24.

1 Photons Photoelectric Effect
1) A clean zinc plate is placed on the cap of a gold-leaf electroscope which is negatively charged so that the gold leaf diverges, as shown in Figure 24.1.

2) The leaf stays in the same position when the mercury lamp is switched off. However, the divergence of the leaf is observed to decrease when the mercury lamp is switched on. 3) The ultraviolet radiation from the mercury lamp which arrives at the zinc plate causes free electrons in the plate to receive sufficient energy and escape from the zinc plate. As a result, the divergence of the leaf decreases. 4) The emission of electrons from the surface of a metal due to the incident light is called the photoelectric effect. The electrons emitted in this way are called photoelectrons. 5) When a glass plate is placed between the zinc plate and the mercury lamp, the divergence of the leaf stops. 6) The glass plate prevents the ultraviolet radiation from reaching the zinc plate. This has the same effect as switching off the mercury lamp. 7) If the electroscope is initially charged positive, the leaf remains in the same position even though the mercury lamp is switched on. This is due to the fact that the ultraviolet radiation cannot supply enough energy to the free electrons to escape from the positively charged zinc plate.

Photocell Circuit
1) The circuit which is used to study photoelectric effect is called a photocell circuit, shown in Figure 24.2.

figure 24.2

2) The tube is evacuated so that the electrons will not collide with air molecules. 3) The cathode is coated with cesium. When monochromatic light of certain frequency falls on the cathode, photoelectrons are emitted. 4) The electric field between the anode and cathode accelerates the photoelectrons toward the anode. 5) The circuit is completed when the photoelectrons reach the anode. A current will be detected by the galvanometer.

6) This current is known as photoelectric current or photocurrent, I. 7) The intensity of the monochromatic light is kept constant by fixing the distance of the light source from the cathode. 8) By using the potential divider, the voltage between the anode and the cathode can be varied slowly. 9) Figure 24.3 shows the graph of photoelectric current, I against the voltage, V between the anode and cathode.

figure 24.3

10)When the voltage is increased slowly, more photoelectrons are attracted to the anode. If the voltage is large enough, all photoelectrons emitted at the cathode are attracted to the anode. 11) The current has now reached its limiting value known as the saturation current, Is 12) When there is no voltage applied between the anode and cathode, there is still current detected by the galvanometer because there are still some photoelectrons energetic enough to reach the anode. 13) When the polarity of the voltage is reversed, some photoelectrons can still reach the anode. 14) However, if the reverse voltage is large enough, the flow of photoelectrons is stopped completely. The reverse voltage is now called the stopping potential, Vs. 15) The most energetic photoelectrons are prevented from reaching the anode when V = Vs, i.e.
potential energy, eVs = maximum kinetic energy eVs =

where e = charge of electron, m = mass of electron and Vmax = maximum velocity of electron.

Concept of Light Quantisation
1) Five features of photoelectric effect are described in the following section. 2) However, features III, IV and V cannot be explained using the wave theory of classical physics. They can only be explained satisfactorily using Einstein's concept of light quantisation. Feature 1 Figure 24.4 shows the graph of photoelectric current, I against applied voltage, V when the frequency of the monochromatic light is kept constant.

2) It is found that the saturation current varies directly with light intensity, I'. This is because more photoelectrons are emitted at the cathode and collected at the anode when the intensity increases. 3 However, the stopping potential is not affected by the light intensity. Feature II 1) The stopping potential differs with the type of material used, provided that the intensity of the monochromatic light is fixed, as shown in Figure 24.5.

figure 24.5

Feature III 1) Photoelectrons are only emitted from a metal surface if the frequency of the incident radiation exceeds a certain frequency. 2) The minimum frequency of the incident light required to eject the electrons from a metal surface is called the threshold frequency or cut-off frequency, fo. 3) The threshold frequencies depend on the types of metal. For example, the threshold frequency of cesium is lower than that of zinc because visible light can eject photoelectrons in cesium but not in zinc.

4) According to the wave theory, the photoelectric effect should occur for any frequency or intensity of light. If the metal is exposed to the light long enough, the electrons will eventually absorb enough energy to escape from the metal surface, regardless of how small the frequency or how low the intensity. Nevertheless, no photoelectrons are emitted. 5 According to the concept of quantisation of light, the energy of the light comes in discrete packets called quanta. These quanta of electromagnetic radiation are called photons. 6 The energy of one photon is given by E= hf where h= Planck's constant = 6.63 x 10-34 Js and f= frequency of electromagnetic radiation. 7) If the frequency, f of the incident radiation is less than the threshold frequency, fo, the energy of the photon is hf < hfo. The energy of the photon is insufficient to eject the electron from the surface. Feature IV 1) Figure 24.6 shows the graph of maximum kinetic energy, Kinax of photoelectron against frequency of incident radiation.

Figure 24.6 2) It is observed that Kmax of the photoelectrons increases as the frequency of the monochromatic light increases and is independent of the intensity of light. 3) Figure 24.7 shows the graph of photoelectric current, I against voltage, V for different frequencies. Figure 24.7

4) It is observed that the stopping potential, Vs increases as the frequency, f increases. 5) According to the wave theory, the maximum kinetic energy, Kmax should increase with light intensity. Since light of greater intensity carries more energy, the electrons should gain more energy. Nevertheless, this does not happen.

6) According to the concept of quantisation of light, the maximum kinetic energy increases only with the frequency, f of the radiation. Photons with energy greater than hfo import more energy to the electrons. Hence, the photoelectrons are emitted at greater speed. 7) Light of greater intensity consists of only more photons. Therefore, more electrons are ejected. However, the energy of each photon remains the same. 8) Therefore, the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is not affected by intensity. Feature V 1) If the frequency of the monochromatic light is greater than the threshold frequency, fo, photoelectrons are emitted almost instantaneously when the metal is illuminated. 2) According to the wave theory, the photoelectrons are ejected only after a certain amount of time when the photoelectrons have absorbed enough energy to escape from the metal. Nevertheless, this does not occur. 3) According to the concept of quantisation of light, when an electron absorbs a photon of sufficient energy, E hfo, the electron is immediately emitted from the metal surface. Checkpoint 24.1 1) Is it possible for a beam of infrared radiation to contain greater total energy than a beam of ultraviolet radiation? Explain your answer. 2) A metal plate is illuminated with a light of given frequency. Which of the following determine whether the electrons are emitted or not? Time of expnsure to the light. (b) Thermal conductivity of the metal. (c) The type of metal. (d) The intensity of light. (e) The area of the plate. (f) Explain. 3) When a metal surface is illuminated with light of a given wavelength, not all of the photoelectrons are ejected at the same speed. Explain this phenomenon. 4) A monochromatic light of wavelength λ and intensity I is incident on a metal surface. As a result, photoelectrons are ejected at a certain speed from the metal surface. Describe the effect of using (a) a monochromatic light of wavelength and intensity I. (b) a monochromatic light of wavelength λ and intensity 2I. (c) a monochromatic light of wavelength 2λ.

P= = = ∴ Rate of emission of photons. EXAMPLE 24.1326 J s-1m-2 =0. Write down an expression for the rate of emission of photons. Find the intensity of the radiation if the frequency of light is 5 x 1014 Hz.2 Calculate the energy of a photon of wavelength 500 nm. 2 In other words. I = total energy of all photons per second per square centimetre I = (number of photons per second per square cm) × hf = = 1. Intensity. E= hf = = = 3.3 A light source emits 4 x 1013 photons per second per square centimetre. Einstein proposed that light behaves like a particle instead of a wave.978×1 EXAMPLE 24.63 x 10-34 J s and f = frequency of electromagnetic radiation.Quantisation of Electromagnetic Radiation: Photons 1 According to Einstein.326×10-5 J s-1 cm-2 = = 0. 3 The energy of a photon is E = hf where h = Planck's constant = 6.1326 W m-2 . EXAMPLE 24. which travel through space. called photons.1 A transmitting station emits light of wavelength A at power P. light consists of discrete and concentrated packets of energy.

Kmax represents the maximum kinetic energy the photoelectron possesses outside the metal surface. The emitted electrons have maximum kinetic energy of 1. . Calculate the lowest frequency required to remove the electrons from the metal surface. 9 Therefore.4 An electromagnetic radiation of wavelength 280 nm is incident on a metal surface. 3) The work function. 10 Table 24. Otherwise.1 shows the work function values for some metals. J. 8 Only when Kmax > 0 can the electron escape from the metal surface. the energy is transferred to the electron.Work Function and Threshold Frequency 1) When a photon of energy hf collides with an electron in a metal. 7) Equations (1) and (2) are known as Einstein's photoelectric equation. the electron is ejected as photoelectron. 5) If the electron is already near the surface of the metal. the frequency of electromagnetic radiation f must W exceed the value —h n order for photoelectric emission to occur. 4) The kinetic energy of the escaping electron is due to the excess energy.25 x 10-19 J each. hf. if the energy hf is more than the work required to overcome the attractive forces that hold the electron. The value W is known as the threshold frequency. 6) Hence. EXAMPLE 24.W is manifested in the form of kinetic energy. Therefore. all the excess energy. 2) However. the electron is not ejected. W of a metal is the minimum energy required for a free electron in the metal to escape from the metal surface. Kmax = hf – W hf = Kmax + W …(1) or hf = …(2) where m = mass of a photoelectron and vmax = maximum velocity of photoelectron. hf -W. or if it does not lose energy due to internal collisions as it escapes from the metal.

what is the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons? Relationship Between Stopping Potential and Frequency of Incident Radiation 1 Figure 24.5 The maximum wavelength of light which can produce photoelectrons from iron is 275 nm. (a) Calculate the energy of a photon of light of this wavelength. Vs against the frequency.8 shows a circuit used to study the variation of the stopping potential. . f of the incident radiation. (b) What is the work function of iron? (c) If light of wavelength 220 nm is used to illuminate an iron surface in a vacuum.EXAMPLE 24.

