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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE UP PERFORM GAS ENGINE TUNE UP PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page MODULE1 PERFORMING DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP Introduction: Module 1-Performing Diesel Engine Tune-Up Pre-Test (Module 1) Technical Term LO.1 Install Injection pump follow the correct timing Operation sheet No.1 Installing Injection pump follow the correct timing Operation sheet no.2 Install injection pump following the correct timing Information sheet no.1 Install injection pump following the correct timing Operation sheet no.3 Install injection pump following the correct timing Operation sheet no.4 Install injection pump following the correct timing Performance Assessment Learning Outcome 2. Bleed Fuel-Injection System Operation sheet no.5 Bleeding Fuel-Injection System Operation sheet no.6 Bleeding Fuel-Injection System Operation sheet no.7 Bleed Injection Fuel System Operation sheet no.8 Bleeding Fuel-Injection System Performance Assessment Learning Outcome 3. Conduct Compression Testing Operation sheet no.9 Conducting Compression Testing Performance Assessment MODULE 2 PERFORMING GAS ENGINE TUNE UP Introduction: Module 2- Performing Gas Engine Tune Up Pre-Test (Module 2) Technical Term LO. 1 Check/adjust tappet valve clearance Information sheet no.1 Engine classification by cycle Self-Check No.1 Information sheet no.2 Engine test equipment Self-Check No.2 Operation sheet no.1 Adjusting valve tappet clearance Performance Assessment LO. 2 Test spark plug Operation sheet no.1 Test spark plug Operation sheet no.2 Measuring gap of the spark plug Performance Assessment LO.3 Check/Replace fuel filter and air cleaner Operation sheet no.1 Replacing fuel filter Performance Assessment Operation sheet no.2 Replace air filter LO. 4 Inspect/Replace contact points/condernser Operation sheet no.1 Inspection and replacing of contact point and condenser Performance Assessment LO. 5 Test/Adjust dwell angle and ignition setting Information sheet no.1 Testing/Adjusting dwell angle and ignition setting Operation sheet no.1 Testing/Adjusting for proper dwell angle Performance Assessment LO. 6 Adjust engine idle speed and mixture Operation sheet no.1 Adjusting engine idle and mixture Performance Assessment LO. 7 Check advance mechanism and adjust ignition timing Information sheet no.1 Ignition timing Operation sheet no.1 Procedure in setting ignition timing (using timing light) Self-Check No. 3 LO. 8 Perform compression test 1 2 3 4 5 8 10 13 15 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 32 33 34 35 36 37 39 42 43 50 51 54 55 56 59 61 62 63 69 70 74 75 76 78 79 80 82 83 84 86 87 88 91 92 94

Operation sheet no.1 Perform compression testing Information sheet no.1 Interpreting and analyzing compression result Self-Check No. 4 MODULE 3 PERFORMING UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Introduction: Module 3- Performing Underchassis Preventive Maintenance Pre-Test (Module 3) LO. 1 Check clutch fluid and lines Information sheet no.1 Checking clutch fluid and lines Information sheet no.2 Clutch operation Operation sheet no.1 How to check the fluid for a hydraulic clutch of a car Self-Check No. 1 LO. 2 Inspect brake system Information sheet no.1 Inspecting brake system Operation sheet no.1 Checking and adjusting brake pedal Operation sheet no.2 Bleeding the brake system Operation sheet no.3 Procedure for filling-up fluid in the master cylinder Operation sheet no.4 Checking leaks in the brake system Self-Check No. 2 LO. 3 Inspect and change power transmission and differential gear oil Operation sheet no.1 Parts of the manual transmission Self-Check No. 4 Information sheet no.1 Proper oil viscosity Operation sheet no.2 Lubricant replacement Operation sheet no.3 How to change the oil in the gearbox Self-Check No. 5 LO. 4 Inspect and replace power steering fluid Information sheet no.1 Power steering systems Operation sheet no.1 How to check power steering fluid Self-Check No. 6 LO. 5 Check and refill automatic transmission fluid Information sheet no.1 Automatic Transmission fluid Operation sheet no.1 Checking fluid level and adding fluid LO. 6 Inspect and bleed air tank Information sheet no.1 Description and operation of air brake system LO. 7 Check tire and tire pressure Information sheet no.1 Tires and tubes Operation sheet no.1 Inspecting/Checking of wheels and tires Self-Check No. 8 LO. 8 Check underchassis body bolts and nuts Information sheet no.1 Automotive fasteners, bolts and nuts Operation sheet no.1 Checking underchassis Self-Check No. 8 ANSWER KEY REFERENCES ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS


PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE UP Module No.: 1 Module Title: Performing Diesel Engine Tune Up

Course Title Unit of Competency Module Title Introduction

: AUTOMOTIVE SERVICING : PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP : Performing Diesel Engine Tune-up

This module consists of three learning outcomes with nine important operation sheets that both teacher and students can use to show actual applications of procedures: installing injection pump and timing gear case for Isuzu diesel engine installing the injection pump timing gear to the engine of the vintage type vehicle setting fuel injection timing, procedures in proper usage of special tools in setting injection timing bleeding the diesel fuel system when engine not functioning bleeding injection line during cranking the engine or even when the engine is running bleeding the fuel system, essential steps in bleeding the fuel system compression testing and precaution.

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP

PRE-TEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. In a diesel engine the compressed air during the compression stroke is ignited by_______. a. spark plug b. piston c. heat of compression

2. The instrument used to check or test the compression inside the diesel engine cylinder is____. a. glow plug b. compression gauge c. feeler gauge

3. All of the following are components of a diesel engine except a. piston b. injection pump c. spark plug

4. A device used to remove air from a hydraulic system. a. glow plug b. air bleeder c. spark plug

5. Parts of the diesel engine that delivers the fuel to the injector. a. injection pump b. fuel filter c. fuel tank

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Air bleeder a device used to removed air from a hydraulic system. Types include the bleed plug or screw bolt, needle valve and capillary tubing to the reservoir Combustion the act or process of burning, the fuel Compression the process by which a confined gas is reduced in volume through the application of pressure Compression check a measurement of the compression pressure of each cylinder at cranking speed or as recommended by the manufacturer Compression gauge a test instrument used to test the cylinder compression Compression pressure pressure in the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke, but without any of the fuel being burned Compression ratio the ratio between the total volume in the cylinder when the piston is at BDC(Bottom Dead Center) and the volume remaining when the piston is at TDC(Top Dead Center) Injection period it is a period of injecting fuel covering the daily period, rapid combustion and at the end of combustion Retard (Injection timing) to set the timing so that injection occurs later than TDC or fewer degrees before TDC Stroboscope (Timing light) an instrument used to observe the periodic motion of injection visible only at certain points of its path Timing gears gears attached to the crankshaft, camshaft, idler shaft, or injection pump to provide a means to drive the camshaft and injection pump and to regulate the speed and performance of the vehicle Timing marks (injection) the marks located on the vibration damper or flywheel. Used to check injection timing

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP


Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up

Learning Outcome 1. Install Injection Pump Following the Correct Timing


ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1. Injection timing is set as per engine specifications 2. Required injection pump installation process is set up based on the standard operating procedures. 3. Mounting bolts are tightened as per specifications and torque sequence

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following the correct timing

OPERATION SHEET NO.1 Installing Injection Pump Following the correct timing

Supplies and materials


Bond paper Board marker White board

Tools A set of open wrench Set of special service tool Equipment Engine Injection system mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle

PROCEDURE
1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment needed 2. Prepare the timing gear case for installation a. Position a piece of wood under the timing gear case and install the crankshaft front oil seal using special tool. b. Fill the clearance between lips of oil seal with grease Fig. 1 shows timing gear case assembly (www. Forklift-china.cc)

| Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing

c. Install the O rings to the timing gear case.Make sure O rings are, properly fitted into position.Discard used O rings and install new one.

Fig. 2.the O ring (4x4wire.com) 3. Installing the injection pump by: a. Aligning the marks X and Y on the crankshaft gear, idler gear and camshaft gear. b. Aligning the mark Z on the injection pump gear with the mark Z on the camshaft gear. c. Apply a thin coat of liquid gasket to both faces of the gasket. 4. Installing the timing gear case by: a. Installing the oil thrower with its rear face turned to the gear side on the front part of the crankshaft gear. b. Installing the timing gear case and position the injection pump Fig.3. shows the timing mark (amg link.com)

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing | Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up

Interpretation of timing marks for diesel engine

Fig.4. shows the timing mark in letter (4x4wire.com)

Fig.5 shows the timing mark in letters


and dot mark (dieselpowermag.com)

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing | Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up

OPERATION SHEET NO.2 Install the injection pump following the correct timing

Supplies and materials


Bond paper Board marker White board

Tools A set of open wrench Set of special service tool Equipment Engine Injection system mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle

Procedure
1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed; 2. Loosen the four nuts that attach the pump to the mounting flange plate and align the center timing mark on the pump flange with the pointer on the plate then tighten the four nuts. 3. Be sure that the O-ring is in place on the forward face of the pump mounting flange. 4. Remove the threaded timing port plug in the governor housing behind the control lever to expose the camshaft bushing timing mark. Rotate the pump drive gear to align the timing mark on the camshaft bushing with the pointer on the governor. The guide plate notch will be approximately at 8 o'clock position as viewed from the front. Be sure the engine is positioned as described in step 10 of the removal procedure found in the next page. 5. Insert the automatic timer into the timing gear case and with the injection pump rotated against the crankshaft, rotate the pump driver gear to mesh the drive and idler gears. Do not force the pump into position. 6. Push the pump forward into the case. Rotate it away from the crankcase to align the attachment holes. 7. Attach the pump to the timing gear case.

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing | Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up

8. Rotate the engine crankshaft in the opposite direction of normal operation until the crankshaft reaches the 18 before top dead center mark on the crankshaft pulley. The governor pointer and the injection pump camshaft bushing timing marks should now be aligned. If they are not aligned, the pump was installed incorrectly and must be removed and reinstalled. 9. Install the governor housing timing port plug and proceed with the pump installation by reversing the remainder of the removal procedure. Do not connect the no. 1 injecting pipe, fuel control rod or the batteries. 10. Bleed the air from the fuel filter and the injection pump by removing the air bleeder screws.

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection | Perform pump following Dieselthe Engine correct Tune-up timing

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1 Engine Injection Fuel Pump LO.1 INSTALL INJECTION PUMP FOLLOWING THE CORRECT TIMING
A fuel injection pump is a device used to pump fuel into the cylinders of a diesel or gasoline engine. The fuel injection pump uses pressure to measure, either mechanically or electronically, the proper amount of fuel delivered into the intake airflow or combustion chambers. Fuel injection efficiently provides fuel combustion, thus improving fuel economy and increasing the vehicle's engine performance while reducing pollution and emissions. The automotive diesel engines use two types of fuel injection pump. One is an inline camoperated pump. It has a plunger in each engine cylinder. The other is rotary, distributor-type pump. One or two plungers supply the fuel for all injection nozzles. Inline-plunger Injection Pump The inlineplunger pump has a barrel-and-plunger assembly for each cylinder. An injection line or tube connects each barrel-and-plunger assembly to an injection nozzle. Low-pressure fuel from the fuel supply pump flows through the inlet port into the space above the plunger. The plunger has a roller that rides on a cam lobe in the camshaft. This is like roller tappets use in some engine valve trains. When the cam lobe comes up under the plunger, the lobe raises the plunger. This applies high pressure on the fuel trapped above the plunger. The fuel is forced through the tube to the injection nozzle in the cylinder where the piston is reaching TDC on the compression stroke. The fuel sprays out and ignites from the heat compression.

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Fig.6. In-line injection pump (what-when-how)

Rotary-distributor Injection Pump


The rotary-distributor pump has a rotor that sends fuel to the injection nozzles in the engine cylinders. The pump is driven by a pair of bevel gears at half crankshaft speed. The rollers roll on the inner surface of the internal cam. They move in and out as they roll over the cam lobes. When they move out, they cause the plunger to move out. This increases the size of internal chamber. Then the rollers meet the cam lobes and push the plunger in. This pressurizes the fuel, forcing it out through an opening in the rotor.

Fig. 7. Rotary-injection pump (inetgaint.com) | Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing
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Caution: Unless directed otherwise, the ignition and start switch must be in the OFF or LOCK position, and all electrical loads must be OFF before working any electrical component. Disconnect the negative battery cable to prevent an electrical spark should a tool or equipment come in contact with an exposed electrical terminal. Failure to follow may result in personal injury and/or damage to the vehicle or its components.

| Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing

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OPERATION SHEET NO.3 Installing the injection pump following the correct procedure

Supplies and materials Bond paper Board marker White board

Tools A set of open wrench Set of special service tool Equipment Engine Injection system mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed; 2. Disconnect the batteries and the fuel shut off rod at the stop lever. 3. Rotate the crankshaft in the direction of normal operation until no. 1 cylinder reaches top dead center of the compression stroke. This is done by aligning the lines on the crankshaft pulley rear face with the pointer on the bottom of the case. 4. Remove the forward oil filler cap on the rocker cover and check the no. 1 cylinder valves for looseness. If they are loose, you are at TDC. 5. Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction of engine operation, that is 13/4 turns. 6. Disconnect no. 1 injection pipe from the delivery valve holder. 7. Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of engine operation in small steps. Stop when fuel begins to flow from the delivery valve holder. Injection begins at this point. The control lever must be in the idle position. 8. Read the injection timing point from the scale at the back of the crankshaft damper. If the timing is correct, the timing mark should be at the value shown on the Vehicle Emission Control Information label on the rocker cover +- 2 degrees. 9. If the timing point determined differs from the standard value, loosen the four pump-to-flange plate nuts and rotate the pump | Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing
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(toward the crankcase to advance the timing, away from the crankcase to retard it) to correct the difference. Each mark on the injection pump timing scale represents 6 degrees. Tighten the flange plate nuts and repeat the timing procedure to be sure the timing is correct.

Interpretation of timing marks.


a. Injection pump timing marks

Fig.8. shows aligning mark (Pbase .com) b. Camshaft bushing timing mark

OPERATION SHEET NO.4 under LO1

Fig. 9. shows camshaft bushing timing mark (pop.com)

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OPERATION SHEET NO.4 Installing Injection Pump following the correct timing

Supplies and materials


Bond paper Board marker White board

Tools A set of open wrench Set of special service tool Equipment Engine Injection system mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment needed; 2. Install the crankshaft gear using special tool gear installer. make sure its side with the mark X is turned to the front of the engine.

Fig.10. shows the installation of crankshaft gear (myural.com) 3. Install the gasket and front plate by aligning the holes with the locating dowels on the cylinder body using 3 bolts. Apply a thin coat of liquid gasket evenly to both faces of the gasket before installation.

| Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing

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4. Apply engine oil to the camshaft journals and cams, then install the camshaft on the cylinder body. Then install the thrust plate bolts and tighten securely by fitting tool into the hole in the camshaft gears. When installing the camshaft, care must be given to avoid scratching not the camshaft bearing.

5. Mount the idle gear, so that the oil port in the idle gear shaft is turned to the crankshaft gear side and bolt holes are aligned.

IDLE GEAR

Fig.11 shows installation of idle gear


(lowbrowcustom.com)

6. Apply engine oil to the idle gear shaft and install the idle gear by aligning the marks X and Y on the gear with those on the crankshaft gear andcamshaft gear.
Y Y Y

x x x

Fig.12 shows the three signifying letter as mark


(4x4wire.com) 7. Install the thrust cellar with it chamfered side out using 2 bolts. 8. Install the plain washer with its chamfered side out, then insert the bolt. 9. Torque the camshaft gear fixing bolts to specification(7m-kg) by inserting a bar into position between the crankshaft and cylinder body to prevent turning of the crankshaft.

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10. Install the oil seal spaces and oil seal in position from the rear side of the cylinder body using special tool. Fill the clearance between lips of the seal with grease before installing the oil seal. If the oil seal fitting face of the crankshaft is found to be wornout, adjust the fitting of the oil seal by installing the oil seal without the spacer.

Fig. 13. shows the installation of crankshaft rear oil seal


(detroitdieseltroubleshooting. com) D. SAFETY ENGINE MEASURES IN INSTALLING INJECTION PUMP TO

1. Do not over tighten pump drive gear nut. The replacement pump shaft should be aligned in position to eliminate the need to set pump-to-engine timing since this is not the final torque for the drive gear. 2. Do not steam-clean the injection pump while the engine is running. The temperature difference may cause serious damage to the pump. 3. When using a timing pin, do not forget to remove it before turning the engine over; otherwise, the injection pump will be damaged. 4. Be careful when mounting the injection pump on the engine. Dropping it by accident would damage the body parts of the pump. 5. Do not apply heavy rotational force on pump after gear backlash is removed as this may preload the pump and effect pump-to-engine timing. 6. Be sure that the area is clean.

