault. To enable better sensitivity and stability also measurement of the generator's 3rd harmonic voltage U3T is also used. In addition to the decrease of U3N the generator voltage U3T will increase under the stator earth-fault close to the generator neutral point. Therefore the 3rd harmonic voltage U3T , (which is a zero sequence voltage) is used by the protection. In the 3rd harmonic voltage differential protection algorithm equation 127 is used:

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Section 8 Voltage protection

U3N + U3T Beta U 3N


EQUATION1712 V2 EN

(Equation 127)

U3N, and U3T are third harmonic phasors with real and imaginary parts. The factor Beta must be set not to risk operation under non-faulted conditions. The voltage U3N is measured via a voltage transformer between the generator neutral point and earth. The voltage U3T can be measured in different ways. The setting TVoltType defines how the protection function is fed from voltage transformers at the high voltage side of the generator. If U3T is lower than the set level UT3BlkLevel, STEFPHIZ function is blocked. The choices of TVoltType are: NoVoltage: There is no voltage measured from the generator terminal side. This can be the case when there are only phase-to-phase voltage transformers available at the generator terminal side. In this case the protection will operate as a simple neutral point 3rd harmonic undervoltage protection, which must be blocked externally during generator start-up and shut-down. ResidualVoltage: The function is fed from an open delta connection of the phase to earth connected voltage transformers at the generator terminal side, U3T=(1/3)*U_Open_Delta. AllThreePhases: The function is fed from the three phase to earth connected voltage transformers at the generator terminal side. The 3rd harmonic voltage U3T is calculated in the IED, U3T=(1/3)*(U3L1+U3L2+U3L3). PhaseL1, PhaseL2, or PhaseL3: The function is fed from one phase voltage transformer only. The 3rd harmonic zero sequence voltage is assumed to be equal to any of the phase voltages, as the third harmonic voltage is of zero sequence type, U3T=U3Lx. A simplified block diagram describing the stator earth fault protection function shown in figure 211.

419 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

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Samples: Generator terminal voltage

3rd harmonic Fourier filtering giving UT3

TRIP Complex UT3 Stator Earth Fault detection 3rd harmonic based TRIP3H TRIPUN START3H STARTUN

Start

Start and trip logic

Samples: Generator neutral point voltage

3rd harmonic Fourier filtering giving UN3

Complex UN3

Fundamental frequency residual voltage

Stator Earth Fault detection 95 %

Start

CB Status Block

en06000449.vsd
IEC06000449 V2 EN

Figure 211:

Simplified logic diagram for stator earth fault protection

STEFPHIZ function can be described in a simplified logical diagram as shown in figure 212. Note that the 3rd harmonic numerical filters are not part of the stator earthfault protection function. These third harmonic voltages are calculated by the preprocessing blocks connected to the function.

420 Technical reference manual

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Section 8 Voltage protection

IEC07000186 V1 EN

Figure 212:

Simplified Start and Trip logical diagram of the 100% Stator earth fault protection, 3rd harmonic based STEFPHIZ protection

There are two different cases of generator block configuration; with or without generator circuit breaker. If there is no generator breaker the capacitive coupling to earth is the same under all operating conditions. When there is a generator breaker, the capacitive coupling to earth differs between the operating conditions when the generator is running with the generator breaker open (before synchronization) and with the circuit breaker closed. This can be shown as in figure 213.
- DU3 + + U3T,L1 Ctr/3 U3 +

U3N

+ U3T,L2 -

Ctr/3

+ U3T,L3 -

Ctr/3

en07000002-2.vsd
IEC07000002 V2 EN

Figure 213:

Generator block with generator circuit breaker

With the circuit breaker open, the total capacitance will be smaller compared to normal operating conditions. This means that the neutral point 3rd harmonic voltage will be reduced compared to the normal operating condition. Therefore,
421 Technical reference manual

Section 8 Voltage protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

there is a possibility to reduce the sensitivity of the protection when the generator circuit breaker is open. With the setting CBexists change of the sensitivity is enabled. If the binary input signal CBCLOSED is activated the set sensitivity is valid. If the generator circuit breaker is opened the binary input CBCLOSED is deactivated and the sensitivity is changed. This is done by changing the factor Beta which is multiplied with a set constant FactorCBopen. In addition to the binary outputs also some analog outputs are available from the protection function in order to enable easier commissioning: E3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic voltage induced in the stator given in primary volts UN3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic voltage measured in the neutral point of the generator UT3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic voltage measured in the terminal point of the generator ANGLE: the angle between the phasors UN3 and UT3 given in radians DU3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic differential voltage BU3: the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic bias voltage UN: the fundamental frequency voltage measured in the neutral point of the generator

8.6.3

Function block
STEFPHIZ NEUTVOLT TRIP TERMVOLT TRIP3H CBCLOSED TRIPUN BLOCK START BLOCK3RD START3H BLOCKUN STARTUN UT3 UN3 E3 ANGLE DU3 BU3 UN IEC11000211-1-en.vsd
IEC11000211 V1 EN

Figure 214:

STEFPHIZ function block

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Section 8 Voltage protection Input and output signals


Table 223:
Name NEUTVOLT TERMVOLT CBCLOSED BLOCK BLOCK3RD BLOCKUN

8.6.4

STEFPHIZ Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 1 0 0 0 Description Voltage connection neutral side Open-Delta connection on Terminal side TRUE means breaker between gen. & trafo is closed Complete block of the stator earth fault protecion function Block of the 3rd harmonic-based parts of the protection Block of the fund. harmonic-based part of the protection

Table 224:
Name TRIP TRIP3H TRIPUN START START3H STARTUN UT3 UN3 E3 ANGLE DU3 BU3 UN

STEFPHIZ Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Description Main, common trip command Trip by one of two 3rd harmonic voltage-based prot. Trip by fund. freq. neutral over-voltage protection Main, common start signal Start by one of two 3rd harmonic voltage-based prot. Start signal by fund. freq. neutral over-voltage prot. Mag. of 3rd harm. voltage at generator terminal side, Volts Mag. of 3rd harm. voltage at generator neutral side, Volts Total induced stator 3rd harmonic voltage, primary Volts Angle between 3rd harmonic votage phasors, radians Diff. between 3rd harm. volt. at both sides of gen., Volts Bias voltage, a part of voltN3rdHarmonic, primary Volts Fund. frequency voltage at generator neutral, primary Volts

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Section 8 Voltage protection 8.6.5


Table 225:
Name Operation Beta CBexists FactorCBopen UN3rdH< UT3BlkLevel UNFund> t3rdH tUNFund

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters
STEFPHIZ Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.50 - 10.00 No Yes 1.00 - 10.00 0.5 - 10.0 0.1 - 10.0 1.0 - 50.0 0.020 - 60.000 0.020 - 60.000 Unit % % % s s Step 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.001 0.001 Default Off 3.00 No 1.00 2.0 1.0 5.0 1.000 0.500 Description Operation Off / On Portion of voltN3rdHarmonic used as bias Defines if generator CB exists (between Gen & Transformer) Beta is multiplied by this factor when CB is open Pickup 3rd Harm U< protection (when activated) % of UB/1,732 If UT3 is below limit 3rdH Diff is blocked, in % of UB/1,732 Pickup fundamental UN> protection (95% SEF), % of UB/1,732 Operation delay of 3rd harm-based protection (100% SEF) in s Operation delay of fundamental UN> protection (95% SEF) in s

Table 226:
Name GenRatedVolt TVoltType

STEFPHIZ Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range) 1.0 - 100.0 NoVoltage ResidualVoltage AllThreePhases PhaseL1 PhaseL2 PhaseL3 Unit kV Step 0.1 Default 10.0 ResidualVoltage Description Generator rated (nominal) phase-tophase voltage in kV Used connection type for gen. terminal voltage transformer

8.6.6

Technical data
Table 227:
Function Fundamental frequency level UN (95% Stator EF) Third harmonic differential level Third harmonic differential block level Timers Filter characteristic: Fundamental Third harmonic

STEFPHIZ technical data


Range or value (1.050.0)% of UBase (0.510.0)% of UBase (0.110.0)% of UBase (0.02060.000) s Reject third harmonic by 140 Reject fundamental harmonic by 140 Accuracy 0.5% of Ur 0.5% of Ur 0.5% of Ur 0.5% 10 ms -

424 Technical reference manual

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Section 9 Frequency protection

Section 9

Frequency protection

About this chapter


This chapter describes the frequency protection functions. The way the functions work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are included for each function.

9.1

Underfrequency protection SAPTUF


Function description Underfrequency protection IEC 61850 identification SAPTUF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 81

f<
SYMBOL-P V1 EN

9.1.1

Introduction
Underfrequency occurs as a result of a lack of generation in the network. Underfrequency protection SAPTUF is used for load shedding systems, remedial action schemes, gas turbine startup and so on. SAPTUF is also provided with undervoltage blocking. The operation is based on positive sequence voltage measurement and requires two phase-phase or three phase-neutral voltages to be connected. For information about how to connect analog inputs, refer to Application manual/IED application/ Analog inputs/Setting guidelines

9.1.2

Principle of operation
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF is used to detect low power system frequency. SAPTUF can either have a definite time delay or a voltage magnitude dependent time delay. If the voltage magnitude dependent time delay is applied, the time delay will be longer if the voltage is higher, and the delay will be shorter if the voltage is lower. If the frequency remains below the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding trip signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted trip due to uncertain frequency measurement at low voltage

425 Technical reference manual

Section 9 Frequency protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available, that is, if the voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage IntBlockLevel the function is blocked and no START or TRIP signal is issued.

9.1.2.1

Measurement principle
The fundamental frequency of the measured input voltage is measured continuously, and compared with the set value, StartFrequency. The frequency function is dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage magnitude decreases the setting IntBlockLevel, SAPTUF gets blocked, and the output BLKDMAGN is issued. All voltage settings are made in percent of the setting UBase, which should be set as a phase-phase voltage in kV. To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.

9.1.2.2

Time delay
The time delay for underfrequency protection SAPTUF can be either a settable definite time delay or a voltage magnitude dependent time delay, where the time delay depends on the voltage level; a high voltage level gives a longer time delay and a low voltage level causes a short time delay. For the definite time delay, the setting TimeDlyOperate sets the time delay. For the voltage dependent time delay the measured voltage level and the settings UNom, UMin, Exponent, tMax and tMin set the time delay according to figure 215 and equation 128. The setting TimerOperation is used to decide what type of time delay to apply. Trip signal issuing requires that the underfrequency condition continues for at least the user set time delay TimeDlyOperate. If the START condition, with respect to the measured frequency ceases during this user set delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined reset time, TimeDlyReset, the START output is reset, after that the defined reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area. On the output of SAPTUF a 100ms pulse is issued, after a time delay corresponding to the setting of TimeDlyRestore, when the measured frequency returns to the level corresponding to the setting RestoreFreq.

9.1.2.3

Voltage dependent time delay


Since the fundamental frequency in a power system is the same all over the system, except some deviations during power oscillations, another criterion is needed to decide, where to take actions, based on low frequency. In many applications the voltage level is very suitable, and in most cases is load shedding preferable in areas with low voltage. Therefore, a voltage dependent time delay has been introduced, to make sure that load shedding, or other actions, take place at the right location. At constant voltage, U, the voltage dependent time delay is calculated according to

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Section 9 Frequency protection

equation 128. At non-constant voltage, the actual time delay is integrated in a similar way as for the inverse time characteristic for the undervoltage and overvoltage functions.
U - UMin t= UNom - UMin
EQUATION1182 V1 EN

Exponent

( tMax - tMin ) + tMin

(Equation 128)

where: t U Exponent tMax, tMin is the voltage dependent time delay (at constant voltage), is the measured voltage is a setting, are time settings.

UMin, UNom are voltage settings corresponding to

The inverse time characteristics are shown in figure 215, for:


UMin UNom tMax tMin Exponent = 90% = 100% = 1.0 s = 0.0 s = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4

TimeDlyOperate [s]

Exponenent 3
0.5

1 2

90

95

100

U [% of UBase]
en05000075.vsd
IEC05000075 V1 EN

Figure 215:

Voltage dependent inverse time characteristics for underfrequency protection SAPTUF. The time delay to operate is plotted as a function of the measured voltage, for the Exponent = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively.

427 Technical reference manual

Section 9 Frequency protection


9.1.2.4 Blocking

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

It is possible to block underfrequency protection SAPTUF partially or completely, by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: BLKTRIP: BLKREST: blocks all outputs blocks the TRIP output blocks the RESTORE output

If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlockLevel, both the START and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.

9.1.2.5

Design
The frequency measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the positive sequence voltage and compares it to the setting StartFrequency. The frequency signal is filtered to avoid transients due to switchings and faults. The time integrator can operate either due to a definite delay time or to the special voltage dependent delay time. When the frequency has returned back to the setting of RestoreFreq, the RESTORE output is issued after the time delay TimeDlyRestore. The design of underfrequency protection SAPTUF is schematically described in figure 216.

Block OR Comparator U < IntBlockLevel BLOCK BLKDMAGN

Voltage

Time integrator TimerOperation Mode Selector TimeDlyOperate TimeDlyReset START TRIP Start & Trip Output Logic START

Frequency

Comparator f < StartFrequency

TRIP

100 ms Comparator f > RestoreFreq TimeDlyRestore RESTORE

en05000726.vsd

IEC05000726 V1 EN

Figure 216:

Simplified logic diagram for SAPTUF

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Section 9 Frequency protection Function block


SAPTUF U3P* BLOCK BLKTRIP BLKREST TRIP START RESTORE BLKDMAGN FREQ IEC06000279_2_en.vsd
IEC06000279 V2 EN

9.1.3

Figure 217:

SAPTUF function block

9.1.4

Input and output signals


Table 228:
Name U3P BLOCK BLKTRIP BLKREST

SAPTUF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Voltage connection Block of function Blocking operate output. Blocking restore output.

Table 229:
Name TRIP START RESTORE BLKDMAGN FREQ

SAPTUF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL Description Operate/trip signal for frequency. Start/pick-up signal for frequency. Restore signal for load restoring purposes. Blocking indication due to low amplitude. Measured frequency

9.1.5
Table 230:
Name Operation UBase StartFrequency IntBlockLevel TimeDlyOperate TimeDlyReset TimeDlyRestore

Setting parameters
SAPTUF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 2000.00 35.00 - 75.00 0 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit kV Hz %UB s s s Step 0.05 0.01 1 0.001 0.001 0.001 Default Off 400.00 48.80 50 0.200 0.000 0.000 Description Operation Off / On Base voltage Frequency setting/start value. Internal blocking level in % of UBase. Operate time delay in over/underfrequency mode. Time delay for reset. Restore time delay.