In other words. The micrometer will give a reading when the electrons reach B. 4 The reverse potential difference is increased slowly until the reading of the micrometer drops to zero.9 shows a graph of V against f for a particular type of metal.Figure 24. Equation (1) becomes . 7 When the potential of A equals the stopping potential Vs. Figure 24. 3 The potential across A and B is called the reverse potential difference because the potential of A (cathode) is positive with respect to B (anode).9 10 From Einstein's photoelectric equation. Kmax= eVa. 8 Point 4 is repeated using incident radiation of different frequencies. 6 At first.8 2 Plate A is connected to a positive potential. Incident radiation of known frequency f is directed towards plate A. the reverse potential difference is the stopping potential. electrons with Kmax are completely stopped. 9 Figure 24. 5 When this occurs. the reading of the micrometer decreases because the increasing positive potential at A opposes the movement of the electrons from A to B. Vs of the metal which made up plate A. When the micrometer reading is zero. no more electrons reach B.

11 The threshold frequency 4. W can be calculated from W = hfo. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons ejected from the tungsten surface by radiation of frequency 1. the intercept on thef-axis gives the threshold frequency J. Find (a) the kinetic energy. of the most energetic photoelectrons emitted.11 x 10-31 kg) .0 V for light of wavelength 750 nm. (c) the maximum speed of the photoelectrons.7 The photoelectric threshold wavelength of a tungsten surface is 272 nm. (that is V. EXAMPLE 24. Therefore. a stopping potential of 1.0 V for 375 nm. (mass of electrons = 9. Express the answer in electron volts.1 eV. (b) the stopping potential in volts.6 For a certain cathode material in a photoelectric effect experiment. = 0).0 V for 500 nm and 3. Using the value of fo.26 x 1015 Hz. 2. in electron-volt (eV). Determine the work function for this material. occurs when Kinax = 0. EXAMPLE 24. EXAMPLE 24.8 A light of wavelength 200 nm falls on nickel with a work function of 5.

2 1 When radiation of wavelength 18 nm is incident on a metal surface as shown in the figure below. x. in terms of x. the milliammeter reading falls to zero at a reverse voltage of 1. is placed close to the photocathode. (b) the stopping potential required to prevent photoelectrons emitted with maximum kinetic energy at an angle 0 to the cathode from reaching the collector. y and 0. e = charge of electron) . which consists of a plate. y and m.32 V. What is the work function of the metal in electron-volt (eV)? 2 Photons of x J each are directed onto a photocathode with a work function of y J.Checkpoint 24. in terms of e. Write down an expression for (a) the maximum speed of the photoelectrons emitted. (m = mass of the photoelectron. A collector.

24.3 The minimum energy required to remove an electron from the atom is 13. both matter and light possess particle-like properties under some circumstances and wave-like properties under other circumstances. Matter Waves 1 The energy of a photon of electromagnetic radiation of wavelength A is 2 According to Einstein's special theory of relativity. light behaves as waves. 3 Hence.2 Wave-Particle Duality de Broglie's Hypothesis 1 It can be inferred from experiments on photoelectric emission that light behaves as particles called photons. in experiments involving diffraction. If light can have particle-like properties. (e = 1. Find the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electron when a 55 nm photon is absorbed by the atom. h. It is then illuminated with light of wavelength 160 nm and the stopping potential becomes 2.0 x 108 m s-1) 5 A graph of stopping potential V against frequency for three different metals 1. Nevertheless.97 V. (b) the work function of silicon.85 V. This is called the wave-particle duality. 4 Silicon is illuminated with light of wavelength 220 nm and the stopping potential is found to be 0.60 x 10-19 C and c = 3. he reasoned that matter should have wave-like properties.6 eV. 2 and 3. f. 2 In 1923. illuminated by light of different frequencies is as shown. Find (a) the value of the Planck's constant. interference and polarisation. Louis de Broglie reasoned that the universe is symmetrical in many aspects. the inherent energy contained in a mass m is 3 4 The momentum p of a photon with wavelength is . Explain why the gradient of the graph for each metal is the same. 6 Explain how the value of Planck's constant can be determined from the graph of maximum kinetic energy K aX against radiation frequency. in electron-volt (eV).

9 This is because the incident light in the form of the particles (photons) collide with electrons in the metal causing the scattered photons to give some of their energy and momentum to the electrons. EXAMPLE 24. in electron-volt (eV). Figure 24.9 1111 The de Broglie wavelength of an electron is 2 x 10-10 m. Arthur H. 8 In 1923. 11 The discovery of this Compton effect is one of many evidences supporting the waveparticle duality of nature. 10 Since the momentum of the scattered photon is lower. (b) kinetic energy.10 shows the Compton effect. Calculate its (a) velocity. The calculations agreed with the experimental values. (mass of electron = 9. He observed that the scattered light has a slightly longer wavelength than that of the incident light. The waves are also called matter waves.5 6 Equation (5) is called the de Broglie relation and A. its de Broglie wavelength is now longer. Compton scattered short-wavelength light from different materials. is called the de Broglie wavelength. 7 The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength of waves associated with matter in motion.10 Show that the formula for the de Broglie wavelength of an electron is approximately .11 x 10-" kg) EXAMPLE 24.

2 x 104m s-1. (b) a neutron of mass 1. 2 Calculate the wavelength of an electron with a kinetic energy of 15 eV. (mass of electron = 9.20 m. Determine the ratio of the kinetic energy of the electron to that of a proton.11 x 10-31 kg.3 1 Calculate the wavelength of (a) a 0. room temperature = 20 °C. (mass of electron = 9.67 x 10-27 kg) 4 A moving proton and a moving electron have equal wavelengths. mass of proton = 1.11 Determine the de Broglie wavelength of an oxygen molecule in the air at room temperature.15 kg ball travelling at 0.3 x 10-26 kg.EXAMPLE 24. (mass of an oxygen molecule = 5.67 x 10-27 kg travelling at 6.12 m s-'. (mass of proton = 1. k = 1.38 x 1023 J K-1) Checkpoint 24.67 x 10-27 kg) .11 x 10-" kg) 3 Find the kinetic energy of a proton with a wavelength of 0.

3. Figure 24.12 show the diffraction of electrons and the pattern of rings formed on the screen.11 x 10-3' kg) Electron Diffraction 1 In 1928. 2 The electrons undergo diffraction just like the X-rays.60 x 10-19 C. . For constructive interference..P. 9 Figure 24.. Under the right circumstances. . Thomson found that the pattern obtained on a screen when electrons are directed at a thin metal foil containing tiny crystals called grains is identical to the one obtained when X-rays are directed at the thin metal foil.11 x 10-3' kg) 6 How many volts of potential difference is needed to accelerate an electron in order to obtain a wavelength of 0. G. 3 Hence.13 shows the set-up of the experiment. 2. Davisson and Lester H. Clinton J. Germer conducted an experiment which demonstrated the wave-like property of electrons.11 and 24.12 nm? (mass of electron = 9. 8 A diffraction pattern similar to that of X-ray diffraction is obtained where maximum and minimum intensities occur at specific angles. 5 In 1927. The electrons are found to scatter from the target. 2d sin 0 = nA. Path difference between ABC and DEF = 2d sin 0.5 What is the wavelength associated with electrons that have been accelerated through a potential difference of 28 kV in a vacuum? (Charge of electron = 1. Figure 24. 4 Figures 24. mass of electron = 9. 7 A movable detector is used to measure the distribution of electrons as a function of its scattering angle 9. de Broglie's theory is proven.13 6 An electron gun produces an electron beam which is directed towards a nickel target in a vacuum. where n = 1.14 shows the diffraction of electrons from the target. This equation is called Bragg's equation. particles have wave-like properties.

Electron Microscope 1 The ability of a microscope to distinguish between two nearby point objects is called its resolving power.14 EXAMPLE 24. 3 As the wavelength of radiation used in a microscope decreases. Using the same diffraction grating. This weakness can be overcome using an electron microscope. mass of electron. 2 A microscope is said to have a high resolving power if two objects can be clearly seen as two distinct objects. its resolving power increases. 5 Figure 24.15 shows an electron microscope which makes use of the dual nature of electrons. m. . derive an expression for the potential difference V required to accelerate a beam of electrons in terms of the charge of electron. Planck's constant h and x. producing a diffraction pattern.12 An electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of x m is directed towards a diffraction grating. 4 The resolving power of an optical microscope is limited by the wavelength of visible light.Figure 24. e.