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following the correct timing | Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up

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ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE LO 1.Installing the injection pump following the correct timing. Workmanship/Performance

Points 35

A. set injections pump following the timing mark safely.

Accurate timing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35

Minus or plus one tooth ahead or delay - - - 25

Wrong timing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15

B. Installed safely the injection pump to the engine . 35

1st 2nd attempts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35

3rd 5th attempts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25

More than 6 attempts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 C. Tightened bolts safely as per specification. All bolts are tightened according to specification and sequence - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30 3 bolts are tightened specification and Sequence - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 Less than 3 bolts tightened in specification and sequence - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10

30

100

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Install injection pump following correct timing | Perform Dieselthe Engine Tune-up

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP


Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up

Learning Outcome 2. Bleed Fuel-Injection System


ASSESSEMENT CRITERIA 1. Fuel level, line leakage and fuel strainer and filter are checked 2. Air-lock free fuel system is determined, screw and primer pumps are bleed

| Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed fuel-injection system

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OPERATION SHEET No. 5 Bleeding fuel-injection system

Supplies and materials Diesel fuel Rags Container Tools One set of open wrench One set of box wrench One set of screw driver Equipment Diesel engine mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment. 2. After the injection pump is timed to the engine and its mounting bolts are torqued to specifications, connect the lowpressure fuel line, the injection lines, the throttle, and the shut- off control to the injection pump. 3. Bleed the air from the filters, fuel lines, and the injection pump to prevent lack of lubrication to the pump elements and possible damage to the closely fitted parts. 4. Check the level of the fuel tank to bleed the system,. If it is below the injection pump, fill the tank. 5. Open the shut-off value, the primary filter, the secondary filter, and the injection-pump vent screws. Allow fuel and air to flow from the vents until the fuel is free of air bubbles. Then tighten the vent screws in sequence, one after the other.

Fig. 14. shows the diesel fuel injection system (denso.com.au) | Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed fuel-injection system
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OPERATION SHEET No. 6 Bleeding Fuel-injection System

Supplies and materials Diesel fuel Rags Container Tools One set of open wrench One set of box wrench One set of screw driver Equipment Diesel engine mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment 2. To vent the injection line, set the throttle to the full-fuel position. 3. Shut off lever or the switch in the runposition. 4. Place the decompression lever in the decompression position. 5. Loosen all the injection-line fitting at the injectors.

Fig. 15 shows the injection lines and fittings. (mercedessource.com) 6. Crank the engine until fuel squirts from the injection lines, and then tighten the connection.

| Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed fuel-injection system

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OPERATION SHEET No. 7 Bleeding the Fuel-injection System shut off engine Supplies and materials Diesel fuel Rags Container Tools One set of open wrench One set of box wrench One set of screw driver Equipment Diesel engine mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment. 2. Loosen the fuel filter petcock or valve and operate the priming pump on the feed pump. If the filter is filled with fuel, fuel containing air bubbles will be discharged from the petcock or valve. Continue pumping until the discharge fuel contains no more air bubbles. Then tighten the fuel valve or petcock securely. 3. Loosen the air bleeder screw at the top of the injection pump and operate the priming pump. Continue pumping until all air is bled from the fuel in the pump reservoir. Then close air bleeder screw securely.

Fig.16 shows the priming pump, line and fitting (justanswer.com)

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed | Perform Diesel fuel-injection Engine Tune-up system

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OPERATION SHEET No. 8 BLEEDING FUEL-INJECTION SYSTEM Supplies and materials Diesel fuel Rags Container Tools One set of open wrench One set of box wrench One set of screw driver Equipment Diesel engine mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment. 2. Make sure that fuel tank shut-off valve is in on position. 3. Bleed the air from fuel filter. Loosen the air bleed screw at the top of the fuel filter to allow fuel to flow out. 4. Bleed the air from the fuel return line (installed on the fuel injector), and bleed the air by operating the manual handle of the lift pump. If there is more than one injector, bleed the one at the end of the line. 5. Bleed the air from the fuel line (line from the filter to the injector pump). Loosen the air venting screw at the injection pump and operate the manual handle of the lift pump until all the air bubbles are out. 6. Bleed the air from the fuel injector. Loosen the nipple on the fuel injector side, set the throttle to half and the decompression lever to the decompression position and crank engine. When no more bubbles appear in the fuel flowing from the end of the injection pipe, re-tighten the nipple.

Fig. 17. shows the part and the fuel line connection (autozone.com) | Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed fuel-injection system
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B. SAFETY MEASURES IN BLEEDING 1. If you bleed the system by using the hand priming pump, do not forget to lock it. If the pump is not locked, there will be no transfer-pump pressure because fuel will circulate within the transfer pump. 2. The presence of air in the fuel system anywhere between the fuel tank and the injector will cause a no start or erratic running condition. Air trapped in the fuel system can cause inadequate fuel injection, poor operation, and hard starting. Whenever the fuel system is serviced, it should be bled of trapped air in the proper sequence. Be sure that all fittings of the diesel fuel line are all air tight in order to prevent atmospheric air pressure to enter the line loose fittings. Be sure that each fuel line is installed into the same pump outlet port position from which it was removed.

3.

4.

5.

| Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed fuel-injection system

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Workmanship/Performance A. Checked safely the fuel level, line leakage and fuel strainer / filter safely. Points 35

All parts are checked properly - - - - - - - - - 35

Two parts are checked properly while the other one does not - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 Only one part of the three is checked - - - - - 15

B. Determining the fuel system safely if it is free from air lock.

35

All lines are working - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35

Three lines are working except one which failed - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25

Either any of them one or two one lines only are working - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 C. Bleeding the bleeder screw by hand priming the primer pump safely. One to two minutes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30 Three to two minutes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 6 minutes or more - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10

30

100

| Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Bleed fuel-injection system

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP


Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up

Learning Outcome 3. Conduct Compression Testing


ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1. Engine requirements in compression testing is determined 2. Specification compression test result is read and interpreted per standard operating procedures. 3. Corresponding recommendation or prescription is given based on the test result

PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Conduct compression testing | Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up

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OPERATION SHEET No. 9 CONDUCTING COMPRESSION TESTING

Supplies and materials


Tools Ball pen Bond paper watch Compression tester for diesel engine One set of open end wrench One set of combination wrench Adjustable wrench

Equipment Diesel engine mock-up TV monitor with VCD/LCD Vehicle PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment. 2. Remove the air cleaner and install a manifold cover. 3. Disconnect the wire from the fuel shut-off solenoid terminal of the injector pump. This prevents delivery of fuel during the test.

Fig. 18 shows the rotary type of injection pump ( dieselpowermag.com)

| Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Conduct compression testing

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4. Disconnect glow-plug wires and remove glow plugs. 5. Screw the compression-tester fitting into the glow-plug hole of the cylinder to be checked.

Fig. 19 shows the checking and testing of compression pressure (ehow.com) 6. Then, crank the engine for at least 12 crankshaft revolutions (six puffs). 7. Check all cylinders in the same way. Get the reading of every cylinder. Clean the injector bore or sleeve with the recommended tool, but make certain that no carbon remains in the combustion space. Be sure that the crankcase is at the proper level, the battery is properly charged and with a good effective starter that produces high efficiency in cranking the engine.

Fig. 20 shows the compression tester using a hose type (justanswer.com) INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS FROM COMPRESSION TESTING
PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Conduct compression testing

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The lowest compression pressure reading should less than 70 percent from the highest compression pressure reading. If the difference is not less than 70 percent, the engine condition is normal. If in case there will be leakage past the piston rings, the compression pressure will become low during the first strokes but will tend to build up toward normal state with later strokes. However, if it does not reach the normal since one of the piston cylinders is lower than minimum standard and the pressure is rapidly lost, the compression pressure is low. .70% = 275 PSI 275 .7 = 393 392 275 = 118 118 .3 = 393 EXAMPLES A. 126 .7 = 180 180 126 = 54 54 .3 = 180 180 x 1.0 = B. 275 .7 = 393 393 275 = 118 118 .3 = 393 393 x 1.0 = 393 C. 140 .75 = 187 187 140 = 47 47 .25 = 187 1.0 x 140 = 140 D. 105 .75 = 140 140 105 = 35 35 .25 = 140 1.0 x 140 = 140 Some manufacturers like Ford, specified that the indicated compression pressures are considered normal if the lowest reading cylinder is within 75% of the highest. Refer to the following example and chart. Seventy-five percent of 140, the highest cylinder reading is 105. Therefore, if cylinder no.1 being less than 75% of cylinder no.4 in firing orders 1-3-4-2, this indicates an improperly seated valve or worn-out or broken piston rings. If one or more cylinders read low, squirts approximately one (1) table spoon of engine oil on top of the piston in the low reading cylinder. Repeat compression pressure check on these cylinders. Then, observed the reading compared previous reading pressured test: 1. If compression improves considerably, the piston rings are at fault. If compression does not improve, valves are sticking or seating poorly. | Perform Diesel Engine Tune-up PERFORM DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP-Conduct compression testing
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2.

3.

If two other cylinder indicate low compression pressure and squirting oil on the piston does not increase the compression, the cause maybe a cylinder head gasket leak between the cylinders. Engine oil and/or coolant in the cylinders could result from this problem. An engine compression test is easy to do but, if the result needs to be tempered with the knowledge of testing conditions that reduce the accuracy of your test. As the battery gets hotter and the engine cools down, your results from any one cylinder will change. It is important to do the test as quickly as possible, with as little cranking as needed to complete the test. Circumstances arise where a more accurate leak down test should be utilized before you start tearing the engine down. Reading that are at the extremes of the chart. (Meaning over-all very high or very low readings), may indicate conditions inside the cylinders that a compression test wont depict properly.

1.

RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN BASED ON THE RESULTS INTERPRETED The following chart reference will be used by the mechanic when checking cylinder compression pressures (to avoid mathematical errors) the chart (below has been calculated so that the lowest reading number is 75% of the highest reading. The actual compression readings are important. Keep in mind that few engines will run with a compression under 100 PSI. However, there are some engines that will test with readings in the 90 PSI range at a regular basis.

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CHART OF COMPRESSION PRESSURES THAT RANGES MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM WILL BE THE BASES OF TECHNICIAN RECOMMENDATION. Maximum PSI 135 . . . 136 . . . 139 . . . 140 . . . 143 . . . 144 . . . 147 . . . 148 . . . 151 . . . 152 . . . 153 . . . 156 . . . 157 . . . 160 . . . 161 . . . 164 . . . 165 . . . 168 . . . 169 . . . 172 . . . 175 . . . 176 . . . 177 . . . 180 . . . 181 . . . 184 . . . 187 . . . 188 . . . 189 . . . . . . Minimum PSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum PSI Minimum PSI . . . . . . . . .144 .145 .147 .148 150 .151 .153 154 156 157 158 .160 162 .163 .165 .166 .168 .169 .171 .172 .174 175 177 178 .180 .181 183 184 .186

.101 192 . . . . . . . .102 193 . . . . . . . .104 196 . . . . . . . .105 197 . . . . . . . 107 200. . . . . . . . .108 201 . . . . . . . .110 204 . . . . . . . .111 205. . . . . . . . .113 208 . . . . . . . .114 209. . . . . . . . .115 211 . . . . . . . .117 213 . . . . . . . .118 216. . . . . . . . .120 217 . . . . . . . .121 220 . . . . . . . .123 221 . . . . . . . .124 224 . . . . . . . .126 225 . . . . . . . .127 228. . . . . . . . .129 229 . . . . . . . .131 232 . . . . . . . .132 233. . . . . . . . .133 236. . . . . . . . .135 237. . . . . . . . .136 240 . . . . . . . .138 241 . . . . . . . .140 244. . . . . . . . .141 245. . . . . . . . 248 . . . . . . . 249 . . . . . . . . . .187

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

It is therefore recommend that if the reading is below the minimum specified compression pressure, the engine will be subjected to general engine overhaul. No top overhaul will be allowed by the car manufacturer.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE LO 3. Conduct Compression Testing Workmanship of Performance A. Tested the compression pressure of four cylinders diesel engine safely within the time frame required. 25 to 40 minutes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 41 to 59 minutes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 1 hour up - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 35 Points 35

B. Computed the test result of compression pressure of every cylinder (4 cylinders) All cylinders computed correctly - - - - - - - - 35 Three cylinders computed correctly - - - - - 30 Two cylinders computed correctly - - - - - - - 25 One cylinder computed correctly - - - - - - - 20 None - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15

C. Recommending solution to specific trouble per result of the cylinder. All cylinders recommended correctly - - - - 30 Three cylinders recommended correctly- - - 25 Two cylinders recommended correctly- - - - 20 One cylinder recommended correctly - - - - 15 None - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10

30

100

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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: Perform Gas Engine Tune Up Module No.: 2 Module Title: Performing Gas Engine Tune Up

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Program/Course AUTOMOTIVE SERVICING Unit of Competency Perform Gas Engine Tune Up Module Performing Gas Engine Tune Up

INTRODUCTION: This module contains information and suggested learning activities on performing gas engine tune up. It also includes instructions and procedures on gas engine tune-up This module consists of eight learning outcomes. Each learning outcome contains learning activities supported by information sheets. Before you perform the instructions, read the information sheets and answer the self-check and activities provided to ascertain that you have acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill portion of the particular learning outcome. .

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Upon completion of the module, you should be able to: LO1. check and adjust valve clearance, LO2. inspect and test spark plug, LO3. check and replace fuel filter and air cleaner, LO4. inspect and replace contact points and condenser, LO5. adjust engine idle speed and mixture, LO6. test and adjust dwell angle and ignition setting, LO7. check advance mechanism and adjust ignition timing, and LO8 .conduct compression test.

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PRE-TEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. The distance traveled by the piston as it moves from BDC to TDC or vice versa. a. stroke b. cycle c. displacement d. valve

2. The highest point that the piston could reached. a. BDC b. TDC c. RDC d. OHV

3. A series of events that repeat themselves inside the piston cylinder. a. BDC b. cycle c. stroke d. all of these

4. The piston position during power stroke. a. top b. bottom c. middle

5. When connected to the engine, the tachometer measures a. engine torque b. engine rpm c. engine compression d. engine vacuum 6. When the engine is at normal operating temperature, the first step in using the compression tester is to: a. disconnect the battery b. adjust engine idle speed c. remove the spark plug d. shift the transmission into low gear 7. The cylinder leakage tester applies air pressure to the cylinder when the piston position is at a. TDC with both valves closed b. BDC with both valves closed c. the starting of compression stroke d. TDC with both valves open 8. Measures how long the contact point remains closed during ignition. a. cylinder compression tester b. tachometer c. dwell meter d. exhaust gas analyzer

9. A service-bay diagnostic computer may do the following, except a. automatically perform tests b. interpret the results c. show how to correct faults d. grade the technicians work 10. All of the following are components of the ignition system, except. a. ignition coil b. condenser c. distributor d. nozzle

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Definition of Terms

Accumulator A gas filled pressure chamber that provides hydraulic pressure for ABS(Anti-lock Braking System) operation. Ammeter A test meter used to measure current draw. Analog A voltage signal that is infinitely variable or can be changed within a given range. Battery terminal test Checks for poor electrical connections between the battery cables and terminals. A voltmeter is used to measure voltage drop across the cables and terminals. Bench test A term used to indicate that the unit is to be removed from the vehicle and tested. Brushes Electrically conductive sliding contacts, usually made of copper and carbon. Circuit The path of electron flow consisting of the voltage source, conductors, load component, and return path to the voltage source. Commutator A series of conducting segments located around one end of the armature. Conductor A substance that is capable of supporting the flow of electricity through it. Continuity Refers to the circuit being continuous with no opens. Current The aggregate flow of electrons through a wire. One ampere represents the movement of 6.25 billion electrons (or one coulomb) past one point in a conductor in one second. Current draw test - Diagnostic test used to measure the amount of current that the starter draws when actuated. It determines the electrical and mechanical condition of the starting system.

Electrical load The working device of the circuit. Electromagnetism A form of magnetism that occurs when current flows through a conductor. Field current draw test Diagnostic test that determines if there is a current available to the field windings. Floor jack A portable hydraulic tool used to raise and lower a vehicle. Fuse A replaceable circuit protection device that will melt should the current passing through it exceeds its rating. Fusible link A wire made of meltable material with a special heat-resistant insulation. When there is an overload in the circuit, the link melts and opens the circuit. Ground The common negative connection of the electrical system that is the point of the lowest voltage. Grounded circuit An electrical defect that allows current to return to ground before it has reached the intended load component. Ground side The portion of the circuit that is from the load component to the negative side of the source. Growler Test equipment used to test starter armatures for shorts and grounds. It produces a very strong magnetic field that is capable of inducing a current flow and magnetism in a conductor. Hydrometer A test instrument used to check the specific gravity of the electrolyte to determine the battery's state of charge. Insulator A substance that is not capable of supporting the flow of electricity. Jack stands Support devices used to hold the vehicle off the floor after it has been raised by the floor jack.

