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ARTIFICIAL LIFT The artificial lift technique is applied when the reservoir can deliver fluid to the well bore but it cannot be produced to the surface. Different methods for artificial loft are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sucker rod pump Gas lift Electrical submersible pump (ESP) Hydraulic pump Progressing cavity pump
PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04)
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN
1. GAS LIFT
The gas is injected in the annulus that goes into the tubing which pushes the oil to surface and also reduces the effective density of oil. The injected gas performs two functions: It expands and pushes the oil to the surface Gas reduces the effective density of oil
The gas is injected in the annulus through gas lift valves. There are two types of valves: Unloading valves Operating valves
Operating valve is present at the largest depth. Initially gas is injected through the upper unloading valves so that the hydrostatic head in the tubing reduces and when gas reaches to the operating valve, the injection pressure required will be reduced and from then onwards gas is injected through the operating valve only and unloading valves gets closed. We cannot directly inject gas through the operating valve only because very high injection pressure will be required then which may burst the casing or collapse the tubing. PROCEDURE FOR GAS LIFT METHOD: The lift gas is normally injected down the annulus and into the tubing through gas lift valves. Gas passes through the first GLV and lightens the fluid column in the tubing and produces it to the surface so that the fluid gradient in the tubing changes (decreases). As this happens, supply gas in the casing moves downward to second GLV, unloading fluid from casing and lightening the fluid flowing above the second valve. The process continues until the fluid in the casing annulus has been displaced and gas is passing through bottom valve. Each successive valve will have lower closing pressure. That is valve number 2 has lower closing pressure than valve 1 and so on. Once unloading is completed valves remain open and gas passes through it. Number of valves used depends on depth of injection. Initially we have killing fluid in the tubing (well is killed) and all gas lift valves are opened. Now gas is injected in the annulus where pressure increases. When pressure reaches to a particular value, gas passes through the first valve and gas displaces the liquid column above it inside tubing due to which the pressure in the tubing decreases while pressure in the annulus remains the same because we are continuously injecting gas. Further pressure can’t be increased as gas gets open path and no accumulation of gas has been occurring so at same pressure it goes to the second valve. When gas reaches second valve, pressure drops in annulus because of open path and valve 1 closes because set point of valve 1 achieves and gas only passes through second valve at this new dropped pressure and lightens the fluid column above the second column. This will continue until the gas reaches to the operating valve and from then onwards the gas continues to pass through the operating valve and all
PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04)
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN
other valves will be closed by then. The depth at which the operating valve is installed is near the packer.
GAS LIFT VALVES ARE OF TYPES: Gas lift mandrels
Valves that are installed with completion assembly and completion assembly must be retrieved in order to retrieve these valves. Side pocket mandrel
In this case only side pocket mandrel is installed in the completion assembly and afterwards when gas lift is needed, gas lift valves are installed in the side pocket mandrel. Types of gas lift methods: Continuous gas lift Intermittent gas lift
Continuous gas lift: In this method gas is continuously injected into the well bore which displaces the fluid and it is used when reservoir pressure is high and reservoir continuously delivers fluid into the well bore and it is also used when there is large availability of gas to be injected.
PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04)
Continuous gas lift system Gas lift system is different from other artificial lift methods as it is designed for whole field because compressors and other facilities are installed while other methods are applied to a single well only. When the reservoir pressure will be low then reservoir will be delivering not much fluid into the well bore so if we will be continuously injecting the gas then it will be useless because the injected gas will be producing back as no fluid will be available for it to lift in the tubing. lifts the oil to the surface and injected gas along with oil from all wells gather at the second manifold from where it goes to the separator which separates oil and gas and the separated gas is then re-injected into the wells after being compressed through the compressor. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 4 . gas is injected into the well bore for some time and then gas supply is stopped for some time. The high pressure gas is injected through the compressor to the first manifold from where the gas is distributed to various wells at the desired or target rates. It is used when reservoir pressure is low or there is low availability of gas to be injected.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Intermittent gas lift: In this method. Following figure shows the setup of continuous gas injection for a field. The gas goes into the well bore.