As a result. h = 6. the electrons are accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 2500 kV in a vacuum. (c) the kinetic energy of the electron. and only certain orbits are allowed. An electron microscope using electrons which have been accelerated through a potential difference of 4800 V is used to observe the same object. (b) the momentum. These orbits are stable with fixed energy states in which the angular momentum L of an electron —h is an integer multiple of h. Checkpoint 24. charge of electron = 1.3 Atomic Structure Bohr's Postulate 1 Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom was put forward to explain the spectral emission from the hydrogen atom called the Balmer series. 24. the resolving power of the electron microscope increases.60 x 10-19 C.4 1 In the Davisson-Germer experiment.63 x 10-34 J s) 2 A microscopic object is observed using an optical microscope.11 x 10-3' kg. its wavelength decreases. Determine (a) the de Broglie wavelength. The optical microscope uses visible light of wavelength 6 x 10-7 m. where h = . (mass of electron = 9. 2 There are two postulates of Bohr's model:. By increasing the momentum or kinetic energy of the electron. an electron microscope has a resolving power 100 times greater than an optical microscope. Compare the resolving power.6 The wavelength of electrons is approximately 100 times shorter than that of visible light. 7 In Figure 24.15. the electron beam is controlled using a set of magnetic lenses. Therefore. Postulate 1 Electrons revolve about the nucleus in circular orbits.

called the ground state at n = 1. F is supplied by the electrostatic force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electron. Usually. The centripetal force is given by 3 The centripetal force. the electrons can be excited to higher levels corresponding to n= 2. 3 Figure 24. electrically or with absorption of light. the electron is in the lowest energy state. 3 and so on. Radii of Orbits in Bohr's Model 1 A hydrogen atom consists of an electron (charge —e) orbiting a nucleus (charge +e) as shown in Figure 24.16 shows the emission of a photon with energy hf when an electron undergoes transition from E to Ef. A photon of frequency f is emitted according to where E = energy of the higher level and Ef = energy of the lower level. The electron is moving with a tangential speed v in an orbit of radius r.17. The electrostatic force is given by 4 5 According to Bohr's postulate of quantised angular momentum. 2 The electron experiences a centripetal force directed to the centre (nucleus) so that it can move in a circle around the nucleus. Postulate 2 An electromagnetic radiation is emitted when an electron makes a transition from one state of higher energy level to another of lower energy level.  By stimulating the atom through collisions thermally. .

2 Substituting equation (3) into . 7 Using equation (6) the radius of the smallest orbit r. is This radius of the smallest orbit for the hydrogen atom is called the Bohr radius. 8 From equation (6) the radius r” increases as 9 10 Equation (6) shows that electrons can only orbit the nucleus at only certain distances.Squaring both sides of equation (4). Figure 24. Energy Levels in Hydrogen Atoms 1 The electron orbiting the nucleus possesses two types of energy: kinetic energy due to its motion and electric potential energy due to the electrostatic force.18 shows the possible orbits in the Bohr model. 6 Substituting (3) into (5).

The energy of the electron is said to be quantised. depending on which orbit is in. Li2+ and the triply ionised beryllium atom. 13. 7 The energy El is called the ground state level because the electron usually occupies this level. Hence. the doubly ionised lithium atom. . for example.3 4 5 6 Equation (10) shows that the electron can only have certain amount of energies.6 eV is required to remove the electron in the innermost orbit to infinity. 8 The energy level can be written as 9 The subsequent energy levels are 10 Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom can also be applied to other atoms with one electron. the singly ionised helium atom He+. BO+.

When it makes a transition to a lower state. 4 The electron is now in an excited state. In this case. the collisions between free electrons and the hydrogen atom will transfer energy to the electron in the ground state.20. Hence. 3 During electric discharge or high temperature.19 shows an arrangement to analyse the light emitted by atoms of a gas in a discharge tube. the wavelengths of light absorbed would appear as a series of dark lines called the absorption spectrum. 3 Each of these lines is called a line spectra.11 The derivation for r n and En earlier are still valid with one modification. Line Spectra 1 Figure 24. the line spectra is known as the emission spectra. Figure 24. the hydrogen atom will usually be in the ground state. . shown in Figure 24. a photon is given off. 12 Bohr's model of the atom fails in the case of atoms with more than one electron. 4 If white light passes through a gas. 2 At room temperature. with each component colour generates a bright line. All e2 term in the formula are replaced with Ze2 where Z is the atomic number of the single-electron atom. 2 The prism separates the light into its component colours. where n = 1.21 shows the excitation of a hydrogen atom followed by the emission of a photon. Each line is a characteristic of a particular type of atom. Explanation of Line Spectra for Hydrogen Atom 1 The electron in a hydrogen atom can be situated at any one of the levels postulated by Bohr's model.

with a value of 1. n'.2 shows the different spectral series of the hydrogen atom. . is emitted. 7 The spectral lines corresponding to the transition of electrons from higher energy levels to a particular energy level is called a series. where R is known as the Rydberg constant. a photon of wavelength A.0974 x 107m-1. n to a lower energy. 6 For the case of a photon emitted from a hydrogen atom.5 When an electron makes a transition from a higher energy level. Table 24.

EXAMPLE 24.22 shows the transitions between energy levels that correspond to the various observed spectral lines. EXAMPLE 24.15 Calculate the maximum and minimum wavelength in the Balmer series. What is the wavelength of the emitted photon? EXAMPLE 24. . E = E3.14 An electron which is initially in the third excited state makes a transition to the ground state. In order for the wavelength A. to be the maximum.8 Figure 24.13 Determine the radius of the orbit corresponding to n = 4 of the hydrogen atom.

V. 3 Find the energy. Find the longest wavelength that it will absorb. Calculate the (a) orbital radius. e and the ionisation potential. V) . e) x (excitation potential.22. 2 Excitation energy is the product of charge of electron. 6 Ionisation energy is the product of charge of electron. Excitation energy = (charge of electron. of a hydrogen atom in a ground state. 4 A hydrogen atom is in the ground state. V. e) x (ionisation potential. (c) angular momentum. the excitation energy of an electron moving from the ground state n = 1 to the excited state n = 2 is equal to the energy difference between these states. (d) centripetal acceleration. 5 For an electron in the ground state (n = 1) to escape the attraction of the nucleus.Checkpoint 24. e and the excitation potential. 5 Compute the wavelength of the fifth line in the Lyman series. in electron-volt (eV). Excitation Energy and Ionisation Energy 1 Excitation energy is the energy required by an electron to bring it from the ground state (n = 1) to any other excited state (n > 1). (b) speed. the electron has to reach the energy level corresponding to n = . Ionisation energy = (charge of electron.5 1 Which state in the hydrogen atom corresponds to a radius of 0. 4 Ionisation energy or binding energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state to escape completely from the attraction of the nucleus..8496 nm? 2 An electron is in the n = 3 orbit of a hydrogen atom. V) 3 In Figure 24.

when the atom returns to the ground state.2 eV. (b) Find the speed of the electron which would cause the excitation of the above hydrogen atom.16 A hydrogen atom in the ground state is excited to the energy level corresponding to n = 3. Am. it will be raised to energy level n = 3 from the ground state. Checkpoint 24. (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-31 kg) EXAMPLE 24. Calculate the velocity of the electron removed from the ground state. Which spectral lines would you expect to observe? When the hydrogen atom absorb 12. the possible spectral lines are the first two Lyman lines and the first Balmer line. (mass of electron = 9.8 If an electron in the ground state is supplied with energy E which is greater than the ionisation energy. Kinetic energy of the escaping electron = E — Eon EXAMPLE 24. (a) Calculate the excitation energy.1 eV. then the difference between E and Eon manifests in the form of the kinetic energy of the electron. Therefore.1 V.11 x 10-3' kg) 2 Determine the wavelength of the photon that would ionise a hydrogen atom in the n = 2 state and give the ejected electron a kinetic energy of 8.17 A gas of monoatomic hydrogen in the ground state is bombarded with a beam of electrons that have been accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 12.6 1 A radiation of wavelength 80 nm ionised a hydrogen atom in the ground state. .