Table continues on next page

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Section 9 Frequency protection


Name RestoreFreq TimerOperation UNom UMin Exponent tMax tMin Values (Range) 45.00 - 65.00 Definite timer Volt based timer 50 - 150 50 - 150 0.0 - 5.0 0.010 - 60.000 0.010 - 60.000 Unit Hz %UB %UB s s Step 0.01 1 1 0.1 0.001 0.001 Default 50.10 Definite timer 100 90 1.0 1.000 1.000 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Restore frequency if frequency is above frequency value. Setting for choosing timer mode. Nominal voltage in % of UBase for voltage based timer. Lower operation limit in % of UBase for voltage based timer. For calculation of the curve form for voltage based timer. Maximum time operation limit for voltage based timer. Minimum time operation limit for voltage based timer.

9.1.6

Technical data
Table 231:
Function Operate value, start function Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Operate time, definite time function Reset time, definite time function Voltage dependent time delay
U - UMin t= UNom - UMin
EQUATION1182 V1 EN

SAPTUF technical data


Range or value (35.00-75.00) Hz 100 ms typically 100 ms typically (0.000-60.000)s (0.000-60.000)s Settings: UNom=(50-150)% of Ubase UMin=(50-150)% of Ubase Exponent=0.0-5.0 tMax=(0.000-60.000)s tMin=(0.000-60.000)s Accuracy 2.0 mHz 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms 5% + 200 ms

Exponent

( tMax - tMin ) + tMin

(Equation 129)

U=Umeasured

9.2

Overfrequency protection SAPTOF


Function description Overfrequency protection IEC 61850 identification SAPTOF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 81

f>
SYMBOL-O V1 EN

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Section 9 Frequency protection Introduction


Overfrequency protection function SAPTOF is applicable in all situations, where reliable detection of high fundamental power system frequency is needed. Overfrequency occurs because of sudden load drops or shunt faults in the power network. Close to the generating plant, generator governor problems can also cause over frequency. SAPTOF is used mainly for generation shedding and remedial action schemes. It is also used as a frequency stage initiating load restoring. SAPTOF is provided with an undervoltage blocking. The operation is based on positive sequence voltage measurement and requires two phase-phase or three phase-neutral voltages to be connected. For information about how to connect analog inputs, refer to Application manual/IED application/ Analog inputs/Setting guidelines

9.2.1

9.2.2

Principle of operation
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF is used to detect high power system frequency. SAPTOF has a settable definite time delay. If the frequency remains above the set value for a time period corresponding to the chosen time delay, the corresponding TRIP signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted TRIP due to uncertain frequency measurement at low voltage magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available from the preprocessing function, that is, if the voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage in the preprocessing function, the function is blocked and no START or TRIP signal is issued.

9.2.2.1

Measurement principle
The fundamental frequency of the positive sequence voltage is measured continuously, and compared with the set value, StartFrequency. Overfrequency protection SAPTOF is dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage magnitude decreases below the setting IntBlockLevel, SAPTOF is blocked, and the output BLKDMAGN is issued. All voltage settings are made in percent of the UBase, which should be set as a phase-phase voltage in kV. To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.

9.2.2.2

Time delay
The time delay for Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81) is a settable definite time delay, specified by the setting TimeDlyOperate. TRIP signal issuing requires that the overfrequency condition continues for at least the user set time delay, TimeDlyReset. If the START condition, with respect to the measured frequency ceases during this user set delay time, and is not fulfilled again
431

Technical reference manual

Section 9 Frequency protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

within a user defined reset time, TimeDlyReset, the START output is reset, after that the defined reset time has elapsed. It is to be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back to the hysteresis area.

9.2.2.3

Blocking
It is possible to block overfrequency protection SAPTOF partially or completely, by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:
BLOCK: BLKTRIP: blocks all outputs blocks the TRIP output

If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlockLevel, both the START and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.

9.2.2.4

Design
The frequency measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the positive sequence voltage and compares it to the setting StartFrequency. The frequency signal is filtered to avoid transients due to switchings and faults in the power system. The time integrator operates due to a definite delay time. The design of overfrequency protection SAPTOF is schematically described in figure 218.

BLOCK BLKTRIP Comparator U < IntBlockLevel OR BLOCK BLKDMAGN

Voltage

Time integrator Definite Time Delay START Comparator f > StartFrequency

Start & Trip Output Logic

START

Frequency

TimeDlyOperate TRIP TimeDlyReset TRIP

en05000735.vsd

IEC05000735 V1 EN

Figure 218:

Schematic design of overfrequency protection SAPTOF

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Section 9 Frequency protection Function block


SAPTOF U3P* BLOCK BLKTRIP TRIP START BLKDMAGN FREQ IEC06000280_2_en.vsd
IEC06000280 V2 EN

9.2.3

Figure 219:

SAPTOF function block

9.2.4

Input and output signals


Table 232:
Name U3P BLOCK BLKTRIP

SAPTOF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 Description Voltage connection Block of function Blocking operate output.

Table 233:
Name TRIP START BLKDMAGN FREQ

SAPTOF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL Description Operate/trip signal for frequency. Start/pick-up signal for frequency. Blocking indication due to low amplitude. Measured frequency

9.2.5
Table 234:
Name Operation UBase StartFrequency IntBlockLevel TimeDlyOperate TimeDlyReset

Setting parameters
SAPTOF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 2000.00 35.00 - 75.00 0 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit kV Hz %UB s s Step 0.05 0.01 1 0.001 0.001 Default Off 400.00 51.20 50 0.000 0.000 Description Operation Off / On Base voltage Frequency setting/start value. Internal blocking level in % of UBase. Operate time delay in over/underfrequency mode. Time delay for reset.

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Section 9 Frequency protection 9.2.6 Technical data


Table 235:
Function Operate value, start function

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

SAPTOF technical data


Range or value (35.00-75.00) Hz Accuracy 2.0 mHz at symmetrical threephase voltage 0.5% 10 ms 0.5% 10 ms

Operate time, start function Reset time, start function Operate time, definite time function Reset time, definite time function

100 ms typically at fset -0.5 Hz to fset +0.5 Hz 100 ms typically (0.000-60.000)s (0.000-60.000)s

9.3

Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC


Function description Rate-of-change frequency protection IEC 61850 identification SAPFRC IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 81

df/dt > <


SYMBOL-N V1 EN

9.3.1

Introduction
Rate-of-change frequency protection function (SAPFRC) gives an early indication of a main disturbance in the system. SAPFRC can be used for generation shedding, load shedding and remedial action schemes. SAPFRC can discriminate between positive or negative change of frequency. SAPFRC is provided with an undervoltage blocking. The operation is based on positive sequence voltage measurement and requires two phase-phase or three phaseneutral voltages to be connected. For information about how to connect analog inputs, refer to Application manual/IED application/Analog inputs/Setting guidelines.

9.3.2

Principle of operation
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC is used to detect fast power system frequency changes, increase as well as, decrease at an early stage. SAPFRC has a settable definite time delay. If the rate-of-change of frequency remains below the set value, for negative rate-of-change, for a time period equal to the chosen time delay, the TRIP signal is issued. If the rate-of-change of frequency remains above the set value, for positive rate-of-change, for a time period equal to the chosen time

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Section 9 Frequency protection

delay, the TRIP signal is issued. To avoid an unwanted TRIP due to uncertain frequency measurement at low voltage magnitude, a voltage controlled blocking of the function is available, that is if the voltage is lower than the set blocking voltage IntBlockLevel, the function is blocked and no START or TRIP signal is issued. If the frequency recovers, after a frequency decrease, a restore signal is issued.

9.3.2.1

Measurement principle
The rate-of-change of the fundamental frequency of the selected voltage is measured continuously, and compared with the set value, StartFreqGrad. Rate-ofchange frequency protection SAPFRC is also dependent on the voltage magnitude. If the voltage magnitude decreases below the setting IntBlockLevel, SAPFRC is blocked, and the output BLKDMAGN is issued. The sign of the setting StartFreqGrad, controls if SAPFRC reacts on a positive or on a negative change in frequency. If SAPFRC is used for decreasing frequency that is, the setting StartFreqGrad has been given a negative value, and a trip signal has been issued, then a 100 ms pulse is issued on the RESTORE output, when the frequency recovers to a value higher than the setting RestoreFreq. A positive setting of StartFreqGrad, sets SAPFRC to START and TRIP for frequency increases. To avoid oscillations of the output START signal, a hysteresis has been included.

9.3.2.2

Time delay
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC has a settable definite time delay, tTrip. . Trip signal issuing requires that the rate-of-change of frequency condition continues for at least the user set time delay, tTrip. If the START condition, with respect to the measured frequency ceases during the delay time, and is not fulfilled again within a user defined reset time, tReset, the START output is reset, after that the defined reset time has elapsed. Here it should be noted that after leaving the hysteresis area, the START condition must be fulfilled again and it is not sufficient for the signal to only return back into the hysteresis area. The RESTORE output of SAPFRC is set, after a time delay equal to the setting of tRestore, when the measured frequency has returned to the level corresponding to RestoreFreq, after an issue of the TRIP output signal. If tRestore is set to 0.000 s the restore functionality is disabled, and no output will be given. The restore functionality is only active for lowering frequency conditions and the restore sequence is disabled if a new negative frequency gradient is detected during the restore period, defined by the settings RestoreFreq and tRestore.

9.3.2.3

Blocking
Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC) can be partially or totally blocked, by binary input signals or by parameter settings, where:

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Section 9 Frequency protection

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BLOCK: BLKTRIP: BLKREST:

blocks all outputs blocks the TRIP output blocks the RESTORE output

If the measured voltage level decreases below the setting of IntBlockLevel, both the START and the TRIP outputs, are blocked.

9.3.2.4

Design
Rate-of-change frequency protection (SAPFRC) measuring element continuously measures the frequency of the selected voltage and compares it to the setting StartFreqGrad. The frequency signal is filtered to avoid transients due to power system switchings and faults. The time integrator operates with a definite delay time. When the frequency has returned back to the setting of RestoreFreq, the RESTORE output is issued after the time delay tRestore, if the TRIP signal has earlier been issued. The sign of the setting StartFreqGrad is essential, and controls if the function is used for raising or lowering frequency conditions. The design of SAPFRC is schematically described in figure 220.

BLOCK BLKTRIP BLKRESET OR Comparator U < IntBlockLevel Start & Trip Output Logic BLOCK BLKDMAGN

Voltage

Rate-of-Change of Frequency

Comparator If [StartFreqGrad<0 START AND df/dt < StartFreqGrad] OR [StartFreqGrad>0 AND df/dt > StartFreqGrad] Then START

Time integrator Definite Time Delay TimeDlyOperate TimeDlyReset

START

TRIP

100 ms Frequency Comparator f > RestoreFreq TimeDlyRestore RESTORE

en05000835.vsd
IEC05000835 V1 EN

Figure 220:

Schematic design of Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC

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Section 9 Frequency protection Function block


SAPFRC U3P* BLOCK BLKTRIP BLKREST TRIP START RESTORE BLKDMAGN IEC06000281-2-en.vsd
IEC06000281 V2 EN

9.3.3

Figure 221:

SAPFRC function block

9.3.4

Input and output signals


Table 236:
Name U3P BLOCK BLKTRIP BLKREST

SAPFRC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 Description Group signal for voltage input Block of function Blocking operate output. Blocking restore output.

Table 237:
Name TRIP START RESTORE BLKDMAGN

SAPFRC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Operate/trip signal for frequencyGradient Start/pick-up signal for frequencyGradient Restore signal for load restoring purposes. Blocking indication due to low amplitude.

9.3.5
Table 238:
Name Operation UBase StartFreqGrad IntBlockLevel tTrip RestoreFreq tRestore tReset

Setting parameters
SAPFRC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 0.05 - 2000.00 -10.00 - 10.00 0 - 100 0.000 - 60.000 45.00 - 65.00 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit kV Hz/s %UB s Hz s s Step 0.05 0.01 1 0.001 0.01 0.001 0.001 Default Off 400.00 0.50 50 0.200 49.90 0.000 0.000 Description Operation Off / On Base setting for the phase-phase voltage in kV Frequency gradient start value. Sign defines direction. Internal blocking level in % of UBase. Operate time delay in pos./neg. frequency gradient mode. Restore frequency if frequency is above frequency value (Hz) Restore time delay. Time delay for reset.

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Section 9 Frequency protection 9.3.6 Technical data


Table 239:
Function Operate value, start function Operate value, internal blocking level Operate time, start function

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

SAPFRC Technical data


Range or value (-10.00-10.00) Hz/s (0-100)% of UBase 100 ms typically Accuracy 10.0 mHz/s 0.5% of Ur -

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

Section 10

Multipurpose protection

About this chapter


This chapter describes Multipurpose protection and includes the General current and voltage function. The way the functions work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are included for each function.

10.1

General current and voltage protection CVGAPC


Function description General current and voltage protection IEC 61850 identification CVGAPC IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number -

10.1.1

Introduction
The protection module is recommended as a general backup protection with many possible application areas due to its flexible measuring and setting facilities. The built-in overcurrent protection feature has two settable current levels. Both of them can be used either with definite time or inverse time characteristic. The overcurrent protection steps can be made directional with selectable voltage polarizing quantity. Additionally they can be voltage and/or current controlled/ restrained. 2nd harmonic restraining facility is available as well. At too low polarizing voltage the overcurrent feature can be either blocked, made non directional or ordered to use voltage memory in accordance with a parameter setting. Additionally two overvoltage and two undervoltage steps, either with definite time or inverse time characteristic, are available within each function. The general function suits applications with underimpedance and voltage controlled overcurrent solutions. The general function can also be utilized for generator transformer protection applications where positive, negative or zero sequence components of current and voltage quantities are typically required. Additionally, generator applications such as loss of field, inadvertent energizing, stator or rotor overload, circuit breaker head flash-over and open phase detection are just a few of possible protection arrangements with these functions.

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


10.1.1.1 Inadvertent generator energization

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

When the generator is taken out of service, and non-rotating, there is a risk that the generator circuit breaker flashes over or is closed by mistake. To prevent damages on the generator or turbine, it is essential that high speed tripping is provided in case of inadvertent energization of the generator. This tripping should be almost instantaneous (< 100 ms). There is a risk that the current into the generator at inadvertent energization will be limited so that the normal overcurrent or underimpedance protection will not detect the dangerous situation. The delay of these protection functions might be too long. For big and important machines, fast protection against inadvertent energizing should, therefore, be included in the protective scheme.