The production rate decreases at very high gas injection rate because at very high gas injection rate.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Optimum gas injection rate: Following is the graph drawn between production rate and gas injection rate. gas pressure in the tubing is the driving force such that the valve closes or opens due to gas pressure in the tubing. In IPO gas pressure in annulus (injection pressure) is the driving force such that valve opens or closes due to gas pressure in the in the annulus while in PPO. friction losses will be dominant. The company will think that if they increase the injection rate above the economic optimum point then whether the increased produced rate will overcome the expenditure or not. Point ‘B’ denotes the injection rate at which maximum liquid production occurs. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 5 . Types of gas lift valves Unloading valves Injection pressure operated (IPO) Production pressure operated (PPO) Operating valves Orifice type The difference between IPO and PPO is of opening and closing force. Point ‘A’ denotes economic optimum gas injection rate because if gas injection rate is further increased from this value then there will be no adequate increase in the production occurs. The figure of injection pressure operated valve is shown below.
we can go for intermittent gas lift) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 6 . it just as orifice allowing gas to pass through it from annulus into the tubing. Gas lift operation is unaffected by deviated holes.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN The valve is present in the annulus. Gas lift advantages and limitations: Advantages: Operation of gas lift valve is unaffected by produced solids such as sands etc because it does not contain any moving parts like other artificial lift methods. Provides full bore access for coiled tubing and other service work (because there are no pumps or any other equipment inside the tubing that restricts the coiled tubing movement High GOR improves lift performance rather than presenting problems as with other artificial loft methods (high GOR fluid cannot be pumped through pumps used in artificial lift methods due to high quantity of gas present that air locks the pump) Gas lift method is flexible and it can produce from a wide range of depths (sucker rod pumping has depth limitations). There is a check valve present that only allows one directional flow. Orifice type valve (operating valve): In this type no opening or closing of valve happens. when the gas pressure in the annulus increases above the nitrogen charge pressure then the valve gets opened and gas from the annulus will be allowed to flow into the tubing and when the annulus pressure decreases below the nitrogen charge pressure. Use of side pocket mandrel allows easy wireline displacement of gas lift valves. It can cope up with uncertainties and changes in reservoir performance (if reservoir pressure gets lower. Same figure can be drawn for PPO but it will be opened from tubing pressure and check valve position will be different. the valve gets closed.
due to presence of rod. They require expensive maintenance Annulus full of high pressure represents a safety hazard Adequate gas supply is required throughout project life Gas lifting of various crudes is difficult and less efficient Wax precipitation may increase due to cooling from cold gas injection and subsequent expansion (scales are of two types. organic and inorganic.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Tubing subsurface safety valve is available (in sucker rod pumping. we cannot install the SSSV) Major workover operations are infrequent when wireline servicing is possible. asphalts can be removed by scrappers. Gas lift operation is independent of downhole temperature (pumps have temperature limitations) No electrical power is required Multiwell production from just a single compressor Gas lift limitations Gas lift is inefficient in terms of energy because it lifts the oil by solution gas drive mechanism which is the weakest drive mechanism for oil production Gas compressors have a high capital cost. etc. Organic involves wax and asphaltenes while inorganic scales include salt deposition such as NaCl. Wax can be removed by dissolving in hot oil or by scrappers. BaSO4. CaCO3. NaCl and CaCO3 and can be dissolved in water and HCl respectively while BaSO4 can be removed by scrappers only) Hydrate blocking of surface gas injection lines can occur if gas is inadequately dried (means gas injected must be dehydrated so hydrate may not form) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 7 .
also called beam pumping. SUCKER ROD PUMPING Sucker rod pumping. In this the oil lifted due to mechanical energy and it is very simple and extensively used. rod pumping was first introduced in USA.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN 2. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 8 .