4 The electrons are attracted towards the copper anode by the high potential difference ranging from 104 V to 106 V between the anode and the cathode. 8 To prevent the target from melting easily. Electrons are emitted from the cathode. As a result. 9 Oil or water is also used to help conduct heat away. 3 When the filament is heated by current flowing through it. 5 The glass tube is evacuated so that the accelerated electrons can move without colliding with air molecules. 24. The rest is converted into heat energy. thermionic emission occurs.4 X-rays 1 X-rays are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 10-11 m and 10-' m. 7 Less than 1% of the total energy supplied to the X-ray tube is converted into X-rays. the target is made of heavy metals with high melting points such as tungsten or molybdenum.3 Find the maximum wavelength of radiation which will ionise a hydrogen atom in the ground state. some of the kinetic energy is converted into X-rays. X-ray Spectra 1 A graph of the intensity of X-rays emitted as a function of its wavelength can be obtained using an X-ray spectrometer and a crystal as a wavelength selector. 3 The X-ray spectrum consists of a continuous background of X-ray radiation and a series of characteristic lines with intensity peaks. . 2 Figure 24.24. 6 The electrons decelerate rapidly on impact with the target. 2 The spectra and its corresponding graph are shown in Figure 24.23 shows a modern X-ray tube which is used to produce X-rays.

which are unaffected by the voltage of the X-ray tube. the intensity varies smoothly with wavelength. Figure 24. X-ray photons corresponding to the series are emitted. X-ray photons corresponding to the series are emitted. .25 shows the production of characteristic X-ray spectrum. 8 The K-series peaks consist of Ka and K. 6 The peaks are due to electrons from the cathode knocking out inner shell electrons from the target atoms. As a result. The background intensity reaches a maximum value as the wavelength increases and then falls as the wavelength increases further. Figure 24.26(a) and (b) show the transitions responsible for the K-series peaks. is refilled by electrons from the outer shells. The L-series peaks occur when the second shell. As a result. 7 Figure 24. the K-shell.4 In the continuous background. the L-shell. is refilled by electrons from the outer shells. X-ray photons of specific wavelengths are emitted. 5 The characteristic X-ray line spectrum consists of sharp peaks of high intensity at specific wavelength.27(a) and (b) show the transitions responsible for the L-series peaks. When the vacant shells are refilled by free electrons. 9 The L-series peaks consist of La and Ls. These peaks occur when the innermost shell.

EXAMPLE 24. Minimum Wavelength of X-rays Let the potential difference across the anode and cathode in Figure 24. (b) Increase the potential difference between the anode and the cathode. L and M shells of silver are as listed. Checkpoint 24. Label the spectrum as Q.  K-shell: —25. 3 Explain the following: (a) The continuous X-ray spectrum (b) The characteristic X-ray spectrum (c) The minimum wavelength of X-rays produced from an X-ray tube. (b) Sketch the X-ray spectrum obtained if the potential difference between the anode and cathode is greater than the value in (a).23 be V. provide a suggestion as to how it can be achieved in an X-ray tube.7 1 The energy levels for the K.2 . (a) An increase in the intensity of X-rays (b) A decrease in the minimum wavelength of the X-ray spectrum. 2 The graph shows the intensity against wavelength for X-rays produced from an X-ray tube. La and LP peaks.53 keV Determine the wavelengths of the Ka and K3 peaks when electrons strike the silver target in an X-ray tube. Solution (a) Increase the current in the beam of electrons.56 eV  M-shell: —0. 4 State the factor which determine the values of the wavelengths of Ka and Ks. (a) Find the potential difference between the anode and cathode which would produce the above graph.18 For each of the following.51 eV  L-shell: —3. Electrical potential energy of electron = Kinetic energy of electron eV = –1 m 1.

136 J (d) V (6.0 x 108) (1.m = —hc (c = speed of light) n eV 4 There are 2 types of X-rays. the number of X-ray photons produced per unit time increases. m ev2 = eV = hfrna. (d) the minimum wavelength of the X-rays produced.25 x 10'5 e 1.60x 10-19 (b) Electrical power supplied to the tube. me = mass of electron and v = speed of electron.9% x 96 = 0. As a result.864 = 95..2 me v2 e = charge of electron.29 x 10-" m . If its efficiency is 0. 6 As a result..60x 10-'9)(96 x 103) = 1.864 J (c) Heat energy dissipated per second = 96 — 0. the cut-off frequency is eV fmax = Using f= ceV A'rnin = h Minimum wavelength. determine (a) the number of electrons hitting the target per second. 5 When the current flawing in the cathode is increased. Solution (a) Ine t It 1 x 10-3 x 1 11. The operating voltage of an X-ray tube is 96 kV with a beam current of 1 mA.= 6. (h = Planck's constant) 2 3 Therefore. 4. (a) Hard X-rays: X-rays of short wavelength and high penetrating power. the intensity of X-rays increases if more electrons collide with the target per second. the number of electrons colliding with the target increases.9%. P = VI = (96 x 103)(1 x 10-3) = 96 W X-ray energy produced per second = 0.x of the photon radiated occurs when all the kinetic energy of the electron is radiated as a single X-ray photon. 21. (b) the X-ray energy produced per second. 2 The maximum frequency.63 x 10-34)(3. (c) the heat energy dissipated per second. (b) Soft X-rays: X-rays of long wavelength and low penetrating power.

As a result. Find the average rate at which the electrons strike the target. only 1% of the energy supplied by the electrons is converted into X-rays. 2 However. 3. Find (a) the number of electrons colliding with the anode per second. 2 Electrons in an X-ray tube are accelerated through a potential difference of 40 kV towards a target. 600 J of thermal energy is produced per second. they would interfere constructively and produce observable diffraction patterns.. 7 Constructive interference between the two rays occurs if both rays are in phase. if the X-rays are travelling in a certain direction.1 An X-ray tube produces a potential difference of 35 kV between the anode and cathode. . the spacings of the slits on the diffraction grating must be of the order of the wavelength of the X-ray. 5 However. 2.29 shows the diffraction of X-rays from the planes of a crystal.) 2d sin 9=n7° (BC = CD = d sin 0) (where d = separation between atomic planes) This equation is known as the Bragg equation. The rays AC and FG are incident on the planes at the glancing angle. 6 Figure 24. 3 The beam of current of 10 mA is accelerated through a potential difference of 35 kV in an X-ray tube. 4 X-rays directed towards a regular crystal produce waves of different phases which combine and undergo destructive interference.. shown in Figure 24. a regular crystal which consists of an ordered array of atoms is used instead of a diffraction grating. (b) the electrical power supplied to the X-ray tube. (d) the heat energy dissipated per second. . also called the Bragg angle. The condition for the two rays to be in phase so that constructive interference occurs is path difference between the X-rays = whole number of wavelengths BC + CD = 0. However. Calculate the minimum wavelength of X-rays produced. X-ray Diffraction 1 In order to produce a diffraction pattern. (n = 1.28. an ordinary diffraction grating is unable to diffract X-rays because the spacings of the slits are much larger than the wavelengths of X-rays. (c) the energy in the form of X-rays produced each second if the efficiency of the X-ray tube is 0. 3 Therefore. The distance between each atom is of the order of the wavelength of the X-ray.8%.

05 x 10-1° m 1 Show that diffraction is not observed if the X-ray wavelength is less than twice the distance d between two adjacent planes of atoms in a crystal.19 x 10-10 m. The detector picks up the first-order maximum at an angle of 45.212 nm apart.03 x 10-b0 m A beam of X-rays of wavelength 0. Both the crystals and the detector can be rotated so as to measure the glancing angle 0.156 nm is directed onto a crystal. n = 1 (first order). n = 1. d — 2 sin 0 1 x 0.2° (a) 2 = 22.6° = 2. nA.8 Figure 24. 45.28 x 10-10 m is incident on a crystal. 0 = 18° Using 2d sin 0 = nA. Given that the spacing between the lattice planes is 2. Calculate the spacing between the atomic planes. In an X-ray spectrometer.065 x 10-9 2 sin 18° = 1. 10 A detector detects the diffracted X-rays.156 x 10-9 m Using 2d sin 0 = nA.2° from the beam axis.156 x 10-9 2 sin 22.065 nm reaches a crystal and produces a first-order diffraction maximum at an angle of 18°.126 nm are incident on a crystal whose atoms are in planes which are spaced 0. Solution = 0.0° with the crystal planes.6° (b) 0 = 22. At what angle must the X-rays be directed if the first diffraction maximum is observed? . 2 A beam of X-rays of wavelength 1. a narrow beam of X-rays of wavelength 0. 3 Monochromatic X-rays impinge on a crystal in which the spacing of the atomic planes is 0. Find (a) the orientation of the lattice planes (b) the spacing of the lattice planes. A = 0. determine the range of orders of diffraction which is not possible.6°.30 shows an X-ray spectrometer which is used to measure the separation between atomic planes in a crystal. The first-order diffraction maximum occurs when the incident and reflected X-rays make an angle of 30. 9 Collimators are used to produce a parallel beam of incident X-rays which strike the crystal at the glancing angle 0.065 x 10-' m. Find the wavelength of the X-rays. d= 2 sin 0 1 x 0. 4 X-rays of wavelength 0.5010 nm.

