5S : Best Management Practices from Kitchen to workplace.

The 5-S technique has been widely practiced in Japan. Most Japanese 5-S practitioners consider 5S useful not just for improving their physical environment , but also for improving their thinking processes too. Apparently the 5S can help in all stratas of life from kitchen of lady to the office of a Manager/ CEO of an industry. A lady who handle the kitchen daily practice the 5S even without knowing about it. The 5S practice is a technique used to establish and maintain quality environment in an organization . The name stands for five Japanese words : Seiri , Seiton, Seiso , Seiketsu and Shitsuke . The English equivalent , their meanings and typical examples are shown in the following table: S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 JAPANESE Seiri Seiton Seiso Seiketsu Shitsuke ENGLISH Sort Shine Set in order Standardise Sustain MEANING Organization Neatness Cleaning Standardisation Discipline Typical Example Throw away rubbish 30 – Second retrieval of a document Individual cleaning responsibililty Transparency of Storage Do 5S Daily

Objectives of 5S 1. Promote Safety 2. Improve Work Flow 3. Better Product Quality 4. Reduce Inventory Waste 5. Give People Control of Their Workplace Benefits of 5S Discipline to follow standard work Reduce Variation Expose problems Safe working areas

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It is just as important to be able to throw out a broken or defective part as it is to be able to fix it. Stratification Management The art of organization is in stratification management.• • • • • Waste reductions Improve Efficiency Space reduction Productivity Foundation of all other activities Explanation of 5-S Seiri (Sort / Organization ) Organization is about separating the things which are necessary for the job from those that are not and keeping the number of the necessary once as low as possible and at a convenient location. he would probably scratch his head and say “ I do not know what you are talking about .” However . It involves deciding how important something is and then reducing the non essential inventory. . It is just as important to have the things you do not need far from hand as it is to have the things you do close at hand. A summary of organizing things is shown in table below.  Things used every day Things used hourly Storage Method (Stratification) Throw them out Store at a distance Store in central place in the workplace Store near the work site or carry by the person Average High Differentiation between Need and Want Many people do confuse between need and want. things used more than once a month Things used once a week . At the same time stratification management ensures that the essential things are close at hand for maximum efficiency. you should not be surprised to find that the answer is 50. Usage Low       Degree of Need (frequency of use ) Things you have not used in the past year  Things you have only used once in the last 6 12 months Things you have only used once in the last 2 6 months. If you ask him “Which of the 60 magazines do you need ?”. Thus the key to good stratification management is the ability to make these decisions about usage frequency and to ensure that things are in their proper places. if you formulate you question the following way: “Which of these 60 magazines have you not been touching over the last year?”. Most of us have a colleague who has collected 60 trade magazines in his shelf over the last five years and claims that he wants to keep all of them for reference.

Unclear if spare parts exist (no ledger and nowhere to ask) One brought was defective. Storage site scattered all around. 3. you are talking about 100 minutes a day. Step 2. . Seiton ( Shine/ Neatness) Neatness is a study of efficiency. There are four steps in achieving neatness: Step 1. 7. and why it takes so long. It often happens that an object can have two names: Its real name and what everybody call it. Storage site far away. more than an hour could be saved. Too heavy to carry. If a person gets something out or puts something out or puts something away 200 times a day and each time takes 30 seconds . Not there. because time spent getting things out and putting them away is time lost. You should rectify all these problems as soon as possible. If the average time could be reduced to 10 seconds . You have to devise a system that everyone can understand. Hard to get out. you may find out that there are many things that do not have a name.Most people tend to err in the beginning . make a decision which one you are going to use and stick to it. Not labeled. even when there are minor differences between them. Instead . 14. Just making an arbitrary decision on where things go is not going to make you any faster. 5. Repeated trips Hard to find because many things are there. 6. Need to set or assemble. The second step is to decide where things belong. This is especially important in workplaces where a lot of different tools and materials are used. Analyze the status quo Start by analyzing how people get things out and put them away. You have to study this for both the people using the things frequently and those who seldom use them. If something is borrowed . 11. 12. during stock-take . There may be times when two different things have the same name. Typical problems in retrieving things are : 1. 13. If yes. 4. 10. Is it needed? If not. how much of it is needed? Get rid of the rest. get rid of it. 2. Decide where things belong. It only confuses people to have two names for the same object. No gangway to transport. Too big to carry. 8. 15. but not clear whether it is finished or somebody is using it. In such cases . For example . Not knowing what things are called Not sure where things are kept. But it is crucial that management make a decision. 9. It is question of how quickly you can get the things you need and how quickly you can put them away. Decide how things should be put away. you have to analyze why getting things out and putting them away takes so long. on the conservative side of saving things ‘just in case’. On the other hand. return it to its owner. Step 3.

