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Misure di compatibilita Elettromagnetica

Roberto Sacchi

Electronic Measurements Group Agilent Technologies

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Agenda
Introduzione alle misure EMI
Terminologia; Sistema di misura (antenna, LISN, ricevitore, etc.); Detectors; Normative europee ed internazionali

Misure di compatibilita elettromagnetica


Misure di emissioni radiate Misure di emissioni condotte Misure di immunita (EMS) Setup di misura Camere anecoiche vs. OATS (Open Area Test Site)

Soluzioni Agilent

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Introduzione al nuovo ricevitore EMI Full Compliance Agilent MXE Uso degli analizzatori Agilent della Serie-X per misure EMI pre-compliance. Sorgenti per i test di immunita Software applicativo Soluzioni complete tramite i nostri partners
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Pre-compliance vs. Full compliance measurements


Pre-compliance measurements Evaluate the conducted and radiated emissions of a device using correct detectors and bandwidths before going to a test house for compliance testing Full Compliance measurements Full compliance testing requires a receiver that meets all the requirements of CISPR 16-1-1 (response to a CISPR pulse gen), a qualified open area test site or semi anechoic chamber and an antenna tower and turntable to maximize EUT signals.
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What is EMC?
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC): The ability of equipment to function
satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable disturbances into that environment or into other equipment. Combination of Interference and Immunity.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI):


Electromagnetic energy emanating from one device which causes another device to have degraded performance.

Electromagnetic Immunity (Susceptibility, EMS): Tolerance in the presence


of electromagnetic energy (Performance degradation due to electromagnetic energy).

Compliance measurements require a receiver that meets the requirements of CISPR part 16 (for commercial) or MIL-STD-461 (for military).
All EMI receivers require a pre-selector at lower frequencies to limit the input energy and maintain sufficient dynamic range to meet the CISPR 16 requirements.

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Definitions
EMC ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMI ElectroMagnetic Interference

EMS ElectroMagnetic Susceptibility (aka Immunity)

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EMI measurement system

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Compliance EMI receiver requirements


A CISPR 16-1-1 receiver must have the following functionality in the range 9 kHz - 18 GHz:
A normal +/- 2 dB absolute accuracy CISPR-specified resolution bandwidths (-6 dB)

Peak, quasi-peak, EMI average, and RMS average detectors


Specified input impedance with a nominal value of 50 ohms; deviations specified as VSWR

Be able to pass product immunity in a 3 V/m field


Be able to pass the CISPR pulse test (implies pre-selector below 1 GHz) Other specific harmonic and intermodulation requirements

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Receiver requirements above 1 GHz


Above 1 GHz regulations require: 1 MHz bandwidth for measurements No quasi-peak detector No CISPR pulse test, meaning no additional pre-selector required excellent sensitivity According to current FCC regulations, the maximum test frequency is the fifth harmonic of the highest clock frequency for an unintentional radiator (for example, computers without wireless connectivity) and the tenth harmonic for an intentional radiator (such as a cellular phone or wireless LAN).
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What is an EMI Receiver?


Lets begin with a spectrum analyzer

Display and measure amplitude versus frequency for RF & MW signals


Separate or demodulate complex signals into their base components (sine waves)
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Spectrum Analysis

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Overview
Types of Tests Made

Modulation

EMC

Noise

Distortion
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Architecture of Modern Spectrum/Signal Analyzers

What does Modern mean?


Digitize the IF output, not detector output FFT and swept capability (neither one is optimum for everything)

Complete spectrum analyzer & vector signal analyzer


Data output available Connectivity Automated measurement features Ability to use new features and duplicate or expand necessary old ones

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Theory of Operation
Swept Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram
RF input attenuator mixer
Input signal
Pre-Selector Or Low Pass Input Filter

IF gain

IF filter (RBW)

envelope detector
Log Amp

local oscillator sweep generator


Crystal Reference Oscillator

video filter

ADC, Display & Video Processing

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Traditional Spectrum Analyzer


Scalar analysis Digitizing the video signal
Product detector loss of phase information

Classic superheterodyne swept spectrum analyzer

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Digital IF Spectrum/Signal Analyzer