. (b) Nanolithography: The study and application of fabicrating nanometer scale structures in nanocircuity integrated circuits. W is the minimum amount of energy required for an electron to escape from the metal surface. 2 Photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a metal surface illuminated by light. V is the reverse voltage applied to prevent photoelectrons from reaching the anode in a photocell. (a) Molecular scale electronics: A branch of nanoscience which study the uses of single molecules as electronic components. 2 Objects on the scale of nanometer studied in nanoscience include atoms and molecules. 10 An electron microscope uses an electron beam which has a wavelength many times smaller than that of light used in an optical microscope. . the difference in energy between the levels is radiated as a photon of frequency f. 4 Threshold frequency. n 15 Line spectra are produced due to transitions of electrons between energy levels. i. 3 One of the aim of nanoscience is to study how to manipulate and control chemical and biological matter on this very small scale. 8 If K = kinetic energy of the particle and m = mass of the particle. Therefore. En= — 8 8 h 2 2 2. then A = J2mK • 9 Electrons directed at a thin metal exhibit patterns of diffraction identical to the patterns obtained when X-ray is directed at the foil. — E n2h2e 13 The radius of the nth orbit. 3. 6 Einstein's photoelectric equation is given by hf= Kn. 2. n we ir nie4 14 The total energy. (c) Nanoelectronics: The applications of nanoscience on electronic components especially transistors.. 2. r = 2 0. where n = 1. Hence. 4 Nanoscience is widely applied in electronic devices. 7 The de Broglie wavelength of a particle with momentum p is A = —h where h = Planck's constant.+ W. the resolving power of an electron microscope is many times greater than that of an optical microscope. .. 11 Bohr's first postulate for the hydrogen atom: An electron of mass m and charge e travelling with speed v in a circular orbit of radius r about a nucleus has an angular momentum given by L = myrn = nh 12 Bohr's second postulate: When an electron makes a transition from a higher energy level n' to a lower energy level n..1 Nanoscience is the study of the properties of structure of the size smaller than several hundreds of nanometer (nm). where n = 1. 3 Work function.e. 5 Stopping potential. fo is the minimum frequency of the incident radiation for an electron to escape from the metal surface. hf = En. 1 State few possible benefits of nanoscience.. 3. 1 Light consists of bundles of energy called photons. electrons exhibit wave properties.

. 22 Diffraction of X-rays using a crystal obeys Bragg equation given by 2d sin 0 = nA. 19 The minimum wavelength of X-rays produced is given by = he min min e 20 X-ray spectra consist of a continuous and characteristic spectrum. Which of the following is the new graph obtained? 2 Light with constant intensity is incident on a photocell which is connected to a direct current voltage source. 1 The intensity of the radiation used in a photoelectric experiment is halved. 17 The ionisation energy is the energy required by an electron to break free from the attraction of the nucleus. 3. 21 The characteristic spectrum consists of sharp peaks of high intensity at specific wavelengths which are unique to every metal. X-rays are produced. 2. 18 When high speed electrons decelerate after striking a metallic target.16 The excitation energy is the energy required by an electron to break free from the ground state (n = 1) to a higher level.). 23 Nanoscience is the study of the properties of structures of the size smaller than several hundreds of nanometer. (n = 1. Which of the following graphs shows the variation of the current I through the photocell with the voltage V of the source? .. .

D by the electron to produce a new electron called photoelectron.16 V.44 x 10-19J . By applying a stopping potential of 0. what is the threshold frequency of the metal? A hf — K C K — hf B hf — K D K— hf 4 What is the energy of a photon of wavelength 400 nm? A 2.11 eV 5 An experiment is performed to show the photoelectric effect. 7 A photon of 2. B as the kinetic energy of the electron only. the energy of the photon is used A to release the electron from the lattice only.09 eV B3. C to release the electron from the lattice and as the kinetic energy of the electron.95 eV C 3. D The minimum de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectrons.7 x 10-19J is incident on the cathode of a photocell. What is the work function of the cathode? A 2. C The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons. Which quantity below will increase? A The momentum of the photoelectrons will increase.3 Light of frequency f is incident on the surface of a metal. the current through the cell becomes zero. If the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electron is K and h is Planck's constant.00 eV D3. 6 In the photoelectric effect. The frequency of the light is kept constant while the intensity is increased. B The emission rate of the photoelectrons.

22 x 10-'9J 8 A photocell consists of a material of threshold frequency fo. its stopping potential is A 4hf C 2hf° e 3hf B D jZfo 9 A particle has kinetic energy E. If its de Broglie wavelength is doubled. If the monochromatic light of the frequency 3fo is directed to the photocell. an electron of velocity v may behave like a wave of wavelength A. Which of the following graphs shows the variation of A with v? .B 2. its kinetic energy is A 4E C —4 D —E B 2E 2 10 According to de Broglie.61 x 10-19J C 3.10 x 10-19 J D 3.

which graph has a gradient equal to the Planck's constant? 12 Light of wavelength A is incident normally and reflected by a plane mirror. B can be diffracted. . A kh D kh 2k 13 Proton. C move in a straight line. C The electron in the orbit nearest to the nucleus has the lowest energy level. electron.11 If A is the wavelength of a particle with momentum p. What is the force exerted on the mirror by the photons? 2khr. The photons of the light hit the mirror at a rate of k. D The Coulomb force between the nucleus and electron maintains the electron in its orbits. which particle has the smallest de Broglie wavelength? A Proton C Deuteron B Electron D Helium nucleus 14 Electron can be considered as waves because they A have mass. D have linear momentum. deuteron and helium nucleus are particles. If these particles have equal kinetic energy.

15 A tungsten filament lamp produces white light which passes through sodium vapor. B coloured lines on a white background. The maximum number of the spectral lines produced by the transition of electrons from these four energy levels is A3 C5 B4 D6 . D The radiation energy emitted corresponds to the difference between two energy levels. Neils Bohr suggested several postulates to explain the origin of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. 16 In 1913. an electron is excited from the ground state to the first excited state. the observed spectrum is A dark lines on a white background. Which of the following is not true of the suggestion? A The energy of the atom is discrete. When viewed through a diffraction grating. If the nth energy level of the hydrogen atom is given by E = —132.0 eV 18 Which of the following statement is not true of Bohr's atomic model? A Radiation is emitted when an electron orbits in the allowed orbits. D coloured lines on a black background. the photon energy absorbed is A3. C The linear momentum of an orbiting electron may have any value.4 eV C13. B The angular momentum of an electron in the allowed orbit is an integer of multiple —h 19 The figure shows the energy levels of the hydrogen atoms.6 eV.2 eV D 17. C dark lines on a white background.6 eV B 10. Which transition produces radiation of wavelength 436 nm? A n = 4 to n = 1 B n = 4 to n = 2 C n = 5 to n = 1 D n = 5 to n = 2 20 The figure shows some of the energy levels of an atom. STPM 2005/P1/Q45 17 A hydrogen atom absorbs a photon and as a result. B The angular momentum of an orbiting electron is quantised.

If 1i a graph of Amin against j7 is plotted. Which transition produces P and Q lines? P Q A E4 E2 —> Ei B E4 ---> E2 E4 C E2 E4 D E. the gradient is .21 Four energy levels of an atom and the line spectrum produced from the electron transitions between the energy levels are shown in the diagrams (a) and (b) below respectively. E4 —> 22 Which energy-level diagram represents the energy levels of an atom? 23 An X-ray tube emits X-rays of minimum wavelength Amin when the potential difference V is applied across the tube.

mm B the value of A. will increase.6 x 10-1° m 27 The graph shows the X-ray spectra I and II produced by an X-ray tube when it is operated at two different voltages.. the minimum wavelength becomes A 2.0 x 10-"m. 26 In an X-ray tube.0 x 10-" m B 4.A —h C —e B he — D he 24 The penetration power of X-rays which is produced from an X-ray tube can be increased by A increasing the current which flows through the cathode. 25 The graph shows a spectrum produced by an X-ray tube. Which statement explains why the minimum wavelength of spectrum II is longer than that of spectrum I? . C the wavelength of the characteristic lines K and K will decrease. B increasing the potential difference between the anode and the cathode. D using an anode made of an element of large atomic number. C focusing the electron beam by using a collimator.0 x 10-11 m C 8. If the accelerating voltage is raised. A the value of will decrease. D the wavelength of the characteristic lines Ka and K will increase. If the potential difference between the cathode and the anode is decreased to half of the original value. the minimum wavelength produced is 4.0 x 10-11 m D 1.

05 x 10-10m and 4. C the current through the filament. When the accelerating potential is halved. After the collision. D the accelerating potential of the X-ray tube. Calculate (a) the momentum (b) the kinetic energy (c) the potential difference required to accelerate the electron.39 x 10-19m 29 The minimum wavelength of the X-rays emitted from an X-ray tube depends on A the material of the target. 3 A light beam of wavelength 0. What is the interplanar distance of the crystal? A 3. Given that the wavelength of the X-ray and the separation between the atomic planes are 2. Many electrons are found to emerge from a very thin crystal with a deflection of 2°. (b) Calculate the velocity of the electron emitted. calculate (a) the ratio of the new electron speed to the initial speed.10 x 10-10m respectively. an electron is emitted with kinetic energy 180 eV (a) Calculate the energy absorbed by the atom. light of wavelength 450 nm is incident on a metallic surface with work function 2.A A lower voltage is used to produce spectrum II. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emitted from Cesium surface when illuminated by light of wavelength 565 nm. 5 Electrons are accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 1500 V in a vacuum.76 x 10-1° m D 1. 2 In a photoelectric experiment. D A heavier element is used as the target material to produce spectrum II. B A higher voltage is used to produce spectrum II. 0 is A 135° B 140° C 151° D 160° 1 The work function for Cesium is 2.110 nm collides with an atom.10 x 10-10m is directed at a glancing angle of 26.88 x 10-1° m B 6. (b) Calculate the stopping potential. (a) Determine the velocity of the most energetic electrons ejected from the surface. 28 When a beam of X-ray of wavelength 3.5° to a crystal.95 x 10-1° m C 7.3 eV. a second order diffraction is observed. C A lighter element is used as the target material to produce spectrum II.14 eV. B the material of the filament. .2 x 10-10 m. 4 An electron has a de Broglie wavelength of 1. 30 The figure shows the first-order diffraction of an incident X-ray by a crystal.