files and tools should be put away so that they are easy to find and easy to access.   2. Step 4. Lost Decide how many there should be Draw a shadow outline indicating clearly what is missing .The third step is to decide how things should be put away. 2. It sounds simple. it should be clear where it is. Quick identification  Arrows and lamps  Frequent –use items to be retrieved easily 4. Therefore in doing your ‘neatness’ . and it is as if you would be doing it. This means always putting things back where they belong. The following procedures should be adhered to: 1. This is critical to functional storage. The last step is to obey the rules. In order to achieve this. This is crucial. As long as you put on the right address. 3.  Even if someone is just using something temporarily. Safe storage  Heavy things on the bottom  Heavy things on dollies  Benches and ladders 5. A place for everything and everything in its place [PEEP]  No more homeless items. For example. just like everybody would have a home. Obey the put –away rules. Storage has to be done with retrieval in mind. designate not only the location. In assigning storage space. anywhere in the world. It is in fact quite amazing to send a letter through the world-wide mailing system. it is imperative that every object should have both a name an a location. It is just doing it that is difficult. Everything should have a name. and make sure that they are at their home. When the storage location is on the tool and the tool’s name is on the storage location. inventory management is important to see that you do not run out of parts or products. Having a name for everything is not yet sufficient. you know you are doing it right. the rules are: 1. but even the shelf. Height considerations  Knee to shoulder height most convenient. it will go to its destination.   Out of stock Decide on minimum stock level Indicate that more are on order Somebody is using it Have an indication of who is using it and when they will return it. Whether or not this is done will determine whether or not organization and neatness succeeds. At the same time. The principle is very simple – there is a name on your letter and then there is a name on the location which matches with that on the letter.  3. Decide where things should be. Things must have a location.

Filing in the conveyance chutes lead to scratching. Fires are caused because garbage short-circuited the electrical equipment. An orderly progression of cleaning in the factory environment by piece of equipment and by location will often identify causes of various problems in the production process. In doing this. they do not need street cleaners in residential areas. what they need are rubbish collectors. In an office or a factory. Every family is responsible for cleaning the pavement in front of their houses. such as :            Dirty air – conditioning filters lead to defects in printing. Dust and other substances ruin the painting process. too. I will not spill. Things get dented or bent in conveyance. Dirty coolant leads to clogging. Things fall off the equipment and get into the products. Scraps in the die leading to faulty pressings. from the managing director to the cleaner. Filings and other particles contaminate the resin. Unless each and every person takes these admonitions to heart and accepts personal responsibility. you would probably have this feeling of freshness. The Japanese believe that while they are doing cleaning. The mottoes for cleaning are:       I will not get things dirty. neatness and cleaning. they are cleaning their minds.Seiso ( Set in order ): ‘Everyone is a Janitor’—Cleaning should be done by everyone in the organization. Bad connections ate made because the electrical contacts are dirty. The emphasis here is on visual management and 5-S standardization. Computer always plays up because dirt is accumulated inside. . I will tape up things that have come down. I will clean things right away. you are not going to get anywhere. Innovation and total visual management are used to attain and maintain standardized conditions so that you can always act quickly. There are even companies that have taken steps towards putting little gardens in their workplace rest areas as hygiene has ramifications well beyond the factories and offices to the surrounding environment. I will not scatter things around. it is important that all assignments be absolutely clear and that there is no undefined. Therefore. This is why in Japan. I will rewrite things that have got erased. If you have done your annual cleaning at home before the New Year. you might start by graphing out the individual areas of responsibility. unallocated. or grey areas. Seiketsu(Standardization) Standardization means continually and repeatedly maintaining your organization. As such. it embraces both personal cleanliness and the cleanliness of the environment.