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Magnetism An energy form resulting from atoms aligning within certain materials, giving the materials the ability to attract other metals. Ohm Unit of measure for resistance. One ohm is the resistance of the conductor such that a constant current of one ampere in it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. Ohmmeter A test meter used to measure resistance and continuity in a circuit. Ohm's law Defines the relationship between current, voltage and resistance. Open circuit A term used to indicate that current flow is stopped. By opening the circuit, the path for electron flow is broken. Overload Excess current flow in a circuit. Parallel circuit A circuit that provides two or more paths for electricity to flow. Relay A device that uses low current to control a high current circuit. Low current is used to energize the electromagnetic coil, while high current is able to pass over the relay contacts. Resistance Opposition to current flow.

Lamp A device that produces light as a result of current flow through a filament. The filament is enclosed within a glass envelope and is a type of resistance wire that is generally made from tungsten. Series-parallel circuit A circuit that have some loads in series and some in parallel. Short An electrical fault that allows for electrical current to bypass its normal path. Solenoid An electromagnetic device that uses movement of a plunger to exert a pulling or holding force. Splice The joining of single wire ends or the joining of two or more electrical conductors at a single point. State of charge The condition of a battery's electrolyte and plate materials at any given time. Valve clearance The measured gap between the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm, cam lobe or follower that activates the valve. Voltage The difference or potential that indicates an excess of electrons at the end of the circuit the farthest from the electromotive force. It is the electrical pressure that causes electrons to move through a circuit. One volt is the amount of pressure required to move one amp of current through one ohm of resistance.

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Program/Course Unit of Competency : Module title Learning outcome 1

: Automotive Servicing PERFORM NC I GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP Perform Gas Engine Tune Up : Performing Gas Engine Tune Up : Check and adjust tappet valve clearance

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Valve tappet clearance is set. 2. Checking and adjustment is performed.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 PRINCIPLE OF ENGINE OPERATION TOPIC 1. ENGINE CLASSIFICATION BY CYCLES Piston engine operates on either the two-stroke cycle or the four stroke cycle. Automotive engines are four-stroke cycle engine. Every fourth piston stroke is a power stroke, there is power in every two full crankshaft revolution (720 degrees). A two-stroke-cycle engine produces twice as much power at the same crankshaft speed (RPM) as the four-stroke-cycle engine. However, this does not make the two-stroke-cycle engine twice as powerful. In two-stroke-cycle, there is power in every one full crankshaft revolution of 360 degrees. A. ENGINE OPERATION The action in the spark-ignition engine can be divided into four parts. Each part consists of a piston stroke. Piston stroke is the movement of the piston from BDC to TDC to BDC. Top Dead Center (TDC) the highest point reached by the piston head. Bottom Dead Center (BDC) the lowest point reached by the piston head.

Fig 1 Shows the piston stroke. (www.google.com.ph.)

The complete cycle of events in the cylinder requires four piston strokes. These are intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

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CYCLE means a series of events that repeat themselves.

Fig. 2 Shows the four (4) stroke cycle engine operation. (photo courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph.)

PISTON STROKE Intake Compression Power Exhaust

PISTON MOVEMENT Downward Upward Downward Upward

VALVE POSITION INTAKE Open Closed Closed Closed EXHAUST Closed Closed Closed Open

DEGREES

180 180 180 180

Fig. 3 Table showing the piston movement and valve position INTAKE STROKE . Intake valve is open, air-fuel mixture flows through the port and into the cylinder while exhaust valve is closed. COMPRESSION STROKE. Both valve are closed, the upward moving piston compresses the air-fuel mixture into a smaller space, between the top of the piston and cylinder head. This space is called the combustion chamber. POWER-STROKE. As the piston nears TDC the end of the compression stroke, an electric spark jumps the gap at the spark plug. The heat from the spark ignites the compressed air-fuel mixture, the air-fuel mixture then burns rapidly, producing high temperature of up to 6000F(3316C).This high temperatures cause very high pressure which pushes down the top of the piston. EXHAUST STROKE as the piston approaches BDC on the power-stroke, the exhaust valve opens. After passing through BDC, the pistons moves up again. Definition of Terms PERFORM GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP-Check/adjust|tappet valve clearance
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The burned gases escape through the open exhaust port while the intake valve remains closed.

B. VALVE ACTION In many engines, each cylinder has two valves. One intake valve, the other is an exhaust valve. Some engines have more than two valves; these are multi-valve engines. They have three, four, five, or six valves for cylinder.

Fig. 4 Valve train and related parts. ( www.google.com.ph.)

Fig. 5 Valve train DOHC ( www.google.com.ph.)

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Valve train is the series of parts that open and close the valves. The action starts at the camshaft. The crankshaft drives the camshaft through gears, sprockets and chain or sprockets and a toothed timing belt. Most camshafts have a cam for each valve in the engine. Each cam is a round collar with a highest spot or lobe. When the rotating cam brings the cam lobe down against the top of the bucket tappet, the lobe pushes the tappet down and this compresses the spring and pushes the value down off its seat. The valve opens as the cam continues to rotate while the lobe moves away from the tappet. The spring pushes the tappet until the valve seats.

SELF-CHECK No. 1

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate answer.Write your answer in your test notebook. 1. 2. 3. 4. The highest point reached by the piston head is __________________________. The lowest point reached by the piston head is _________________________. A series of events that repeat themselves is ___________________. During intake stroke the piston movement is ____________________ and the intake valve action is _________________________. 5. During exhaust stroke the piston movement is ______________________ and the exhaust valve action is _______________________.

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INFORMATION SHEET 2 Engine Test Equipment

Quick and accurate diagnosis and service of the engine require the use of various test instruments and gauges. These will show if the battery, starting, charging, fuel, and emissions systems are operating properly. They would also indicate the mechanical condition of the engine.

1. Tachometer. Electric or optical tachometers are used in the shop. The electric tachometer is connected to the engine primary circuit. The tachometer counts the number of times per second the primary circuit opens and closes. The optical tachometer has a light beam focused on a rotating part such as the engine crankshaft pulley. The tach instrument counts how many times per second a mark on the pulley passes by.

Fig. 6 Instrument panel tachomater ( www.google.com.ph

2. Dwellmeter. The dwellmeter electrically measures how long the contact point remains closed during each ignition cycle of a contact-point ignition system. The average for all cylinders is then displayed in degrees of distributor-cam rotation. The technician can also use the dwell meter to set contact-point gap and check for unwanted dwell variation as engine speed increases. Excessive variation indicates mechanical trouble in the distributor.

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Fig. 7 A typical shop dwell-tachometer (http://www.google.com.ph In electronic ignition systems, the ECM controls dwell. It is not adjustable. The dwell meter is used to check the duty cycle of the mixturecontrol solenoid in a feedback carburetor. A dwell-tachometer is a single meter that serves both a dwell meter and a tachometer. This is possible because both meters have two leads and require the same connections..

Fig. 8 Showing the connection of dwell-tachmeter. ( http://www.google.com.ph

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3. Cylinder Compression Tester. The cylinder compression tester measures the ability of the cylinders to hold compression while the starting motor cranks the engine. The compression tester is a pressure gauge that measures the amount of pressure or compression, built-up in the cylinder during the compression stroke. How well a cylinder holds compression is an indication of the condition of the piston, piston rings, cylinder wall, valves and head gasket.

Fig. 9 Compression tester. ( http://www.google.com.ph) 4. Cylinder Leakage Tester The cylinder leakage tester checks compression but in a different way. It applies air pressure to the cylinder with the piston at TDC on the compression stroke. In this position, the engine valves are closed. Very little air escapes from the cylinder if the engine is in good condition.

Fig. 10 Cylinder leakage tester. (http://www.google.com.ph) Definition of Terms PERFORM GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP-Check/adjust | tappet valve clearance
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5. Engine Vacuum Gauge. The engine vacuum gauge measures intake-manifold vacuum. The intake-manifold vacuum changes with the load on engine defects. The way the vacuum varies from its normal level indicates what could be wrong inside the engine. Before making the test, check if all vacuum hoses are properly connected and are not leaking. Make a backpressure test if a restricted exhaust system is indicated.

Fig. 11 Two types of engine vacuum gauge. (http://www.google.com.ph) Connect the vacuum gauge to the intake manifold. Start the engine and let it run until it reaches normal operating temperature. Then note the vacuum reading at idle and other speed. Figure 8 shows the meaning of various vacuumgauge readings. Common vacuum-gauge readings 6. Exhaust Gas Analyzer The exhaust gas analyzer measures the amount of various gases in the exhaust. There are two main types: a. Two-gas analyzer that measures hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). b. Four-gas analyzer that measures hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Fig. 12 Two gas exhaust analyzer. (http://www.google.com.ph) Definition of Terms PERFORM GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP-Check/adjust | tappet valve clearance
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Fig. 13 Four-gas exhaust analyzer. ( http://www.google.com.ph)

An exhaust gas analyzer can also be used to check for exhaust-gas leakage into the cooling system. Figure 11 shows the exhaust-gas analyzer being used to locate fuel or fuel-vapor leaks.

7. Four-Gas Analysis. Combustion at the stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1 provides maximum conversion efficiency. This results in minimum tail pipe emissions of HC and CO.

Fig. 14 Exhaust gas analysis chart. (http://www.google.com.ph) 8. Cylinder-Balance Test. The cylinder balance test determines if each cylinder in a running engine produces the same amount of power. Disabling a cylinder should cause a change in engine speed. The change should be about the same for all cylinders. Connect a tachometer to the engine. Then disable the cylinder. This is done by shorting the spark plug or disconnecting each fuel injector in a port-injected engine. Note the tach reading. Repeat the test on each cylinder. All cylinders are contributing the same amount of power if the rpm drops are the same. Weaker cylinders show less of rpm change. Shorting or disabling a dead cylinder causes no change in rpm.

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Fig. 15 Cylinder balance tester. ( http://www.google.com.ph) 9. Engine Analyzer. An engine analyzer combines several testers, meters and gauges into a single piece of portable shop equipment. When connected to the vehicle, the analyzer provides quick and accurate testing and diagnosis of various engine and vehicle systems. Most shop engine analyzers include an oscilloscope. It displays voltage patterns of the ignition system and electronic fuel injectors. Some computerized analyzers include a second screen. This displays information needed by the technician, such as steps in a test procedure or the test results. The analyzer may have a printer to provide a written report.

Fig. 16 Snap-on engine analyzer. ( http://www.google.com.ph) 10. Service-Bay Diagnostic Computer. Some new car dealers have a service-bay diagnostic computer. This is a computerized engine-and-exhaust gas analyzer with additional capabilities. Ideally, the system enables the vehicle to tell the
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computer what is wrong. Then the system instructs the technician on how to make the needed repairs. Many of these computers have a touch-sensitive screen. The technician first enters the vehicle identification number then the technician answers a series of yes-no questions about how the vehicle is equipped. The technician connects the computer to the diagnostic connector on the vehicle.

Fig. 17 Service bay. Mercedes Co. (photo courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph) 11. Dynamometer. The chassis dynamometer measures engine power and vehicle speed under various operating conditions. The vehicle is driven onto two rollers so the drive wheels can spin the rollers. The rollers drive a power absorber which is usually under the floor. The vehicle remains stationary, but the engine and other components operate the same as on a road test. Meters on a console report wheel speed and torque or power.

Fig. 18 A car being tested in a dynamometer. Mercedes Co. (photo courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph)

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SELF-CHECK No. 2 Select the correct answer to each question. 1. When connected to the engine, the tachometer measures. a. engine torque b. engine rpm c. engine compression d. engine vacuum 2. After the engine is at normal operating temperature, the first step in using the compression tester is to a. disconnect the battery b. adjust engine idle speed c. remove the spark plug d. shift the transmission into low gear 3. The cylinder leakage tester applies air pressure to the cylinder when the piston position is at a. b. c. d. TDC with both valves closed BDC with both valves closed the starting of compression stroke TDC with both valves open

4. Measures how long the contact point remains closed during ignition. a. cylinder compression tester b. tachometer c. dwell meter

d. exhaust gas analyzer

5. A service-bay diagnostic computer may do the following except a. automatically perform tests b. interpret the results c. show how to correct faults d. grade the technicians work

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OPERATION SHEET No.1 ADJUSTING VALVE TAPPET CLEARANCE Adjust tappet clearance according to specifications. Correct clearance contributes to quiet engine operation and long valve seat wear. Insufficient clearance causes the valve to ride open, resulting in lost compression and burning. Too much clearance retards timing and shortens valve life above the seat preventing maximum intake and exhaust. Check tappet guide clearance. Sloppy fit permits tappet to strike valve stem off-center causing side thrust on valve stem with excessive wear and bad seating. The valve tappets are removable. These large, barrel shaped, pressure lubricated tappets are so designed that by removing the adjusting screw, the main body can be lifted out and replaced from above through the valve chamber. This eliminates the costly service operation of dropping the oil pan and pulling the camshaft. Locking of the adjustment is both simple and effective. Accurate valve tappet settings materially prolong engine life and aid performance. In addition to impairing performance, excessive clearances are harmful to cams and tappets as well as to the rest of the valve mechanism. When clearances are too low, the possibility of burned valves increases. Figure19. Removable Valve Tappet

Check and adjust intake and exhaust valve tappet clearance according to specifications.

Fig. 20 Shows the types of valve tappet

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Procedure in adjusting valve tappet clearance: 1. Disconnect and ground the high tension coil wire to prevent accidentally starting the engine.

Fig. 21 Disconnecting high tension coil wire. 2. Remove the valve tappet cover from the left side of the crankcase for Lhead engine. If the engine is I-head or OHC-overhead camshaft, remove the valve tappet cover from the top of the cylinder head.

Fig.22 Removing valve tappet cover. 3. Remove the spark plug from number one cylinder. For in line type engine, begin at front side with the number one spark plug. 4. Place thumb over the spark plug opening and slowly crank the engine until an outward pressure can be felt. Pressure indicates number one piston is moving toward Top Dead Center of the compression stroke. Continue cranking until the timing mark on the flywheel is at the center of the flywheel housing timing hole. Both valves are then closed on the compression stroke of number one cylinder. Be careful with your thumbs. Inspect first the spark plug hole for unnecessary dirt and other foreign objects.

Fig.23 shows how to remove #1 spark plug.

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5. Use two thin wrenches when adjusting valve clearance. Use the lower wrench to hold the tappet and the upper wrench to raise or lower the tappet adjusting screw. When the valve lash is properly adjusted, the appropriate feeler gauge should pass between the tappet and its corresponding valve stem with a slight drag. Refer also to manufacturers specification manual Fig.24 Adjusting valve tappet clearance

6. Crank the engine one-half revolution at a time and check the clearance of each valve; adjust if necessary. Do this on each set of cylinder valves in succession according to the firing order of the engine, which is 1-3-4-2.

Fig.25 Checking the valve clearances. 7. Install new gasket and install valve tappet cover. Be sure the valve cover has an oil tight seal with the crankcase. Use the appropriate sealant and gasket, and ensure the correct bolt tight

Fig.26 New gaskets. 8. Replace the spark plug, spark plug wire, and coil wire.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Check and Adjust valve clearance

Assessment Criteria

Score

30%

Setting valve tappet Valve tappet is set with 95-100% Valve tappet is not set 75% accurately Valve tappet is not set 30 20 10

50%

Checking and adjusting valve clearance All valve clearances are checked and Adjusted with 95-100% accurately 50

Valve clearances are checked and adjusted within tolerance level 40 Valve clearances are checked with only 50% accuracy 30

20%

Apply safety

No accident Minor accident Major accident 100% Total

15-20 10-15 5

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QUALIFICATION UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE LEARNING OUTCOME 2

: : : :

Automotive Servicing NC I Perform Gas Engine Tune Up Performing Gas Engine Tune Up Test spark plug

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Spark plug clearance is adjusted. 2. Spark plug is tested. 3. Spark plug test result is analyzed and appropriate recommendations are prescribed

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 TEST SPARK PLUG Supplies and materials Sand paper Rag New set of spark plug

Tools, Equipment and Materials:

Engine in running condition Vehicle service or repair manual Spark plug socket wrench (magnetic) and handle Wire gauge, ramp gauge or feeler gauge Ignition spark tester Spark plug tester

Removing the Old Spark Plugs Procedures 1. Pull the hood release lever located under the dashboard. 2. Walk to the front of the car, reach under the hood, look for the latch and squeeze it. Open the hood. 3. Find the spark plugs, located in a row along one side of the engine (on an inline four-cylinder engine) and attach to thick wires, called spark plug wires. Cars with V-shaped engines (which can have four, six or eight cylinders) have spark plugs and spark plug wires on both sides of the engine. 4. Change one spark plug at a time, always putting the plug wire back on before changing the next spark plug. Fig. 27 shows the location of spark plug

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Warning: Replace spark plug at a time to prevent misfiring due to incorrect firing order. If necessary, label all the high tension cable.