(a) What are the frequencies of radiation which are emitted resulting from transition between these levels? (b) State the region of the electromagnetic spectrum in which the emitted radiation lies. (b) In an electron diffraction experiment. (charge of electron = 1. (ii) The number of photons striking each square centimeter per second. in electron-volt (eV). an electron beam which is accelerated on a potential difference is incident normally on a very thin gold film.63 x 10-34 J s) 6 The energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom is given by the equation E = — 13 6 where n = 1. eV 12 n2 ' (a) Calculate the energy of the electron in the ground state. (c) the new angle of deflection. (b) Calculate the shortest wavelength of X-ray emitted by electron striking the surface of a 20 kV television picture tube.14 eV. mass of electron = 9.0 cm'. 7 The figure shows three of the energy levels of a hydrogen atom. 9 (a) State the principle of the production of X-ray. (c) If this page of this question paper is illuminated by 120 W nr1 of light with wavelength 550 nm. 3. State your answer in joule (J).. (ii) State four most important results from a photoelectric effect experiment. calculate the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectron. h = 6. (i) If the voltage at the anode is increased. (d) State the series in which the line spectra due to the photon is located. 2 (a) State de Broglie's hypothesis and give the relationship between momentum p and wavelength A of a particle. (ii) If light of wavelength 452 nm is illuminated on Cesium. calculate (i) The power received by an area 1.(b) the new wavelength of the electron. calculate (i) the speed of the electron that strike the target. (c) Determine the wavelength of the emitted photon. (i) Calculate the maximum wavelength of light that ejects electron from a Cesium target. 1 (a) (i) Define the stopping potential in photoelectric effect. (ii) the minimum wavelength of the X-ray produced. (b) Find the energy emitted by the atom.11 x 10-31 kg. what happens to the circular rings? (ii) If a particular ring of radius R is chosen and different values of accelerating . 2. 8 (a) State the difference between the production of a continuous spectrum and a characteristic spectrum of X-rays. (b) The work function for cesium is 2. (b) If the potential difference applied to an X-ray tube is 25 kV...6 x 10-19 C. An electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition from energy level n = 5 to energy level n = 2 and emits a photon.

(iii)n glass (14. The heat capacity of the anode is 25 J (a) Give two characteristics of suitable cathode used.1 voltage V are recorded. (d) State two assumptions in the calculation in (c). (ii) Equal number of wavelengths in both glass and plastic. and 1= distance travelled by light in the medium. 4 An X-ray tube operates at an electron beam current of 2 mA and a potential difference of 50 kV. (ii) Explain briefly the production of continuous and characteristic X-rays. . 3 (a) State Bohr's postulate for an atom. VV (c) (i) A 60 kg marathon runner runs at a speed of 5.0) = npiast.o (10. e (iii) I= Io cos. derive an expression for the radius of the nth orbit of the electron.50 x 10-3 = 3. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the marathon runner. (b) Calculate the minimum wavelength of X-rays produced. (c) Find the rate at which heat must be removed from the anode. n = refractive index of medium. (b) The following diagram shows an electron of mass m and charge –e moving at speed v in a circular orbit of radius r around a nucleus. (b) (i) Time taken is the same because the optical paths are equal. sketch a graph of R against —. If the force attraction between the electron and the nucleus provides the centripetal acceleration of the electron.0) 10_5 nglassl nplastic 14 =7 (c) (i) x = —AD a Angular separation = x =A = 480x 10-9 rad D a 1. 9= 55° 4.0 m s-'.20 x 10-4 rad (ii) Path difference at the centre of the interference pattern. (c) (i) I=I0 cos._. e= 3 Io. (a) Optical path = nl.

sin 0' = a 1  Intensity at the centre = -4 Io Half of the light passes through. It is possible. 3. Using hf = eV + W. 1.30 x 10-7m (ii) Advantage: 192 is larger.14° = 6. when a' = -2-. (a) Photoelectrons are ejected at greater speed. Electrons which are closer to the surface require less energy to escape compared to the electrons further from the surface. (c) No photoelectrons are emitted. Disadvantage: Image (spot) is bigger.9° 2(5501x 103) sin 43. (b) More photoelectrons of the same speed are ejected.60X 10-19 = 5. 1. 4. tan 02= —180' 02=43.40 . A beam of lower frequency can have greater energy if it has more photons.60 x 10-'9)(1.70x 10-19J 8.4375 eV 2.0 x 108) (1. Hence. (a) Diffraction: Spreading of waves through a narrow slit or after passing an obstacle. 2. — (6. d = 1. (iii) When the width of the slit is halved.9° = 6.14° 550 x 103 sin 20. 01= 20.eV = hc T. where Icax= eV. (1.+ W x = Kmax+ y Kmax = x -y . Percentage error in its measurement is smaller.08 x 10-5 m 5.32) (184 x 10-9) = 8. electrons closer to the surface are emitted at greater speed. and spreads over twice the area.30 x 10-7m 173 m = 2. W = hf .1)d= 9A.63 x 10-34)(3. less sharp and dimmer.1)d= 9(480 x 10-9) Thickness. The amount of energy depends on the frequency and the number of photons.30x 10-7m Average wavelength = 6.a.(n . (c) (i) m = 1. (c) Different metals have different threshold frequencies.  width of the central maximum is doubled.70 x 10-19 1. (a) Using hf = K. 1 sin 0 = A. tan 01 = 6860. -a.

(1) 220x 10-9 When A= 160 x 10-9m and Vs = 2.97 V h(3.y) sine 0 = eV.W Gradient = h . Using hf= Kmax+ W Ica.60x 10-9)(0.85 V h(3.0 x 108)l 1 L (55 x 101 _I\ 1. (6.85) + W .0 x 10') = (1.W hc =w = F(6.+ W hc = eV+ W S When A= 220x 10-9m and Vs = 0.(2) 160x 10-9 (2) .60 x 10-'9)(0.1 2 " MV = X y 2m vmax = V2(x -y)m Km= eV .60 x 10-'9)-13'6 = 9 eV 4. (a) Using hf= Kn..64 x 10-34J s-' (b) Substituting h= 6. From hf= Kmax+ W hf= eVs+ W Vs= (11e)f Gradient =-h = constant e 6.11 x 10'4 h = 3.39 x 10-'9 = 6.69 x 10-'9J 160x 10-9 = 4.0 x 108) = (1.63 x 10-34)(3.y) sine = e 3.8 eV 5.69 x 10-19J 7.= hf .(1) 5.64 x 10-34J s-1 into (1).97) + W .. 1 mv2i. Using hf= Kmax+ W Kmax= hf .85) + W (220 x 10-9) W= 7.0 x 108) . T7(x . sine 0= eV (x .W = hf .64x 10-34)(3.(1.60 x 10-9)(2.. ..

02)2 = 3. Kinetic energy of electron. K= my' = eV 2 Using A = . 21„ = -\12mic So.1 (mv)2 2m K= 2m where p = my p= For the electron.11 x 10-" x 15 x1.N2nniTc ms Ks= mic K m = 1.67 x 10-27)(0.2 x 104) =2 kg m s' =h 6.29x 10-39J 4.63 x 10-34 p 0. Let K= kinetic energy K= -1 my2 2 . A.63 x 10-34)2 = 2(1.63 x 10-34 'N/2 x 9.68x 10-32m (b) p = my = (1. Using A = 21-‘1-727 6. Using A.018 = 3.1.67x 10-27 1833 Kp Me 9.N.11 x 10-31 5.60 x10-19 = 3.‘1271K V2m07 .2iNinIC h)2 1 h2 al 2m = 2mA2 (6.018 kg m s-1 A= h= 6.0354x 10-22 = 6.40 x 10-12 2.15)(0. (a) p =mv = (0.Ke.12) = 0. As = 2r/n:1Cs For the proton.17 x 10-1°m 3.67 x 10-27)(6..= AP h h 21.63 x 10-34 p 1.

7 V • 1.6x 10-19)2(0. (a) ra= (irrn° e2)n2 [ (8.27 x 105m s-1 nh (c) Angular momentum = 27r (3)(6.63 x 10-34 -V2(9.63 x 10-34)2 = 2(9.63 x 10-34)2 2 Lir(9. V2me V -V2(9.11 x 10-31)(1.63x 10-34 .53 x 10-22 kg m s-1 7.60x 10-19)(0.63x 10-34 N/2(9.11 x 10-31)(1. the 6 x 10-7 resolving power of the electron microscope is approximately 34 000 times that of an optical microscope.60 x 10-19)(2500x 103) = 7.60x 10-'9)(2800) = 7.78 x 10-1° m (b) v= e2 47rEim (1.85 x 10-12)(6.60x 10-19)2 V47r(8.11 x 10-31)(1. Using A = V2meV h V= h2 2meA2 (6.63 x 10-'4= 8. ra=()n2 7r n=Virme2ra ohz 7r(9.78 x 10-19)(9.17 x 10-34 J s-1 (d) Centripetal acceleration = v2 -r .85 x 10-12)(4. (a) Using A = \j2meV 6.77 x 10-" p2 .99 x 10-13J 2= = 6.11 x 10-31)(1.12x 10-19)2 = 104.60 x 10-'9)213) = 4.6. 1.11 x 10-31) = 7.8496x 10-9) (8.11 x 10-31)(1.A .11 x 10-31) = 3.53 x 10-22)2 (c) k= 2m 2(9.11 x 10-31)(1.60x 10-19)(4800) = 1.77 x 10-11m Since the wavelength of the electron microscope is 1.77x 10-" 1 34 000 times that of visible light.63 x 10-34) 27r = 3.(8.34 x 10-'2m 6.85 x 10-12)(6.77 x 10-" m (b)p= h = 6.63 x 10-34)2 =4 E h2 2.

