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Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 7 77 7
Fluid Fluid Fluid Fluid Systems Systems Systems Systems and and and and Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal
Systems Systems Systems Systems
Dr. A. Aziz. Bazoune
7.1 INTRODUCTION
A fluid system uses one or more fluids to achieve its purpose. Dampers and shock
absorbers are examples of fluid systems because they depend on the viscous nature of a fluid to
provide damping. In addition to providing damping, other applications of fluid systems include
actuators and processes that involve mixing, heating, and cooling of fluids.
Active vehicle suspensions use hydraulic and pneumatic actuators to provide forces to
supplement the passive spring and damping elements. Water supply, waste treatment, and other
chemical processing applications are examples of a general category of fluid systems called
liquidlevelsystems, because they involve regulating the volumes, and therefore the levels of
liquids in containers such as tanks.
A fluid might be either a liquid or a gas. A fluid is said to be incompressible if the fluids
density remains constant despite changes in the fluid pressure. If the density changes with
pressure, the fluid is compressible.
7.2 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID LEVEL SYSTEMS
Steady State Flow
Laminar Turbulent
D
Figure 7.1 (a) Velocity profile for laminar flow
Flow dominated by viscosity forces is called
laminar flow and is characterized by a smooth,
parallel line motion of the fluid and low
Reynolds number 2000 Re
= <
vD
where is the mass density of the fluid, is
the dynamic viscosity of the fluid, v is the
average velocity of flow, and D is
characteristic length.
Friction force is linearly proportional to
velocity,
f
f bv =
Figure 7.1 (b) Velocity profile for turbulent flow
When inertia forces dominate, the flow is
called turbulent flow and is characterized by
an irregular and eddylike motion of the fluid
and High Reynolds number Re 4000 > .
Friction force varies as a power of velocity
f
f bv
=
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Resistance and Capacitance of LiquidLevel Systems.
Consider the flow through a short pipe connecting two tanks as shown in Figure 72. The
resistance for liquid flow in such a pipe or restriction is defined as the change in the level
difference (the difference of the liquid levels of the two tanks) necessary to cause a unit change in
flow rate; that is,
( )
1 2
3
Change in level difference m
Resistance
Change in flow rate m /
=
=
R
H H
R
s
Q
2
H
Q
R
1
H
Figure 72 Two tanks connected by a short pipe with a valve
Since the relationship between the flow rate and the level difference differs from laminar flow
and turbulent flow, we shall consider both cases in what fallows.
Resistance in Laminar Flow.
h H +
i
q Q +
R Resistance
q Q +
Control valve
C e Capacitanc
valve Load
Figure 73 (a) Liquid level system;
For laminar flow, ( 2000 Re < ), the relationship between the steadystate flow rate and steady
state head at the level of restriction is given by
=
l
Q K H
Where = Q steadystate liquid flow rate, s / m
3
, =
l
K constant, s / m
2
and = H steadystate
head, m.
For laminar flow, the resistance
l
R is
1 d
d
= = =
l
l
H H
R
Q K Q
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The laminarflow resistance is constant and is analogous to the electrical resistance, where.
( ) Height Voltage ( ) H e and ( ) Steady state flow rate Current ( ) Q i
Resistance in Turbulent Flow.
For turbulent flow; ( 3000 Re > ), the steadystate flow rate is given by
=
t
Q K H (71)
where = Q steadystate liquid flow rate, s / m
3
, =
t
K constant, s / m
2.5
and = H steadystate
head, m.
The resistance
t
R for turbulent flow is obtained from
d
d
=
t
H
R
Q
Then
2 2
2 2
d d
d d
d d ( / )
= = = =
t t
K K Q H H H
Q H
H Q Q H H Q H
Thus
2
=
t
H
R
Q
(72)
Flow rate
Q
H
Head
O
H
q
P
h
( )
1
tan
t
R
2
Slope = =
H h
Q q
Figure 73 (b) curve of head versus flow rate
Capacitance
The capacitance of a tank is defined to be the change in quantity of stored liquid necessary to