Fig. 28 shows the proper ways of removing the spark plug wires 6. Blow or wipe away any dirt or debris around the spark plug. Do not allow any dirt or dust to fall inside the combustion chamber. 7. With the spark plug socket and a ratchet, remove the spark plug by turning it in a counterclockwise direction. An extension handle is needed if the spark plugs are deep-set or not directly accessible. Ratchets with flexible heads are especially helpful for Fig. 29 shows the removal of spark plug hard-to-reach spark plugs. 8. Check the spark plug to make sure it needs replacing. A good spark plug should be lightly coated with grayish brown deposits. If heavy deposits are present, or if the spark plug is black or if the electrode or core nose is damaged, the plug needs to be replaced with the right type.

Installing spark plugs Torque is one of the most critical aspects of spark plug installation. Torque directly affects the spark plugs' ability to transfer heat out of the combustion chamber. A spark plug that is under-torque will not be fully seated on the cylinder head; hence heat transfer will be slow. This will elevate combustion chamber temperatures to unsafe levels, and pre-ignition and detonation will usually follow. Serious engine damage is expected. An over-torque spark plug can suffer from severe stress to the metal shell which in turn can distort the spark plug's inner gas seals or even cause a hairline fracture to the spark plug's insulator. In either case, heat transfer can again be slow and the above mentioned conditions can occur or it might lose either the outside and inside thread of the plug hole.

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The spark plug holes must always be cleaned prior to installation, otherwise you may be torquing against dirt or debris and the spark plug may actually end up under-torque, even though your torque wrench says otherwise. You should only install spark plugs when the engine is cool because metal expands when its hot and installation may prove difficult. Proper torque specs for both aluminum and cast iron cylinder heads are listed in the following chart. Cast Iron Cylinder Head (lb-ft.) 25.3~32.5 18.0~25.3 10.8~18.0 7.2~10.8 -14.5~21.6 10.8~18.0 Aluminum Cylinder Head (lb-ft.) 25.3~32.5 18.0~21.6 10.8~14.5 7.2~8.7 5.8~7.2 14.5~21.6 7.2~14.5

Spark Plug Type

Thread Diameter

Flat seat type (with gasket) Flat seat type (with gasket) Flat seat type (with gasket) Flat seat type (with gasket) Flat seat type (with gasket) Conical seat type (without gasket) Conical seat type (without gasket)

18 mm 14 mm 12 mm 10 mm 8 mm 18 mm 14 mm

Fig. 30 Chart showing proper torque of the cylinder head

Steps in installing spark plugs: 1. install spark plugs with your bare hands. If you feel any resistance, stop and start over to prevent cross-threading. 2. Tighten the plugs with a socket wrench until snug. Do not over tighten. 3. Replace the spark plug wires. Usually, you will hear a soft pop when the plug wire snaps onto the plug. 4. Start the engine. Listen. In case the engine runs roughly or doesn't start at all, check if the wires are pushed all the way onto the new plugs.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 2 Measuring Gap of the Spark Plug Procedure: 1. Find the chart listing the proper "gap" for your plugs in your car's repair manual. The spark plug gap may also be on the sticker inside the car's hood. The parts store can also provide you with this specification as well, or you may read the basics below. 2. Insert the spark plug gapping tool in the gap between the metal center electrode and the metal side electrode of the plug's tip.

3. Look at the tool's ruled edge and find the gap's measurement. If it is too big, bend the spark plug's end with the tool to widen the gap. To make the gap smaller, push the side electrode (the metal part at the very top) against a hard surface.

4. After adjusting, measure again. Repeat this procedure until the gap matches the specification listed in your car's manual.

Fig. 31 shows the gapping of spark plug

5. Repeat the forgoing step with each plug. Note: Spark plug gap specifications are listed in inches and or millimeters. The gapper will have inches on one side and millimeters on the other. This is shown in every blade of the feller gauge. Spark Plug Gapping Basics Since the gap size has a direct effect on the spark plug's tip temperature and on the voltage necessary to ionize (light) the air and fuel mixture, careful attention is required. While it is a popular misconception that plugs are pre-gapped from the factory, the fact remains that the gap must be adjusted for the vehicle that the spark plug is intended for. Those with modified engines must remember that a modified engine with higher compression or forced induction will typically require a smaller gap setting (to ensure ignitability in these denser air/fuel mixtures). As a rule, the more power you are making, the smaller the gap you will need. A spark plug's voltage requirement is directly proportionate to the gap size. The larger the gap, the more voltage is needed to bridge the gap. Most experienced tuners know that opening gaps up to a larger spark maximizes burn efficiency. It is | Definition of Terms PERFORM GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP-Test spark plug
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for this reason that most racers add high power ignition systems. The added power allows the opening of the gap, yet still provide a strong spark.

Proper gapping of the spark plug is necessary to get maximum spark energy, lowest RFI release as well as what is best for the longevity of the secondary ignition components (coil, cap, rotor, wires, plugs). When checking plug gaps, the correct way is to use ONLY wire gauges, though many use the slider style gapping tools. These flat or feeler gauge style gauges do not accurately measure the true width of spark plug gap. When increasing the gap size for high performance applications utilizing advanced ignition systems such as Mallory, Accel, Jacobs, Crane and Holley, it is important never to go more than plus or minus .008". This is to maintain parallel surfaces between ground and the center electrodes. Many people do not know that with higher compression ratios and superchargers as well as nitrous, smaller spark plug gaps must be used as well as the use of a much hotter ignition system. These higher cylinder pressures require more energy to jump the spark plug gap. The rule of thumb on plug gaps is to open them up by .002" increments at a time. When the car (race vehicle) begins to lose power or slow down, then go back .001-.002" and, this in most cases, is the optimum gap.

Remember that the ignition unit, plug brand as well as heat range, cap and/or rotor styles and in many cases fuel type or brand will change the optimum spark plug gap settings. Lastly, NEVER use the porcelain insulator as a fulcrum point when setting these gaps. This can cause damage to the spark plug.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE INSPECT/TEST SPARK PLUG

Assessment Criteria 40 % Adjusting spark plug clearance to specification 4 spark plugs are adjusted to specification 3 Spark plugs are adjusted to specification 31-40 20-30

Score

2-1 Spark plugs are adjusted to specification 10

40 % Testing Spark Plug 4 Spark plugs are tested 3 Spark plugs are tested 2-1 Spark plugs are tested 31-40 20-30 10

20% Apply Safely 100% No accident Minor accident Major accident Total 15-20 10-15 5

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Program/Course UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE LEARNING OUTCOME 3

: Automotive Servicing NC I : Perform Gas Engine Tune Up : Performing Gas Engine Tune Up : Check and replace fuel filter and air cleaner

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Fuel filter and air cleaner are replaced. 2. Fuel filter is free of sediments and impurities.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Replacing Fuel Filter Supplies and Materials new fuel filter new air filter element rag

Tools Screw driver flat and Phillips 1 set combination wrench

Equipment Procedure 1. Rest the vehicle for 24 hours to allow any remaining fuel pressure bleed off. Checking valves in the fuel lines are meant to maintain pressure to prevent vapor lock. 2. Locate the fuel filter. The fuel Vehicle in running condition or engine mock up

filter is located on the right side of the engine bay just in front of the power steering fluid reservoir. To provide room to work it is highly recommended to remove the entire air cleaner housing. The location of
fuel filter depends on the model of the engine

Fig. 32 shows the location of fuel filter

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3. Remove the "snorkel tube" in front of the air cleaner housing. This is a friction fit and if you squeeze the sides you should be able to easily pop it out. Undo the two clips holding the air cleaner housing cover and remove the cover and air filter inside the housing.

Fig. 33 shows the fuel filter clip and snorkel tube

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4. Use the 3/8" ratchet and 10mm socket. Remove the support bolt on the left half of the air cleaner housing. Remove the temperature sensor connector by pushing and holding down the metal clip and gently pulling the connector off the back of the air cleaner housing.

Fig. 34 shows air-cleaner bolt support

Fig.35 shows the connector clip 5. The mass air flow sensor has to be rotated forward towards the front of the car to unlock the bayonet lock that holds the air cleaner housing and mass air flow sensor together.

Fig. 36 shows the hose clamp

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6. Disconnect the electrical connector to the mass air flow sensor by turning the plastic locking ring and then gently pulling the connector off of the mass air flow sensor.

Fig. 37 shows the electrical connector of the mass air sensor 7. The mass air flow sensor can now be rotated forward towards the front of the car to unlock the bayonet lock between it and the air cleaner housing. Rotate the mass air flow sensor forward about 1 inch to completely disengage the lock.

Fig. 38 shows the bayonet lock 8. The air cleaner housing sits on two rubber mounts. The housing can now be lifted up about 3/4" to clear these mounts and then it can be separated from the mass air flow sensor.

Fig. 39 shows the hose clamp screw

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9. Now that the air cleaner housing is out of the way, there is plenty of room in which to work. You'll need a good supply of rags and a small can to catch the gas that will inevitably come out of the filter. Remove the connection near the rear of the car first. Use a 19mm open wrench on the filter side nut to hold the filter steady and a 19mm flare wrench on the fuel line nut to break the connection.

Fig. 40 shows the air cleaner housing and fuel filter converter 10. First, loosen the fuel filter hose clamp. Then put the 17mm flare wrench on and brace it against the side of the engine bay to hold the fuel line steady. Finally, use the 7/8" open wrench on the nut shaped portion of the fuel filter (side facing the rear of the car) where the first connection was already undone. This allows much better leverage angle on the 7/8" wrench or fuel filter. 11. The fuel line support bracket is freed by loosening well a 10mm bolt in the right rear wheel that screws to the six-sided plastic nut on the support bracket. Be careful in taking out the air cleaner units once equipped with air flow sensor.

Fig. 41 shows the fuel line support bracket

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Steps in replacing fuel filter. 1. Reattach the fuel line support . 2. Insert new fuel filter and attach to the forward 17mm fuel line nut. Be careful to get the filter oriented to the proper direction. There should be an arrow on the fuel filter itself (should point to the rear of the car) and the nut arrangement between the fuel lines and filter are in one direction. 3. Attach the other fuel line to19mm nut. 4. Secure the fuel filter hose clamp. Mark the mileage and date on the filter for future reference. 5. Attach the rubber hose to the lower left corner of the air cleaner housing. 6. Set the air cleaner housing to the two lower rubber support mounts and put the mass air flow sensor into the back of the air cleaner housing being cognizant of the sealing gasket. 7. Rotate the mass air flow sensor to the rear of the car to reengage the bayonet lock between the air flow sensor and the air cleaner housing. 8. Secure the 10mm support bolt on the upper left half of the air cleaner housing. 9. Tighten the mass air flow sensor hose clamp with the 8" #2 Phillips screwdrivers. Use your right hand to hold the clamp in place, while using a screwdriver in your left hand to tighten the hose clamp. 10. Reattach the mass air flow sensor connector and the air cleaner housing temperature sensor connector. 11. Replace the air filter, the air cleaner housing cover and the "snorkel tube."Avoid possible causes of sparks before you start the engine. 12. Finally, start the car and check for leaks. It will probably take a couple of tries before the car will start up.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE CHECK AND REPLACE FUEL FILTER AND AIR CLEANER

Assessment Criteria Replacing fuel filter 100% 100%

Score

fuel filter is replaced without damaged and leaks in the fittings and mountings. 90-100 fuel filter is replaced with small leaks on fittings 80-89 fuel filter is replaced with multiple leaks on fittings 70-79 Total

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OPERATION SHEET No. 2 REPLACING AIR FILTER Supplies and Materials Tools Screwdriver flat and Philip Wrenches Equipment Air compressor Running condition vehicle or engine mock up new air filter element rag

Procedure: Changing the air filter should be part of any major tune-up. If driving along dirt roads or in other dusty conditions, replace it more frequently. In most cars, this is a fairly simple procedure. You should change your car's air filter every 15,000 miles. 1. Open the hood.

2. Locate the air filter, usually found on top of the engine. In cars with carburetors it is in a round piece of metal about the size of a medium pizza. Fuel-injected cars have square or rectangular air filter housings that may be at the side of the engine.

Fig. 42 shows air filter location

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3. Unscrew or unclamp the top of air filter housing.

Fig.43 removing the filter housing using screw and clamp 4. Lift out the air filter. It should be a round or rectangular filter made of paper or plastic, with a rubber rim.

Fig. 44 shows the removal of air filter element 5. Clean the area with a vacuum cleaner or seal the top of the carburetor. This will keep debris out of the carburetor as you continue cleaning the housing. 6. Clean any dirt or bugs inside the air filter housing with a rag.

7. Replace the filter with a new filter. Consult your manual to determine the proper filter for your car. Check your old filter element for dirt, oil or moisture, cracks and proper sealing at the gasket. Avoid using the wrong size of air filter. Your engine will run less efficiently.

Fig. 45 shows the replenishment of new filter element

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8. Replace the cover and close the hood. Reusable air filters cost more than disposable filters, but if cared for correctly, they can last for over 50,000 miles.

Another good way to make your air filter last is to actually clean it using a vacuum cleaner. Simply take the filter out and with the small attachments of the vacuum, suck out the dust and dirt. The filter will be good as new and it will make your filter last a little longer.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE CHECK AND REPLACE FUEL FILTER AND AIR CLEANER

Assessment Criteria Replacing fuel filter and air cleaner 100%

Score

fuel filter and air cleaner are properly replaced and cleaned with 95%-100% efficiency 90-100 fuel filter and air cleaner are properly replaced and cleaned with 75% efficiency 90-80 fuel filter and air cleaner are replaced or cleaned with 50% efficiency. 79-70 100% Total

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QUALIFICATION UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE LEARNING OUTCOME 4

: Automotive Servicing NC I : Perform Gas Engine Tune Up : Performing Gas Engine Tune Up : Inspect and replace contact points and condenser

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Ignition breaker is tested and replaced. 2. Condenser is tested and replaced

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Inspection and Replacing of Contact Point and Condenser MATERIALS New set of breaker points New condenser Grease Chalk

TOOLS Screwdrivers Dwell-tach meter Timing light Wrench 10mm Feeler gauge Vehicle service manual

EQUIPMENT

Vehicle in running condition

Procedure Contact points should be replaced every 10,000 miles. It's a good practice to replace the condenser at the same time. When you replace the points, you then must check and, if necessary, reset the timing to specification.

1. Remove the distributor cap. You will find that there are two spring clips which hold it. 2. Insert a screwdriver between each clip and the distributor case, and pry them off the cap. The cap then simply lifts off. Do not remove the spark plug wires from the distributor cap. 3. Remove the rotor by pulling it straight up off the distributor shaft.

Fig. 46 shows the removal of distributor cap

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4. Remove the plastic dust cover by lifting it off the distributor. 5. Remove the old contact points. You will see that there is a screw that holds the points unit to a plate inside the distributor. 6. Loosen and remove this screw. Unplug the wire from the points from the black plastic plug that it is connected to. Just pull it straight off. 7. Now, withdraw the points and if they are pitted or excessively worn out, replace them. But if they are still in good condition, keep them as your spare for an emergency.

Fig.47 shows the location of contact point

Fig. 48 shows the dwell angle. 8. Remove the condenser. The condenser is that little metal can inside or outside of the distributor. There is one screw that holds the condenser, and there is another which holds the black plastic plug to the distributor body. Both of these screws are readily accessible, so remove them and the little metal plug clip. Then remove the condenser and plug from the distributor.

Fig. 49 Condenser. Note: Condenser or capacitor is applied to a certain model prior to the requirement needed in terms of specified micro-farad required in manual specification of the engine

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE INSPECT AND REPLACE CONTACT POINT AND CONDENSER

Assessment Criteria Checking/Testing or Replacing Contact Point/Condenser 100%

Score

Contact point/condenser is properly checked/tested and replaced 90-100 Contact point/condenser is not properly checked/tested or replaced 89-80 Contact point/condenser is not checked/tested or replaced 79-70 100% Total

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QUALIFICATION UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE

: Automotive Servicing NC I : Perform Gas Engine Tune Up : Performing Gas Engine Tune Up

LEARNING OUTCOME 5 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

: Test and adjust dwell angle and ignition setting

1. Ignition distributor is checked 2. Ignition distributor setting is adjusted

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INFORMATION SHEET No.1 Testing and adjusting Dwell Angle and Ignition Setting Dwell or dwell angle is the number of degrees the distributor shaft rotates measured from the point where the ignition contacts close to the point where they open again.

Dwell angle is inversely proportional to point gap, that is, increasing the gap decreases the dwell and vice versa. Insufficient dwell may cause ignition failure at high speed, while too much dwell increases the total average current which the points must handle, particularly at low speed. This usually leads to very short point life.