colour. There are more and more workers opting for white and other light-coloured clothes. Make it so that everybody can see what is stored and how good (or bad ) things look. because they are not a constant eyesore. Annual inspection label-Should be attached to all equipment. Place footprints where people should stand. and where it is for. Just as many sales departments have pins in maps to show where their people are.Indicate the type. they provide a good indicator of how clean the workplace is. put inspection windows in them.Visual management Visual management has recently come into the limelight as and effective means of continuous improvement. Identification label – Tell people what things are. If you must have metal panels. Sometimes. some plant maintenance people put windows and plastic strips in some of the drain pipes so that other people can see the effluent flowing. this method is called ‘visualizing conditions’. emergency exits. Temperature label –Indicate abnormality or overheat. Because these clothes show the dirt quickly. but also to create a more pleasant work environment. Put the maps where they . you can also have pins to show problems. out of mind” practice. One effective method of visual management is to put up appropriate labels. an OK mark will tell others that the part is acceptable. Make the covers transparent. quality. Put up lots of visual clues so that everybody will be able to see what is happening and to anticipate what will happen next. Place lines to indicate where things are supposed to stop. Colour management has also come in for considerable attention lately.After things have been inspected. In most factories and offices. safety. This has been used not only for colour-coding. Those closed spaces are often among the most disorderly places. As a variation of this.Put little position marks for where things go. and customer services. It has been used for production. and other locations. Responsibility label-Show who is responsible for what. Position mark. They highlight the need for cleaning. Zone label on meters – Normal zone and danger zone should be differentiated by different colours. There are many other things you can do to help people visualize a process. Trouble Maps When there are problems. grade. Visualising Conditions Many places have little ribbons on the fans so you can see the breeze. So it will be a good idea to take the wraps off these messes. Transparency Another important consideration for standardization is ‘transparency’. Examples are:          Lubrication oil label. fire-fighting equipment. Just like sweeping things under the carpet this is known as “out of sight. Ok mark. you can show them on a map of the workplace. tools and files are put in lockers. Safety label – Remind people of special safety considerations. on closed shelves. and under covers to be off sight.

quantifying the results. too many. This process helps people form habits of making and following the rules. Items to be Implemented 5-minute 5-S A. selfdiscipline guarantees the continuity of a daily routine. A. or whatever that is on the floor. A trouble map can also be used to indicate those workplaces and processes that are trouble-free. If accepted that way. A. you can quickly identify the limits to management and spot deviations before they become major headaches. Daily 5-S Activity for the Workshop Name:______________________________________ Dept. Quantification By constantly measuring things. discipline is an underlying tool in making life go smoother.4 Wipe up any water. By teaching everyone what needs to be done and having everyone practicing it bad habits are broken and good ones are formed.are visible to everyone. :_________________________________________ No.3 Wipe the meters. It is recognized by the Japanese as the minimum the society needs in order to function properly. oil. How many have had accidents because they stuck their hands into the machinery without shutting it off first? Again. Mon Tue Wed Thus Fri Sat . Shitsuke (Sustain/ Discipline) Discipline means instilling the ability of doing things the way they are supposed to be done./Section:_________________________________________ Week Commencing:___________________________ Check ListNo. and analyzing the data statistically. Discipline is process of repetition and practice.2 Check for any leakage or dropping. It is important that everyone has the habit of obeying simple safety rules. or their goggles? Far too many. main places on the machinery and other important places with a rag. Self –discipline is important because it reaches beyond discipline.5 Realign anything that is out of place. Think of discipline as an integral part of industrial safety helmet. work. A. or whatever that may have spilled or leaked. The emphasis here is on creating a workplace with good habits. their safety shoes. If a person is ‘disciplined’ to do something at one time there is a chance that he may not be disciplined next time. and pick up any parts.1 Check your own clothing for condition and cleanliness A. However. The Japanese are a very self-disciplined race: they have one of the lowet crime rates in the world and are well-known as ‘obedient’ tourists. position markings. The word shitsuke originally comes from the guiding stitches that are done before a garment is properly sewn. trash.