Vector data CAN be preserved (mag/phase or I/Q) Digitizing the IF Signal

Some troublesome operations and conversions are now fast, accurate DSP
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Overview
Different Types of Analyzers

FFT Analyzer
A
Parallel filters measured simultaneously

Swept Analyzer A
Filter 'sweeps' over range of interest

f1

f2

f1

f2

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Specifications
Resolution: RBW Type Determines Sweep Time

8563E Analog RBW PSA Digital RBW PSA FFT RBW

280 sec 134 sec 13.5 sec


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Speed Improvements
Nominal speed comparison, PSA example:
Benchmark
Preset (*RST) Marker peak search Local Update CF Tune and Transfer (4 - 5GHz) Remote sweep and trace transfer

PXA
28 ms 6.5 ms 13 ms 109 ms 18 ms

PSA
168 ms 78 ms 17 ms 186 ms 30 ms

Speed improvement
6x 12x 1.3x 1.7x 1.67x

Useful comparisons highly specific, many factors PXA mode switching typically faster than PSA

Where speed is critical, consider modifying measurement routines to include features such as list sweep

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Modern spectrum analyzer


Resolution BW Selectivity or Shape Factor

3 dB

3 dB BW

60 dB 60 dB BW Selectivity =

60 dB BW 3 dB BW

Determines resolvability of unequal amplitude signals


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Specifications
Resolution: RBW Type and Selectivity

ANALOG FILTER

Typical Selectivity Analog 15:1 Digital 5:1

DIGITAL FILTER

RES BW 100 Hz

SPAN 3 kHz

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Digital Filter Shape


Better shape factor, biggest selectivity benefit for different signal levels Equivalent selectivity at a wider, faster-sweeping RBW digital filters swept an additional 3-4x faster

30 kHz Digital Filter

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CISPR Bandwidth Requirements

Bandwidth

-6dB

-20dB

Measurement Range

CISPR Band

CISPR Bandwidth

9 KHz 150KHz
150 KHz 30 MHz 30 MHz 1 GHz > 1GHz

A
B C/D E

200 Hz
9 KHz 120 KHz 1 MHz
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MIL-STD-461 Bandwidth Requirements

Measurement Range
30Hz - 1 KHz 1 KHz -10 KHz

-6dB Bandwidth
10 Hz 100 Hz

10 KHz - 150 KHz


150 KHz - 30MHz 30 MHz - GHz > 1GHz

1 KHz
10 KHz 100 KHz 1 MHz

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Modern Spectrum Analyzer Accuracy


Some modern analyzers approach accuracy of power meter + sensor Even better for low-level signals, with narrower noise bandwidth and the benefit of frequency selectivity

Some factors determining uncertainty:


Input connector (mismatch) RF input attenuator Mixer and input filter (flatness) IF gain/attenuation (reference level) RBW filters Display scale fidelity Calibrator

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Modern Spectrum Analyzer Accuracy Examples

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Line Impedance Stabilization Networks (LISN)


Purpose of a LISN: 1. Isolates the power mains from the equipment under test. The power supplied to the EUT must be as clean as possible. Any noise on the line will be coupled to the X-Series signal analyzer and interpreted as noise generated by the EUT.

2. Isolates any noise generated by the EUT from being coupled to the power mains. Excess noise on the power mains can cause interference with the proper operation of other devices on the line. 3. The signals generated by the EUT are coupled to the X-Series analyzer using a high-pass filter, which is part of the LISN. Signals that are in the pass band of the high-pass filter see a 50- load.
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LISN

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LISN

@ Electrical Network Frequency

@ 150 kHz to 30 MHz

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Transient Limiter
The purpose of the limiter is to protect the input of the EMC analyzer from large transients when connected to a LISN. Switching EUT power on or off can cause large spikes generated in the LISN.