Polish rod and stuffing box: They combine to make good liquid seal and force fluid to flow line. Counter weight: It balances all the weight applied on the other side of Sampson post so that system remains stable. Pitman arm and walking beam: They both in combination convert rotational motion into oscillatory motion. which is connected to sucker rod. Its output shaft is connected with a crank arm. V-Belt: It provides connection between prime move and gear reducer.It is in contact prime mover trough V-belt. Downhole plunger pump: The downhole plunger pump is installed inside the tubing string. standing valve and travelling valve at bottom of plunger. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 9 . It consists of working barrel. Sampson post: It acts as a fulcrum between the counter weight (which is load) and horse head (which acts as force). Crank arm: It transfers rotational motion to pitman arm and walking beam. Horse head and bridle hanger: The main purpose of horse head and bridle hanger is to ensure that the upper pull of the rod is always vertical (no bending movement applies to stuffing box). It reduces fast rotation of say 600 rpm from prime mover to as low as 20 spm.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Components of sucker rod pumping unit: Prime mover: It is normally an electric motor or gas combustion engine which provides required rotational power to surface pumping unit. Gear reducer: It consists of two shafts: Input shaft .
The fluid continues to fill the volume above the standing valve until the plunger reaches the top of its stroke. 74 indicates stroke length in inches Subsurface pumping unit types: Tubing pump Rod pump Tubing pump: The working barrel with standing valve is made up (attached) to the bottom of production tubing and run into the valve in the tubing. air cylinders are used to balance the torque. standing valve is closed so that the fluid is forced to pass through the travelling block. ‘D’ indicates the type of gear reducer (double reduction gear) 200 indicates polish rod load capacity in thousands of lbs. the pitman arm and horse head are at the same side of walking beam while on conventional unit they are on the opposite sides. In air balanced unit instead of using counter physical weight. Rod pump: A rod pump (both working barrel and plunger)is run into the well on the sucker rod. here ‘C’ denotes the conventional pumping unit. the travelling valve is opened. the fluid from wellbore hinders into the working barrel through standing valve. which allo the fluid to pass through the travelling block up to the surface> During this downward motion of the plunger. TYPES OF SURFACE PUMPING UNIT: There are three types of surface pumping unit: Conventional unit Lufkin Mark-II unit Air-balanced unit In Lufkin Mark-II unit and air balanced unit. As upward movement continues.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN As the plunger moves downward by the sucker rod string. Plunger with travelling valve is run into the tubing with sucker rod (barrel is part of tubing. the travelling valve is closed and standing valve opens. 230 indicates peak torque rating with unit thousand inch-lb. When the plunger is the bottom of stroke and starts an upward movement. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 10 . and is seated on wedge type seat that is fixed to the bottom joint of tubing. ‘A’ for air balanced and ‘M’ for mark-II unit. plunger and valve are part of sucker rod). The API standard used to describe specifications of sucker rod pumping unit is: C-230D-200-74 The first letter describes the type of surface pumping unit.
Efficiency of pump is 80%. very complex) Large friction produced.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Advantages of sucker rod pumping unit: Very simple mechanism Unit can be transferred from one well to another Very high efficiency Pumping wells of even very low pressure High temperature and high viscous oil pumping Can be used in case of multiple completion (one horse head will driving two sucker rods) Gas lift is used when we have large number of wells on large field but this method can be used for small number of wells. Disadvantages: Large size (cannot be used in offshore) Do not prefer in deep wells (limited load capacity of rod) In case of large sand production. downhole pump will be damaged It cannot be used in wells where large volumes of gas produced because presence of gas lessens the efficiency of pump due to air locking. Calculate the pump rate in bbls/day of sucker rod pump such that area of working barrel is 50in 2. ( ) ) Q1. centralizers are used (does not prefer. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 11 . very large lubrication is required The liquid column in the tubing and tubing casing annulus should be above the bottom valve at all times otherwise air will be sucked and efficiency will be less so ecometer is run that tells us about the liquid level (sound waves sent and travel time is calculated) SUCKER ROD NUMERICALS Pump rate calculation ( Where. In deviated wells. Stroke length is 60in and the maximum speed of pump is 24strokes/minute.
