Chapter 3: Electronic Devices and Transducers • 3.1 Semiconductors • 3.2 Diodes • 3.3 Bipolar and Field Effect Transistors • 3.4 Thyristors and triacs • 3.5 Transducers

CPE 535 Electrical Technology  _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  ASSIGNMENT 1 (3 PERSON PER GROUP) Explain the basics principles or operation by giving examples and applications of the following electronic devices:

ELECTRONIC DEVICE Bipolar Junction Transistor




Field-Effect Transistor



_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________    Semester March – July 2013   

• Semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound that can conduct electricity • Its conductance varies depending on current or voltage applied • The conductance of semiconductor is intermediate between conductor and insulator • Specific properties of semiconductor depend on the impurities, or dopants added to it


• An N-type semiconductor carries current mainly in the form of negatively-charged electrons. in a manner similar to the conduction of current in a wire .

the flow of holes occurs in a direction opposite to the flow of electrons . equal and opposite to the charge on an electron • In a semiconductor material.• A P-type semiconductor carries current predominantly as electron deficiencies called holes • A hole has a positive electric charge.

gallium arsenide and silicon are some of the good semiconductor substances .Material. such as germanium.

Today. most semiconductor are created with silicon .

telephones etc . including radio. computers.Semiconductor materials are the foundation of modern electronics.


• Carbon. silicon and germanium is semiconductor • They have unique property in their electron structure-each has electrons in its outer orbital • This allow them to form nice crystal • The four electrons form perfect covalent bonds with four neighboring atoms creating a lattice .

• In a silicon lattice. This makes a silicon crystal an insulator rather than a conductor . all silicon atoms bond perfectly to four neighbors. leaving no free electrons to conduct electric current.

very little electricity will flow through it • But all this can be changed through a process called “doping” .• A pure silicon crystal is nearly an insulator .

72 x 10-8 2.Resistivity Values (Ωm) for selected materials at 300K Conductors Aluminium Carbon (amorphous) Copper Gold Nichrome Silver Tungsten 2.5 x 10-5 1.27 x 10-8 1.73 x 10-8 3.63 x 10-8 5.12 x 10-6 1.44 x 10-8 Semiconductors Silicon (device grade) 10-5 to 1 depends on impurity concentration Insulators Fused quartz Glass (typical) Teflon > 1021 1 x 1012 1 x 1019 .

• The behavior of silicon can be turned into a conductor by doping it • In doping. a small amount of an impurity is mix into the silicon crystal .

so they're out of place when they get into the silicon lattice. phosphorus or arsenic is added to the silicon in small quantities.. . • Phosphorus and arsenic each have five outer electrons.In N-type doping.

• The fifth electron has nothing to bond to. it's • It takes only a very small quantity of the impurity to create enough free electrons to allow an electric current to flow through the silicon. Electrons have a negative charge. • N-type silicon is a good conductor. hence the name N-type. so . .

• Boron and gallium each have only three outer electrons. boron or gallium is the dopant. • When mixed into the silicon lattice..In P-type doping. they form "holes" in the lattice . .

from a • A hole neighbor. moving the hole over a space.• The absence of an electron creates the effect of a positive charge. • Holes can conduct current. hence the name P-type. • P-type silicon is a good conductor .




the anode and the cathode anode + VD iD cathode . diode is an electronic device that allows current to • Has two terminals.• A diode is the simplest possible semiconductor device • In many application.

• N-type and P-type silicon are not that amazing by themselves. there will be some very interesting behavior at the junction. That's what happens in a diode. but when two of them are put together. .

the combination shown conduct any in the diagram electricity . and P-type silicon by itself is also a conductor.• Even though N-type silicon by itself is a conductor.

• The negative electrons in the N-type silicon get attracted to the positive terminal of the battery. The positive holes in the Ptype silicon get attracted to the negative terminal of the battery • No current flows across the junction because the holes and the electrons are each moving in the wrong direction .


holes and free electrons meet . the diode conducts electricity just fine.• If the battery is flip around. The free electrons in the N-type silicon are repelled by the negative terminal of the battery • The holes in the P-type silicon are repelled by the positive terminal. At the junction between the N-type and P-type silicon.

• The electrons fill the holes. and new holes and electrons spring up to take their place. Those holes and free electrons cease to exist. • The effect is that current flows through the junction .

7 volts.• Small amount of voltage necessary to get the diode going. this voltage is about 0. • In silicon. • This voltage is needed to start the holeelectron combination process at the junction .


• A real diode lets perhaps 10 µA through not a lot. the junction breaks down and lets current through. but still not perfect. • Usually.• Ideal diode would block all current. the breakdown voltage is a lot more voltage than the circuit will ever see. • And if you apply enough reverse voltage (V). so it is irrelevant .


In automobile. the diode prevent the battery from discharging through the alternator. diode allow current from the alternator to charge the battery when the engine is running. However. . when the engine stops.




photovoltaic. electromagnetic.• A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy to another • The conversion can be to/from electrical. transducer are used to produce a voltage ( or sometimes a current) that is proportional to physical quantity of interest. electro-mechanical. photonic. or any other form of energy • In electric circuit. pressure or temperature . such as distance.

• Example: microphones. loudspeaker • Microphones Microphones are transducers which detect sound signals and produce an electrical image of the sound. they produce a voltage or a current which is proportional to the sound signal ..e. i.

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