Limiter

LISN

DUT
The Agilent 11947A transient limiter incorporates a limiter, high-pass filter, and an attenuator. It can withstand 10 kW for 10 sec and has a frequency range of 9 kHz to 200 MHz. The high-pass filter reduces the line frequencies coupled to the EMC analyzer.
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Field Strength Unit


Radiated EMI emissions measurements measure the electric field. The field strength is calibrated in dBV/m.
Pt = total power radiated from an isotropic radiator Pd = the power density at a distance from the isotropic radiator (far field >/2)

Pt Pd 4 r 2

Pt E2 R 4 r 2

R 120

[ohm]
Pt 30 r

E2 Pd R

[V/m]

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Field Strength and Antenna factors


Radiated EMI emissions tests measure the electric field. The field strength is calibrated in dBV/m. Antenna factors is the ratio of the electric field (V/m) present at the plane of the antenna versus the voltage out of the antenna connector. Log units: AF(dB/m) = E(dBV/m) - V(dBV) E(dBV/m) = V(dBV) + AF(dB/m) Notes: Antenna factors are not the same as antenna gain. dBV = dBm + 107
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Antennas used in EMI emission measurements

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Detectors: Convert IF Samples to Display Bins or Buckets


Multiple simultaneous detectors Peak, Neg Peak, Sample
Display points or buckets

Normal, Average, Neg Peak


Peak

Volts Sample Neg Peak Time

Screen Shot Detector 3types

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Detectors
Most radiated and conducted limits are based on quasi-peak detection mode.

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Peak vs. Quasi-peak vs. Average


V
Peak Detection Quasi-Peak Detection Average Detection time V Peak Detection

time
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Quasi-Peak Detection Average Detection

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Peak QP Average
Peak Detector
Initially used

Faster than QP and Average modes


If all signals fall below the limit, then the product passes and no future testing is needed.

QP
For CW signal, Peak = QP Much slower by 2 or 3 order magnitude compared to using Peak detector

Charge rate much faster than discharge rate


the higher repetition rate of the signal, the higher QP reading

Average
Radiated emissions measurements above 1 GHz are performed using average detection
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Close field probe

Measures the magnetic field H strength at the center of its sense loop. The plane of the probe tip loops must be perpendicular to the radiating magnetic field

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Test example

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International emissions regulations (summary)

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CISPR changes
RMS-Average Preselector-less testing: enables use of spectrum analyzer for specific test cases.(no emissions with PRF < 20 Hz)

CISPR 22 to 6 GHz
Time Domain: sometimes required for the automotive market

APD: soon to be required by CISPR11

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European Norms example


EN55014 (CISPR 14) This standard applies to electric motor-operated and thermal appliances for household and similar purposes, electric tools and electric apparatus. Limit line use depends upon the power rating of the item. EN55014 distinguishes between household appliances, motors less than 700W, less than 1000W and greater than 1000W. Limits for conducted emissions are 150 kHz to 30 MHz, and limits for radiated emissions are 30 MHz to 300 MHz.

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The compliance measurement process


Before making measurements on your product, some preliminary questions must be answered. 1. Where will the product be sold (for example, Europe, United States, Japan)? 2. What is the classification of the product?
a. b. c. d. Information technology equipment (ITE) Industrial, scientific or medical equipment (ISM) Automotive or communication Generic (equipment not found in other standards)

3. Where will the product be used (for example home, commercial, light industry or heavy industry)? With the answers to these questions, you can determine which standard your product must be tested against.
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General Process for Making EMI Measurements


Determine the country or countries in which the product will be sold which in turn identifies the regulator agency. Select the limit lines to be tested to (conducted/radiated).

Select the band to be used.


Correct for transducer loses and amplifiers gains.

Identify signals above the limit that must be evaluated.


Zoom in on failed signal and perform quasi-peak or average measurements.

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Conducted Emissions Measurements


1. Connect DUT to the test system 2. Set the proper frequency range 3. Load limit lines and correction factors for LISN and limiter 4. View the ambient emissions with DUT OFF 5. Switch on the DUT and find signals above limits by using peak detector 6. Measure all signals above limits with quasi-peak and average detectors

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The challenge of measuring radiated emissions


Radiated Emissions are difficult to measure because of multiple dimensions (five) and the use of quasi-peak detection below 1GHz