work. and other furniture. A. B. trash.2 A.4 B./ Section:_________________________________________ Week Commencing:_________________________________ Check List No. and all accounted for. B. Check your documents and files are and put them back to their ‘home’. bookcases. instructions and oil inlets. B.6 Items to be Implemented Mon Tue Wed Thus Fri Sat B.3 Clean the floor. Check where the filing cabinets.3 B. and pick up any parts. A. Check to see that the files are numbered.1 B.2 B.5 A. or whatever that is on the floor. Tidy up and clean your desktop.1 Wipe the key parts and other places on the machinery with a rag. bookcases.3 A. and fix anything that is amiss.6 Clean up the plates and labels and make sure they are clearly legible.7 Make sure all of the bits and tools are where they should be. Clean the floor and your surrounding area.5 5-minute 5-S Check your own clothing for condition and cleanliness Check for any leakage or dropping. . Get rid of things you do not need. :_________________________________________ No. including personal effects in your desk drawers. 10-minute 5-S (on top of 5-minute 5-S) B.1 A. Check to see how many pencils.4 Get rid of the trash in the trash bins. 10-minute 5-S (on top of 5-minute 5-S) Get rid of anything that you do not need that is on top of filing cabinets. A. B.A. in proper order. Daily 5-S Activity for the Office Name:______________________________________ Dept. ball pens.5 Check the labels.2 Fix any labels that might be coming off. and other furniture are and fix them if they are out of place.8 Get rid of anything that is not needed there.4 A. Fix any labels that might be coming off.

" Corrective Action "Corrective actions are steps that are taken to remove the causes of an existing non conformity or undesirable situation to prevent the recurrence of non conformities and situations.erasers. It tries to prevent occurrence by eliminating causes. One day a student was hit by a biker when the students were coming to school in the morning. reprocessing them. It tries to prevent recurrence by eliminating causes. Corrective Action and Preventive Action with illustrations As according to ISO Quality Management Definitions Correction "Correction is any action that is taken to eliminate to a nonconformity.htm for the above definitions I would like to explain all three by the following illustrations. In general the preventive action process can be thought of as a risk analysis process. The prevent action process is designed to prevent the occurrence of non conformities or situations that do not yet exist. All other students gathered there along with school staff and immediately the student get first ad and sent to the hospital to stop the blood flow from the injuries. Illustration 1: Accident of School Student A school was situated across the road . Because of this." Preventive Actions "Preventive actions are steps that are taken to remove the cause of potential non conformities or potential situations that are undesirable. corrections can include reworking products. However corrections do not address the causes. this action describes ascorrection in which no further damage could .While corrective actions prevent recurrences preventive actions prevent occurrence. When applied to products. Both types of actions are intended to prevent non conformities. assigning them to a different use .praxiom. It tries to make sure that existing non conformities and situations don't happen again. the traffic on the road is usual during the open and close time of the school. Correction . The boy was hit badly. Preventive actions address potential problems . Reduce them to ‘one-is best’.com/iso-definition. or simply destroying them. Corrective actions address actual problems. ones that haven't yet occurred." Refer to the link below http://www. the corrective action process can be thought of as a problem solving process. and other things you have.