cause a unity change in the potential (head). The potential (head) is the quantity that includes the
energy level of the system).
3
2
Change in liquid stored m
Capacitance or m
Change in head m
Capacitance CrossSectional area (A) of the tank.
=
=
C
C
or
Rate of change of fluid volume in the tank flow in flow out
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( )
in out
in out in out
out in
d A h
q q
dt
dh dh
A q q C q q
dt dt
dV
q q
dt
=
= =
=
=
out in
C
dh
q q
dt
Mathematical Modeling of Liquidlevel Systems. Consider
the system shown in figure 73(a). If the operating condition as to the head and flow rate varies
little for the period considered, a mathematical model can easily be found in terms of resistance
and capacitance. Assume turbulent flow, and define
h H +
i
q Q +
R Resistance
q Q +
Control valve
C e Capacitanc
valve Load
Figure 73 (a) Liquid level system;
= H steadystate head (before any change has occurred), m.
= h small deviation of head from its steadystate value, m.
= Q steadystate flow rate (before any change has occurred), m
3
/s.
=
i
q small deviation of inflow rate from its steadystate value, m
3
/s.
=
o
q small deviation of outflow rate from its steadystate value, m
3
/s.
Tank: The rate of change in liquid stored in the tank is equal to the flow in minus flow out
=
o i
C
dh
q q
dt
or
( ) =
o i
C dh dt q q (73)
where C is the capacitance of the tank. In the present system, we define h and
o
q as small
deviations from steady state head and steady state outflow rate, respectively. Thus,
, = =
o
dH h dQ q
Resistance R: The resistance R may be written as
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= = =
o
o
dH h h
R q
dQ q R
Substitute =
o
h
q
R
into Equation (73), we obtain
=
i
dh h
C
dt R
q
or
+ =
i
dh
RC h R
dt
q (74)
Notice that RC is the time constant of the system. Equation (74) is a linearized mathematical
model for the system when h is considered the system output. If
o
q rather than h , is considered
the system output, then substituting =
o
h Rq in the above equation gives
+ =
o
o i
d
RC R
dt
q
q q (75)
Analogous Systems.
The liquid level system considered here is analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 7
4(a). It is also analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 74(b).
i
x
o
x
(a)
(b)
Figure 74 Systems analogous to liquid level system
shown in Figure 73(a). (a) Electrical system. (b) mechanical
system
For the electrical system, a mathematical model is
+ =
o
o i
de
RC e e
dt
(76)
For the mechanical system, a mathematical model is
+ =
o
o i
dx b
x x
k dt
(77)
Equations (75), (76) and (77) are of the same form; thus they are analogous.
LiquidLevel System with Interaction.
Consider the liquid level system shown in Figure 7.5. In this system, two tanks interact. If the
variations of the variables from their respective steadystate values are small, the resistance
1
R stays constant. Hence, at steadystate
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1 2
H H
Q
R
= (78)
1
R
2
R
Inflow
Q q +
1
Q q +
2
Q q +
2 2
H h +
1 1
H h +
1
C
2
C
Tank 1
1442443
Tank 2
1442443
Pipe 1
144424443 Pipe 2
1442443
Figure 7.5. Liquidlevel system with interaction.
After small changes have occurred, we have
( )
1 1 2 2
1
1
1 2 1 2
1 1
H h H h
Q q
R
H H h h
R R
+ +
+ =
+
= +
Substituting Equation (7.8) into this last equation, we obtain
1 2
1
1
h h
q
R
=
Assuming that variations of the variables from their respective steadystate values are small.
Then, using the symbols defined in Figure 7.5, we can obtain the following four equations for the
system:
Pipe 1:
1 2
1
1
h h
q
R
= (79)
Tank 1:
1
1 1
dh
C q q
dt
= (710)
Pipe 2:
2
2
2
h
q
R
= (711)
Tank 2:
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2
2 1 2
dh
C q q
dt
= (712)
Equation (7.9) + Equation (7.10)
1 1 2
1
1 1
dh h h
C q
dt R R
+ = + (713)
Equation (7.11) + (7.12)
2 2 2 1
2
2 1 1
dh h h h
C
dt R R R
+ + = (714)
Take LT of both sides of the above equations (7.13) and (7.14) using I. Cs h1(0) = h2(0) = 0
1 1 2
1 1
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) C s H s Q s H s
R R
 