After a distributor is initially timed for a given engine, any change in dwell will result in a change in timing. This requires retiming of the distributor since the rubbing block of the moving arm will contact the cam in a different place.

Set the point dwell to the lower limit for new points to allow for rubbingblock wear.

Use caliper to check the worn-out cam lobe for dwell angle correction to avoid overlapping of dwell angle.

Fig. 50. Parts of a distributor assembly

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OPERATION SHEET No.1 TESTING AND ADJUSTING FOR PROPER DWELL ANGLE MATERIALS New set of breaker points New condenser Grease chalk

TOOLS Screwdrivers Dwell-tach meter Strobe timing light Wrench 10mm Feeler gauge Vehicle service manual

EQUIPMENT Vehicle in running condition

Procedure 1. Connect the dwell meter as per manufacturer's instructions: Generally one of two leads is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and the other lead to the negative terminal of the coil. 2. Start the engine and read the dwell angle. make sure the meter is set on 4 cylinder.

3. If dwell angle is too high (points closed for too many degree of rotation), you will have to carefully reset your points to a slightly larger gap. If the dwell angle is too low, the points will need to be set slightly closer. Adjust the gap .002" or .003".

4. Restart the engine and measure again the dwell angle. Repeat 1to 3 until dwell angle is correct.

Fig. 51 Showing the Top view of distributor (cap removed) showing contact breaker points.

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SETTING IGNITION TIMING 1. Set the timing by connecting the light (inductive or direct) and then mark the correct timing position on the crank pulley or damper. Connect the power lead to the + terminal of the battery or the + side of the coil and the other wire to ground. 2. Follow your engine manual and make a readable mark with a white paint or chalk. 3. Disconnect the vacuum line from the distributor and stick a pencil or nail into it to prevent a vacuum leak. 4. Start the engine and get it running about 500-600 rpm to prevent any action from the centrifugal advance mechanism (if there is one). Then slowly rotate the distributor until the timing marks are aligned. 5. Tighten the hold-down on the distributor. 6. Check the timing again and then put the light away.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Test and adjust Dwell Angle and Ignition Setting

Assessment Criteria Adjust Dwell Angle Dwell angle is properly adjusted Dwell angle is not properly adjusted Dwell angle is not adjusted 50% 50 40 30 50% 50 40 30

Score

Setting Ignition Timing Safely Ignition timing is properly set and practice safely Ignition timing is not properly set and practiced safely Ignition timing is not set

Total

100%

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QUALIFICATION UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE

: Automotive Servicing NC I : Perform Gas Engine Tune Up : Performing Gas Engine Tune Up

LEARNING OUTCOME 6: Adjust engine idle speed and mixture

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Fuel mixture and idle speed (rpm) is adjusted 2. Advanced timing is checked

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 ADJUSTING ENGINE IDLE AND MIXTURE MATERIALS TOOLS Vehicle service manual Screwdrivers flat and Philip Carburetor synchronizer Wrench 10mm Gasoline

EQUIPMENT

Running condition vehicle

Procedure An improper air-to-fuel mixture results in bad engine performance and higher gas consumption. Here are the steps in adjusting engine idle speed: 1. 2. 3. Determine if your car has a carburetor by checking the owners manual. Try looking below the air filter to find the carburetor. Be sure the engine is shut off, then open the hood. Remove the air filter by first unscrewing the wing nut on top. No need to disconnect any hose connected to the air filter - just carefully set it aside.

Fig. 52 shows the removal of air filter

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4.

The carburetor is the part that the air filter is screwed into. The air and fuel mixture is adjusted by two screws. Typically, these screws can be found on the lower-front section of the carburetor.

5.

Using a flat-head screwdriver, turn both screws to the right until it tighten. Do not overtighten because this could damage the needle points.

Fig. 53 shows the idle screws of carburetor

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Adjust engine idle speed and mixture

Assessment Criteria 70% Adjusting Engine Idle Speed (RPM) Idle speed is adjusted according to specification 70 Idle speed is adjusted with a difference of 50 RPM more than or less than specification 60 Idle speed is not adjusted properly 50

Score

30% Adjusting air and fuel mixtures 100% Air and fuel mixtures is adjusted according to specification 30 Adjusted air and fuel mixtures is lean or rich mixtures 20 Air and fuel mixtures is not adjusted properly Total 10

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QUALIFICATION UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE LEARNING OUTCOME 7

: : : :

AUTOMOTIVE SERVICING NC1 PERFORM GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP PERFORMING GAS ENGINE TUNE-UP Check advance mechanism and adjust ignition timing.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Ignition timing procedure is applied per engine requirement. 2. Ignition timing is checked per ignition specifications. 3. Safety measures are applied.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 CHECK ADVANCE MECHANISM AND ADJUST IGNITION TIMING IGNITION TIMING Ignition timing also called spark timing, refers to how early or late the spark plug fires in relation to position of the engine pistons. Ignition timing must vary with engine speed, load, and temperature.

There are two types of timing advance and retard:

1. TIMING ADVANCE It occurs when the spark plugs fired sooner on the engines compression stokes. The timing is set several degrees before TDC. More timing advance is needed at higher engine speeds to give combustion enough time to develop pressure on the power stroke.

2. TIMING RETARD It occurs when the spark plugs fire later on the compression strokes. It is the opposite of timing advance. Spark retard is needed at lower engine speeds and under high load conditions. Timing retard prevents the fuel from burning too much on the compression stroke, causing a spark knock or plug.

Basic methods used to control Ignition System Spark Timing: Distributor Centrifugal Advance is controlled by engine speed. The distributor centrifugal makes the ignition coil and spark plugs fire sooner as engine speed increases. It uses spring-loaded weights, centrifugal force, and lever action to rotate the distributor cam or trigger wheel against distributor shaft rotation. In this case, spark timing is advanced.

Centrifugal Advance Operation At low engine speeds, small springs hold the advance weights inward. If there is not enough centrifugal force to push the weights outward, the timing stays as its normal initial setting as long as vacuum advance is not functioning. As engine speed increases, centrifugal force overcomes spring tension the weights are thrown outward. The edges of the weights act on the cam or trigger wheel lever. The lever is rotated on the distributor shaft. As engine speed keeps increasing, the weights fly out more and timing is advanced a greater amount, at preset engine RPM, the lever strikes a stop and centrifugal advance reaches maximum.

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Distributor Vacuum Advance controlled by engine intake manifold vacuum and engine load. The distributor vacuum advance provides additional spark advance when engine load is low at part (medium) throttle position. It is a method of matching ignition timing with engine load. The vacuum advance mechanism increases fuel economy because it helps maintain ideal spark advance at all times. It consists of a vacuum diaphragm, link, movable distributor plate, and a vacuum supply hose.

Dual Advance Operation when idle, the vacuum port at the distributor advance is covered. During acceleration and full throttle, engine vacuum dropstons, vacuum is not applied to the distributor diaphragm and the vacuum advance does not operate.

Dual-Diaphragm Distributor a dual-diaphragm vacuum advance mechanism, used in some distributors, and contains two separate vacuum chambers: An advance chamber and a retard chamber. Sometimes, a control switch is used in the distributor vacuum line to alter vacuum diaphragm action.

Vacuum Delay Valve a vacuum delay valve restricts the flow of air to slow down the vacuum action in a vacuum device. Note how the delay valve has a small orifice (opening) for vacuum. It also has a check valve that allows flow in only one direction. The vacuum delay valve keeps the vacuum advance from working too quickly, preventing possible knock or ping. The check valve allows free release of vacuum from the diaphragm when returning to the retard position.

Electronic Spark Advance - controlled by various engine sensors, engine RPM, temperature, intake manifold vacuum, throttle position. An electronic spark advance system, uses engine sensors and a computer to control ignition timing. A distributor may be used but it does contain centrifugal or vacuum advance mechanisms. The engine sensors check various operating condition and send electrical data to the computer. The computer then changes ignition timing for maximum engine efficiency.

Ignition system engine sensors typically include: 1. Engine Speed Sensor -reports engine RPM to computer. 2. Crankshaft Position Sensor -reports piston position 3. Intake Vacuum Sensor -measures engine vacuum, an indicator of load. 4. Inlet Air Temperature Sensor - checks temperature of air entering engine. 5. Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor - measures operating temperature of engine.

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6. Detonation Sensor - allows computer to retard timing when engine pings or knocks. 7. Throttle Position Switch - notes position of throttle.

The spark control computer receives input signals (different current or voltage levels) from these sensors. It is programmed to adjust ignition timing to meet different conditions. The computer may be mounted on the air cleaner, fender inner panel, under the car dash or under a seat. Electronic Spark Advance Operation An example of electronic spark advance: is imagine a car traveling down the highway at 55 mph (88 km/hr). The speed sensor would detect moderate engine RPM. The throttle position sensor would report Norman operating temperatures. The intake and coolant temperature sensors would report normal operating temperatures. The intake manifold pressure sensor would send high vacuum signals to the computer. The computer could then calculate that the engine would need maximum spark advance. The timing would occur several degrees before TDC on the compression stroke. This would assure that the engine attained high fuel economy on the highway. Since computer system varies, refer to a service manual for more information. The manual will detail the operation of the specific system.

Base Timing To make the engine run on base timing, you might have to disconnect a wire near the distributor or use a scanner to trigger computer retard. Setting Ignition Timing The engine requires two types of ignition timing: one is the basic or initial timing for starting and idling. This timing is determined by the relationship between piston position and the opening of the primary circuit. The other timing is spark advance. It advances and retards the spark from the base-timing setting, primarily as engine speed and load change. In the same distributors, it is mechanically controlled by centrifugal and vacuum advance mechanism. Contact point distributors should have the timing checked periodically. As the contact points and rubbing block wear, ignition timing and dwell change. Be sure to tighten properly the distributor adjusting bolt to avoid damages and sudden changes in your ignition setting.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 PROCEDURE IN SETTING IGNITION TIMING (USING TIMING LIGHT) Check the timing with the engine at normal operating temperature and idling at the specified speed. In setting ignition timing, follow the procedures. Supplies and Materials: Tools: Timing light Wrench No. 12mm Gasoline

Equipment: good condition vehicle or engine mock up

Procedure: 1. Connect the red cable (positive) to positive terminal of the battery. 2. Connect the black cable (negative) to negative terminal of the battery.

3. The last cable (usually it is smaller than the two cables) is connected to spark plug No.1. 4. Start the engine at normal operating temperature and idling at specified speed. 5. Aim the timing light at the timing marks.

6. To adjust timing, slightly loosen the distributor, hold down clamp bolt, 7. Turn the distributor in its mounting, the rotating timing mark will move ahead or back, rotating the distributor in the direction opposite to shaft rotation.

8. Tighten the distributor clamp bolt. 9. To recheck the timing, timing light should be pointed to timing marks, to ensure it did not change as the clamp was tightened. 10. Turn off the engine, and 11. Remove the cable from spark plug No.1. Disconnect the negative cable and the positive cable, NOTE: Keep your hands and the timing-light leads away from the fan and drive belts. Never stand in line with the fan. A blade might fly off and strike you.

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Self-Check No. 3

Give the correct answers to the following questions 1. Another term given to ignition timing. ______________________.

2. A type of engines ignition timing in which the spark plugs fire sooner on the compression stroke._______________________. 3. When the spark plugs fire later on the compression stroke, this type of ignition timing is called________________________. 4. What will you do if the ignition timing is more advanced ? _________________

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE CHECK ADVANCE MECHANISM ADJUST IGNITION TIMING

Assessment Criteria 70% Adjusting Ignition Timing Ignition timing is adjusted according to specification 70 Ignition timing is adjusted 5 degrees more than or less than specification 60 Ignition timing is not adjusted properly 50

Score

30% Checking advance mechanism Advance mechanism is checked properly 30

Advance mechanism is not checked properly 20 Advance mechanism is not checked 10

100%

Total

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QUALIFICATION UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE

: : :

Automotive Servicing NC I Perform Gas Engine Tune Up Performing Gas Engine Tune Up

LEARNING OUTCOME 8

Perform compression test

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Compression test is performed 2. Compression test result is interpreted and recommendations are prescribed.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 PERFORM COMPRESSION TESTING Materials: Tools Equipment Vehicle service manual Basic hand tool set Compression gauge Safety gauge Gasoline

Vehicle running condition

Procedure: The compression test is pretty much the same whether the press-in or screw-in tester is used (see pictures below). Differences will be noted. The compression test should be done with the engine cold.

Fig.54 Screw-In Tester

Fig. 55 Press-In Tester

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1. Carefully disconnect all of the spark plug wires from all four spark plugs. Number the spark plug wires to aid in proper reinstallation. A handy trick is to wrap thin strands of copper wire around both ends of the spark plug wires--one loop for Cylinder #1, two loops for Cylinder #2, and so on. This way there is no question about which wire goes where. Refer to firing order. To prevent damage to the spark plug wires, be sure to disconnect the wires by first twisting then pulling on the wire's boot, not on the wire itself. 2. Inspect the wires and the rubber seals on both ends. If they are worn out or defective, replace them. 3. With the spark plug socket on the 3/8" ratchet, loosen all four plugs until they can be unscrewed by hand. Use the extension and socket to remove the plug from the last few threads by hand. 4. Lay the spark plugs out in a pattern to match the way they came out of the engine. You will carefully inspect and gap the plugs in the next step. 5. Disable the ignition system by removing the high tension coil from the distributor cap and connecting it to a known good ground to prevent spark discharge. 6. Screw the tester hose into the spark plug hole (hand tight only), or tightly hold the rubber end of the tester in the spark plug hole. If you are using the press-in type of tester, you will need an assistant to turn the engine over. With the screw-in type, you can screw the tester into each spark plug holder successively and turn the engine over yourself. If you're using the screw-in tester, do not use the long-reach adapter on short-reach holes (1/2" long spark plug threads). If the long-reach adapter is used in short-reach holes, it may hit the top of the piston and damage the engine. 7. Turn the engine over six to eight times (same for each cylinder) and record the compression for each cylinder. The test results should be over 100 pounds and within about five pounds of each other. Low readings indicate need for an engine overhaul. 8. Try doing the test again on any cylinder that were low and note the pressure carefully.

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INFORMATION SHEET No.1 Interpreting and Analyzing compression result On a normal cylinder, compression should increase quickly and uniformly during each compression stroke of the engine until a top (or peak) reading is reached. If compression is low in the first stroke, builds up in the following strokes, but does not reach normal value, the piston rings may be worn out or leaking. If compression is low on the first stroke and does not increase on following strokes, leaking valves may be at fault. If the compression value is higher than the manufacturer's specifications, carbon build-up may be present in the cylinder or in the piston. If compression readings on two adjacent cylinders are 20 pounds or more lower than the other cylinders, the cylinder head bolts may be loose (cylinder heads leaking). Recheck cylinders with low compression readings by injecting approximately 10cc of engine oil into each cylinder through the spark plug hole and retest. If the compression reading increases a little, the problem is probably worn out, broken, or poorly seated piston rings. If the compression reading remains the same, leaking or damaged valves may be at fault. The point of this test is to seal the rings momentarily to increase the compression. The oil helps seal worn rings a little, but it does NOT help burned or tight valves or leaking heads - so this simple test can sometimes tell you where the problem lies. What actually happens is that the rings wear on the outside part where they scrape the cylinder, so they get thinner, creating a larger gap at the back of the ring-groove in the cylinder, plus the gap in the rings grows wider. The oil won't do much with the actual gap in the rings, but it helps fill in the extra space behind the rings in the ring grooves, and seals the contact between the rings and the groove itself -- the bottom of the groove and bottom of the ring particularly as the piston moves up for the compression test.

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Self-Check No. 4

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. 1. 2. 3. 4. Compression test should be done when the engine is __________________. The first step in compression testing is the removal of ______________. Low compression readings indicate that an engine needs_____________. _____________measures the ability of the cylinders to hold compression.