10.1.2
10.1.2.1

Principle of operation
Measured quantities within CVGAPC
General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) function is always connected to three-phase current and three-phase voltage input in the configuration tool, but it will always measure only one current and one voltage quantity selected by the end user in the setting tool. The user can select to measure one of the current quantities shown in table 240.
Table 240: Current selection for CVGAPC function
Comment CVGAPC function will measure the phase L1 current phasor CVGAPC function will measure the phase L2 current phasor CVGAPC function will measure the phase L3 current phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated positive sequence current phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated negative sequence current phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated zero sequence current phasor multiplied by factor 3 CVGAPC function will measure current phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure current phasor of the phase with minimum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance current, which is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference between the current phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude and current phasor of the phase with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set to 0 all the time

Set value for the parameter

CurrentInput
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Phase1 Phase2 Phase3 PosSeq NegSeq 3ZeroSeq MaxPh MinPh

UnbalancePh

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Set value for the parameter

CurrentInput
10

Comment CVGAPC function will measure the current phasor internally calculated as the vector difference between the phase L1 current phasor and phase L2 current phasor (IL1-IL2) CVGAPC function will measure the current phasor internally calculated as the vector difference between the phase L2 current phasor and phase L3 current phasor (IL2-IL3) CVGAPC function will measure the current phasor internally calculated as the vector difference between the phase L3 current phasor and phase L1 current phasor ( IL3-IL1) CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph current phasor with the maximum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph current phasor with the minimum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance current, which is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference between the ph-ph current phasor with maximum magnitude and ph-ph current phasor with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set to 0 all the time

Phase1-Phase2

11

Phase2-Phase3

12

Phase3-Phase1

13 14 15

MaxPh-Ph MinPh-Ph UnbalancePh-Ph

The user can select to measure one of the voltage quantities shown in table 241:
Table 241: Voltage selection for CVGAPC function
Comment CVGAPC function will measure the phase L1 voltage phasor CVGAPC function will measure the phase L2 voltage phasor CVGAPC function will measure the phase L3 voltage phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated positive sequence voltage phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated negative sequence voltage phasor. This voltage phasor will be intentionally rotated for 180 in order to enable easier settings for the directional feature when used. CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated zero sequence voltage phasor multiplied by factor 3. This voltage phasor will be intentionally rotated for 180 in order to enable easier settings for the directional feature when used. CVGAPC function will measure voltage phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure voltage phasor of the phase with minimum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance voltage, which is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference between the voltage phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude and voltage phasor of the phase with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set to 0 all the time

Set value for the parameter

VoltageInput
1 2 3 4 5 Phase1 Phase2 Phase3 PosSeq -NegSeq

-3ZeroSeq

7 8 9

MaxPh MinPh UnbalancePh

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Set value for the parameter

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

VoltageInput
10

Comment CVGAPC function will measure the voltage phasor internally calculated as the vector difference between the phase L1 voltage phasor and phase L2 voltage phasor (UL1-UL2) CVGAPC function will measure the voltage phasor internally calculated as the vector difference between the phase L2 voltage phasor and phase L3 voltage phasor (UL2-UL3) CVGAPC function will measure the voltage phasor internally calculated as the vector difference between the phase L3 voltage phasor and phase L1 voltage phasor ( UL3-UL1) CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph voltage phasor with the maximum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure ph-ph voltage phasor with the minimum magnitude CVGAPC function will measure magnitude of unbalance voltage, which is internally calculated as the algebraic magnitude difference between the ph-ph voltage phasor with maximum magnitude and phph voltage phasor with minimum magnitude. Phase angle will be set to 0 all the time

Phase1-Phase2

11

Phase2-Phase3

12

Phase3-Phase1

13 14 15

MaxPh-Ph MinPh-Ph UnbalancePh-Ph

It is important to notice that the voltage selection from table 241 is always applicable regardless the actual external VT connections. The three-phase VT inputs can be connected to IED as either three phase-to-ground voltages UL1, UL2 & UL3 or three phase-to-phase voltages UL1L2, UL2L3 & UL3L1). This information about actual VT connection is entered as a setting parameter for the pre-processing block, which will then take automatic care about it. The user can select one of the current quantities shown in table 242 for built-in current restraint feature:
Table 242: Restraint current selection for CVGAPC function
Comment CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated positive sequence current phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated negative sequence current phasor CVGAPC function will measure internally calculated zero sequence current phasor multiplied by factor 3 CVGAPC function will measure current phasor of the phase with maximum magnitude

Set value for the parameter RestrCurr 1 2 3 4 PosSeq NegSeq 3ZeroSeq MaxPh

10.1.2.2

Base quantities for CVGAPC function


The parameter settings for the base quantities, which represent the base (100%) for pickup levels of all measuring stages, shall be entered as setting parameters for every CVGAPC function.

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

Base current shall be entered as: 1. 2. rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes, when the measured Current Quantity is selected from 1 to 9, as shown in table 240. rated phase current of the protected object in primary amperes multiplied by 3 (1.732 Iphase), when the measured Current Quantity is selected from 10 to 15, as shown in table 240.

Base voltage shall be entered as: 1. 2. rated phase-to-earth voltage of the protected object in primary kV, when the measured Voltage Quantity is selected from 1 to 9, as shown in table 241. rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in primary kV, when the measured Voltage Quantity is selected from 10 to 15, as shown in table 241.

10.1.2.3

Built-in overcurrent protection steps


Two overcurrent protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and therefore only one will be explained here. Overcurrent step simply compares the magnitude of the measured current quantity (see table 240) with the set pickup level. Non-directional overcurrent step will pickup if the magnitude of the measured current quantity is bigger than this set level. Reset ratio is settable, with default value of 0.96. However depending on other enabled built-in features this overcurrent pickup might not cause the overcurrent step start signal. Start signal will only come if all of the enabled builtin features in the overcurrent step are fulfilled at the same time.

Second harmonic feature

The overcurrent protection step can be restrained by a second harmonic component in the measured current quantity (see table 240). However it shall be noted that this feature is not applicable when one of the following measured currents is selected: PosSeq (positive sequence current) NegSeq (negative sequence current) UnbalancePh (unbalance phase current) UnbalancePh-Ph (unbalance ph-ph current)

This feature will simple prevent overcurrent step start if the second-to-first harmonic ratio in the measured current exceeds the set level. The overcurrent protection step operation can be can be made dependent on the relevant phase angle between measured current phasor (see table 240) and measured voltage phasor (see table 241). In protection terminology it means that the General currrent and voltage protection (CVGAPC) function can be made directional by enabling this built-in feature. In that case overcurrent protection step will only operate if the current flow is in accordance with the set direction
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Directional feature

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

(Forward, which means towards the protected object, or Reverse, which means from the protected object). For this feature it is of the outmost importance to understand that the measured voltage phasor (see table 241) and measured current phasor (see table 240) will be used for directional decision. Therefore it is the sole responsibility of the end user to select the appropriate current and voltage signals in order to get a proper directional decision. CVGAPC function will NOT do this automatically. It will just simply use the current and voltage phasors selected by the end user to check for the directional criteria. Table 243 gives an overview of the typical choices (but not the only possible ones) for these two quantities for traditional directional relays.
Table 243:
Set value for the parameter

Typical current and voltage choices for directional feature


Set value for the parameter Comment Directional positive sequence overcurrent function is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is from -45 to -90 depending on the power Directional negative sequence overcurrent function is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is from -45 to -90 depending on the power system voltage level (X/ R ratio) Directional zero sequence overcurrent function is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is from 0 to -90 depending on the power system earthing (that is, solidly earthed, earthed via resistor) Directional overcurrent function for the first phase is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is +30 or +45 Directional overcurrent function for the second phase is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is +30 or +45 Directional overcurrent function for the third phase is obtained. Typical setting for RCADir is +30 or +45

CurrentInput
PosSeq

VoltageInput
PosSeq

NegSeq

-NegSeq

3ZeroSeq

-3ZeroSeq

Phase1 Phase2 Phase3

Phase2-Phase3 Phase3-Phase1 Phase1-Phase2

Unbalance current or voltage measurement shall not be used when the directional feature is enabled. Two types of directional measurement principles are available, I & U and IcosPhi&U. The first principle, referred to as "I & U" in the parameter setting tool, checks that: the magnitude of the measured current is bigger than the set pick-up level the phasor of the measured current is within the operating region (defined by the relay operate angle, ROADir parameter setting; see figure 222).

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

RCADir Ipickup ROADir I=3Io

U=-3U0

Operate region mta line


en05000252.vsd
IEC05000252 V1 EN

Figure 222:
where:

I & U directional operating principle for CVGAPC function

RCADir is -75 ROADir is 50

The second principle, referred to as "IcosPhi&U" in the parameter setting tool, checks that: that the product Icos() is bigger than the set pick-up level, where is angle between the current phasor and the mta line that the phasor of the measured current is within the operating region (defined by the Icos() straight line and the relay operate angle, ROADir parameter setting; see figure 222).

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

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RCADir Ipickup ROADir F I=3Io

U=-3U0

Operate region mta line

en05000253.vsd
IEC05000253 V1 EN

Figure 223:
where:

CVGAPC, IcosPhi&U directional operating principle

RCADir is -75 ROADir is 50

Note that it is possible to decide by a parameter setting how the directional feature shall behave when the magnitude of the measured voltage phasor falls below the preset value. User can select one of the following three options: Non-directional (operation allowed for low magnitude of the reference voltage) Block (operation prevented for low magnitude of the reference voltage) Memory (memory voltage shall be used to determine direction of the current)

It shall also be noted that the memory duration is limited in the algorithm to 100 ms. After that time the current direction will be locked to the one determined during memory time and it will re-set only if the current fails below set pickup level or voltage goes above set voltage memory limit. The overcurrent protection step operation can be can be made dependent of a measured voltage quantity (see table 241). Practically then the pickup level of the overcurrent step is not constant but instead decreases with the decrease in the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity. Two different types of dependencies are available: Voltage restraint overcurrent (when setting parameter VDepMode_OC1=Slope)

Voltage restraint/control feature

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

OC1 Stage Pickup Level

StartCurr_OC1

VDepFact_OC1 * StartCurr_OC1

ULowLimit_OC1

UHighLimit_OC1 Selected Voltage Magnitude


en05000324.vsd

IEC05000324 V1 EN

Figure 224:

Example for OC1 step current pickup level variation as function of measured voltage magnitude in Slope mode of operation

Voltage controlled overcurrent (when setting parameter VDepMode_OC1=Step)


OC1 Stage Pickup Level

StartCurr_OC1

VDepFact_OC1 * StartCurr_OC1

UHighLimit_OC1

Selected Voltage Magnitude


en05000323.vsd

IEC05000323 V1 EN

Figure 225:

Example for OC1 step current pickup level variation as function of measured voltage magnitude in Step mode of operation

This feature will simply change the set overcurrent pickup level in accordance with magnitude variations of the measured voltage. It shall be noted that this feature will as well affect the pickup current value for calculation of operate times for IDMT

447 Technical reference manual

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

curves (overcurrent with IDMT curve will operate faster during low voltage conditions). The overcurrent protection step operation can be made dependent of a restraining current quantity (see table 242). Practically then the pickup level of the overcurrent step is not constant but instead increases with the increase in the magnitude of the restraining current.

Current restraint feature

IMeasured
te ra pe O

ea ar

IsetHigh

tr es *I r f f e Co s tr e I>R

ain

IsetLow

atan(RestrCoeff) Restraint
en05000255.vsd
IEC05000255 V1 EN

Figure 226:

Current pickup variation with restraint current magnitude

This feature will simply prevent overcurrent step to start if the magnitude of the measured current quantity is smaller than the set percentage of the restrain current magnitude. However this feature will not affect the pickup current value for calculation of operate times for IDMT curves. This means that the IDMT curve operate time will not be influenced by the restrain current magnitude. When set, the start signal will start definite time delay or inverse (IDMT) time delay in accordance with the end user setting. If the start signal has value one for longer time than the set time delay, the overcurrent step will set its trip signal to one. Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in accordance with the end user setting.

10.1.2.4

Built-in undercurrent protection steps


Two undercurrent protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and therefore only one will be explained here. Undercurrent step simply compares the magnitude of the measured current quantity (see table 240) with the set pickup level. The undercurrent step will pickup and set its start signal to one if the magnitude of the measured current quantity is smaller than this set level. The start signal will start definite time delay with set time delay. If the start signal has value one for longer time than the set time delay the undercurrent step will set its trip

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

signal to one. Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in accordance with the setting.

10.1.2.5

Built-in overvoltage protection steps


Two overvoltage protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and therefore only one will be explained here. Overvoltage step simply compares the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity (see table 241) with the set pickup level. The overvoltage step will pickup if the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity is bigger than this set level. Reset ratio is settable, with default value of 0.99. The start signal will start definite time delay or inverse (IDMT) time delay in accordance with the end user setting. If the start signal has value one for longer time than the set time delay, the overvoltage step will set its trip signal to one. Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in accordance with the end user setting.

10.1.2.6

Built-in undervoltage protection steps


Two undervoltage protection steps are available. They are absolutely identical and therefore only one will be explained here. Undervoltage step simply compares the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity (see table 241) with the set pickup level. The undervoltage step will pickup if the magnitude of the measured voltage quantity is smaller than this set level. Reset ratio is settable, with default value of 1.01. The start signal will start definite time delay or inverse (IDMT) time delay in accordance with the end user setting. If the start signal has value one for longer time than the set time delay, the undervoltage step will set its trip signal to one. Reset of the start and trip signal can be instantaneous or time delay in accordance with the end user setting.

10.1.2.7

Inadvertent generator energizing


The inadvertent energizing function is realized by means of the general current and voltage protection function (CAGVPC). CVGAPC is configured as shown in figure 227.

449 Technical reference manual

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

CVGAPC 3IP 3UP TROC1

TROV1 TRUV1 BLKOC1

S R

Q Q

en08000288.vsd
IEC08000288 V1 EN

Figure 227:

Configuration of the inadvertent energizing function

The setting of the general current and voltage function (typical values) is done as shown in table 244.
Table 244: The setting of the general current and voltage function
Measured Quantity Undervoltage U< Maximum generator Phase to Phase voltage Maximum generator Phase to Phase voltage Maximum generator Phase current Pickup in % of generator Time delay in seconds rating < 70% 10.0 s

Overvoltage U>

> 85%

1.0 s

Overcurrent I>

> 50%

0.05 s

In normal operation the overvoltage trip signal is activated and the undervotage trip signal is deactivated. This means that the overcurrent function is blocked. When the generator is taken out of service the generator voltage gets low. The overvoltage trip signal will be deactivated and the undervoltage trip signal will be

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

activated after the set delay. At this moment the block signal to the overcurrent function will be deactivated. It the generator is energized at stand still conditions, that is, when the voltage is zero, the overcurrent function will operate after the short set delay if the generator current is larger than the set value. When the generator is started the overvoltage trip signal will be activated the set time delay after the moment when the voltage has reached the set value. At this moment the blocking of the overcurrent function is activated. The delay of the undervoltage function will prevent false operation at short circuits in the external power grid.

