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Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Sumatera Ir. DANIEL RUMBI TERUNA, MT;IP-U HAKI

Any building structure used by the industry to store raw materials or for manufacturing products of the industry is known as an industrial building. Industrial buildings may be categorized as Normal type industrial buildings and Special type industrial buildings. Normal types of industrial building are shed type buildings with simple roof structures on open frames. These buildings are used for workshop, warehouses etc These building require large and clear areas unobstructed by the columns. The large floor area provides sufficient flexibility and facility for later change in the production layout without major building alterations. The industrial buildings are constructed with adequate headroom for the use of an overhead traveling crane. Special types of industrial buildings are steel mill buildings used for manufacture of heavy machines, production of power, chemical industries


The most common type is the simple rectangular structure (Figure 1), typically single-storey, which provides a weatherproof and environmentally comfortable space for carrying out manufacturing or for storage.

Figure 1. Typical of industrial building


Compared to other materials, particularly reinforced or prestressed concrete, steel has major advantages. Its high strength-to-weight ratio and its high tensile and compressive strength enable steel buildings to be of relatively light construction. Steel is therefore the most suitable material for long-span roofs, where self-weight is of prime importance. Steel buildings can also be modified for extension or change of use due to the ease with which steel sections can be connected to existing work. The structure of a steel building, especially of an industrial building, is quickly erected and clad, providing a weatherproof envelope which enables the floor and installation of services and internal finishes to proceed at an early stage. Since the construction schedule is always tied to the earliest handover date fixed by production planning, time saved in construction is usually very valuable.


Because of its economy, the most widely used building shape is the pin-based single or multi-bay pitched roof portal frame, typically of 20-30m span at 6m centres (Figure 2). Hot-rolled I, welded or coldformed sections are usually used for the members. During recent years an increasing use of welded sections has occurred. This increase is the result of progress achieved in making welding automatic and the ability to adapt the cross-section to the internal forces.

Figure 2. Typical portal frames

When hot-rolled sections are used, haunches (Figure 3) are usually provided at the eaves and the ridge. These haunches deepen the overall section, thereby reducing bolt forces. By extending the haunched regions along the rafter the frame is also strengthened and stiffened.

Figure 3. portal frames haunch

Lattice girders (Figure 4) are lighter than portal frame rafters for wider spans, but the additional workmanship increases fabrication costs. Based on structural requirements alone, lattice systems are likely to be cost-effective for spans above 20m. Roof trusses may also be used for structures which support heavy cranes (Figure 5).

Figure 4, Lattice girder structure

Crane beam

Figure 5. Lattice column and roof truss construction