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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: Perform Underchassis Preventive Maintenance Module No.: 3 Module Title: Performing Underchassis Preventive Maintenance

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QUALIFICATION

: AUTOMOTIVE SERVICING NC I

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE MODULE TITLE : PERFORMING UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

INTRODUCTION: This module contains information and practices in performing under chassis Preventive Maintenance. It includes instructions on how to check clutch, brake fluid and lines, inspect and change power transmission and different gear oil, inspect replace power steering fluid, check and refill automatic transmission fluid, inspect fluid air tank, check tire and tire pressure and check under chassis body bolts and nuts. This module also consists of learning outcomes which contains learning activities for both knowledge and skills, supported with information sheets, self-check, and job and operation sheets, gathered from different sources. LEARNING OUTCOMES:

1. Check clutch and brake fluid and lines 2. Inspect brake system 3. Inspect and change transmission and differential gear oil 4. Inspect and replace power steering fluid 5. Check and refill automatic transmission fluid 6. Inspect and bleed air brake 7. Check tire and tire pressure 8. Check underchassis body parts, bolts and nuts

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PRE-TEST (Module 3) 1. All of these are components of the chassis except. a. wheels b. brakes c. body panel and disconnects b. clutch the d. engine engine to the

2. This connects transmission. a. brake

power from the

c. suspension

d. spring

3. Technician A says the lower the aspect ratio, the wider the tire appears. Technician B says aspect ratio is the ratio of the tires section height to section width. Who is right? a. b. c. d. A only B only both A and B neither A nor B

4. All the following are true about radial tires excepta. b. c. d. 5. all plies run parallel to each other there is less squirm than with bias-ply tires a belt steel mesh or other material is applied over the plies a radial tire has greater rolling resistance than bias plies

Recommended inflation pressures for the front and rear tires of a car are listed in thea. b. c. d. VECI label tire information label VIN number sidewall markings

6. If two radials and two non-radials are on the vehicle, the radials should bea. on the front b. on the rear 7. c. removed from the vehicle d. inflated to a higher pressure

When rotating tires, all the following are true excepta. b. c. d. do not rotate tire if the front and rear tires are of different sizes. directional tires must remain on the same side of the car. check tire pressure after rotating tires. always perform a five tire rotation.

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 1


Assessment Criteria:

Automotive Servicing NCI Performing Underchassis Preventive Maintenance


Check clutch fluid and lines 1. Clutch fluid level and line checked 2. Clutch line checked for cracks, twists, bends, loose and restricted lines. 3. Low levels of fluid in master cylinder refilled to maximum level.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Checking Clutch Fluid and Lines


AUTOMOTIVE CLUTCH The clutch is located between the engine and the transmission. It is used to engage and disengage the power transmission from the engine by pedal operation during gear shifting. The clutch gradually transmit power from the engine to the drive wheels in order to start the automobile smoothly, and smoothly change the transmission gears under the condition in which the vehicle is traveling.

PURPOSE OF THE CLUTCH 1. It must engage the transmission and the engine smoothly. 2. Once it engages the transmission, it must transmit power entirely without slipping. 3. It must disengage the transmission accurately and quickly. A. PARTS OF THE CLUTCH Automotive clutch consists of 3 major parts. These are the flywheel, clutch disc and pressure plate assembly.

FLYWHEEL In a vehicle with manual transmission, it is a heavy metal wheel attached to the engine crankshaft which rotates with it; helps smooth out the power surges from the power strokes and serves as part of the clutch. The flywheel and pressure plate are the drive or driving members. They attach to and rotate with the engine crankshaft.

face Ring gear

Fig. 1 Parts of engine flywheel (chicaneculture.com)

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CLUTCH DISC It is necessary that the clutch disc transmit power smoothly and once it is engaged, it transmit power continuously without slipping. The clutch disc must be built in such a way that, when the power is disconnected, this can be done accurately as well as quickly. The clutch disc consists of the facing, which is a friction material (usually it is made of asbestos) riveted onto both side of the disc circumference and a hub in the center, which receives the input shaft of the transmission.

Fig. 2 shows the friction disc (vickauto.com)

CLUTCH COVER ASSEMBLY OR PRESSURE PLATE ASSEMBLY Since the clutch cover assembly is fitted to the flywheel of the engine and rotates integrally with the engine, it must be well-balanced for good rotation. In addition, it must have good capacity to radiate heat from the engaged clutch. Clutch covers are divided in two types depending on the type of springs used for pushing the pressure plates against the clutch disc: those having a diaphragm and those with coil springs. While the diaphragm spring type clutch cover is used frequently today, the coil spring type clutch cover is also used in some heavy duty commercial vehicles.

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Fig. 3 shows the pressure plate assembly (renaultforums.com.uk)

B. TYPES OF CLUTCH There are two types of CLUTCH, distinguished by the way they are operated: the hydraulically operated clutch and the mechanically operated clutch using a cable linkage. 1. MECHANICAL TYPE CLUTCH The movement of the clutch pedal of this type is conveyed to the clutch body directly by a cable.

Fig. 4 shows the clutch cable type (tpub.com)

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2.HYDRAULIC OPERATED CLUTCH

In this type of clutch, the movement of the clutch pedal is converted by the master cylinder into a hydraulic pressure which is then transmitted to the clutch release fork via the release cylinder. In this type of clutch, the driver is bothered less by noise vibration from the engine and the clutch itself is easier to operate.

Fig. 5 shows the hydraulic clutch type (2carpros.com)

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 2 CHECK CLUTCH FLUID AND LINES Title: CLUTCH OPERATION Disengaging the clutch (pushing down the clutch pedal) moves the pressure plate away from the friction disc. Releasing the clutch pedal engages the clutch. Spring force clamps the friction disc between the pressure plate and the flywheel. Then the friction disc and transmission input shaft turn with the flywheel. When the driver depresses the clutch pedal, linkage to the clutch fork causes it to pivot. The fork pushes against the release bearing or throw out bearing. This forces the release bearing inward against release fingers or lever in the pressure plate assembly. This pivot pushes the pressure plate away from the friction PEDAL DOWN, CLUTCH DISENGAGED When the clutch pedal is pushed down, the clutch disengages so no power flows through to the transmission.

Fig. 6 shows the clutch disengage (motoIQ.com)

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PEDAL UP, CLUTCH ENGAGED When the clutch pedal is released, the clutch engages, transmitting power from the crankshaft flywheel to the transmission.

Fig. 7 shows the clutch engage (thecartech.com)

MASTER CYLINDER This liquid filled cylinder is the hydraulic brake system or clutch where hydraulic pressure is developed when the driver depresses a foot pedal.

Fig. 8 shows the parts and the cutaway view of master cylinder (justjap.com)

| Check clutch fluid and PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE-Check clutch fluid andlines lines

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1


How to Check the Fluid for a Hydraulic Clutch of a Car Conditions: Supplies and Materials Brake fluid Rags

Procedure: Cars with manual transmissions (stick shift) use either hydraulics (which uses fluid) or a cable to connect your clutch pedal to the transmission. If your car has a hydraulic clutch, the fluid must be checked monthly to ensure that it's full and there aren't any leaks. 1. Determine whether your car has a hydraulic clutch. 2. Turn the engine off and open the hood. 4. Look for a small plastic container about 1 inch in diameter located close to the back of the engine, usually near the brake fluid reservoir. It looks a lot like the brake fluid reservoir but it's smaller. Imagine that the clutch pedal went straight through into the engine compartment: this is where you'll find the clutch master cylinder and clutch reservoir.

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Fig. 9 shows the location of master cylinder (photo courtesy of jaw.iinet.net.au)

4. Check the fluid level. The reservoir is usually clear with a small round rubber cap on the top; it should be filled to the top.

Fig. 10 shows the level of fluid (photo courtesy of new.volvocars.com)

5. Add brake fluid if its low. 6. Replace the cap.

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110

Fig.11 shows the refilling of brake fluid (photo courtesy of allinoneparts.com) Tips and Warnings The hydraulic clutch uses brake fluid. There's no such thing as "clutch fluid." You'll get laughed at if you go to an auto parts shop asking for it.
Cars with a clutch cable do not use any fluid. A leak can often be seen at the reservoir or clutch master cylinder, at the

other end of the clutch hydraulic line at the clutch slave cylinder, or inside the car behind the clutch pedal.
Take care not to spill brake fluid on yourself or the car's paint. It is highly

corrosive. Wash your hands and wipe any spills with a rag.

If the clutch reservoir is consistently low, probably it has a leak. The

reservoir is very small so even a little leak can empty it out quickly. Without fluid, your clutch pedal is useless so you won't be able to shift, or to drive. See your mechanic if you suspect a leak.

PERFORM | UNDERCHASSIS How to Check PREVENTIVE the Fluid MAINTENANCE-Check for a Hydraulic clutch Clutch fluid of anda lines Car

111

SELF-CHECK No.1

Check your knowledge in fluids by completing this self-check.

1. A chemically-inert hydraulic fluid used to transmit force and motion is called


______________.

2. What are the three types of fluids? 3. Types of fluid which are developed for disc-brake system and developed for
higher temperatures are called ________________.

4. A silicon-based fluid that can take even higher temperatures is called


________________.

5. What are the types of fluids that have a clear to amber color and are
hygroscopic? _____________________ .

6. During braking operation, what causes fluid to overheat and cause the
moisture?

7. In the master cylinder, the primary piston is the piston that is . . . a. directly operated by the pushrod b. nearest the front-end of the car c. hydraulically operated by the secondary piston d. needed only on vehicles with drum brakes 8. What do you call a sensor that turns on a warning light in the instrument
panel when brake fluid is low? ______________________ .

9. Parts of master cylinder that force the piston to return to its released position
faster than fluid can flow back to the master cylinder is called ______________________..

10. What are the component parts of a master cylinder?

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CHECKLIST LO1

OK

D (Disassemble)

R (Replace)

T (Tighten)

R (Repair)

A (Adjust)

Check

1. Clutch line for leakage 2. Clutch line for cracks 3. Clutch line for twists 4. Clutch line for bends 5. Clutch line for loose connections 6. Clutch line for restriction

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Specify

C (Clean)

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Performing Underchassis Preventing Maintenance

Learning Outcome 2. Inspect Brake System

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Brake fluid level is checked and maintained between the minimum and maximum 2. Brake lines or hoses are checked and freed from twist and bends 3. Brake pedal free play is specified 4. Brake operation is checked and tested as per SOP. 5. Hydraulic fluid is used and changed without spillage and at the specified level 6. Brake pedal height free-play is checked and adjusted 7. Hydraulic brake system is bled in accordance with brake standards 8. Emergency brake function is checked 9. Points for adjustment of emergency brake are identified.

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INFORMATION SHEET No.1 Inspecting Brake System

AUTOMOTIVE BRAKES TYPES OF BRAKES In automobile it has two types of brakes. The service brakes and the parking brakes.

Fig. 12 PARTS OF BRAKE SYSTEM ON A VEHICLE (diffata.com)

SERVICE BRAKES This type of brakes usually operated by a foot pedal, which slow or stop the moving vehicle. Most automotive service brakes are hydraulically brakes. They operate hydraulically by pressure applied through a liquid. The service or foundation brakes on many medium and heavy-duty trucks and buses are operated by air pressure. These are called air brakes.

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FRICTION IN VEHICLE BRAKES When the brakes are applied by pushing down on the brake pedal, a fluid flows through tubes or brake lines to the brake mechanisms at the wheels. The brake mechanisms apply force on rotating parts so the wheels are slowed or stopped. There are two types of wheel-brake mechanisms, the drum and disc. In the drum brake, the fluid pressure pushes lined brake shoes against a rotating drum. In disc brake, the fluid pushes line brake pads against a rotating disc. Friction between the stationary shoes or pads and the rotating drum or disc produces the braking action that slows or stops the wheels. Then friction between the tires and road slows or stops the vehicle.

BRAKE ACTION The service braking system includes two basic parts. These are the master cylinder and the drum and disc wheel-brake mechanisms. The master cylinder is a reciprocating-piston pump. It pressurizes the hydraulic system when the driver depresses the brake pedal. This converts the mechanical force from the brake pedal into hydraulic force that applies the brakes on the wheels. Braking begins at the brake pedal, when the pedal is pushed down, brake fluid is forced from the master cylinder into the lines to the wheel brakes. As hydraulic pressure increases, brake shoes or pads are forced against the rotating drums or discs. The resulting friction slows or stop the wheels and the vehicle.

Fig. 13 shows the action of hydraulic brake (autorepair.about.com)

NOTE: Flow of brake fluid to the calipers at the front and to the wheel cylinder at the rear when the brakes are applied.

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OPERATING MECHANISM 1. Master Cylinder The master cylinder converts the motion of the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure. It consists of the reservoir tank, which contains the brake fluid, as well as the piston and cylinder, which generate the hydraulic pressure.

Fig. 14 shows the parts of master cylinder (autorepair.about.com)

2. Brake Booster The force with which the driver steps on the brake pedal would not be enough to cause the brakes to operate to stop the vehicle quickly. The brake booster multiplies the drivers pedal effort so that a large braking force is created. The brake booster may be an integral part of the master cylinder of fitted separately from it. The integrated type is used with passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The brake booster consists mainly of the booster body, booster piston, diaphragm, reaction mechanism and control valve mechanism. The booster body is divided into the front (constant pressure chamber) rear (variable pressure chamber) sections, separated from each other by a diaphragm and booster piston.

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Fig. 15 shows the brake master cylinder and booster (g37-tech.com) 3. Proportioning Valve (P Valve) The vehicle is broken by friction between the tire and the road. The friction increases in proportion to the load. Since the engine is usually in the front part of the vehicle, the side is heavier than the rear. When the vehicle hits a hard object, the center of gravity shifts forward due to inertia, and even a greater load is applied to the front. For this reason, a device is needed that will cause more braking force to the front wheels than to the rear wheels. This device is called a proportioning valve or simply a P valve. It automatically reduces the hydraulic pressure to the rear wheel cylinders so that it is less than that of the front, so less braking force is applied to the rear wheels

Fig.16 shows the car in braking action drivefurious.com)

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DRUM BRAKES The drum brake has a metal brake drum that encloses the brake assembly at each wheel. Two curved brakes shoes expand outward to slow or stop the drum which rotates with the wheel. The brake assembly attaches to a steering knuckle, axle housing or strut-spindle assembly. Brake shoes are made of metal. A facing of friction material called brake lining is riveted or cemented or bonded to the shoes. The linings are usually made of non-asbestos materials like a fiber glass or a semi-metallic material that can withstand the heat producing braking action. Asbestos lining has been used, but is being phased out now because of its danger to human health.

Fig. 17 shows the parts of drum brake (chirco.com)

The construction and operation of front drum brakes are the same as rear drum brakes. Most vehicles have rear wheel parking brakes.

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BACKING PLATE The backing plate is pressed steel plate, bolted to the rear axle housing or rear axle carrier. Since the brake shoes are fitted to the backing plate, all of the braking force acts on the backing plate. If the friction surface of the brake shoe wears excessively, the brakes will drag. Brake shoes must be checked carefully every time the brakes are disassembled to prevent this problem

Fig. 18 shows the brake backing plate( oreillyauto.com and hunghd.com)

4. WHEEL CYLINDER When the driver depresses the brake pedal, brake fluid flows from a pressure chamber in the master cylinder through brake lines to the wheel cylinder. It converts the hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder into mechanical movement. The wheel cylinder has two pistons, with seals or cups and a spring in between. As the pressure increases, the pistons overcome the brake-shoe return springs and push the shoe outward into contact with the drum.

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A. RUBBER BOOTS E. WHEEL CYLINDER HOUSING B. PISTONS F. RUBBER CAPS C. WASHERS G. BLEEDER SCREW D. WHEEL CYLINDER BOLTS H. RETURN SPRING . Fig. 19 shows the construction of wheel cylinder ( jeepart.co.uk)

BRAKE SHOE AND BRAKE LINING Brake shoes are usually made of steel plates. The brake lining is attached to the friction surface of the shoe by rivets (in large vehicles) or by adhesives (on small vehicles). Lining must be resistant against heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient. This coefficient must be as unaffected as possible by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Generally, brake linings are made from fiber metallic mixed with brass, lead, plastic etc. and formed under heat.

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Fig. 20 Brake shoe and lining ( zjchangdaautoparts.com)

BRAKE DRUM The brake drum is generally made of gray cast iron. It is positioned very close to the brake shoe without actually touching it and rotates with the wheel. As the lining is pushed against the inner surface of the rotating drum when the brake is applied, friction heat can reach as high as 200 0C (3920F) to 3000 (5720F).

Fig. 21 shows brake drum cross section (en.wikipedia.org)

DISC BRAKE A disc brake basically consists of a cast-iron disc (disc rotor) that rotates with the wheel and fixed friction materials (disc pads) that are pushed against the rotating disc or rotor. Braking force is generated by friction between the disc and the disc pads.

PERFORM | Performing UNDERCHASSIS Underchassis PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE-Inspect Preventing Maintenance brake system

122

Fig . 22 shows how a disc brake work (auto.howstuffwork.com)

PARTS OF A DISC BRAKE 1. DISC ROTOR Generally, the disc rotor is made of gray cast iron. The solid type disc rotor consists of a pair of hollow discs to ensure good cooling, both to prevent fading and to ensure longer pad life.

Fig. 23 shows the disc rotor (youfixcars.com)

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2. BRAKE PAD A disc pad is usually a baked mixture of metallic fibers and resin containing a small amount of metal power. This type is called the semi-metallic disc pad. A slit provided on the rotor slide of the pad to indicate the pad thickness (allowable limit) so that the pad wear can be checked easily. In some disc pads, a metallic plate called an anti-squeal shim is fitted in the piston slide of the pad to prevent the brakes from squeaking.