(-13.41.E1) (Ea.[ ( 13.6 eV 1 1 1 4.E2) + K.(-13.-1 mv2= -A.0 x 108) [-13. .6)(1. .0 x 108) [0 -15)] (1. -hc =(E .6603xx110012)421( r12 (1.= E1) In order for` the wavelength A to be the longest.E.6)](1.6) 671 )] 1 (6.(0-(-13.60x 10-19) 2 = 9.(k-E1) v= .E. Ea= (872/12)(w) En [8((98.60 x 10-1 9.E.1815xx117416.60 x 10-19) = 1. hc (6.60 x 10-19) = -13. 1.0 x 108) = 1.(ionisation energy) 2 1 hc -mv2= .07 x 10-7m 3.60x 10-19) 1 5.106 x 1021m S-2 4\1 3.11x10-31t 80x10-9 = 8.63x 1°734x c . Energy of radiation = ionisation energy Using -hc =E -E = hc A.78x 10-1° = 1.7 1.51)](1.363x 10-34)(3.)=-he(E.4 eV 22 1 1 = he {[-3. Ea= E2 = -13.4 .-7T-) + 8.512 x 10-19J .60 x 10-19)} A _ (6.56 .2) (1.-E1 (6. E._ (7.40x 10-8 m A.25 x 105m-1 2.(-25.(k-E1)} = 2 f 6.60 x 10-19) = 3.63 x 10-34)(3.6 (1) = -3.6 0.63 x 10-34)(3.63 x 10-34)(3.0x 108) (k-E2)+ K.E1) 1 ) 5..60x 10-19) A= 9. Energy involved in Ka peak = [-3.l 1 ilE . From 2 -. =-hc (E .6 ( x (1. = -h (E6 .14 x 10-8m Checkpoint 24.27 x 105)2 4.22 x 10-7m (10.

Different electrons convert different amounts of their kinetic energies into X-ray photons of different wavelengths. Checkpoint 24.1 t = Ve (40x 103) (1. resulting in the continuous spectrum.53 .he = (6.60x 10-19)(35x 103) 2.60x 10-'9) .9.2 x 10-10) = 2390. 4. (a) The continuous X-ray spectrum is produced when the fast moving electrons from the cathode are decelerated on hitting the target anode.97 x 10-n m rc. (a) Using eV = ATz hc _ (6.0 x 108) V.0 x 10-" A e 2.625 V 3. electrical power supplies = IV= V( t = v( tne ) ) Hence -n Ve = 606.47 x 1016 .1\ W 2 However.1 n606.0 x 108) E 3.(1.35 x 10-" m min eV (1.60 x 10-19)(5. (b) The characteristic X-ray spectrum is a result of the electrons from the cathode knocking out inner shell electrons from the target atoms.63 x 10-34)(3.60 x 10-19) = 4.0 x 108) =4.63 x 10-34)(3.66x 10-" m Energy involved in Kp peak = [-0. he_ x 10-")(3.0 x 108) = 3.63 x 10-34)(3.(-25.hc Using E=T. Type of metal used as target. (c) The minimum wavelength kin occurs when all energy of the accelerated electron is converted into an X-ray photon in a single collision.0 x 10-15J he Using E = ' _ he (6.512x 10-" = 5. X-ray photons of specific wavelengths are emitted. When the vacant shells as refilled by free electrons. 100 electrical power supplied = -99 x 600 = 606.8 1 .kin . 4.51)1(1. Electrical _ thermal energy± X-ray energy power supplied produced per per second second Since 99% of the energy supplied is thermal energy.1 606.

501 x 10-9) sin 30° = 5. 0=30.19 x 10-10) Diffraction is not possible if sin 0> 1 0.28 x 10-I° m. = hf . 3. A = 2d sin 0 = 2(0. sin 0= 2d Considering n =1.  Faster computers.60x 10-49 P = VI = (35 x 103)(10 x 10-3) = 350 W X-ray energy produced per second (d) Efficiency = x 100% electrical power supplies X-ray energy produced per second 0. -A.212 x 10-9m.2922n > 1 n> 3.28 x 10-10) = 0.19 x 10-m m Using 2d sin 0= nA.10 1.8 J (e) Heat energy per second = 350 .  Higher efficiency of solar energy conversion.K 0= h . sin 0 = = n(1.126 x 10-9m. A= 1.0°.5_ 2d 2.25 x 1016 t e = 1.8%o 350 X 100% X-ray energy produced per second = 2. d = 2.8 = 347.422 Hence. 2d ..2 J 1. D: Threshold frequency depends only on the frequency of radiation 2.. ( x0. n = 1 Using 2d sin 0 = sin 0 =I 2dA 0 = sin-' (Fa) 2d 1.5010x 10-9m.  Motors on molecular scale. (a) I = Q = -ne t nI 10 x 10-3 6.  More efficient catalyst. d= 0.2.3° Checkpoint 24.3. 1. B: K = hf .01x 10-m m n 1 4. diffraction of order equal to 4 and above are not possible. Using 2d sin 0 = nA. sin 0 1. A= 0.212 x 10-9) = 17.2922 n 2d 2(2. • Stronger and lighter materials.W = hf .126 x 10-n = 2 x 0. d= 0.hfo hf. n= 1 Using 2d sin 0 = nA.K r hf. D 3.

C: Using 2 = p= If A is doubled.+ W 7. p is halved.11 eV 5. B: Only waves can be diffracted.85 eV n = 5 -) n = 2.(-p)] = 2kp =214)A 2kh = h h 1 13 D: = mv = \rTa where K = -2 mv2 A is the shortest if m is the largest.7 x 10-'9. 6. A 16.hf = 2hf 2hfo Vs= e 9.60x 10-'9 = 2. C: hf = Kn.. Hence. gradient of the graph p against Ti = h AP F = -t = k[p . B: The rate of incoming photons increases as the intensity increases.16) = 2.39) = 2. -0.=(6. the rate of emission of photoelectrons increases.44 x 8. B: E2 . E= = 4.2 1 mv2= 2 m 2m im (14 = -122-.85 eV D: E3 E2 "r E1 . A: Radiation is emitted when an electron falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. D: 2.6. 14.56 x 10-19 = 1. Using E = .60 x 10-19 = 3. = h . E p2 If p is halved.0x108) : 1.4. C:K = eV h(34) .6 ( 13.(1.60 x 10-'9)(0.. D: E = hf=he 4. 15.26 x 10-19J 436x 10-9 4. A: hf = K + W = 2.63 x 10-34x 3.63x100 0-9 0-34x3. B: p = = h() .2 eV 18.54 . E decreases by 1 4' 10. C: Linear momentum of an orbiting electron can only take up certain values.(-3. 13.= = 10.= h cc1 p my 11.0x 108 19.6 17. hc.

4 x 10-2°J ..20. A: Difference in energy between levels decreases as n increases. gradient = hc-e ) hc 24. A: From Amin =-ephe decrease when V increases. A: From A„.450x 10-19 = 7.48° .(2. = eV 30.05 x 10-10) sin 0'= 0.„„.60 x 10-'9) . 9 = 180° . decreases. B: Penetration increases when A.5° = 2(3. (A= eV ) 25.95 x 10-'° m he 29.w _ (6..02 x 10-2 eV hc 2. is doubled.63 x 10-24)(3. he 23.25 0'= 14. C: = hc eV 77If V is halved... D: E4 Q E3 E2 P E1 •• 22. V for spectrum II is lower.63 x 10-34)(3.48° = 151.inc`V Since for spectrum II >Ate°for spectrum I. B: 2d sin 0= nA. (a)1 mv2 = T .0 x 108)1 x 1 2'14 565x 10-9 1. 27. 1 26. than V for spectrum I 28.60x 10-" = 6.1.„ = -hc 2 1 eV . 2(4. C: 2d sin 0'= nA.14. B: A„„„ = eV V thc 1 \ Amin = (e V))( :.14.10 x 10-9 sin 0'= (1)(2.48° .04° 151° 1. D: 2. Erna.=hc -W = [(6.0 x 108) .10 x 10-10) d = 6.3)(1. 2d sin 26. where 0'= glancing angle.