10.1.2.8

Logic diagram
The simplified internal logics, for CVGAPC function are shown in the following figures.
IED
ADM CVGAPC function
Current and voltage selection settings

Phasor calculation of individual currents

A/D conversion scaling with CT ratio

Phasors & samples

Selection of which current and voltage shall be given to the built-in protection elements

Selected current Selected voltage

Restraint current selection

A/D conversion scaling with CT ratio

Phasor calculation of individual voltages

Selection of restraint current

Selected restraint current

Phasors & samples

IEC05000169_2_en.vsd
IEC05000169 V2 EN

Figure 228:

Treatment of measured currents within IED for CVGAPC function

Figure 228 shows how internal treatment of measured currents is done for multipurpose protection function

451 Technical reference manual

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

The following currents and voltages are inputs to the multipurpose protection function. They must all be expressed in true power system (primary) Amperes and kilovolts. 1. 2. 3. Instantaneous values (samples) of currents & voltages from one three-phase current and one three-phase voltage input. Fundamental frequency phasors from one three-phase current and one threephase voltage input calculated by the pre-processing modules. Sequence currents & voltages from one three-phase current and one threephase voltage input calculated by the pre-processing modules.

The multipurpose protection function: 1. 2. 3. Selects one current from the three-phase input system (see table 240) for internally measured current. Selects one voltage from the three-phase input system (see table 241) for internally measured voltage. Selects one current from the three-phase input system (see table 242) for internally measured restraint current.

452 Technical reference manual

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

CURRENT

UC1 2
Selected current
nd

Harmonic restraint

TRUC1

UC2 2nd Harmonic restraint OC1 2nd Harmonic restraint Current restraint Directionality Voltage control / restraint 1

STUC2 TRUC2

STOC1 TROC1 BLK2ND DIROC1

Selected restraint current

OC2 2nd Harmonic restraint Current restraint Directionality Voltage control / restraint 1

STOC2 TROC2

UDIRLOW DIROC2

STOV1

OV1

TROV1 STOV2

OV2
Selected voltage

TROV2 STUV1

UV1

TRUV1 STUV2

UV2

TRUV2

VOLTAGE

en05000170.vsd
IEC05000170 V1 EN

Figure 229:

CVGAPC function main logic diagram for built-in protection elements

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Logic in figure 229 can be summarized as follows: 1. 2. 3. The selected currents and voltage are given to built-in protection elements. Each protection element and step makes independent decision about status of its START and TRIP output signals. More detailed internal logic for every protection element is given in the following four figures Common START and TRIP signals from all built-in protection elements & steps (internal OR logic) are available from multipurpose function as well.

Enable second harmonic

Second harmonic check

DEF time selected

DEF
OR

BLKTROC 1

AND

TROC1

Selected current

a b

a>b

OC1=On BLKOC1

StartCurr_OC1

AND

STOC1

Inverse Voltage control or restraint feature Directionality check DIR_OK Inverse time selected

Selected voltage

Selected restrain current

Current Restraint Feature Imeasured > k Irestraint

en05000831.vsd

IEC05000831 V1 EN

Figure 230:

Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first overcurrent step that is, OC1 (step OC2 has the same internal logic)

454 Technical reference manual

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

Bin input: BLKUC1TR

Selected current

a b

b>a

DEF

AND

TRUC1

StartCurr_UC1

AND

Operation_UC1=On Bin input: BLKUC1

STUC1

en05000750.vsd
IEC05000750 V1 EN

Figure 231:

Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first undercurrent step that is, UC1 (step UC2 has the same internal logic)

DEF time selected Selected voltage


a b

DEF

BLKTROV1

AND

TROV1

OR
a>b

StartVolt_OV1

AND
Inverse

STOV1

Operation_OV1=On BLKOV1 Inverse time selected

en05000751.vsd
IEC05000751 V1 EN

Figure 232:

Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first overvoltage step OV1 (step OV2 has the same internal logic)

455 Technical reference manual

Section 10 Multipurpose protection

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

DEF time selected Selected voltage


a b

DEF OR

BLKTRUV 1

AND

TRUV1

b>a

StartVolt_UV1

AND Inverse

STUV1

Operation_UV1=On BLKUV1 Inverse time selected

en05000752.vsd
IEC05000752 V1 EN

Figure 233:

Simplified internal logic diagram for built-in first undervoltage step UV1 (step UV2 has the same internal logic)

10.1.3

Function block
CVGAPC I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKOC1 BLKOC1TR ENMLTOC1 BLKOC2 BLKOC2TR ENMLTOC2 BLKUC1 BLKUC1TR BLKUC2 BLKUC2TR BLKOV1 BLKOV1TR BLKOV2 BLKOV2TR BLKUV1 BLKUV1TR BLKUV2 BLKUV2TR TRIP TROC1 TROC2 TRUC1 TRUC2 TROV1 TROV2 TRUV1 TRUV2 START STOC1 STOC2 STUC1 STUC2 STOV1 STOV2 STUV1 STUV2 BLK2ND DIROC1 DIROC2 UDIRLOW CURRENT ICOSFI VOLTAGE UIANGLE IEC05000372-2-en.vsd
IEC05000372 V2 EN

Figure 234:

CVGAPC function block

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection Input and output signals


Table 245:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK BLKOC1 BLKOC1TR ENMLTOC1 BLKOC2 BLKOC2TR ENMLTOC2 BLKUC1 BLKUC1TR BLKUC2 BLKUC2TR BLKOV1 BLKOV1TR BLKOV2 BLKOV2TR BLKUV1 BLKUV1TR BLKUV2 BLKUV2TR

10.1.4

CVGAPC Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description Group signal for current input Group signal for voltage input Block of function Block of over current function OC1 Block of trip for over current function OC1 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for OC1 Block of over current function OC2 Block of trip for over current function OC2 When activated, the current multiplier is in use for OC2 Block of under current function UC1 Block of trip for under current function UC1 Block of under current function UC2 Block of trip for under current function UC2 Block of over voltage function OV1 Block of trip for over voltage function OV1 Block of over voltage function OV2 Block of trip for over voltage function OV2 Block of under voltage function UV1 Block of trip for under voltage function UV1 Block of under voltage function UV2 Block of trip for under voltage function UV2

Table 246:
Name TRIP TROC1 TROC2 TRUC1 TRUC2 TROV1 TROV2 TRUV1 TRUV2

CVGAPC Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description General trip signal Trip signal from overcurrent function OC1 Trip signal from overcurrent function OC2 Trip signal from undercurrent function UC1 Trip signal from undercurrent function UC2 Trip signal from overvoltage function OV1 Trip signal from overvoltage function OV2 Trip signal from undervoltage function UV1 Trip signal from undervoltage function UV2

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Name START STOC1 STOC2 STUC1 STUC2 STOV1 STOV2 STUV1 STUV2 BLK2ND DIROC1 DIROC2 UDIRLOW CURRENT ICOSFI VOLTAGE UIANGLE Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER INTEGER BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL Description General start signal

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Start signal from overcurrent function OC1 Start signal from overcurrent function OC2 Start signal from undercurrent function UC1 Start signal from undercurrent function UC2 Start signal from overvoltage function OV1 Start signal from overvoltage function OV2 Start signal from undervoltage function UV1 Start signal from undervoltage function UV2 Block from second harmonic detection Directional mode of OC1 (nondir, forward,reverse) Directional mode of OC2 (nondir, forward,reverse) Low voltage for directional polarization Measured current value Measured current multiplied with cos (Phi) Measured voltage value Angle between voltage and current

10.1.5
Table 247:
Name Operation CurrentInput

Setting parameters
CVGAPC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On phase1 phase2 phase3 PosSeq NegSeq 3*ZeroSeq MaxPh MinPh UnbalancePh phase1-phase2 phase2-phase3 phase3-phase1 MaxPh-Ph MinPh-Ph UnbalancePh-Ph 1 - 99999 Unit Step Default Off MaxPh Description Operation Off / On Select current signal which will be measured inside function

IBase

3000

Base Current

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Values (Range) phase1 phase2 phase3 PosSeq -NegSeq -3*ZeroSeq MaxPh MinPh UnbalancePh phase1-phase2 phase2-phase3 phase3-phase1 MaxPh-Ph MinPh-Ph UnbalancePh-Ph 0.05 - 2000.00 Off On 10.0 - 50.0 Off On PosSeq NegSeq 3*ZeroSeq Max 0.00 - 5.00 -180 - 180 1 - 90 0.0 - 5.0 Off On 2.0 - 5000.0 ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Programmable RI type RD type 0.00 - 6000.00 Unit Step Default MaxPh Description Select voltage signal which will be measured inside function

Name VoltageInput

UBase OperHarmRestr l_2nd/l_fund EnRestrainCurr RestrCurrInput

kV % -

0.05 1.0 -

400.00 Off 20.0 Off PosSeq

Base Voltage Operation of 2nd harmonic restrain Off / On Ratio of second to fundamental current harmonic in % Enable current restrain function On / Off Select current signal which will be used for curr restrain

RestrCurrCoeff RCADir ROADir LowVolt_VM Operation_OC1 StartCurr_OC1 CurveType_OC1

Deg Deg %UB %IB -

0.01 1 1 0.1 1.0 -

0.00 -75 75 0.5 Off 120.0 ANSI Def. Time

Restraining current coefficient Relay Characteristic Angle Relay Operate Angle Below this level in % of Ubase setting ActLowVolt takes over Operation OC1 Off / On Operate current level for OC1 in % of Ibase Selection of time delay curve type for OC1

tDef_OC1

0.01

0.50

Independent (definitive) time delay of OC1

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Name k_OC1 IMin1 tMin_OC1 VCntrlMode_OC1 Values (Range) 0.05 - 999.00 1 - 10000 0.00 - 6000.00 Voltage control Input control Volt/Input control Off Step Slope 0.02 - 5.00 1.0 - 200.0 1.0 - 200.0 Off On Non-directional Forward Reverse I&U IcosPhi&U Non-directional Block Memory Off On 2.0 - 5000.0 ANSI Ext. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. inv. ANSI Mod. inv. ANSI Def. Time L.T.E. inv. L.T.V. inv. L.T. inv. IEC Norm. inv. IEC Very inv. IEC inv. IEC Ext. inv. IEC S.T. inv. IEC L.T. inv. IEC Def. Time Programmable RI type RD type 0.00 - 6000.00 0.05 - 999.00 Unit %IB s Step 0.01 1 0.01 Default 0.30 100 0.05 Off Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for OC1 Minimum operate current for step1 in % of IBase Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT curves for OC1 Control mode for voltage controlled OC1 function

VDepMode_OC1 VDepFact_OC1 ULowLimit_OC1 UHighLimit_OC1 HarmRestr_OC1 DirMode_OC1

%UB %UB -

0.01 0.1 0.1 -

Step 1.00 50.0 100.0 Off Non-directional

Voltage dependent mode OC1 (step, slope) Multiplying factor for I pickup when OC1 is U dependent Voltage low limit setting OC1 in % of Ubase Voltage high limit setting OC1 in % of Ubase Enable block of OC1 by 2nd harmonic restrain Directional mode of OC1 (nondir, forward,reverse) Measuring on IandU or IcosPhiandU for OC1 Low voltage level action for Dir_OC1 (Nodir, Blk, Mem) Operation OC2 Off / On Operate current level for OC2 in % of Ibase Selection of time delay curve type for OC2

DirPrinc_OC1 ActLowVolt1_VM

I&U Non-directional

Operation_OC2 StartCurr_OC2 CurveType_OC2

%IB -

1.0 -

Off 120.0 ANSI Def. Time

tDef_OC2 k_OC2

s -

0.01 0.01

0.50 0.30

Independent (definitive) time delay of OC2 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for OC2

Table continues on next page 460 Technical reference manual

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Values (Range) 1 - 10000 0.00 - 6000.00 Voltage control Input control Volt/Input control Off Step Slope 0.02 - 5.00 1.0 - 200.0 1.0 - 200.0 Off On Non-directional Forward Reverse I&U IcosPhi&U Non-directional Block Memory Off On Off On 0 - 150 2.0 - 150.0 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 Off On Off On Off On 0 - 150 2.0 - 150.0 0.00 - 6000.00 Off On Unit %IB s Step 1 0.01 Default 50 0.05 Off Description Minimum operate current for step2 in % of IBase Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT curves for OC2 Control mode for voltage controlled OC2 function

Name IMin2 tMin_OC2 VCntrlMode_OC2

VDepMode_OC2 VDepFact_OC2 ULowLimit_OC2 UHighLimit_OC2 HarmRestr_OC2 DirMode_OC2

%UB %UB -

0.01 0.1 0.1 -

Step 1.00 50.0 100.0 Off Non-directional

Voltage dependent mode OC2 (step, slope) Multiplying factor for I pickup when OC2 is U dependent Voltage low limit setting OC2 in % of Ubase Voltage high limit setting OC2 in % of Ubase Enable block of OC2 by 2nd harmonic restrain Directional mode of OC2 (nondir, forward,reverse) Measuring on IandU or IcosPhiandU for OC2 Low voltage level action for Dir_OC2 (Nodir, Blk, Mem) Operation UC1 Off / On Enable internal low current level blocking for UC1 Internal low current blocking level for UC1 in % of Ibase Operate undercurrent level for UC1 in % of Ibase Independent (definitive) time delay of UC1 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve UC1 Enable block of UC1 by 2nd harmonic restrain Operation UC2 Off / On Enable internal low current level blocking for UC2 Internal low current blocking level for UC2 in % of Ibase Operate undercurrent level for UC2 in % of Ibase Independent (definitive) time delay of UC2 Enable block of UC2 by 2nd harmonic restrain

DirPrinc_OC2 ActLowVolt2_VM

I&U Non-directional

Operation_UC1 EnBlkLowI_UC1 BlkLowCurr_UC1 StartCurr_UC1 tDef_UC1 tResetDef_UC1 HarmRestr_UC1 Operation_UC2 EnBlkLowI_UC2 BlkLowCurr_UC2 StartCurr_UC2 tDef_UC2 HarmRestr_UC2