rod stretch is around 20 inches due to load. Maximum pump speed is 20strokes/min and pump rate is 4055bbls/day. plunger over travel value is 10 inches and plunger length is 5 inches.815in2.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ) Q2. Q3. An E&P Company found that efficiency of sucker rod decreases with time. Downhole plunger pump is located at 6000ft depth through a sucker rod having an area of 0. Now the sucker rod has surface stroke length of 64 inches. when its initial efficiency is 90%. when area of working barrel is 300cm2. The length of crank arm and pitman arm are 10 in and 15 in respectively (neglect rod stretch and over travel effect)? Note: One complete rotation of crankshaft covers stroke length (upward and downward) ( ) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 12 . They want to calculate efficiency of sucker rod after 1 year of production. Calculate the volume of oil lifted by sucker rod in barrels per stroke. Area of working barrel is 40 in 2.
Calculate the ratio of gear-reducer input shaft and prime mover shaft when rotation of prime mover is 500rpm and that of gear reducer is 50strokes/minute? PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 13 .PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Q4.
PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 14 . ELECTRICAL SUBMERCIBLE PUMP Electrical submersible pump requires electrical energy for its operation whereas the sucker rod pumping unit requires the mechanical energy to pump the fluid out of the well bore.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN 3.
These provide electrical energy to run downhole electric motors. Components: Vent box: Vent box separates the surface cable from the downhole cable. This ensures that any gas which travels up the downhole cable does not reach the electric switch gear. electrical energy is transported to the downhole electric motors by the electric cables. The electric motor drives the pump and the pump imparts energy to the fluid in the form of hydraulic power which lifts the fluid to the surface. In ESP. These cables are run on the side of the tubing and also attached to it. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 15 .PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Mechanism: The overall ESP system operates like any electrical pump commonly used.
Gas separator: It is the rotary gas separator that separates the lower density gaseous phase from the density of the liquid phase. Port head: The cable enters the electric motor housing at the port head. Advantages: Pump very high volume of oil (60000 bbl) Very suitable for offshore well as it has very small surface size equipment In deviated wells.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Cable protector: They provide additional protection to cable and are installed at critical points. Rotation of impeller accelerates the liquid to the pump which is then discharged into the diffuser where its kinetic energy is transferred into the potential energy that is pressure is increased. it provides: o Isolation between the lubrication motor oil and well fluids o Equalize inter motor pressure with well annulus pressure o Absorb any thrust generated by the pump Downhole sensors: It is used to measure: o Pump suction and discharge pressure and temperature o Electric motor temperature Pump: The pump consists of rotating centrifugal impellers running on a central drive shaft inside the stack of stationary diffuser. one carries current to the downhole while the other sends signal to the surface of various types. Pressure is increased in proportion to the number of stages. The cable contains two wires. it can be used with centralizers Easy to install and operate Can be used in deep wells Page 16 PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) . The pump capacity that is the volume being pumped increases as the diameter of the impeller increases. Check valve: Check valve is installed in the tubing and ensure only one directional flow to the tubing. Additionally. Seal or Protector: It connects the central drive shaft of the electric motor to the pump.
then it cannot be used It cannot be used in high temperature sensitive wells (pump is used well above the perforation) Cannot pump very high viscous fluid PUMP CHARACTERISTICS CURVE ESP NUMERICALS Case 1 When pump is in front of perforations Pump suction pressure = Psuction = Pwf Pwf can be obtained from Vogel or Darcy equation. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 17 . it cannot be used If well is producing sand. we can use it Disadvantages: Expensive than sucker rod High voltage required In high GOR wells.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Better efficiency as compared to sucker rod pumping unit In high water cut wells.