of electron hc  _180 A. (a) = 13./2(9.11 x 104 eV 1 (b) -2 mv2 =180 eV V2(180)(1.68 x 10-17J 2m 2 x(9.63 x 10-34 = 5.4 x 10-2° J 7. =1(6.A« 1 Nt V Hence.2x 10-1° (b) K.v V29(71.6 = 6.60x10-19 Vnew 1 5.11x 10-31 = 7.< -1 sin Onew ( V vinitial 4 sin sold 1eµ. From A.0x 108)1x 1 180 0.60 x 10-19) = -2.= 2°50' 131. = P2 = 5.6 eV = (-13. (a) mv2 = eV = 2 V° V /Ti7.60x 10-19 = 1.E.11 x10-31) (c) V =KE= 1.463V eV = 1. sin 6 .E.63 x 10-34)(3.„ (b) Using = • • -VT-.K.176x 10-18 .4 x 10-20 = 0.63x 10-34 1. .60 x 10-19) (c) From na.60x 10-9 3.110x 10-9 J 1. Amax hc '\/2Me 6.6)(1. = 2d sin 0.03 x 105m s1 max(b) eV = 2 mvmax = 7.525 x 10-24 kg m s-' P = = 1. sins « A.95 x 106m s-1 4.60 x 10-'9) v= 9. sin On = sin 2° 19_.525x 10-24 = 1. (a) = -h h 6.68 x 10-17 e 1. (a) Energy absorbed by atom = energy of photon .41 xx 1100--2301) 4.11 x 10-31)(750)(1.

0 x 108) = 4.0 x 108) (1.En 7.855 eV (c) E = (2. 2.  Photoelectric current increases when the intensity of electromagnetic radiation increases. The decrease in energy of decelerated electrons is radiated as photons in the continuous spectrum.63 x 10-34)(3.856)(1.60 x 10-19) .97 x 10-11m 1.48 x 1014 Hz 6.60 x 10-19)(25x 103) 9.60 x 10-19) he -(6.63 x 10-34)(3.60 x 10-'9) .35 x 10-7m 4..63x 10-34 (b) Infrared 8.63x 10-34 From n = 4 to n=3.5)](1.14(1.60 x 10-19) 7. (a) hf = En.  Photoelectrons are emitted instantaneously.63 x 10-34)(3.81x 10-7m he . The difference in energy of the electron is radiated as a characteristic x-ray photon.0 x 10') OD Amax = rr (452 x 10-)(1..6) = (b) E5-2 2 2.63 x 10-34)(3.  Maximum kinetic energy of photoelectron depends on the frequency of incident electromagnetic radiation not the intensity of the radiation.57 x 10-'s (d) Balmer series En.(-1. f_ [-0.E= (_ 132.54 . Characteristic x-ray is produced when a vacancy in the inner shell of the target atom is filled by an electron from a higher shell. (b) eV -1hc min 9.(-0.60 x 10-'9) =1. (ii) • Minimum frequency (threshold frequency) of the electromagnetic radiation to eject electrons from a metal surface.11x 10-" = 9.5)](1.57 x 1014 Hz 6.85 .60x 10-19)(25x 103) = 4.63x 10-34 From n= 5 to n = 4 f_ [-0.85)](1.0 x 108) max W 2. (a) X-ray is produced when fast electrons are decelerated on collision with a heavy metal.= (6.37 x 107 m s-1 hc (ii) = (6. (a) Continuous spectrum is produced when fast electron from the cathode are decelerated on impact with the target. f= [-0.54 .En =f= h From n = 5 to n =3. (b) (i) 2mv2 = eV 2eV v= m V2(1.(-1. (b) (i) W= max = he (6.32 x 1014 Hz 6. (a) (i) Minimum reverse potential required to stop all photoelectrons from reaching the anode.60x 10-19) = 5.

sin 0 = 0 rad Using Bragg's equation.71-h de Broglie's wavelength.1) = 2. of electron.63 x 10-34 (60)(5.610 eV (c) (i) Power = Intensity x Area = (120)(1.. Since 6 is small. Characteristic X-ray spectrum is produced when an electron from the inner shell of the target atom is ejected from the near shell to a higher shell drops back to the inner shell. (c) (i) A = —h my 6. (a) A particle moving with a velocity v behaves as a wave of wavelength A. 20 rad tan 20 From d(20) = 0.0120)(550x 10-9) (6. Velocity.63 x 10-34)(3. v after experiencing acceleration through a voltage V is mv2 = eV 2 v=V2eV .2x 10-36 m (ii) Continuous X-ray spectrum is produced when fast electrons are decelerated during collisions with a heavy metal.. = -h where h = Plank's constant (b) (i) When the voltage increases. and A. = = my m 2e V If 0 is small. The difference of this electron is emitted as a photon of characteristic X-ray.(0.2. 2d = na. 2d sin 0= nA. A. X-rays of various wavelength are produced due to the fraction of kinetic energy of the electrons which is converted into a photon X-ray is random in nature. d (20) = nA.0 x 108) = 3.0x 10-4) = 0. = 7ie -n nhl 1 R= d21\rieV The experimental result is in agreement with de Broglie's hypothesis. decreases and the radii of the circular rings decreases.32 x 1016 photons s-4 2. .14 = 0. A.0120 W (ii) Power = N.

36 x 105m s-' (ii) Total energy of the electron in the nth orbit.63x 10-34) .  When an electron drops from higher energy level En. e2 r2 n2h2 m2 47rEnnir 47r2 n2 E h2 :.6 = -8. (a) • An electron can only orbit the nucleus in discrete allowed orbits such that angular momentum of the electron = n(—h7r) where h is Planck's constant 2 and n = 1.(2) v2 = Ltzeomr Substitute (2) into (1).11 x 10-31)(4.64 x 10-20) v= 9.. Low work function so as to eject electrons easily.64x 10-20 V(13..60 x 10-19) v -8. 3.. (b) Amin = he . 2. (a) Low heat capacity so that it becomes hot easily. 13. r ° " 'me= (c) (i) Kinetic energy = -1 my2 2 112(8.64x 10-" =5 (iii) Using mvr = r =( nh 2irmv) 5(6.6 E = " n2 13../ En. . to a lower energy level E.3.36x 105) = 1.En= hf (b) Angular momentum = n(L1) mvr = n(—h n2 h2 m2 v2 r2 = -(1) 4g2 e2 Centripetal force = 47rer2 m v2e2 r = 47cenr2 e2 .6)(1.33 x 10-9m 4.2749. .11 x 10-3' = 4. the difference in energy of the electron is radiated on a photon of frequency.. radius of the nth orbit.

+ (62 .00866) .66 x 10-27)(3.795 MeV/nucleon 2.463390y > 55.893 x 6.585361 m Binding energy = 0.007276 + 0.59191)(1. 2..928349 = 0. The radiation knocked off protons from paraffin.29) m.60x 10-19) = 552. Hence. Energy loss in the form of radiation is negligible. . Number of atoms = (6. Binding energy = (Am)c2 = f[29mp + 29me + (63 . (b) The ejected alpha particle.(0.81 MeV/nucleon 0 x 106. .696 MeV Number copper atoms = 62.28)m. Man defect.0 x 108) (1.92960) x c2 .48 x 10 MeV 3.60x 10-19)(50x 103) =2.3 MeV Binding energy per nucleon = 545. Am = [28mp + 28m.696 = 1.463390 .585361 x 931.0x 108)2 106(1. it produces very little ionisation when it passes through matter and it is not deflected by electric field and magnetic field.02 x 1023 = 2.MN) x c2 = (29(1. Checkpoint 25.63 x 10-34)(3.008665) = 56.3 62 = 8. (a) Neutron has no charge.008665) .MN = 28(mp + me) + 34m.934939)(1.62. 4 (12 x 103)) 1.934939.68 x 1022 x 552.0005486) + 30(1.55. The momentum of a-rays is very small and its ionisation power is too low to knock protons from paraffin. .5 = 545.2 1..68x 102' Total energy required = 2...MN = 28m H + 34m. = 26(1.u (b) Binding energy per nucleon = (tim)c2 A = (56.= (6.] ..00783) + 34(1.. 2.60X 10-19) 56 = 8.0 x 108)2 106(1.MN] x c2 = (29mH + 34 me .449x 10-um (c) Rate at which heat must be removed.007825) + 34(1.]} MN x c2 = [29(mp + m) + 34m.66x 10-'7)(3. 42He is easier to detect because it is charged. 1.02 x 1023) 21 .MN = 28(1. (a) Total mass = 29(m + me) + 30m.61. = IV = (2 x 10-3)(50 x 103) = 100W (d) Temperature of anode remains constant.

-dN dt = _dN A.81x 10-8 s-' 2 (b) From -dN = dt .. N0= 0.3 x 107 N 1.2N0 2 2x = 5 In 2x = In 5 x = 2.73 x 10 -6 s-' 2.= = dt 6. Percentage of 288Ra remaining = 20% Hence.688 x 10'3=3.= 1. (a) X= ln712 = 1n2 138 x 24 x 60 x 60 -5.32 t = 3758.4 3758 years 3. N= 0.. x = -t t = 1620 2 162 =2. (2) Substitute (2) into (1).2 No .688 x 10'3 Using . N = 20% From.(1) N =2x No .32 However.

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