%IB %IB s s %IB %IB s -

1 1.0 0.01 0.01 1 1.0 0.01 -

Off Off 20 70.0 0.50 0.00 Off Off Off 20 70.0 0.50 Off

Table continues on next page 461 Technical reference manual

Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Name Operation_OV1 StartVolt_OV1 CurveType_OV1 Values (Range) Off On 2.0 - 200.0 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. inv. curve 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.05 - 999.00 Off On 2.0 - 200.0 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Inverse curve C Prog. inv. curve 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.05 - 999.00 Off On 2.0 - 150.0 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Prog. inv. curve 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.05 - 999.00 Off On 0.0 - 5.0 Off On Unit %UB Step 0.1 Default Off 150.0 Definite time Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Operation OV1 Off / On Operate voltage level for OV1 in % of Ubase Selection of time delay curve type for OV1

tDef_OV1 tMin_OV1 k_OV1 Operation_OV2 StartVolt_OV2 CurveType_OV2

s s %UB -

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 -

1.00 0.05 0.30 Off 150.0 Definite time

Operate time delay in sec for definite time use of OV1 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves for OV1 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for OV1 Operation OV2 Off / On Operate voltage level for OV2 in % of Ubase Selection of time delay curve type for OV2

tDef_OV2 tMin_OV2 k_OV2 Operation_UV1 StartVolt_UV1 CurveType_UV1

s s %UB -

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 -

1.00 0.05 0.30 Off 50.0 Definite time

Operate time delay in sec for definite time use of OV2 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves for OV2 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for OV2 Operation UV1 Off / On Operate undervoltage level for UV1 in % of Ubase Selection of time delay curve type for UV1

tDef_UV1 tMin_UV1 k_UV1 EnBlkLowV_UV1 BlkLowVolt_UV1 Operation_UV2

s s %UB -

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1 -

1.00 0.05 0.30 On 0.5 Off

Operate time delay in sec for definite time use of UV1 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves for UV1 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for UV1 Enable internal low voltage level blocking for UV1 Internal low voltage blocking level for UV1 in % of Ubase Operation UV2 Off / On

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Values (Range) 2.0 - 150.0 Definite time Inverse curve A Inverse curve B Prog. inv. curve 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.05 - 999.00 Off On 0.0 - 5.0 Unit %UB Step 0.1 Default 50.0 Definite time Description Operate undervoltage level for UV2 in % of Ubase Selection of time delay curve type for UV2

Name StartVolt_UV2 CurveType_UV2

tDef_UV2 tMin_UV2 k_UV2 EnBlkLowV_UV2 BlkLowVolt_UV2

s s %UB

0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1

1.00 0.05 0.30 On 0.5

Operate time delay in sec for definite time use of UV2 Minimum operate time for IDMT curves for UV2 Time multiplier for the dependent time delay for UV2 Enable internal low voltage level blocking for UV2 Internal low voltage blocking level for UV2 in % of Ubase

Table 248:
Name CurrMult_OC1

CVGAPC Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.00 - 6000.00 0.001 - 10.000 0.000 - 999.000 0.000 - 99.000 0.000 - 1.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 600.000 0.1 - 10.0 1.0 - 10.0 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset 0.00 - 6000.00 0.001 - 10.000 Unit Step 0.1 Default 2.0 Instantaneous Description Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for OC1 Selection of reset curve type for OC1

ResCrvType_OC1

tResetDef_OC1 P_OC1 A_OC1 B_OC1 C_OC1 PR_OC1 TR_OC1 CR_OC1 CurrMult_OC2 ResCrvType_OC2

s -

0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.1 0.1 -

0.00 0.020 0.140 0.000 1.000 0.500 13.500 1.0 2.0 Instantaneous

Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve OC1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for OC1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for OC1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for OC1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for OC1 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for OC1 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for OC1 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for OC1 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for OC2 Selection of reset curve type for OC2

tResetDef_OC2 P_OC2

s -

0.01 0.001

0.00 0.020

Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve OC2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for OC2

Table continues on next page 463 Technical reference manual

Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Name A_OC2 B_OC2 C_OC2 PR_OC2 TR_OC2 CR_OC2 tResetDef_UC2 ResCrvType_OV1 Values (Range) 0.000 - 999.000 0.000 - 99.000 0.000 - 1.000 0.005 - 3.000 0.005 - 600.000 0.1 - 10.0 0.00 - 6000.00 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.005 - 999.000 0.500 - 99.000 0.000 - 1.000 0.000 - 10.000 0.001 - 10.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.005 - 999.000 0.500 - 99.000 0.000 - 1.000 0.000 - 10.000 0.001 - 10.000 Unit s Step 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.1 0.01 Default 0.140 0.000 1.000 0.500 13.500 1.0 0.00 Instantaneous Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Parameter A for customer programmable curve for OC2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for OC2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for OC2 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for OC2 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for OC2 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for OC2 Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve UC2 Selection of reset curve type for OV1

tResetDef_OV1 tResetIDMT_OV1 A_OV1 B_OV1 C_OV1 D_OV1 P_OV1 ResCrvType_OV2

s s -

0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 -

0.00 0.00 0.140 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.020 Instantaneous

Reset time delay in sec for definite time use of OV1 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves for OV1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for OV1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for OV1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for OV1 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for OV1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for OV1 Selection of reset curve type for OV2

tResetDef_OV2 tResetIDMT_OV2 A_OV2 B_OV2 C_OV2 D_OV2 P_OV2

s s -

0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

0.00 0.00 0.140 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.020

Reset time delay in sec for definite time use of OV2 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves for OV2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for OV2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for OV2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for OV2 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for OV2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for OV2

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Values (Range) Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.005 - 999.000 0.500 - 99.000 0.000 - 1.000 0.000 - 10.000 0.001 - 10.000 Instantaneous Frozen timer Linearly decreased 0.00 - 6000.00 0.00 - 6000.00 0.005 - 999.000 0.500 - 99.000 0.000 - 1.000 0.000 - 10.000 0.001 - 10.000 Unit Step Default Instantaneous Description Selection of reset curve type for UV1

Name ResCrvType_UV1

tResetDef_UV1 tResetIDMT_UV1 A_UV1 B_UV1 C_UV1 D_UV1 P_UV1 ResCrvType_UV2

s s -

0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 -

0.00 0.00 0.140 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.020 Instantaneous

Reset time delay in sec for definite time use of UV1 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves for UV1 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for UV1 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for UV1 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for UV1 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for UV1 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for UV1 Selection of reset curve type for UV2

tResetDef_UV2 tResetIDMT_UV2 A_UV2 B_UV2 C_UV2 D_UV2 P_UV2

s s -

0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

0.00 0.00 0.140 1.000 1.000 0.000 0.020

Reset time delay in sec for definite time use of UV2 Reset time delay in sec for IDMT curves for UV2 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for UV2 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for UV2 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for UV2 Parameter D for customer programmable curve for UV2 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for UV2

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection 10.1.6 Technical data


Table 249:
Function Measuring current input

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

CVGAPC technical data


Range or value phase1, phase2, phase3, PosSeq, NegSeq, 3*ZeroSeq, MaxPh, MinPh, UnbalancePh, phase1-phase2, phase2phase3, phase3-phase1, MaxPh-Ph, MinPh-Ph, UnbalancePh-Ph (1 - 99999) A phase1, phase2, phase3, PosSeq, NegSeq, -3*ZeroSeq, MaxPh, MinPh, UnbalancePh, phase1-phase2, phase2phase3, phase3-phase1, MaxPh-Ph, MinPh-Ph, UnbalancePh-Ph (0.05 - 2000.00) kV (2 - 5000)% of IBase (2 - 150)% of IBase (0.00 - 6000.00) s 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset Parameter ranges for customer defined characteristic no 17: k: 0.05 - 999.00 A: 0.0000 - 999.0000 B: 0.0000 - 99.0000 C: 0.0000 - 1.0000 P: 0.0001 - 10.0000 PR: 0.005 - 3.000 TR: 0.005 - 600.000 CR: 0.1 - 10.0 (0.0 - 5.0)% of UBase Accuracy -

Base current Measuring voltage input

Base voltage Start overcurrent, step 1 and 2 Start undercurrent, step 1 and 2 Definite time delay Operate time start overcurrent Reset time start overcurrent Operate time start undercurrent Reset time start undercurrent See table 588 and table 589

1.0% of Ir for I<Ir 1.0% of I for I>Ir 1.0% of Ir for I<Ir 1.0% of I for I>Ir 0.5% 10 ms See table 588 and table 589

Voltage level where voltage memory takes over Start overvoltage, step 1 and 2 Start undervoltage, step 1 and 2 Operate time, start overvoltage Reset time, start overvoltage Operate time start undervoltage

0.5% of Ur

(2.0 - 200.0)% of UBase (2.0 - 150.0)% of UBase 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 25 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Uset 25 ms typically 2 to 0 x Uset

0.5% of Ur for U<Ur 0.5% of U for U>Ur 0.5% of Ur for U<Ur 0.5% of U for U>Ur -

Table continues on next page 466 Technical reference manual

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Function Reset time start undervoltage High and low voltage limit, voltage dependent operation Directional function Relay characteristic angle Relay operate angle Reset ratio, overcurrent Reset ratio, undercurrent Reset ratio, overvoltage Reset ratio, undervoltage Overcurrent: Critical impulse time Impulse margin time Undercurrent: Critical impulse time Impulse margin time Overvoltage: Critical impulse time Impulse margin time Undervoltage: Critical impulse time Impulse margin time 10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Uset 15 ms typically 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset 15 ms typically 10 ms typically at 2 to 0 x Iset 15 ms typically 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset 15 ms typically Range or value 25 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Uset (1.0 - 200.0)% of UBase Accuracy 1.0% of Ur for U<Ur 1.0% of U for U>Ur 2.0 degrees 2.0 degrees -

Settable: NonDir, forward and reverse (-180 to +180) degrees (1 to 90) degrees > 95% < 105% > 95% < 105%

10.2
10.2.1

Rotor earth fault protection


Introduction
The field winding, including the rotor winding and the non-rotating excitation equipment, is always insulated from the metallic parts of the rotor. The insulation resistance is high if the rotor is cooled by air or by hydrogen. The insulation resistance is much lower if the rotor winding is cooled by water. This is true even if the insulation is intact. A fault in the insulation of the field circuit will result in a conducting path from the field winding to earth. This means that the fault has caused a field earth fault.

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The field circuit of a synchronous generator is normally unearthed. Therefore, a single earth fault on the field winding will cause only a very small fault current. Thus the earth fault does not produce any damage in the generator. Furthermore, it will not affect the operation of a generating unit in any way. However, the existence of a single earth fault increases the electric stress at other points in the field circuit. This means that the risk for a second earth fault at another point on the field winding has increased considerably. A second earth fault will cause a field shortcircuit with severe consequences. The rotor earth fault protection is based on injection of an AC voltage to the isolated field circuit. In non-faulted conditions there will be no current flow associated to this injected voltage. If a rotor earth fault occurs, this condition will be detected by the rotor earth fault protection. Depending on the generator owner philosophy this operational state will be alarmed and/or the generator will be tripped. An injection unit is required for rotor earth fault protection (RXTTE4) and a protective resistor on plate for correct operation. Rotor earth fault protection can be integrated in the IED among all other protection functions typically required for generator protection. How this is achieved by using COMBIFLEX injection unit RXTTE4 is described in Instruction 1MRG001910.

10.2.2
10.2.2.1

Principle of operation
Rotor earth fault
The protection function uses injection of an ac voltage to the generator field circuit. The COMBIFLEX voltage injection unit RXTTE4, Part No 1MRK 002 108-AB contains a voltage transformer with a primary winding for connection to 120 or 230 V, 50 or 60 Hz supply voltage. From the secondary winding of this internal voltage transformer approximately 40 V AC is injected via series capacitors and resistors into the rotor circuit. The injected voltage and current are fed to one voltage input and one current input on the IED. 1A rated current input into REG670 must be used for this function.

The current caused by the injection is fed to a current input on the IED via injection unit RXTTE4, as shown in figure 235.

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Generator rotor winding

Connection to be done by the panel builder / field contractor


RXTTE 4 REG 670 221

Optional external resistor


222

421 I 428

313 314 324 U 325 321 315

230 V AC 120 V AC 0

en07000185.vsd
IEC07000185 V1 EN

Figure 235:

Connection of rotor earth fault protection

By using a two stage directional current measurement in the General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC), as shown in figure 236, the earth fault current on the DC side of the excitation is detected. The protection operates when the resistive component of the measured injected current exceeds the pre-set operate level. Stage one provides an alarm signal and stage two trips the generator after a short time delay for fully developed rotor earth faults.

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Operating Region

IINJECTED

UINJECTED

en06000447.vsd
IEC06000447 V1 EN

Figure 236:

Two stage directional current measurement in the general application multipurpose function

The sensitivity of the rotor earth fault protection is dependent of the rotor winding capacitance to earth and the set pick-up current level of the General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC). The sensitivity is shown in figure 237.

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REG 670 : 50 Hz : Raxle=0


10 0

10

ko hm

0 ,1 0 1 2 uF 3 0 mA 4 0 mA 50 mA 70 mA 10 0 mA 150 mA 2 0 0 mA 3 0 0 mA 3 4 5

en06000445.vsd
IEC06000445 V1 EN

Figure 237:

Sensitivity dependence of winding capacitance at different current settings

The undervoltage stage of the General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) can be used to monitor the injection voltage and give alarm if the injection voltage is absent. It shall be set to 80% of the rated value of the rated value of the injected voltage with a time delay of about 10 s. An additional instance of the General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) can be used to provide a third non-directional overcurrent stage which can be used to detect earth faults on the AC side of the rectifier in case of a static excitation system. It shall be set to operate when the magnitude of the injected current into the rotor circuit exceeds 125 mA and with a delay of 5 s. As the CT in RXTTE4 has a ratio 10:1 the current measured by the IED will be at least 1.25 A for this fault.

10.2.3

Technical data
Table 250:
Function For machines with: rated field voltage up to static exciter with rated supply voltage up to 350 V DC 700 V 50/60 Hz -

Rotor earth fault protection based on General current and voltage protection (CVGAPC) and RXTTE4
Range or value Accuracy

Table continues on next page

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Section 10 Multipurpose protection


Function Supply voltage 120 or 230 V Operate earth fault resistance value Influence of harmonics in the DC field voltage Permitted leakage capacitance Permitted shaft earthing resistance Protective resistor Range or value 50/60 Hz Approx. 120 k Negligible influence of 50 V, 150 Hz or 50 V, 300 Hz (15) F Maximum 200 220 , 100 W, plate 135 x 160 mm -

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Accuracy -

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision

Section 11

Secondary system supervision

About this chapter


This chapter describes functions like Current circuit supervision and Fuse failure supervision. The way the functions work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are included for each function.

11.1

Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF


Function description Current circuit supervision IEC 61850 identification CCSRDIF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 87

11.1.1

Introduction
Open or short circuited current transformer cores can cause unwanted operation of many protection functions such as differential, earth-fault current and negativesequence current functions. It must be remembered that a blocking of protection functions at an occurrence of open CT circuit will mean that the situation will remain and extremely high voltages will stress the secondary circuit. Current circuit supervision (CCSRDIF) compares the residual current from a three phase set of current transformer cores with the neutral point current on a separate input taken from another set of cores on the current transformer. A detection of a difference indicates a fault in the circuit and is used as alarm or to block protection functions expected to give unwanted tripping.