( ) ) ( ) Where. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) We take pump head per stage from graph and determine required number of stages as: PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 18 .PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ) ( Where. q is in STB/day Pump discharge pressure can be obtained by. ( ) Where.
433psi/ft Viscosity = 1cp f = 0. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 19 PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) .26in Well back flow pressure = Pwh = 50psi Production rate = 1400STB/day Fluid gradient = 0. we are given pump head in terms of height rather than pressure so that it can be used for any fluid case.03 Pump in front of perforations Water incompressible (B=1) Pump discharge pressure =? Pump suction pressure =? Number of pump stages =? Total hydraulic horse power =? SOLUTION ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) Where.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN In graph. DATA Depth = 7000ft Reservoir pressure = 1700psi Well productivity index = 2 STB/ day/psi Tubing ID = 2.
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ) ( ) From graph at ( ( CASE 2 When pump is above perforations ) ) DATA A 10000ft deep well produces 32API oil with GOR of 50scf/stb and zero water cut through tubing having ID of 2.26in. Oil has formation volume factor of 1. IPR of well can be described by Vogel’s method with the reservoir pressure of 4350psia. Pump is located at depth of 9800ft and pump discharge pressure is 3740psia.25RB/STB.03. f is 0. Determine: Pump suction pressure =? Number of pump stages =? Total dynamic horse power =? ( ) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 20 . If well is to be put in production with ESP to produce liquid at 800STB/day against well head pressure of 100psia. AOFP is 1500 STB/day.
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) From graph at PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 21 .
03. Tubing ID is 2. Pump has total of 60stages and f=0.26inches. IPR of well has been described using Vogel’s equation with the reservoir pressure of 4350psi and AOFP is 1300STB/day. Calculate: Pump location =? Total horse power =? From graph.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ( CASE 3 Pump depth and rate unknown DATA: ) ) A 10000ft deep well produces oil having FVF of 2RB/STB. ESP has been installed at unknown depths with pump suction and discharge pressures are 2000 and 3180psi respectively. Oil API gravity is 32 with zero water cut. at ( ) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 22 .
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Hence. From graph PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 23 .
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN 4. When we use hydraulic pump. the pump then sucks the reservoir fluid from the bottom and pressurize and discharge it to the annulus along with the power fluid such that both come to the surface in mixed form (this is open system) but we can use another tubing in the annulus to produce power fluid from the tubing and reservoir fluid through the annulus or vice versa such that produce both fluids separately (this is closed system). Power fluid is stored in the settling tanks (where solids are removed by gravity). After purification. it is just like gas lift process which is applied to the whole field because the compressors are expensive therefore this technique is also applied to the whole field and from pump the power fluid goes to the manifold which that control the rate of injection fluid pumped in various wells of the field. The power fluid then does to the desander or desanding hydrocyclone to remove sand particles and then it passes through the filter (power fluid mostly used is water). At each well. the engine operates the pump. gage is installed that tells us about the surface injection pressure. the power fluid goes to the pump where it is pressurized. HYDRAULIC PUMP The potential energy stored in the fluid is used to pump the fluid to the surface. The fluid then passes through the tubing to the downhole engine and then to the pump. When the power fluid operates the engine. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 24 .
positive displacement pump.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Types of pumps Positive displacement or tubing pump Venturi or jet pump Working of positive displacement pump: Hydraulic pumps use a high pressure power fluid pumped from surface which drives a downhole. (Explanation will be given by sir) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 25 . Figure shows how the flow of power fluid through upper engine unit is translated into a flow of high pressure produced fluid during both the “UP” and “DOWN” strokes.
A diffuser (any stationary part having large area) then reduces the velocity. This high velocity/ low pressure flow of the power fluid commingles with the production flow in the throat of the pump. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 26 .PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Working of jet pump: Hydraulic Jet pumps use a high pressure power fluid pumped from surface which creates a reduced pressure by passage through a venturi or nozzle where pressure energy is converted into velocity. increasing the fluid pressure and allowing the combined fluids to flow to surface.