Fig. 24 shows the brake pad lfncltee.ca/product.php)

TYPES OF DISC BRAKE CALIPER Calipers are grouped into the following types by the way in which they are installed; fixed caliper type (double piston) and floating caliper type (single piston). The fixed caliper is provided with the pair of pistons. Braking force is obtained when the pads are pushed hydraulically by the piston against both ends of the disc rotor. The floating caliper type has a piston that is located in one side of the caliper only.

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Fig. 25 shows the fixed caliper (2carpros.com)

Fig. 26 shows the floating caliper type ( 2carpros.com)

The floating type calipers are further grouped into the following kinds: Semi-floating type PS type

F type FS type AD type PD type

Full-floating type

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Fig. 27 shows the full floating caliper (auto.howstuffwork.com)

SOLID TYPE

VENTILATED TYPE

SOLID TYPE WITH DRUM

Fig. 28 shows the different types of rotor (bargainscouponsforumsbosytw.info, Traded.com)

PARKING BRAKE Parking brakes are mainly used for parking the vehicle. Passenger cars and small commercial vehicles have rear wheel type parking brakes that shares the brake drums of the service brakes or exclusive parking brake that are connected to the rear wheels. Large commercial vehicles use center brake type parking brakes that are fitted between the propeller shaft and the transmission.

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Fig. 29 shows the brake pedal (the-automovers.com)

Fig. 30 shows the parking lever type (euro-importers.com)

Fig. 31 shows the parts of the parking brake (tpub.com)

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OPERATING MECHANISM

The operating mechanism is basically the same in both the rear wheel type parking brake and the center brake type parking brake. The parking brake lever is located near the drivers seat. Pulling the parking brake lever operates the brakes via a cable connected to the lever.

The parking brake lever is provided with ratchet to maintain the lever at the position to which it was set. Some parking levers have adjusting screw near the brake lever so the range of brake lever travel can be easily adjusted.

The parking brake cable transmits the lever movement to the brake drum sub-assembly. In the case of the rear wheel parking brake, there is an equalizer in the middle of the cable to equally divide the lever operating force to both wheels.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 CHECKING AND ADJUSTING BRAKE PEDAL 1. Check pedal height. Turn back the floor carpet under the brake pedal and with a ruler, measure the distance between the top surface of the brake pedal and the top board (asphalt sheet).

Fig. 32 shows the pedal height (autorepair.about.com

2. If necessary, adjust pedal height by following these steps: (a) Disconnect the wiring connector 1 for the stop light switch 2. (b) Loosen the lock nut 3 of the stop light switch and remove the stop light switch in few turns. (c) Loosen the lock nut 4 of the push rod 5 and adjust the pedal height by turning the push rod. (d) Screw in the stop light switch until its pedal stopper lightly contacts the cushion, and then tighten the lock nut. Be careful that the pedal stopper of the switch is not touching the pedal cushion too strongly or the pedal height may be insufficient. (e)Connect the wiring connector for the stop light switch.

3. Adjust pedal free play After adjusting brake pedal height, check and adjust the pedal free-play.

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CHECK PEDAL AND ADJUSTMENT OF BRAKE PEDAL FREEPLAY 1. Check brake pedal free play (a) After stopping the engine, release the vacuum stored in the brake booster by pumping the brake pedal until the pedal reserve distance does not change even with the pedal pressure. If vacuum remains in the booster, the correct free-play cannot be checked. (b) Lightly push the brake pedal with your finger until it and measure the pedal stroke. 2. If necessary, adjust pedal free play (a) If free play is not within specification, loosen the lock nut of master cylinder push rod at least 4 5 times. Then adjust by turning the push rod. (b) Tighten the lock nut and measure the free play again. (c) After adjusting the pedal free play, check the pedal height and stop light operation. CHECK OF PEDAL RESERVE DISTANCE 1. Check pedal reserve resistance (a) Place chocks under the front and rear wheels, release the parking brake and start the engine. (b) Press down on the pedal with 50kg of force and measure the distance between the top surface of the brake pedal and the asphalt sheet. (c) If the reserve distance is less than specification, it may be caused by excessive shoe clearance between brake shoe and brake drum. (d) Adjust the shoe clearance. meets resistance

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OPERATION SHEET No. 2 BLEEDING THE BRAKE SYSTEM Pressure bleeding is recommended for all hydraulic systems. However, if a pressure bleeder is unavailable, use the following procedure. Some hydraulic systems require vacuum bleeding. Check your vehicles service manual for the procedure. It must be noted that brake fluid damages painted surfaces. Immediately clean any spilled fluid. 1. Remove the vacuum reserve by pumping the brakes several times with the engine off. 2. Fill the master cylinder reservoir with clean brake fluid. Check the fluid level often during bleeding procedure. Do not let the reservoir comes half empty. 3. If necessary, bleed the master cylinder as follows: a. Disconnect the master cylinder forward brake line connection until fluid flows from the reservoir. Reconnect and tighten the brake line. b. Instruct an assistant to slowly depress the brake pedal one time and hold. c. Open the front brake line connection again, purging air from the cylinder. d. Retighten the connection and slowly release the brake pedal. e. Wait 15 seconds and then repeat until all the air is purged. f. Bleed the rearward brake line connection by repeating the preceding steps. g. Loosen and then slightly retighten the bleeder valves at all four wheels. Repair any broken, stripped or frozen valves at this time.

Fig. 33 Picture shows how to bleed the Brake System (autorepair.about.com) | Performing Underchassis Preventing Maintenance PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE-Inspect brake system
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4. Proceed to the appropriate wheel first and follow the set sequence according to the Wheel Bleed Sequence. 5. Place a transparent tube over the bleeder valve and then allow the tube to hang down into a transparent container. Ensure the end of the tube is submerged in clean brake fluid. 6. Instruct an assistant to slowly depress the brake pedal one time and hold. 7. Open the bleeder valve, purging air from cylinder. Retighten the bleeder screw and slowly release pedal. 8. Wait for 15 seconds and then repeat the preceding bleed steps. Repeat these steps until all the air is bled from the system. Wheel Bleed Sequence: If you are bleeding the brakes manually, the sequence is rear right (RR), left right (LR). Right front (RF), left front (LF). If you are pressure bleeding, bleed the front brakes together and the rear brakes together.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 3 Procedure for filling the master cylinder with fluid It is utmost important to avoid spraying brake fluid. To protect the face, never bend directly over the reservoir. In some antilock brake systems, the manufacturer recommends depressurizing the system before adding brake fluid. When depressurized, the reservoir level may rise slightly, giving a more accurate level reading.

Fig. 34 Show how to refill brake master cylinder reservoir (autospeed.com) a) Thoroughly clean the reservoir cover before removing it to prevent dirt from entering the reservoir body. b) Remove the reservoir cover and the diaphragm. c) Check that the vent hole in the reservoir cover is open. d) Inspect the diaphragm for holes, and other signs of damage. Replace, if necessary.

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Title:

OPERATION SHEET No. 4 Checking Leaks in the Brake System Checking Leaks

Hydraulic brake system leaks can exist internally or externally. Most internal master cylinder leaks result when the cups lose their ability to seal the piston. Brake fluid leaks in the cups internally. Sometimes, it also appears as an external leak. Internal and external rubber parts wear with usage or can deteriorate with age or fluid contamination. Moisture or dirt in the hydraulic system can cause corrosion or deposits to form in the bore, resulting in the wear of the cylinder bore or its parts. Although internal leaks do not cause a loss of brake fluid, they can result in a loss of brake performance. When external leaks occur, the system loses brake fluid. External leaks are caused by cracks or breaks in master cylinder reservoirs, loose system connections, damaged seals, or leaking brake lines or hoses. To check for a brake fluid leak, perform the following procedure: 1. Run the engine at idle with the transmission in neutral. 2. Depress the brake pedal and hold it down with a constant foot pressure. The pedal should remain firm and the foot pad should be at least 2 inches from the floor for manual brakes and 1 inch for power brakes. 3. Hold the pedal depressed for about 15 seconds to make sure that the pedal does not drop under steady pressure. If the pedal drops under steady pressure, the master cylinder may have internal leak or there may be the leak in a brake line or hose. Visually inspect the system as outlined.

Fig. 35 Brake line diagram (celicahobby.com)

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Brake lines are made of steel. Since they are under the floor pan, they are wrapped with wire armor to protect them from flying debris. The ends are flared either in a double flare or an ISO flare. The flare provides maximum protection against leakage. A short flexible brake hose or flex hose connects the steel brake lines to the wheel cylinders or calipers. Another type of end is the block or banjo fitting. It is used with soft metal washers on each side. A hollow bolt allows fluid to flow from the hose into the caliper.

CHECKLIST LO2

D (Disassemble)

OK R (Replace) A (Adjust) Check C (Clean)

T (Tighten)

Re (Repair)
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1. Brake line for leakage 2. Brake line for cracks 3. Brake line for twists 4. Brake line for bends 5. Brake line for loose connections 6. Brake line for restriction 7. Bleed brake system

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Specify

SELF-CHECK No. 2 1. What are the two types of leaks in the hydraulic brake system? 2. In a hydraulic system, what causes corrosion or deposits to form in the bore, resulting in the wear of the cylinder bore or its parts? 3. What are the component parts of the brake system?

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NCI PERFORMING UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Check clutch fluid and lines

Learning Outcome 1. Check clutch fluid and lines

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Clutch fluid level and lines are checked 2. Clutch line is checked for cracks, twists, bends, loose and restricted lines. 3. Low levels of fluid in master cylinder is refilled to maximum level

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How to Check the Fluid in a Hydraulic Clutch Cars with manual transmissions (stick shift) use either hydraulics (which uses fluid) or a cable to connect your clutch pedal to the transmission. If your car has a hydraulic clutch, the fluid must be checked monthly to ensure that it's full and there are no leaks.

Typical Procedure for Filling the Clutch Master Cylinder Reservoir : Be careful to avoid spraying brake fluid. To protect the face, never bend directly over the reservoir. a) Determine whether your car has hydraulic clutch.

Fig.36 picture of clutch master cylinder reservoir (furoms.nicoclub.com) b) Turn the engine off and open the hood. c) Look for a small plastic container about 1 inch in diameter located close to the back of the engine, usually near the brake fluid reservoir. It looks a lot like the brake fluid reservoir but it's smaller. d) Check the fluid level. The reservoir is usually clear with a small round rubber cap on the top. Add brake or clutch fluid if its low.

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Fig.37 picture of clutch master cylinder reservoir (erniesautocenter.com.com) e) Return the cap.

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SELF-CHECK No. 3 Complete or supply the correct answer to the following statement

1. Give some safety measures in refilling brake fluid to the master


cylinder.

2. Give three characteristics of brake fluid. 3. The proper procedure to refill brake fluid to the master cylinder is
________________________________________________________.

4. In the master cylinder, the brake fluid level should be


_______________________.

5. What is the function of brake master cylinder? 6. The diaphragm under the master cylinder cover prevents
___________________________________________ in the hydraulic system.

7. What are the components or parts of the clutch system?

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 3

:Automotive Servicing NCI :Performing Underchassis Preventive Maintenance :Inspect and change power transmission and differential gear oil 1. Transmission and differential checked for leakage. 2. Transmission and differential gear oil level checked. 3. Transmission and differential gear oil changed in compliance with manufacturer. 4. Transmission and differential gear oil refilled to specified level.

Assessment Criteria:

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Parts of Differential

Fig. 38 differential component parts (globaldrivetrainsupply.com)

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Fig. 39 power flow through a limited slip differential when making a turn ( forum.miata.net)

GEAR LUBRICANTS Manual transmissions, transaxles, and transfer cases are all various types of gearboxes. They are very similar in three ways: 1 2 3 Gears that transmit power Splinted shafts that rotate while other parts are sliding down on them. Bearings that support the shafts and transfer the load to the case or housing.

In the gearbox, the moving metal parts must not touch each other. They must be continuously separated by a thin film of lubricant to prevent excessive wear and premature failure. As gear teeth mesh, there is a sliding or wiping action between the contact faces. This action produces friction and heat. Without lubrication, the gears would wear quickly and fail. However, lubrication provides a fluid film between contact faces. This prevents metal-to-metal contact. Therefore, all gearboxes must have lubricants or gear oil on them. Gear oil has five jobs to do. These are: 1 2 3 4 5 To To To To To lubricate all moving parts and prevent wear reduce friction and power loss protect against rust and corrosion keep the interior clean cool the gearbox

In addition, the oil must have adequate load-carrying capacity to prevent puncturing of the oil film. Chemical additives are mixed with gear oil to improve its :Inspect MAINTENANCE-Inspect and change power transmission and differential gear oil PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS| PREVENTIVE and change power transmission/differential gear oil
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load-carrying capacity. An oil that has an additive in it to increase the loadcarrying capacity is called an extreme-pressure (EP) lubricant. Other additives are also added to the oil to improve the viscosity (thickness), to prevent channeling (solidify), to improve stability and oxidation resistance, to prevent foaming, to prevent rust and corrosion, and to prevent damage to the seals. The typical gear oil is a straight mineral oil (refined crude oil) with the required additives in it. Today, some oils are made from synthetic oil. Regardless of type, gear oils intended for most cars and light trucks have these classification, SAE 75W, 75W-80, 80W-90, 85W-90, 90, or 140. Gear oil is not recommended for use in all gearboxes by the manufacturers. Gears which are lightly loaded, like the as planet-pinion gears in a planetary gear set, do not require oil. Therefore, some transfer cases are filled with SAE 10W engine oil. Other transfer cases use automatic transmission fluid (ATF). To prevent the lubricant from leaking out, the gearbox has an oil tight case. Seals are used around each cover and shaft. In addition, seals are provided around the input and the output shafts. The clutch shaft in many transmissions does not have a separate seal. Instead, an oil slinger is used to throw back any oil that reaches it. Other designs have a passage in the clutch-shaft-bearing retainer that bring back to the case any oil passing through the bearing.

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SELF-CHECK No. 4

1 2

What are the five functions of the gear oil? In order to improve the gear oils load -carrying capacity, we mix it with _________________. What do we call the oil that has an additive to increase load-carrying capacity? Enumerate the types of gear that most cars and light trucks use? Identify the component parts of differential. Identify the component parts of transmission.

3 4 5 6

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INFORMATION SHEET N0. 1 PROPER OIL VISCOSITY Viscosity is a measure of an oil's resistance to flow. A low-viscosity oil is thin and flows easily. A high-viscosity oil is thicker and flows more slowly. Engine oil should have the proper viscosity so it flows easily to all moving parts. The oil must not be too thin. Low viscosity reduces the ability of the oil to stay in place between moving engine parts. If the oil is too thin (low viscosity), it is forced out of the moving parts. Rapid wear results then. Oil that is too thick (high viscosity) flows too slowly to the engine parts, especially when the engine and oil are cold. This also causes rapid engine wear. The engine runs with insufficient oil when first starting. Also, in cold weather, a high-viscosity oil may be so thick that it prevents normal cranking and starting. A single-viscosity oil gets thick when cold and thin when hot.

Fig. 40 Gear oil recommendation chart (briggsandstraton.com)

When properly operated and maintained, a manual transmission or transaxle normally lasts the life of the vehicle without a major breakdown. All units are designed so the internal parts operate in a bath of oil circulated by the motion of the gears and shafts. Some units also use a pump to circulate oil to critical wear areas that require more lubrication than the natural circulation provides. Maintaining good internal lubrication is the key to the long life of transmission or transaxle. If the amount of oil falls below minimum levels, or if the oil becomes too dirty, problems result.

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LUBRICANT CHECK The transmission and transaxle gear oil level should be checked at the intervals specified in the service manual. Normally, these ranges from every 7,500 to 30,000 miles (12,000 to 48,000 kilometers). For service convenience, many units are now designed with a dipstick and filler tube accessible from beneath the hood. Check the oil with the engine off and the vehicle resting on level grade. If the enginehas been running, wait 2 to 3 minutes before checking the gear oil level. Some vehicles have no dipstick. Instead, the vehicle must be placed on a lift, and the oil level checked through the fill plug opening on the side of the unit. Clean the area around the plug before loosening and removing it. Insert a finger or bent rod into the hole to check the level. Be cautious if oil is hot. Fig. 41 shows the condition of the lubricating oil (zero-sixty.com)

Lubricant should be level with, or not more than 1/2 inch below, the fill hole. Add the proper grade lubricant as needed using a filler pump. Manual transmission or transaxle lubricants in used today include single and multiple viscosity gear oils, engine oils, and automatic transmission fluid. Always refer to the service manual to determine the correct lubricant and viscosity range for the vehicle and its operation conditions.