11.1.2

Principle of operation
Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF compares the absolute value of the vectorial sum of the three phase currents |Iphase| and the numerical value of the residual current |Iref| from another current transformer set, see figure 238. The FAIL output will be set to a logical one when the following criteria are fulfilled:

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The numerical value of the difference |Iphase| |Iref| is higher than 80% of the numerical value of the sum |Iphase| + |Iref|. The numerical value of the current |Iphase| |Iref| is equal to or higher than the set operate value IMinOp. No phase current has exceeded Ip>Block during the last 10 ms. CCSRDIF is enabled by setting Operation = On.

The FAIL output remains activated 100 ms after the AND-gate resets when being activated for more than 20 ms. If the FAIL lasts for more than 150 ms an ALARM will be issued. In this case the FAIL and ALARM will remain activated 1 s after the AND-gate resets. This prevents unwanted resetting of the blocking function when phase current supervision element(s) operate, for example, during a fault.

IEC05000463 V1 EN

Figure 238:

Simplified logic diagram for Current circuit supervision CCSRDIF

The operate characteristic is percentage restrained, see figure 239.

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision

| I phase | - | I ref |

Slope = 1

Slope = 0.8 I MinOp

Operation area

| I phase | + | I ref |
99000068.vsd
IEC99000068 V1 EN

Figure 239:

Operate characteristics

Due to the formulas for the axis compared, |SIphase | - |I ref | and |S I phase | + | I ref | respectively, the slope can not be above 2.

11.1.3

Function block
CCSRDIF I3P* IREF* BLOCK FAIL ALARM

IEC05000389-2-en.vsd
IEC05000389 V2 EN

Figure 240:

CCSRDIF function block

11.1.4

Input and output signals


Table 251:
Name I3P IREF BLOCK

CCSRDIF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Group signal for three phase current input TBD Block of function

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Table 252:
Name FAIL ALARM

CCSRDIF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Detection of current circuit failure Alarm for current circuit failure

11.1.5
Table 253:
Name Operation IBase IMinOp

Setting parameters
CCSRDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 5 - 200 Unit A %IB Step 1 1 Default Off 3000 20 Description Operation Off / On IBase value for current level detectors Minimum operate current differential level in % of IBase

Table 254:
Name Ip>Block

CCSRDIF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range) 5 - 500 Unit %IB Step 1 Default 150 Description Block of the function at high phase current, in % of IBase

11.1.6

Technical data
Table 255:
Function Operate current Block current

CCSRDIF technical data


Range or value (5-200)% of Ir (5-500)% of Ir Accuracy 10.0% of Ir at I Ir 10.0% of I at I > Ir 5.0% of Ir at I Ir 5.0% of I at I > Ir

11.2

Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF


Function description Fuse failure supervision IEC 61850 identification SDDRFUF IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number -

11.2.1

Introduction
The aim of the fuse failure supervision function (SDDRFUF) is to block voltage measuring functions at failures in the secondary circuits between the voltage

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision

transformer and the IED in order to avoid unwanted operations that otherwise might occur. The fuse failure supervision function basically has three different algorithms, negative sequence and zero sequence based algorithms and an additional delta voltage and delta current algorithm. The negative sequence detection algorithm is recommended for IEDs used in isolated or high-impedance earthed networks. It is based on the negative-sequence measuring quantities, a high value of voltage 3U2 without the presence of the negative-sequence current 3I2. The zero sequence detection algorithm is recommended for IEDs used in directly or low impedance earthed networks. It is based on the zero sequence measuring quantities, a high value of voltage 3U0 without the presence of the residual current 3I0. For better adaptation to system requirements, an operation mode setting has been introduced which makes it possible to select the operating conditions for negative sequence and zero sequence based function. The selection of different operation modes makes it possible to choose different interaction possibilities between the negative sequence and zero sequence based algorithm. A criterion based on delta current and delta voltage measurements can be added to the fuse failure supervision function in order to detect a three phase fuse failure, which in practice is more associated with voltage transformer switching during station operations.

11.2.2
11.2.2.1

Principle of operation
Zero and negative sequence detection
The zero and negative sequence function continuously measures the currents and voltages in all three phases and calculates, see figure 241: the zero-sequence voltage 3U0 the zero-sequence current 3I0 the negative sequence current 3I2 the negative sequence voltage 3U2

The measured signals are compared with their respective set values 3U0> and 3I0<, 3U2> and 3I2<. The function enable the internal signal FuseFailDetZeroSeq if the measured zerosequence voltage is higher than the set value 3U0> and the measured zerosequence current is below the set value 3I0<.

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The function enable the internal signal FuseFailDetNegSeq if the measured negative sequence voltage is higher than the set value 3U2> and the measured negative sequence current is below the set value 3I2<. A drop out delay of 100 ms for the measured zero-sequence and negative sequence current will prevent a false fuse failure detection at un-equal breaker opening at the two line ends.
Sequence Detection
3I0< IL1 Zero sequence filter Negative sequence filter
a b

CurrZeroSeq 3I0
a b

IL2

a>b

100 ms t

CurrNegSeq 3I2 AND FuseFailDetZeroSeq

IL3

3I2< 3U0> UL1 Zero sequence filter Negative sequence filter

a>b

100 ms t

AND

FuseFailDetNegSeq VoltZeroSeq

a b

a>b VoltNegSeq

3U0

UL2

a b

UL3 3U2>

a>b

3U2

IEC10000036-2-en.vsd
IEC10000036 V2 EN

Figure 241:

Simplified logic diagram for sequence detection part

The calculated values 3U0, 3I0, 3I2 and 3U2 are available as service values on local HMI and monitoring tool in PCM600.

Input and output signals


The output signals 3PH, BLKU and BLKZ can be blocked in the following conditions: The input BLOCK is activated The input BLKTRIP is activated at the same time as the internal signal fufailStarted is not present The operation mode selector OpMode is set to Off. The IED is in TEST status (TEST-ACTIVE is high) and the function has been blocked from the HMI (BlockFUSE=Yes)

The input BLOCK signal is a general purpose blocking signal of the fuse failure supervision function. It can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to receive a block command from external devices or can be software connected to other internal functions of the IED itself in order to receive a block command from internal functions. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and internal function outputs.
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Section 11 Secondary system supervision

The input BLKSP is intended to be connected to the trip output at any of the protection functions included in the IED. When activated for more than 20 ms, the operation of the fuse failure is blocked during a fixed time of 100 ms. The aim is to increase the security against unwanted operations during the opening of the breaker, which might cause unbalance conditions for which the fuse failure might operate. The output signal BLKZ will also be blocked if the internal dead line detection is activated. The block signal has a 200 ms drop-out time delay. The input signal MCBOP is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the miniature circuit breaker protecting the VT secondary circuit. The MCBOP signal sets the output signals BLKU and BLKZ in order to block all the voltage related functions when the MCB is open independent of the setting of OpMode selector. The additional drop-out timer of 150 ms prolongs the presence of MCBOP signal to prevent the unwanted operation of voltage dependent function due to non simultaneous closing of the main contacts of the miniature circuit breaker. The input signal DISCPOS is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the line disconnector. The DISCPOS signal sets the output signal BLKU in order to block the voltage related functions when the line disconnector is open. The impedance protection function is not affected by the position of the line disconnector since there will be no line currents that can cause malfunction of the distance protection. If DISCPOS=0 it signifies that the line is connected to the system and when the DISCPOS=1 it signifies that the line is disconnected from the system and the block signal BLKU is generated. The output BLKU can be used for blocking the voltage related measuring functions (undervoltage protection, synchro-check and so on) except for the impedance protection. The function output BLKZ shall be used for blocking the impedance protection function.

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Fuse failure detection Main logic


TEST TEST ACTIVE BlocFuse = Yes BLOCK BLKTRIP AND 20 ms t 100 ms t FusefailStarted All UL < USealIn< AND SealIn = On OR AND AND OR intBlock

AND

3PH

AND Any UL < UsealIn< FuseFailDetDUDI OpDUDI = On FuseFailDetZeroSeq AND AND OR 5s t

AND FuseFailDetNegSeq AND UNsINs UZsIZs UZsIZs OR UNsINs UZsIZs AND UNsINs OptimZsNs OR
a b

OR OR

OpMode

CurrZeroSeq CurrNegSeq

a>b

AND AND

DeadLineDet1Ph MCBOP

200 ms t

AND 150 ms t

OR

AND

BLKZ

All UL > UsealIn< VoltZeroSeq VoltNegSeq AllCurrLow CBCLOSED DISCPOS


IEC10000033 V2 EN

60 s t 5s t

OR AND

OR

AND

BLKU

OR

IEC10000033-2-en.vsd

Figure 242:

Simplified logic diagram for main logic of Fuse failure function

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision


Delta current and delta voltage detection
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 243. The calculation of the change is based on vector change which means that it detects both amplitude and phase angle changes. The calculated delta quantities are compared with their respective set values DI< and DU> and the algorithm, detects a fuse failure if a sufficient change in voltage without a sufficient change in current is detected in each phase separately. The following quantities are calculated in all three phases: The change in voltage DU The change in current DI

11.2.2.2

The internal FuseFailDetDUDI signal is activated if the following conditions are fulfilled for a phase: The magnitude of the phase-ground voltage has been above UPh> for more than 1.5 cycle The magnitude of DU is higher than the corresponding setting DU> The magnitude of DI is below the setting DI>

and at least one of the following conditions are fulfilled: The magnitude of the phase current in the same phase is higher than the setting IPh> The circuit breaker is closed (CBCLOSED = True)

The first criterion means that detection of failure in one phase together with high current for the same phase will set the output. The measured phase current is used to reduce the risk of false fuse failure detection. If the current on the protected line is low, a voltage drop in the system (not caused by fuse failure) is not by certain followed by current change and a false fuse failure might occur The second criterion requires that the delta condition shall be fulfilled in any phase at the same time as circuit breaker is closed. Opening circuit breaker at one end and energizing the line from other end onto a fault could lead to wrong start of the fuse failure function at the end with the open breaker. If this is considering to be an important disadvantage, connect the CBCLOSED input to FALSE. In this way only the first criterion can activate the delta function.

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DUDI Detection
DUDI detection Phase 1
IL1 One cycle delay |DI| DI< UL1 One cycle delay |DU| DU>
a a b a b

a>b

a>b

AND

UPh> IL2 UL2

a>b

20 ms t

1.5 cycle t

DUDI detection Phase 2 Same logic as for phase 1

IL3 UL3

DUDI detection Phase 3 Same logic as for phase 1

UL1

a b

a<b

IL1 IPh>

a b

a>b

AND OR AND

CBCLOSED UL2
a b

AND

OR

a<b

IL2

a b

a>b

AND OR AND

AND UL3
a b

OR

a<b

IL3

a b

a>b

AND OR AND OR FuseFailDetDUDI

AND

OR

IEC10000034-1-en.vsd
IEC10000034 V1 EN

Figure 243:

Simplified logic diagram for DU/DI detection part

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision


Dead line detection
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 244. A dead phase condition is indicated if both the voltage and the current in one phase is below their respective setting values UDLD< and IDLD<. If at least one phase is considered to be dead the output DLD1PH and the internal signal DeadLineDet1Ph is activated. If all three phases are considered to be dead the output DLD3PH is activated
Dead Line Detection
IL1 IL2 IL3 IDLD< UL1 UL2 UL3 UDLD< intBlock
a b a b a b a b a b a b

11.2.2.3

a<b AND a<b a<b

AllCurrLow

DeadLineDet1Ph a<b a<b a<b AND OR AND AND AND AND DLD3PH AND DLD1PH

IEC10000035-1-en.vsd
IEC10000035 V2 EN

Figure 244:

Simplified logic diagram for Dead Line detection part

11.2.2.4

Main logic
A simplified diagram for the functionality is found in figure 245. The fuse failure supervision function (SDDRFUF) can be switched on or off by the setting parameter Operation to On or Off. For increased flexibility and adaptation to system requirements an operation mode selector, OpMode, has been introduced to make it possible to select different operating modes for the negative and zero sequence based algorithms. The different operation modes are: Off; The negative and zero sequence function is switched off UNsINs; Negative sequence is selected UZsIZs; Zero sequence is selected

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UZsIZs OR UNsINs; Both negative and zero sequence is activated and working in parallel in an OR-condition UZsIZs AND UNsINs; Both negative and zero sequence is activated and working in series (AND-condition for operation) OptimZsNs; Optimum of negative and zero sequence (the function that has the highest magnitude of measured negative and zero sequence current will be activated)

The delta function can be activated by setting the parameter OpDUDI to On. When selected it operates in parallel with the sequence based algorithms. As soon as any fuse failure situation is detected, signals FuseFailDetZeroSeq, FuseFailDetNegSeq or FuseFailDetDUDI, and the specific functionality is released, the function will activate the output signal BLKU. The output signal BLKZ will be activated as well if not the internal dead phase detection, DeadLineDet1Ph, is not activated at the same time. The output BLKU can be used for blocking voltage related measuring functions (under voltage protection, synchrocheck, and so on). For blocking of impedance protection functions output BLKZ shall be used. If the fuse failure situation is present for more than 5 seconds and the setting parameter SealIn is set to On it will be sealed in as long as at least one phase voltages is below the set value USealIn<. This will keep the BLKU and BLKZ signals activated as long as any phase voltage is below the set value USealIn<. If all three phase voltages drop below the set value USealIn< and the setting parameter SealIn is set to On the output signal 3PH will also be activated. The signals 3PH, BLKU and BLKZ signals will now be active as long as any phase voltage is below the set value USealIn<. If SealIn is set to On the fuse failure condition is stored in the non volatile memory in the IED. At start-up of the IED (due to auxiliary power interruption or re-start due to configuration change) it checks the stored value in its non volatile memory and re-establishes the conditions that were present before the shut down. All phase voltages must be restored above USealIn< before fuse failure is de-activated and removes the block of different protection functions. The output signal BLKU will also be active if all phase voltages have been above the setting USealIn< for more than 60 seconds, the zero or negative sequence voltage has been above the set value 3U0> and 3U2> for more than 5 seconds, all phase currents are below the setting IDLD< (operate level for dead line detection) and the circuit breaker is closed (input CBCLOSED is activated). If a MCB is used then the input signal MCBOP is to be connected via a terminal binary input to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the miniature circuit breaker protecting the VT secondary circuit. The MCBOP signal sets the output signals BLKU and BLKZ in order to block all the voltage related functions when the MCB is open independent of the setting of OpMode or OpDUDI. An additional drop-out timer of 150 ms prolongs the presence of MCBOP signal to prevent the unwanted operation

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision

of voltage dependent function due to non simultaneous closing of the main contacts of the miniature circuit breaker. The input signal DISCPOS is supposed to be connected via a terminal binary input to the N.C. auxiliary contact of the line disconnector. The DISCPOS signal sets the output signal BLKU in order to block the voltage related functions when the line disconnector is open. The impedance protection function does not have to be affected since there will be no line currents that can cause malfunction of the distance protection. The output signals 3PH, BLKU and BLKZ as well as the signals DLD1PH and DLD3PH from dead line detections are blocked if any of the following conditions occur: The operation mode selector OpMode is set to Off The input BLOCK is activated The input BLKTRIP is activated at the same time as no fuse failure indication is present The IED is in TEST status (TEST-ACTIVE is high) and the function has been blocked from the HMI (BlockFUSE=Yes)

The input BLOCK is a general purpose blocking signal of the fuse failure supervision function. It can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to receive a block command from external devices or can be software connected to other internal functions of the IED. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and internal function outputs. The input BLKTRIP is intended to be connected to the trip output of any of the protection functions included in the IED and/or trip from external equipments via binary inputs. When activated for more than 20 ms without any fuse fail detected, the operation of the fuse failure is blocked during a fixed time of 100 ms. The aim is to increase the security against unwanted operations during the opening of the breaker, which might cause unbalance conditions for which the fuse failure might operate.