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN TYPES OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSTALLATION Advantages: Can lift large volumes of liquid from great depths Can be used in deviated wells Can be used in offshore wells Can be used in high temperature wells Disadvantages: If oil is used as the power fluid. the system becomes fire hazardous and costly. Extra tubing has to be installed if production is not taken from annulus. Solids may produce wear and tear. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 27 .
Surface injection rate of power fluid is 1620STB/day and surface operating pressure is 6000psig. ) ( ) is pump friction i. Oil has FVF of 1.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN HYDRAULIC PUMP NUMERICAL In open system.e.995in ID tubing. i. flow rate injected from surface remains same ( Where. ( ( ) ) Numerical: A 10000ft deep well has a potential to produce 400API oil with GOR 150scf/stb through 1.85in respectively. induced pressure loss as many mechanical parts are present.e. ( ) ( ) Where. Cross-sectional area of pump and engine is cylindrical having diameters of 2in and 1. In closed system. IPR of the well can be described using PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 28 .25 and average viscosity of 5cp.
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Vogel’s equation with reservoir pressure equals to 2000psi and AOFP is 3000STB/day.8. and surface horse power requirement when surface pump efficiency is 0.000514 N/Nmax=0. f=0. ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 29 .8 Vpf=1cp Calculate pump and engine start pressure.02 B=0. If well is to be put in production with hydraulic pump which is located at 9700ft in an open system where.
) ( ) ( ) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 30 .PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( In open system.
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ) PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 31 .
When rotor is set inside the stator. PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP It is used for very heavy oil. In case of high GOR. the pressure increases that can be achieved by pump depends on the number of sealed lines formed along the pump body by the rotor and the stator.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN 5. The rotor is rotated inside an elastomeric pump body or stator. These cavities change neither size nor shape during progression. This causes the fluid trapped in the sealed cavities to progress along the length of the pump from the suction of the pump to the discharge. PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) Page 32 . it cannot work so it is used for heavy oil and also it acts as the de-emulsifier for heavy oil. the center line of the rotor and the stator are slightly offset creating a series of oil filled cavities along the length of the pump. This rotor within the stator operates as a pump. A steel shaft rotor has been formed into a helix.
PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN Advantages: Simple design Can quickly repaired by replacing the rotor and the stator as the complete unit High volumetric efficiency Best method for pumping viscous fluid Emulsions are not formed due to low shear pumping action They can be installed in deviated wells Disadvantages: High starting torque High gas content may cause problem Cannot be used in high sand producing wells Typical to use in great depth wells Page 33 PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) .
4. we need to consider platform size and weight it can bear. we need to remove tubing in ESP for maintenance so its cost is large and it is considered separately from operational cost) Number of wells in field (compressors are installed when many wells are present in case of gas lift) Page 34 PREPARED BY: SHOAIB (PE-O22) & BILAL (PE-04) . We use ESP as single wire is required in ESP) Energy requirement of pump (availability/losses/efficiency of gas engine/diesel engine/generator) Operational problems In this.g.PRODUCTION FACILITY DESIGN ARTIFICIAL LIFT SELECTION CONSIDERATION/ CRITERIA 1.it is rate dependent Maintenance cost (for e. 2. water cut. Well and reservoir characterization Field or well location Operational problems Economics Well and reservoir characterization Size of production casing Tubing maximum size Gross production rate (Plateau rate) Depth of well Deviation Nature of producing fluid (GOR.if J is less then we will not go for artificial because it will not be economical Field or well location Onshore/ offshore (in offshore. we consider factors which may occur in future Excess sand or gas coning/production Bottom hole temperature abnormality Corrosive environment Economics Capital investment (CAPEX) Operational cost (OPEX). sand contents with fluid. 3. composition) PI Index (well inflow). We never use sucker rod in offshore and usually ESP is used) Climate Distance from well head to production facility (if distance is large then gas lift will not be used as pressure losses will be high from compressor discharge to well head..
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