5 -Time

1 - Azimuth
2 - Antenna Height 3 - Field Strength

1500.260MHz

218.120MHz

4 - Frequency
41.2563MHz

Radiated Emissions Measurements


1. Connect the antenna to the EMI receiver and separate the antenna from the DUT as specified by the regulation requirements 2. Set the proper frequency range and bandwidth 3. Load limit lines and correction factors for antenna and cable. 4. With DUT OFF, measure the ambient emissions and store them 5. Switch on the DUT and find signals above limits by using peak detector (only those not present during the ambient scan). Rotate the DUT to maximize the emissions. 6. Measure all signals above limits with quasi-peak and average detectors
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Open Area Test Site (OATS)


EUTs are measured in an open area test site (OATS) or anechoic chamber.
ANSI C63.4 and CISPR 16-1-1 specify the requirements for an OATS, including: Preferred measurement distances of 3, 10, and 30 meters Antenna positioning at 1 to 4 meter Heights An area called the CISPR ellipse of major diameter 2X and minor diameter 3 X, where X is the measurement distance; the ellipse must be free of any reflecting objects A metal ground plane for the measurement area
Note: 10 meter anechoic chambers and GTEM cells can also be used for radiated compliance measurements.
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1. Select the measurement range

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2. Load Corrections factors

Amplitude at point circled

Amplitude referenced to blue line

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3. Load Limit line

Circle indicates the position of the amplitude frequency pair

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4. Scan for signals above the limits with peak detector

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5. Quasi-peak and average measurements

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Troubleshooting
Use the close-field probe to locate the sources of the radiated signals exceeding the limit lines

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Immunity test setup


Radiated Immunity 30 MHz 18 GHz
Amplifiers

HF-Switch

Conducted Immunity 100 kHz 1 GHz

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Agilent Solutions

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What is a CISPR 16-1-1 Compliant Receiver


CISPR is a subcommittee of the IEC
CISPR 16-1-1 is the document that defines the functionality of an EMI receiver

Detectors

Frequency response

N9038A MXE EMI receiver is CISPR 16-1-1 2010 Compliant


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What is the MXE EMI Receiver?


The Agilent MXE is more than a CISPR 16-1-1 compliant EMI receiver It is also an X-Series signal analyzer that can run a variety of measurement applications The MXE can evolve as technology changes

X-Series signal analyzer

CISPR 16 compliant EMI receiver

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N9038A MXE EMI Receiver in 30 seconds


CISPR 16-1-1 2010 Compliant EMI Receiver
Compliant Preselection 20 Hz to 3.6 GHz in both EMI Receiver Mode and SA Mode on Both Inputs

20 Hz to 1 GHz for Conducted Emissions (built-in limiter)

Run X-Series applications

20 Hz to 26.5 GHz for Radiated Emissions

LB
20 Hz -1GHz

CFB

INB
DDS

RFB

Noise Source

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Agilent X-Series Signal Analyzers

Multiple instruments in one box:


Swept spectrum analyzer; FFT analyzer; RF and Baseband Vector Signal analyzer; Noise Figure analyzer.

Fastest signal analysis measurements Broadest set of applications and demodulation capabilities Upgradeable HW Most advanced user interface & world-class connectivity
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Instrument Architecture
Modern Spectrum Analyzers Architecture (PSA, X-Series)

RF Section
Attenuation Filtering Downconversion

ADC

IF Section

BB Section IF/BB Section on ASIC


Peak/sample/rms detection Averaging

RBW Filtering Envelope Detection Log Conversion VBW Filtering

All Digital IF Architecture

Modern Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram


Pre-amp Analog IF Filter Digital IF Filter Digital Detectors

FFT
Attenuation YIG AD C
Replaced by

Swept vs. FFT

Digital Log Amp

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All Digital IF Advantages


RF Section ADC
IF/BB Section on ASIC

FFT

Flexibility: RBW filtering in 10% steps Filters with better selectivity Multiple operation modes (Swept, FFT, VSA, NFA) Accuracy: Log conversion practically ideal No drift errors; increased repeatability Speed: When Swept mode is slow, go FFT

Techniques for Reducing DANL, Improving Dynamic Range


Reduce attenuation Add preamp

Reduce RBW
Add external filtering Better/shorter cables, connectors Move analyzer closer Time averaging (where possible, not measurement avg.)