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Fuse failure detection Main logic


TEST TEST ACTIVE BlocFuse = Yes BLOCK BLKTRIP AND 20 ms t 100 ms t FusefailStarted All UL < USealIn< AND SealIn = On OR AND AND OR intBlock

AND

3PH

AND Any UL < UsealIn< FuseFailDetDUDI OpDUDI = On FuseFailDetZeroSeq AND AND OR 5s t

AND FuseFailDetNegSeq AND UNsINs UZsIZs UZsIZs OR UNsINs UZsIZs AND UNsINs OptimZsNs OR
a b

OR OR

OpMode

CurrZeroSeq CurrNegSeq

a>b

AND AND

DeadLineDet1Ph MCBOP

200 ms t

AND 150 ms t

OR

AND

BLKZ

All UL > UsealIn< VoltZeroSeq VoltNegSeq AllCurrLow CBCLOSED DISCPOS


IEC10000033 V2 EN

60 s t 5s t

OR AND

OR

AND

BLKU

OR

IEC10000033-2-en.vsd

Figure 245:

Simplified logic diagram for fuse failure supervision function, Main logic

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision Function block


SDDRFUF I3P* U3P* BLOCK CBCLOSED MCBOP DISCPOS BLKTRIP BLKZ BLKU 3PH DLD1PH DLD3PH

11.2.3

IEC05000700-2-en.vsd
IEC05000700 V3 EN

Figure 246:

SDDRFUF function block

11.2.4

Input and output signals


Table 256:
Name I3P U3P BLOCK CBCLOSED MCBOP DISCPOS BLKTRIP

SDDRFUF Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Default 0 0 0 0 0 Description Current connection Voltage connection Block of function Active when circuit breaker is closed Active when external MCB opens protected voltage circuit Active when line disconnector is open Blocks operation of function when active

Table 257:
Name BLKZ BLKU 3PH DLD1PH DLD3PH

SDDRFUF Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Start of current and voltage controlled function General start of function Three-phase start of function Dead line condition in at least one phase Dead line condition in all three phases

11.2.5
Table 258:
Name Operation IBase UBase

Setting parameters
SDDRFUF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On 1 - 99999 0.05 - 2000.00 Unit A kV Step 1 0.05 Default On 3000 400.00 Description Operation Off / On Base current Base voltage

Table continues on next page 487 Technical reference manual

Section 11 Secondary system supervision


Name OpMode Values (Range) Off UNsINs UZsIZs UZsIZs OR UNsINs UZsIZs AND UNsINs OptimZsNs 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 Off On 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 Off On 1 - 100 1 - 100 1 - 100 Unit Step Default UZsIZs Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Operating mode selection

3U0> 3I0< 3U2> 3I2< OpDUDI DU> DI< UPh> IPh> SealIn USealln< IDLD< UDLD<

%UB %IB %UB %IB %UB %IB %UB %IB %UB %IB %UB

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

30 10 30 10 Off 60 15 70 10 On 70 5 60

Operate level of residual overvoltage element in % of UBase Operate level of residual undercurrent element in % of IBase Operate level of neg seq overvoltage element in % of UBase Operate level of neg seq undercurrent element in % of IBase Operation of change based function Off/ On Operate level of change in phase voltage in % of UBase Operate level of change in phase current in % of IBase Operate level of phase voltage in % of UBase Operate level of phase current in % of IBase Seal in functionality Off/On Operate level of seal-in phase voltage in % of UBase Operate level for open phase current detection in % of IBase Operate level for open phase voltage detection in % of UBase

11.2.6

Technical data
Table 259:
Function Operate voltage, zero sequence Operate current, zero sequence Operate voltage, negative sequence Operate current, negative sequence Operate voltage change level Operate current change level Operate phase voltage Operate phase current Table continues on next page

SDDRFUF technical data


Range or value (1-100)% of UBase (1100)% of IBase (1100)% of UBase (1100)% of IBase (1100)% of UBase (1100)% of IBase (1-100)% of UBase (1-100)% of IBase Accuracy 1.0% of Ur 1.0% of Ir 0.5% of Ur 1.0% of Ir 5.0% of Ur 5.0% of Ir 0.5% of Ur 1.0% of Ir

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Section 11 Secondary system supervision


Function Operate phase dead line voltage Operate phase dead line current Operate time, general start of function Reset time, general start of function Range or value (1-100)% of UBase (1-100)% of IBase 25 ms typically at 1 to 0 of Ubase 35 ms typically at 0 to 1 of Ubase Accuracy 0.5% of Ur 1.0% of Ir -

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Section 12 Control

Section 12

Control

About this chapter


This chapter describes the control functions. The way the functions work, their setting parameters, function blocks, input and output signals and technical data are included for each function.

12.1

Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing SESRSYN


Function description Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing IEC 61850 identification SESRSYN IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 25

sc/vc
SYMBOL-M V1 EN

12.1.1

Introduction
The Synchronizing function allows closing of asynchronous networks at the correct moment including the breaker closing time, which improves the network stability. Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing (SESRSYN) function checks that the voltages on both sides of the circuit breaker are in synchronism, or with at least one side dead to ensure that closing can be done safely. SESRSYN function includes a built-in voltage selection scheme for double bus and 1 breaker or ring busbar arrangements. Manual closing as well as automatic reclosing can be checked by the function and can have different settings. For systems which are running asynchronous a synchronizing function is provided. The main purpose of the synchronizing function is to provide controlled closing of circuit breakers when two asynchronous systems are going to be connected. It is used for slip frequencies that are larger than those for synchrocheck and lower than a set maximum level for the synchronizing function. However this function can not be used to automatically synchronize the generator to the network.
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Section 12 Control 12.1.2


12.1.2.1

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Principle of operation
Basic functionality
The synchrocheck function measures the conditions across the circuit breaker and compares them to set limits. The output is only given when all measured quantities are simultaneously within their set limits. The energizing check function measures the bus and line voltages and compares them to both high and low threshold detectors. The output is given only when the actual measured quantities match the set conditions. The synchronizing function measures the conditions across the circuit breaker, and also determines the angle change occurring during the closing delay of the circuit breaker, from the measured slip frequency. The output is given only when all measured conditions are simultaneously within their set limits. The issue of the output is timed to give closure at the optimal time including the time for the circuit breaker and the closing circuit. For single circuit breaker and 1 breaker circuit breaker arrangements, the SESRSYN function blocks have the capability to make the necessary voltage selection. For single circuit breaker arrangements, selection of the correct voltage is made using auxiliary contacts of the bus disconnectors. For 1 breaker circuit breaker arrangements, correct voltage selection is made using auxiliary contacts of the bus disconnectors as well as the circuit breakers. The internal logic for each function block as well as, the input and outputs, and the setting parameters with default setting and setting ranges is described in this document. For application related information, please refer to the application manual.

12.1.2.2

Logic diagrams Logic diagrams


The logic diagrams that follow illustrate the main principles of the SESRSYN function components such as Synchrocheck, Synchronizing, Energizing check and Voltage selection, and are intended to simplify the understanding of the function.

Synchrocheck

The voltage difference, frequency difference and phase angle difference values are measured in the IED centrally and are available for the synchrocheck function for evaluation. If the bus voltage is connected as phase-phase and the line voltage as phase-neutral (or the opposite), this need to be compensated. This is done with a setting, which scales up the line voltage to a level equal to the bus voltage. When the function is set to OperationSC = On, the measuring will start. The function will compare the bus and line voltage values with the set values for UHighBusSC and UHighLineSC.

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Section 12 Control

If both sides are higher than the set values, the measured values are compared with the set values for acceptable frequency, phase angle and voltage difference: FreqDiffA, FreqDiffM, PhaseDiffA, PhaseDiffM and UDiffSC. If a compensation factor is set due to the use of different voltages on the bus and line, the factor is deducted from the line voltage before the comparison of the phase angle values. The frequency on both sides of the circuit breaker is also measured. The frequencies must not deviate from the rated frequency more than +/-5Hz. The frequency difference between the bus frequency and the line frequency is measured and may not exceed the set value. Two sets of settings for frequency difference and phase angle difference are available and used for the manual closing and autoreclose functions respectively, as required. The inputs BLOCK and BLKSC are available for total block of the complete SESRSYN function and block of the Synchrocheck function respectively. Input TSTSC will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled conditions are connected to a separate test output. The outputs MANSYOK and AUTOSYOK are activated when the actual measured conditions match the set conditions for the respective output. The output signal can be delayed independently for MANSYOK and AUTOSYOK conditions. A number of outputs are available as information about fulfilled checking conditions. UOKSC shows that the voltages are high, UDIFFSC, FRDIFFA, FRDIFFM, PHDIFFA, PHDIFFM shows when the voltage difference, frequency difference and phase angle difference conditions are out of limits. Output INADVCLS, inadvertent circuit breaker closing, indicate that the circuit breaker has been closed by some other equipment or function than SESRSYN. The output is activated, if the voltage condition is fulfilled at the same time the phase angle difference between bus and line is suddenly changed from being larger than 60 degrees to smaller than 5 degrees.

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Note! Similar logic for Manual Synchrocheck.


OperationSC = On
AND AND

TSTAUTSY

TSTSC BLKSC BLOCK


OR AND AND 0-60 s t tSCA AND

AUTOSYOK

UDiffSC
AND

50 ms t

UHighBusSC UHighLineSC
AND 1

UOKSC UDIFFSC FRDIFFA PHDIFFA UDIFFME FRDIFFME PHDIFFME

FreqDiffA PhaseDiffA voltageDifferenceValue frequencyDifferenceValue phaseAngleDifferenceValue


32 ms t 100 ms AND

1 1

PhDiff > 60 PhDiff < 5

AND

INADVCLS

IEC07000114-3-en.vsd
IEC07000114 V3 EN

Figure 247:

Simplified logic diagram for the Auto Synchrocheck function

Synchronizing

When the function is set to OperationSynch = On the measuring will be performed. The function will compare the values for the bus and line voltage with the set values for UHighBusSynch and UHighLineSynch, which is a supervision that the voltages are both live. Also the voltage difference is checked to be smaller than the set value for UDiffSynch, which is a p.u value of set voltage base values. If both sides are higher than the set values and the voltage difference between bus and line is acceptable, the measured values are compared with the set values for acceptable frequency FreqDiffMax and FreqDiffMin, rate of change of frequency FreqRateChange, phase angle, which has to be smaller than the internally preset value of 15 degrees.

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Section 12 Control

Measured frequencies between the settings for the maximum and minimum frequency will initiate the measuring and the evaluation of the angle change to allow operation to be sent in the right moment including the set tBreaker time. There is a phase angle release internally to block any incorrect closing pulses. At operation the SYNOK output will be activated with a pulse tClosePulse and the function resets. The function will also reset if the synchronizing conditions are not fulfilled within the set tMaxSynch time. This prevents that the function is, by mistake, maintained in operation for a long time, waiting for conditions to be fulfilled. The inputs BLOCK and BLKSYNCH are available for total block of the complete SESRSYN function and block of the Synchronizing function respectively. TSTSYNCH will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled conditions are connected to a separate output.
SYN1 OPERATION SYNCH OFF ON TEST MODE OFF ON
STARTSYN
AND

BLKSYNCH OR

S R

AND

SYNPROGR

UDiffSynch
50 ms

UHighBusSynch UHighLineSynch FreqDiffMax FreqDiffMin

AND

AND

SYNOK

OR AND OR

TSTSYNOK

FreqRateChange fBus&fLine 5 Hz PhaseDiff < 15 deg PhaseDiff=closing angle


AND

AND

tClose Pulse

tMax Synch

SYNFAIL

IEC06000636-2-en.vsd
IEC06000636 V2 EN

Figure 248:

Simplified logic diagram for the synchronizing function

Energizing check

Voltage values are measured in the IED centrally and are available for evaluation by the Energizing check function. The function measures voltages on the busbar and the line to verify whether they are live or dead. This is done by comparing with the set values UHighBusEnerg and ULowBusEnerg for bus energizing and UHighLineEnerg and ULowLineEnerg for line energizing.
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The frequency on both sides of the circuit breaker is also measured. The frequencies must not deviate from the rated frequency more than +/-5Hz. The Energizing direction can be selected individually for the Manual and the Automatic functions respectively. When the conditions are met the outputs AUTOENOK and MANENOK respectively will be activated if the fuse supervision conditions are fulfilled. The output signal can be delayed independently for MANENOK and AUTOENOK conditions. The Energizing direction can also be selected by an integer input AENMODE respective MENMODE, which for example, can be connected to a Binary to Integer function block (B16I). Integers supplied shall be 1=off, 2=DLLB, 3=DBLL and 4= Both. Not connected input with connection of INTZERO output from Fixed Signals (FIXDSIGN) function block will mean that the setting is done from Parameter Setting tool. The active position can be read on outputs MODEAEN resp MODEMEN. The modes are 0=OFF, 1=DLLB, 2=DBLL and 3=Both. The inputs BLOCK and BLKENERG are available for total block of the complete SESRSYN function respective block of the Energizing check function. TSTENERG will allow testing of the function where the fulfilled conditions are connected to a separate test output.

Voltage selection

The voltage selection module including supervision of included voltage transformer fuses for the different arrangements is a basic part of the SESRSYN function and determines the parameters fed to the Synchronizing, Synchrocheck and Energizing check functions. This includes the selection of the appropriate Line and Bus voltages and fuse supervision. The voltage selection type to be used is set with the parameter CBConfig. If No voltage sel. is set the default voltages used will be U-Line1 and U-Bus1. This is also the case when external voltage selection is provided. Fuse failure supervision for the used inputs must also be connected. The voltage selection function, selected voltages, and fuse conditions are the Synchronizing, Synchrocheck and Energizing check inputs. For the disconnector positions it is advisable to use (NO) a and (NC) b type contacts to supply Disconnector Open and Closed positions but, it is also possible to use an inverter for one of the positions.