Doctor advise them that they should abort it as correction and if they don't want recur the pregnancy then they should use the contraceptive methods like condom. then principal ordered the school authorities that they would take corrective actions to prevent recurrence of such kind of mis-happening. Municipal corporation access the risk of over speeding and the corporation take all the measure as preventive action like Zebra crossing on the road. Suppose a virus has entered in a computer system. some more extra resources and care needed in future. sign board of school along with speed limit introduced outside every school. Suppose in a lot quality inspector find a defected piece more than acceptable limits then as a correction he hold the lot for reworking to sort out that defective piece from the lot so that no customer complaint could generate. One day the wife give news to her husband about third pregnancy but they don't want this pregnancy to deliver as this pregnancy was unwanted. in the meeting it was found that biker was over speeding and due to this the accident happened. introduction of speed breaker on the road before the school. After taking the meeting the principal reported this happening to the municipal corporation and suggest that they should take such kind of preventive actions for all the school so that this kind of happening could not occur in the future. Corporation also instructed all the school that they must deploy a person who control the traffic during open and closing time of school. School authorities introduced a sign board before 15 metre of both sides of school gate on road side on which speed limit mentioned as 20 km/hr along with the sign of school ahead. Machine engineer sent the die to design department for finding the root cause of the defect and analysis the defect occurrence so that they could permanently eliminate it aspreventive action and in future such kind of defect not occur also in other dies. pills etc. to avoid unwanted pregnancy as corrective action as the doctor find this was due to the cause of unprotected sex. Consider a case of a manufacturing industry. Also the breaker near the gate of school on road both sides so that this event could not recur in future. he should check the die of the particular piece and replace it from other good one so that defect could not recur again.Along with this he instructed to the machine engineer that he should takecorrective action for that defective piece i.e. They find that if they have third child they have to share there love to three children instead of two . As a corrective action find the site where the virus came and block the site so that virus could not come again into the system. So over speeding was the cause of the accident. Illustration 3 : In a manufacturing industry. Immediate scanning of virus and removing it from the system is the correction to avoid further damage to the file stored in the system. The couple came to their home and analyse the risk of having third child. .happen to the student. Illustration 2 : Family Planning A couple complete their family with a boy and a girl. They go to the doctor and wife has an operation as a preventive action for permanent solution to avoid risk of pregnancy in future. Now this happening was reported to the principal of the school the principal call the meeting of all the school staff along with the biker for finding the root cause of this mis-happening . Illustration 4 : Virus in computer.So both of them go to a doctor. As a preventive action analysis the risk of damage to the system from all such kind of viruses and sites from which the viruses belongs and block all such sites so that such kind of threat could not come into the system and no potential damage to the system could occur. So they decided that they don't want third child.

e. 10." The objective of LOB is:  To study the progress of jobs at regular intervals and  To compare the actual progress with that required to satisfy delivery requirements and." "The main object of the line balancing is to distribute the tasks evenly over the work stations so that idle time of men and machines is minimised. Tasks are grouped so that their total time is preferably equal to or a little lesser than the time available at each work station . It shows that the line is unbalanced. another approach to balance the line will be to give some other task to machines B and C so that they do not remain idle. Since.Line Balancing Vs Line of Balance Line Balancing "Line balancing is the technique of balancing the unbalanced production line so that the idle time of machines in the assembly line get reduced which in turn result in reduced overall cycle time in making of a product. A has minimum capacity i. 3. 2 of type B and with every machine of type C . this reduces the idle time and in turn overall cycle time.66% if its time. One way to practically balance the line is to have three machines of type A. It is particularly useful where large batches of fairly complex items requiring many operations. A. It is utilized in determining production progress in terms of percent of task completion. of processing only 5 pieces per unit time . LOB technique consists of five main stages ." "Line balancing aims at grouping the facilities (or tasks) and workers in an efficient pattern in order to obtain an optimum or most efficient balance of the capacities and flows of the production or assembly processes. 1. A chart of production programme showing the sequence and duration of all activities required to produce a product.  To identify those operations in which progress is unsatisfactory." Suppose there are three machines or work stations. B. establishes a schedule (or plan) for them and attracts attention to those which do not confirm to this schedule. 2. C which can process 5 . A progress chart of the current status of component completion. naturally work station or machine B will remain idle for 50% of its time and machine C for 66. and 15 pieces per unit time respectively and the sequence of operations is such that the pieces flow from machine A to B and from B to C. Line of Balance "Line of balance (LOB) is a manual planning and scheduling technique. are to be completed /delivered over a period of time. LOB technique is an example of management by exception since it deals only with the important or crucial (exceptional) operations in a job. A graphical representation of the delivery objective. all utilizing graphic aids. .

. Graphics by Blogger (Narender Sharma) .............. Book : Industrial engineering and Production Management ................................................ Publisher Dhanpat Rai and Co.......... by M...............4... A line of balance drawn to show the relationship of component progress to the output needed to meet the delivery schedule............. Mahajan....... ................ 5..... Ref................. Analysis of progress............

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