+ = +

\
(715)
2 2 1
2 1 1
1 1 1
( ) ( ) C s H s H s
R R R
 
+ + =

\
(716)
From Equation (7.15)
1 2
1
1 1
( ) ( )
( )
( 1)
R Q s H s
H s
R C s
+
=
+
Substitute the expression of H1(s) above into Equation (7.16), we get
1 2
2 2
2 1 1 1 1
( ) ( )
1 1 1
( )
( 1)
R Q s H s
C s H s
R R R R C s
( +  
+ + =
( 
+
( \
Using
2 2 2
( ) ( ) H s R Q s = in the above equation
( )( )
2 2 1 1 2 1 2
1 1 ( ) ( ) C R s C R s R C s Q s Q s
(
+ + + =
(717)
2
2
2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1
( )
1
( ) ( ) 1
Q s
Q s R C R C s R C R C R C s
=
+ + + +
(718)
or
2
2 2 1 1 2
1 1 2 2 2 1
2
2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2
2
1
1
n n
Q (s) / R C RC
Q(s) RC R C R C
s s
R C RC RC R C
= == =
        + + + + + + + +
    + + + + + + + +
   
\ \ \ \
14243 1444442444443
(719)
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The above TF represents a second order system with
1 1 2 2
1
n
R C R C
= rad/s
and
1 1 2 2 2 1
2 1 1 2
( )
2
n
R C R C R C
R C R C
= +
= .
7.3 LINEARIZATION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS
Linearization of ( ) z f x = about a point ( ) , x z .
Consider a nonlinear system whose input is x and
output is z , the relationship between z and x may be
written as
( ) = z f x (721)
If the normal operating condition corresponds to a point
( ) , x z , then Equation (721) can be expanded into a
Taylor series about this point as follows:
x
z
x
z
( ) z f x =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2!
=
=
= = + + +L
x x
x x
df d f
z f x f x x x x x
dx dx
(722)
where the derivatives df dx ,
2
2
d f dx are evaluated at the operating point, = x x , = z z .
If the variation ( ) x x is small, we can neglect the higherorder terms in ( ) x x . Noting
that ( ) = z f x , Equation (722) can be written
( ) ( )
=
= +
x x
df
z f x x x
dx
Noting that ( ) = z f x , we can write Equation (722) as
( ) = z z m x x (723)
where
=
=
x x
df
m
dx
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Equation (723) indicates that z z is
proportional to x x . The equation is a linear
mathematical model for the nonlinear system
given by Equation (721) near the operating point
x x , z z . Equation (723) represents an
equation of the tangent line to the curve ( ) = z f x
at the operating point ( ) , x z with a slope m
( ) z z m x x =
x
z
x
z
( ) z f x =
Figure 1. Linearization of the function ( ) y f x =
about the point ( ) z x,
Linearization of ( ) , z f x y = about a point ( ) , , x y z .
Next, consider a nonlinear system whose output z is function of two inputs x and y such that
( )
, = z f x y (724)
To obtain a linear mathematical model for this nonlinear system about an operating point
( ) , , x y z , we expand Equation (724) into a Taylor series about this point as follows:
2 2
2 2
( , ) ( ) ( )
1
( ) 2 ( )( ) ( ) ...
2!
2 2 2
f f
z f x y x x y y
x y
f f f
x x x x y y y y
x x y y
(
= + +
(
(
+ + + +
(
where the partial derivatives are evaluated at the operating point,
, , and x x y y z z = = = . Near this point, the higherorder terms may be neglected. Noting
that ( , ) z f x y = , a linear mathematical model of this nonlinear system near the operating
point , , and x x y y z z = = = is
( ) ( ) z z m x x n y y = +
where
,

x x y y
f
m
x
= =
,

x x y y
f
n
y
= =
Example 73 (Textbook Page 336)
Linearize the nonlinear equation z xy = in the region 5 7, 10 12 x y .
Find the error if the linearized equation is used to calculate the value of z when 5 = x
and 10 = y .
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Solution
Since the region considered is given by
5 7, 10 12 x y , choose 6 = x , 11 = y . Then 66 = = z x y . Let us
obtain a linearized equation for the nonlinear equation near a point 6 = x , 11 = y ,
and 66 = z .
Expanding the nonlinear equation into a Taylors series about the point x x = ,
y y = and z z = and neglecting the higher order terms, we have
( ) ( ) z z m x x n y y = +
where
[ ]
[ ]
11
6
, ,
,
,
,
,
= = = =
= =
= =
= =
= =
= = = = =
= = = = =
x x y y x x y y
x x y y
x x y y
x x y y
x x y y
f
m xy y y
x x
f
m xy x x
y y
Hence the linearized equation is
66 11 6 6 11 ( ) ( ) = + z x y
or
11 6 66 = + z x y
When 5 = x and 10 = y , the value of z given by the linearized equation is
( ) ( ) 11 6 66 11 5 6 10 66 55 60 66 49 = + = + = + = z x y
The exact value is ( ) ( ) 5 10 55 = = = z xy . The error is thus 50 49 1 = . In
terms of percentage, the error is
50 49
100 2
49
%
= = z
Example 74 (Textbook Page 336)
Consider the liquid levelsystem shown in Figure 78. At steady state, the inflow rate is
=
i
Q Q, the outflow rate is =
o
Q Q, and the head is = H H. Assume that the flow is
turbulent. Then
= Q K H
o
For this system, we have
= =
i i
dH
C Q Q Q K H
o
dt
Where C is the capacitance of the tank. Let us define
( )
1
, = =
i i
dH K H
Q f H Q
dt C C
(725)
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Assume that the system operates near the steadystate condition ( ) , H Q . That is ,
= + H H h and = +
i
Q Q q , where h and
i
q are small quantities (either positive or
negative). At steadystate operation, 0 = dH dt . Hence,
( )
0 , . = f H Q
Solution