Voltage selection for a single circuit breaker with double busbars

This function uses the binary input from the disconnectors auxiliary contacts B1QOPEN-B1QCLD for Bus 1, and B2QOPEN-B2QCLD for Bus 2 to select between bus 1 and bus 2 voltages. If the disconnector connected to bus 1 is closed and the disconnector connected to bus 2 is opened the bus 1 voltage is used. All other combinations use the bus 2 voltage. The outputs B1SEL and B2SEL respectively indicate the selected Bus voltage.

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Section 12 Control

The function checks the fuse-failure signals for bus 1, bus 2 and line voltage transformers. Inputs UB1OK-UB1FF supervise the fuse for Bus 1 and UB2OKUB2FF supervises the fuse for Bus 2. ULN1OK and ULN1FF supervises the fuse for the Line voltage transformer. The inputs fail (FF) or healthy (OK) can alternatively be used dependent on the available signal. If a fuse-failure is detected in the selected voltage source an output signal USELFAIL is set. This output signal is true if the selected bus or line voltages have a fuse failure. This output as well as the function can be blocked with the input signal BLOCK. The function logic diagram is shown in figure 249.
B1QOPEN B1QCLD B2QOPEN B2QCLD
AND AND

B1SEL B2SEL

1
AND

invalidSelection busVoltage

bus1Voltage bus2Voltage

UB1OK UB1FF UB2OK UB2FF ULN1OK ULN1FF

OR

AND OR AND AND AND

selectedFuseOK USELFAIL

OR

OR

BLOCK

en05000779.vsd
IEC05000779 V1 EN

Figure 249:

Logic diagram for the voltage selection function of a single circuit breaker with double busbars

Voltage selection for a 1 1/2 circuit breaker arrangement

Note that with 1 breaker schemes two Synchrocheck functions must be used in the IED (three for two IEDs in a complete bay). Below, the scheme for one Bus breaker and the Tie breaker is described. This voltage selection function uses the binary inputs from the disconnectors and circuit breakers auxiliary contacts to select the right voltage for the SESRSYN (Synchronism and Energizing check) function. For the bus circuit breaker one side

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1MRK 502 027-UEN B

of the circuit breaker is connected to the busbar and the other side is connected either to line 1, line 2 or the other busbar depending on the arrangement. Inputs LN1QOPEN-LN1QCLD, B1QOPEN-B1QCLD, B2QOPEN-B2QCLD, LN2QOPEN-LN2QCLD are inputs for the position of the Line disconnectors respectively the Bus and Tie breakers. The outputs LN1SEL, LN2SEL and B2SEL will give indication of the selected Line voltage as a reference to the fixed Bus 1 voltage, which indicates B1SEL. The fuse supervision is connected to ULNOK-ULNFF and with alternative Healthy or Failing fuse signals depending on what is available from each fuse (MCB). The tie circuit breaker is connected either to bus 1 or line 1 on one side and the other side is connected either to bus 2 or line 2. Four different output combinations are possible, bus to bus, bus to line, line to bus and line to line. The line 1 voltage is selected if the line 1 disconnector is closed. The bus 1 voltage is selected if the line 1 disconnector is open and the bus 1 circuit breaker is closed. The line 2 voltage is selected if the line 2 disconnector is closed. The bus 2 voltage is selected if the line 2 disconnector is open and the bus 2 circuit breaker is closed.

The function also checks the fuse-failure signals for bus 1, bus 2, line 1 and line 2. If a fuse-failure is detected in the selected voltage an output signal USELFAIL is set. This output signal is true if the selected bus or line voltages have a fuse failure. This output as well as the function can be blocked with the input signal BLOCK. The function block diagram for the voltage selection of a bus circuit breaker is shown in figure 250 and for the tie circuit breaker in figure 251.

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Section 12 Control

LN1QOPEN LN1QCLD B1QOPEN B1QCLD LN2QOPEN LN2QCLD B2QOPEN B2QCLD


AND AND AND AND AND OR AND AND

LN1SEL

LN2SEL B2SEL invalidSelection

line1Voltage line2Voltage bus2Voltage UB1OK UB1FF UB2OK UB2FF ULN1OK ULN1FF


OR OR OR AND AND

lineVoltage

selectedFuseOK USELFAIL

OR

AND

AND

ULN2OK ULN2FF BLOCK

OR

AND

en05000780.vsd
IEC05000780 V1 EN

Figure 250:

Simplified logic diagram for the voltage selection function for a bus circuit breaker in a 1 1/2 breaker arrangement

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Section 12 Control

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

LN1QOPEN LN1QCLD
AND

LN1SEL 1 B1SEL
AND

B1QOPEN B1QCLD
AND

AND

line1Voltage bus1Voltage LN2QOPEN LN2QCLD


AND

busVoltage

LN2SEL 1 B2SEL
AND OR

B2QOPEN B2QCLD
AND

invalidSelection

AND

line2Voltage bus2Voltage UB1OK UB1FF UB2OK UB2FF ULN1OK ULN1FF ULN2OK ULN2FF BLOCK

lineVoltage

OR

AND OR AND

OR

AND

selectedFuseOK USELFAIL

OR

AND

AND

OR

AND

en05000781.vsd
IEC05000781 V1 EN

Figure 251:

Simplified logic diagram for the voltage selection function for the tie circuit breaker in 1 1/2 breaker arrangement.

Fuse failure supervision

External fuse failure signals or signals from a tripped fuse switch/MCB are connected to binary inputs that are configured to the inputs of SESRSYN function in the IED. Alternatively, the internal signals from fuse failure supervision can be used when available. There are two alternative connection possibilities. Inputs labelled OK must be connected if the available contact indicates that the voltage circuit is healthy. Inputs labelled FF must be connected if the available contact indicates that the voltage circuit is faulty.
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Section 12 Control

The UB1OK/UB2OK and UB1FF/UB2FF inputs are related to the busbar voltage and the ULN1OK/ULN2OK and ULN1FF/ULN2FF inputs are related to the line voltage. Configure them to the binary input or function outputs that indicate the status of the external fuse failure of the busbar and line voltages. In the event of a fuse failure, the energizing check function is blocked. The synchronizing and the synchrocheck function requires full voltage on both sides and will be blocked automatically in the event of fuse failures.

12.1.3

Function block
SESRSYN U3PBB1* SYNOK U3PBB2* AUTOSYOK U3PLN1* AUTOENOK U3PLN2* MANSYOK BLOCK MANENOK BLKSYNCH TSTSYNOK BLKSC TSTAUTSY BLKENERG TSTMANSY B1QOPEN TSTENOK B1QCLD USELFAIL B2QOPEN B1SEL B2QCLD B2SEL LN1QOPEN LN1SEL LN1QCLD LN2SEL LN2QOPEN SYNPROGR LN2QCLD SYNFAIL UB1OK UOKSYN UB1FF UDIFFSYN UB2OK FRDIFSYN UB2FF FRDIFFOK ULN1OK FRDERIVA ULN1FF UOKSC ULN2OK UDIFFSC ULN2FF FRDIFFA STARTSYN PHDIFFA TSTSYNCH FRDIFFM TSTSC PHDIFFM TSTENERG INADVCLS AENMODE UDIFFME MENMODE FRDIFFME PHDIFFME UBUS ULINE MODEAEN MODEMEN IEC10000046-1-en.vsd
IEC10000046 V1 EN

Figure 252:

SESRSYN function block

12.1.4

Input and output signals


Table 260:
Name U3PBB1 U3PBB2 U3PLN1

SESRSYN Input signals


Type GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL GROUP SIGNAL Default Description Group signal for phase to earth voltage input L1, busbar 1 Group signal for phase to earth voltage input L1, busbar 2 Group signal for phase to earth voltage input L1, line 1

Table continues on next page 501 Technical reference manual

Section 12 Control
Name U3PLN2 BLOCK BLKSYNCH BLKSC BLKENERG B1QOPEN B1QCLD B2QOPEN B2QCLD LN1QOPEN LN1QCLD LN2QOPEN LN2QCLD UB1OK UB1FF UB2OK UB2FF ULN1OK ULN1FF ULN2OK ULN2FF STARTSYN TSTSYNCH TSTSC TSTENERG AENMODE MENMODE Type GROUP SIGNAL BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN INTEGER INTEGER Default 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Description

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Group signal for phase to earth voltage input L1, line 2 General block Block synchronizing Block synchro check Block energizing check Open status for CB or disconnector connected to bus1 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to bus1 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to bus2 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to bus2 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to line1 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to line1 Open status for CB or disconnector connected to line2 Close status for CB or disconnector connected to line2 Bus1 voltage transformer OK Bus1 voltage transformer fuse failure Bus2 voltage transformer OK Bus2 voltage transformer fuse failure Line1 voltage transformer OK Line1 voltage transformer fuse failure Line2 voltage transformer OK Line2 voltage transformer fuse failure Start synchronizing Set synchronizing in test mode Set synchro check in test mode Set energizing check in test mode Input for setting of automatic energizing mode Input for setting of manual energizing mode

Table 261:
Name SYNOK AUTOSYOK AUTOENOK

SESRSYN Output signals


Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN Description Synchronizing OK output Auto synchro check OK Automatic energizing check OK

Table continues on next page

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Section 12 Control
Name MANSYOK MANENOK TSTSYNOK TSTAUTSY TSTMANSY TSTENOK USELFAIL B1SEL B2SEL LN1SEL LN2SEL SYNPROGR SYNFAIL UOKSYN UDIFFSYN FRDIFSYN FRDIFFOK FRDERIVA UOKSC UDIFFSC FRDIFFA PHDIFFA FRDIFFM PHDIFFM INADVCLS UDIFFME FRDIFFME PHDIFFME UBUS ULINE MODEAEN MODEMEN Type BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL INTEGER INTEGER Description Manual synchro check OK Manual energizing check OK Synchronizing OK test output Auto synchro check OK test output Manual synchro check OK test output Energizing check OK test output Selected voltage transformer fuse failed Bus1 selected Bus2 selected Line1 selected Line2 selected Synchronizing in progress Synchronizing failed Voltage amplitudes for synchronizing above set limits Voltage difference out of limit for synchronizing Frequency difference out of limit for synchronizing Frequency difference in band for synchronizing Frequency derivative out of limit for synchronizing Voltage amplitudes above set limits Voltage difference out of limit Frequency difference out of limit for Auto operation Phase angle difference out of limit for Auto operation Frequency difference out of limit for Manual operation Phase angle difference out of limit for Manual Operation Inadvertent circuit breaker closing Calculated difference of voltage in p.u Calculated difference of frequency Calculated difference of phase angle Bus voltage Line voltage Selected mode for automatic energizing Selected mode for manual energizing

503 Technical reference manual

Section 12 Control 12.1.5


Table 262:
Name Operation CBConfig

1MRK 502 027-UEN B

Setting parameters
SESRSYN Group settings (basic)
Values (Range) Off On No voltage sel. Double bus 1 1/2 bus CB 1 1/2 bus alt. CB Tie CB 0.001 - 9999.999 0.001 - 9999.999 -180 - 180 0.040 - 25.000 Off On 50.0 - 120.0 50.0 - 120.0 0.02 - 0.50 0.003 - 0.250 0.050 - 0.250 0.000 - 0.500 0.000 - 60.000 0.050 - 60.000 0.00 - 6000.00 0.000 - 60.000 Off On 50.0 - 120.0 50.0 - 120.0 0.02 - 0.50 0.003 - 1.000 0.003 - 1.000 5.0 - 90.0 Unit Step Default Off No voltage sel. Description Operation Off / On Select CB configuration

UBaseBus UBaseLine PhaseShift URatio OperationSynch UHighBusSynch UHighLineSynch UDiffSynch FreqDiffMin FreqDiffMax FreqRateChange tBreaker tClosePulse tMaxSynch tMinSynch OperationSC UHighBusSC UHighLineSC UDiffSC FreqDiffA FreqDiffM PhaseDiffA

kV kV Deg %UBB %UBL pu Hz Hz Hz/s s s s s %UBB %UBL pu Hz Hz Deg

0.001 0.001 5 0.001 1.0 1.0 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.001 1.0 1.0 0.01 0.001 0.001 1.0

400.000 400.000 0 1.000 Off 80.0 80.0 0.10 0.010 0.200 0.300 0.080 0.200 600.00 2.000 On 80.0 80.0 0.15 0.010 0.010 25.0

Base value for busbar voltage settings Base value for line voltage settings Phase shift Voltage ratio Operation for synchronizing function Off/ On Voltage high limit bus for synchronizing in % of UBaseBus Voltage high limit line for synchronizing in % of UBaseLine Voltage difference limit for synchronizing in p.u Minimum frequency difference limit for synchronizing Maximum frequency difference limit for synchronizing Maximum allowed frequency rate of change Closing time of the breaker Breaker closing pulse duration Resets synch if no close has been made before set time Minimum time to accept synchronizing conditions Operation for synchronism check function Off/On Voltage high limit bus for synchrocheck in % of UBaseBus Voltage high limit line for synchrocheck in % of UBaseLine Voltage difference limit in p.u Frequency difference limit between bus and line Auto Frequency difference limit between bus and line Manual Phase angle difference limit between bus and line Auto

Table continues on next page

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Section 12 Control
Values (Range) 5.0 - 90.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Off DLLB DBLL Both Off DLLB DBLL Both Off On 50.0 - 120.0 50.0 - 120.0 10.0 - 80.0 10.0 - 80.0 50.0 - 180.0 0.000 - 60.000 0.000 - 60.000 Unit Deg s s Step 1.0 0.001 0.001 Default 25.0 0.100 0.100 DBLL Description Phase angle difference limit between bus and line Manual Time delay output for synchrocheck Auto Time delay output for synchrocheck Manual Automatic energizing check mode

Name PhaseDiffM tSCA tSCM AutoEnerg

ManEnerg

Both

Manual energizing check mode

ManEnergDBDL UHighBusEnerg UHighLineEnerg ULowBusEnerg ULowLineEnerg UMaxEnerg tAutoEnerg tManEnerg

%UBB %UBL %UBB %UBL %UB s s

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.001 0.001

Off 80.0 80.0 40.0 40.0 115.0 0.100 0.100

Manual dead bus, dead line energizing Voltage high limit bus for energizing check in % of UBaseBus Voltage high limit line for energizing check in % of UBaseLine Voltage low limit bus for energizing check in % of UBaseBus Voltage low limit line for energizing check in % of UBaseLine Maximum voltage for energizing in % of UBase, Line and/or Bus Time delay fo