Measurement processing (take advantage of Moores Law)


Noise power subtraction/noise correction/NNC Noise floor extension (NFE) leverages deep knowledge of analyzer/circuit behavior
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CW Signal Measured Near Analyzer Noise Floor

Example: No noise subtraction or near noise correction

Apparent Signal Displayed S/N

Actual S/N

CW Signal
Ampl & Freq Axes Expanded

This is fundamental, and often missed

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Noise Floor Subtraction

PobsS+N = PobsN + PS

PS = PobsS+N PobsN
Analyzer noise adds incoherently to any signal to be measured Power calculations are performed on a linear power scale (watts, not dBm) and results typically are shown in dBm

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Noise Subtraction, Noise Floor Extension


New technique NFE improves D.A.N.L. analyzer noise power calculated/subtracted real time No error 3 dB error without NFE

Improved noise floor or displayed average noise level

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Analyzer Noise Floor with NFE

Source still off, green trace shows analyzer noise level with NFE Other measurement conditions unchanged Note high variance result from subtraction of small, noisy numbers Analyzer DANL now far enough below source for minimal (0.2 - 0.4 dB) error
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A Closer Look

Source noise Level, no NFE

Source Noise Level, with NFE


Analyzer Noise, no NFE Analyzer Noise with NFE

Pink trace adds to blue trace; result is yellow trace (NFE not used) Green trace is included in blue trace but resulting error very small
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EMC Features standard in all X-Series Spectrum analyzers


Limit Lines (2000 pts) Amplitude correction (2000 pts) 40001 sweep points

EMI Roadmap Page 70 6/28/2011

Option EMC in X-Series spectrum analyzer

CISPR 16-1-1 detectors (to latest spec) Quasi Peak EMI Average (CISPR-AVG) RMS Average (CISPR-RMS) EMI Bandwidths (CISPR & MIL STD) EMI Presets Tune & Listen Measure at Marker EMI Peak, EMI Average, and Quasi Peak measurements displayed together

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W/N6141A EMC measurement application


Full Featured Pre-compliance Application Available in all X-Series models

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Log Display Auto-detect peaks

Realtime Meters with any 3 Simultaneous Detectors

Peak List

Limit Delta

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N6141A measurement: Frequency Scan with Log Display - same functionality as E7400 Signal List

Meters tune to selected signal

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N6141A measurement: Strip Chart


Time record of zero span data scrolls to left Up to three different detectors Can be used to make click measurements

Patent Applied For

Click measurements are made on home appliances


EMI Roadmap Page 77 6/28/2011

Option EDP (Enhanced Display Package) for the SA


Spectrogram Trace Zoom Zone Span

Group/Presentation Title EMC seminar Agilent Restricted

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N6141A EMI Measurement Application


PXA

MXA Pre-compliance EXA Compliance

CXA

Agilent MXE N9038A

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Agilent products for Immunity test (EMS)


Signal generator Signal generator
9 kHz 3 GHz, AM, FM, Phase, Pulse IQ Modulator, 40 MHz Mod.-BW N5182, N5182, N5183 100 kHz- 1,3, 6, 20, 40 GHz, AM, FM, Phase, Pulse, optional vector, 120 MHz Mod.-BW, step , sweep, USB-Power meter included

Power meter/ Power sensors

E441x, E191x, N8262, U200x 100 kHz 40 GHz single channel, dual channel, USB, peak, envelope, pulse

Accessories

Directional Couplers, cables, Adapters, Switches etc.

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Solution partners for EMC


Complete solution: 1. Automation software 2. Chambers 3. GTEM 4. Antennas 5. Power amplifiers 6. Accessories

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Per documentazione su prodotti ed applicazioni EMI/EMC visitare il sito


http://www.agilent.com/find/EMC Contatti: Agilent Technologies Italia

Roberto Sacchi

Application Engineer E-mail: roberto_sacchi@agilent.com

Giuseppe Savoia

Signal Analysis and Generation Sales Specialist E-mail: giuseppe_savoia@agilent.com

Agilent Contact Center

E-mail: contactcenter_italy@agilent.com Tel: 02 9260 8484


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