Fig. 42 shows the drain and filler plug (carsack.com)

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OPERATION SHEET No. 2 LUBRICANT REPLACEMENT Transmission and transaxle lubricant can be changed with the manufacturer's specified intervals. Typical intervals are 38,000 or 48,000 kilometers or every two years. Vehicles used for towing trailers, off-road operation, or continuous stop-and-go driving may require shorter change intervals. Drive the vehicle to warm the lubricant before placing the vehicle on the hoist. Clean and remove the drain plug and allow the lubricant to drain into a clean catch pan. Inspect the lubricant for metal particles, which may appear as a shiny, metallic color in the lubricant. Large amounts of metal particles indicate severe bearing, synchronizer, gear, or housing wear.

Fig. 43 shows the typical transmission gear (auto.tekno.blogspot.com) If all lubricants are drained, replace the washer or apply a recommended sealant to the threads on the drain plug. Tighten the drain plug with the recommended torque. Fill the transmission or transaxle with the proper lubricant.

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VISUAL INSPECTION Visually inspect the transmission and transaxle at regular intervals. Perform the following checks.

1. Check for lubricant leaks at all gaskets and seals. The transmission rear seal
at the driveline is particularly prone to leakage.

2. Check the case body for signs of porosity that show up as leakage. 3. Push up and down on the unit. Watch the transmission mounts to see if the
rubber separates from the metal plate. If the case moves up, but not down, the mounts require replacement.

4. Move the clutch and shift linkages around and check for loose or missing
components. Cable linkages should have no kinks or sharp bends, and all movements should be smooth.

5. Transaxle drive axle boots should be checked for cracks, deformation, or


damage.

6. The constant velocity joints on transaxle drive axles should be thoroughly


inspected.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 3 How to Change the Oil in the Gearbox Changing the gear oil is an important maintenance activity for a car. According to some owner's manual, it should be changed every two years or 5000 kilometers. The gear oil inside the transmission and differential coats the gears while the engine is running. The gears and bearings rely on the gear oil to reduce the stress experienced. Gear oil breaks down over time and usage. If not changed, it will turn into a thick dark molasses-like gunk. Eventually, the gears and bearings could seize resulting in a nasty crash. Changing the gear oil is fairly simple and can be accomplished in an hour. Basic Steps: 1. Prepare tools and equipment needed Jack and axle stand Set of wrench Torque wrench Oil drain bucket or pan Rags Penetrating oil Gear oil (check owners manual for the correct viscosity rating)

Fig. 44 Tools and materials you will need for this job. ( http://www.instructables.com)

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2. Locate and remove the "filler bolt"

Fig. 45 Location of the filler plug. ( http://www.instructables.com) First, jack up the vehicle in the jack points and secure the vehicle with the axle stands. Going under the vehicle is dangerous if it is only supported with a jack. Next, locate and remove the filler bolt. Loosen the filler by selecting the proper wrench and turn the wrench counter clockwise. 3. Remove the drain bolt. Loosen the drain, place the drain pan under the transmission and then remove the drain bolt to allow the oil to drain.

Fig. 46 Loosening the drain bolt using proper tools. ( http://www.instructables.com)

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4. Clean the magnet and remove the filler bolt. The drain bolt usually has a magnet in it that catches the metal shavings. Clean them off.

Fig. 47 Magnetic drain bolt. ( http://www.instructables.com) 5. Replace the Drain bolt. Replace the drain bolt, thread it on by hand first for at least 3 turns to be sure for a correct insert. Then tighten it with a torque wrench to the manufacturers specifications.

Fig. 48 Replacing the drain bolt. (http://www.instructables.com)

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6. Fill the oil and close the filler bolt. Add gear oil into the gearbox using the oil pump. Fill the oil into the filler until the oil reaches the level of the filler.

Fig. 49 Filling-up gear oil using oil pump. (http://www.instructables.com)

7. Test drive. Clean up and take the car for a test drive.

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SELF-CHECK No. 5

1. What is transmission? 2. Identify the component parts of transmission. 3. Give the types of gear oil. 4. What are the uses of gear oil? 5. Give the procedures in inspecting transmission and differential gear oil. 6. Give the procedures in changing power transmission and differential gear oil

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 4 Assessment Criteria:

Automotive Servicing NCI Performing Underchassis Preventive Maintenance Inspect and replace power steering fluid 1. Technical data pertaining to power steering fluid assessed. 2. Power steering fluid level checked. 3. Power steering fluid replaced in accordance with manufacturer's specification. 4. Power steering linkages inspected for leakage.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 POWER STEERING SYSTEMS Hydraulic Principles Used in Power Steering Two basic principles are used in all hydraulic power steering systems: (1) Liquids can be compressed very little, (2) Pressure applied to a liquid makes it act equally in all directions, so liquids can be used to transmit a force. Pressure can be increased into a force. To illustrate, connect two cylinders, one ten times as large in area as the other, by a tube or pipe, as shown in figure 50. Apply 100 kilos of pressure to the liquid in both cylinders and it will yield a force ten times greater (1,000 kilos) in the piston with the larger area. The pressure will be the same in both cylinders, but in the larger cylinder, as it has of greater area, it produces a force greater than the pressure. These basic hydraulic principles are applied to provide hydraulic power steering. A pump is used to develop pressure and a cylinder to develop force. The pressure at the pump and in the cylinder, for all practical purposes, is the same but in the cylinder; it is multiplied into a work force. The work force is reduced when pressure is reduced. Oil is the liquid used in hydraulic power steering systems. Basic Power Steering Systems The primary purpose of a hydraulic power steering system is to provide power assistance in driving. All such systems consist of the same principal components. It should be noticed that large cylinder has ten times more piston area than a smaller.

Fig. 50 Principles of power steering system (wikipedia)

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Fig. 51 Principal components of hydraulic power steering system. ( www.google.com.ph.)

Interconnecting hoses and a means of driving the pump are also needed. A V-belt (or belts) is the usual pump drive, and all components are interconnected to form an oil circuit. Circulation of the oil is continuous when the engine is running. Basically, the pump supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure to the control valve, which directs the fluid to the right or left side of the power cylinder piston, depending upon the direction of turn being made. The power cylinder, when actuated by this applied pressure, reduces the amount of effort required at the steering wheel. Arrangement of the principal components differs according to installation requirements. In the so-called linkage type, the second valve and power cylinder may be separate parts and mounted separately in the linkage, or they may be in a single unit known as an in-line unit. In the semi-integral type, the control valve is assembled in the steering gear, and the power cylinder is mounted in the linkage. In the integral type, the control valve and power cylinders are an integral part of the steering-gear assembly.

Rack-and-pinion type The oil pump's control valve structure and operation are basically the same as the ballnut type, except that the steering gear and power cylinder coupling are as shown in figure 52

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Fig. 52 Parts of rack-and-pinion type (http://www.google.com.ph)

Fig. 53 Shows the typical power steering pump and related parts. (www.google.com.ph.)

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FLUID LEVEL - The fluid at the pump reservoir is checked with a dispstick attached to the reservoir cap. However, it is not simply a matter of pulling the cap and reading the dipstick, follow the manufacturer's procedure. FLUID LEAKS - Clean the suspected area, then cycle the wheel from lock to lock several times. Fluid leakage will not only cause abnormal noises, but may result in unequal and abnormal steering efforts. If no sign of leakage is obvious, repeat the wheel cycling process and inspection several more times. Consult the appropriate section of the service manual for detailed information about the action necessary to correct any leak. POWER STEERING HOSES The primary purpose of power steering hoses is to transmit power (fluid under pressure) from the pump to the steering gearbox, and to return the fluid ultimately to the pump reservoir. The hoses, through material and construction, also function as additional reservoirs and act as sound and vibration dampers. Hoses are generally reinforced synthetic rubber material coupled to metal tubing at the connecting points. The pressure side must be able to handle pressures up to 1,500 psi. For that reason, wherever there is metal tubing to a rubber connection, the connection is crimped. Pressure hoses are also subject to surges in pressure and pulsations from the pump. The reinforced construction permits the hose to expand slightly and absorb changes in pressure. If two diameters of hose are used on the pressure side, the larger diameter or pressure hose is at the pump end. It acts as a reservoir and as an accumulator absorbing pulsations. The smaller diameter or return hose reduces the effects of kickback from the gear itself. By restricting fluid flow, it also maintains constant back pressure on the pump, which reduces pump noise. If the hose is of one diameter, the gearbox is performing the damping functions internally. Because of working fluid temperature and adjacent engine temperatures, these hose must be able to withstand temperatures up to 300 oF. Due to various weather conditions, they must also tolerate sub-zero temperatures. Hose material is specifically formulated to resist breakdown or deterioration due to oil or temperature conditions.

Fig. 54 Types of hoses used in power steering. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

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Fig. 55 parts of rack-and-pinion power steering system. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 HOW TO CHECK POWER STEERING FLUID Tips and precautionary measures to take

Check the fluid level and the power steering belt when squeal can be heard on turns. Keep in mind that although drifting or shuddering may signal problems with the steering system, these symptoms may also relate to the car's tires, suspension, brakes or other front-end problems. Power steering fluid has no expiration, it leak. Fill the reservoir to the proper level and check frequently if its level becomes low. If it continues to be low, check for leaks. An empty power steering pump can be damaged very quickly and is costly to replace.

PROCEDURE: 1. Find the hood release, usually located beneath the dash, then Pull. 2. Find the hood latch in front of the car. The hood latch is usually located at the front edge of the hood. Depress the latch, then lift and open the hood. 3. Locate the belts. The power steering pump is driven by a pulley and a belt and has a clear plastic or metal reservoir on top of it. The power steering cap is often marked with power steering.

Fig. 56 Location the belt of power steering pump. (www.google.com.ph.)

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4. Check the fluid level. Some reservoirs may have a small dipstick attached to the cap. Typically, you have a choice of checking the fluid warm or cold. Refer to the corresponding corresponding "Hot" and "Cold" levels.

Fig. 57 checking the fluid level in the power steering pump. (www.mahalo.com)

5. Add fluid if necessary. Use only the proper type of power steering fluid. Check the owner's manual and the bottle. Some cars require power steering fluid specifically for a car model.

Fig. 58 shows the refilling of fluid

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SELF-CHECK No. 6

Write true if the statement is correct and false if the statement is wrong. 1. Pressure applied on a liquid makes it act equally in all directions. 2. Hydraulic power steering system makes driving difficult. 3. Power steering system needs fluid in order to operate. 4. The hoses of the power steering fluid must withstand high temperatures. 5. The primary purpose of the power steering hose is to lubricate the pump.

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 5 Assessment Criteria:

Automotive Servicing NCI Performing Underchasis Preventive Maintenance Check and refill automatic transmission fluid 1. Automotive transmission checked for leakage. 2. Automotive transmission fluid level checked in accordance with service manual. 3. Transmission fluid refilled to specified level.

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INFORMATION SHEET No.1 AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID Automatic transmission fluid is a special lubricant with about the same viscosity as an SAE 20 engine oil. It has several additives such as viscosity-index improvers, oxidation and corrosion inhibitors, extreme-pressure and antifoam agents, detergents, dispersants, friction modifiers, pour-point depressants, and fluidity modifiers. Automatic transmission fluid is usually dyed red. The color makes a leak easily identifiable.

TRANSMISSION FLUID COOLER Overhead automatic-transmission fluid can damage the friction elements (bands and multiple-disc clutches) in an automatic transmission or transaxle. The heat develops in an unlocked torque converter and in other moving parts. To prevent the fluid from overheating, automatic transmissions and transaxles have transmission-fluid cooler or oil cooler. It is usually a tube on the bottom or side of the engine radiator. The engine coolant runs at a lower temperature than the automatictransmission fluid. As the hot transmission fluid flows through the tube, the engine coolant carries away excess heat. Cooler lines similar to steel fuel lines carry the transmission fluid between the case and the radiator.

Fig. 59 Cutaway view of a typical 3-speed automatic transmission showing the different parts. (www.google.com.ph.)

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HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Functions of the Hydraulic System The figure 60 shows the complete hydraulic system of a 4-speed automatic transmission. The hydraulic system provides the pressurized fluid to operate an automatic transmission or transaxle.

Fig. 60 The Hydraulic system which uses a special transmission fluid. (www.google.com.ph)

Planetary gear set with clutch engaged. One set of clutch plates is splined to the sun-gear drum. The other set is fixed at the planet-pinion carrier. When fluid pressure from the pump acts on the apply side of the clutch piston, the clutch plates are forced together. This locks the sun gear to the planet carrier and the planetary gear set rotates as a single unit. The functions of the system are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Supplies fluid to the torque converter Directs pressurized fluid to the band servos and multiple-disc clutches Lubricates the internal parts Removes heat generated by the torque converter and other moving parts

These four jobs are possible because the automatic transmission or transaxle is fitted with automatic-transmission fluid (ATF). Without the proper amount of fluid, the transmission may not shift and the vehicle may not move. Major components in the hydraulic system include the oil pump, band servos, and multiple disc clutches. Other major components are the valve body and governor.

NORMAL MAINTENANCE Normal maintenance of an automatic transmission or transaxle includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Checking fluid level, color, and condition Adding fluid, if necessary Changing fluid and filter Checking shift and throttle linkage Adjusting neutral safety switch Adjusting bands, if possible
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The level of the automatic-transmission fluid (ATF) should be checked with every change of engine oil. Many vehicle manufacturers recommend changing the transmission fluid and filter at periodic intervals. The length of the intervals depends on how the vehicle is used. For example, Chevrolet recommends changing the fluid and filter every 100,000 miles [160,000 km] for normal service. In severe situation, Chevrolet recommends changing the fluid and filter every 15,000 miles [25,000 km]. Severe service includes using the vehicle as trailer, towing or as a delivery vehicle, police car, and even taxi.

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OPERATION SHEET No.1


CHECKING FLUID LEVEL AND ADDING FLUID Checking the fluid level, its color and conditions should be made every change of engine oil. To check the fluid level, drive the vehicle for 15 minutes or until the engine and transmission are at normal operating temperature. Park the vehicle on level ground and firmly apply the parking brake. Let the engine idle. Place the transmission selector lever in park (or NEUTRAL, if specified by the manufacturer). Clean any dirt found around the dipstick cap. Pull out the dipstick, wipe it, reinsert it, and pull it out again. Note the fluid level on the dipstick. Touch the fluid on the end of the dipstick to get an indication of fluid temperature. If the fluid feels cool, the fluid level should be on the low side of the dipstick. If the fluid level feels warm or hot (too hot to hold), the dipstick level is on the high side. Fluid level will vary under normal operating conditions as much as 19 mm from cold to hot. For example, as the temperature of the fluid goes from 16C to 82C, the level of the fluid may rise to as much as 19 mm. Some dipsticks are marked to show proper levels at different fluid temperatures. Note that in some automatic transaxles, the fluid level goes down as temperature increases. The COLD mark on the dipstick is above the FULL mark. If the fluid level is low, add a sufficient amount of the specified fluid to bring the level within the marks for the fluid temperature. Do not overfill an automatic transmission or transaxle. Too much fluid will cause foaming. Foaming fluid cannot operate bands and clutches properly. They will slip and probably burn. This may need an overhaul of the transmission or transaxle.

CHECKING FLUID COLOR Automatic transmission fluid is normally red in color, however if found out that the ATF changes its color, it indicates that a problem occurs in the system. 1. PINK FLUID This indicates that the fluid cooler in the radiator is leaking. Engine coolant has contaminated the fluid. Repair or replace the fluid cooler and remove and overhaul the transmission or transaxle. Replace the seals, bands, lined clutch plates, nylon washers, and speedometer and governor gears. Coolant can affect these parts. Clean all other parts and passages. Flush the cooler lines and flush or replace the torque converter. 2. BROWN FLUID. ATF may turn dark in normal use. However, contaminated fluid may also have a brown color. If the fluid appears contaminated, drain it, then remove and inspect the pan. A small amount of metal particles and friction material at the bottom of the pan is normal. Replace the filter, and refill with new fluid. Large pieces of metal or other materials indicate excessive wear or failure. The transmission or transaxle should be removed and overhauled. Flush the cooler lines, and flush or replace the torque converter.

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CHECKING FLUID CONDITION Fluid color and odor can be checked to determine the condition of the fluid. Look at the color and smell the fluid at the end of the dipstick. If the fluid is brown or black and has a strong burnt odor, bands and clutch plates may have slipped, overheated, and burned. Particles of friction materials from the bands and clutch plates have probably circulated through the torque converter, transmission, and fluid cooler. These particles can cause valves in the valve body to stick. This may cause noisy, rough or missed shifts. Slipping may occur because the servos and clutches cannot work properly. A quick check of fluid condition can be made by placing one or two drops of fluid on a paper towel. As the towel absorbs the fluid, examine the stain for specks or particles. This indicates solid material in the fluid. If the stain spreads and is red or light brown in color, the fluid probably is good. If the stain is dark and remains small, the fluid is oxidized and should be changed. Oxidized fluid has combined with oxygen in the air and no longer has its original properties.

Fig. 61 Checking the fluid condition using dipstick. (http://www.google.com.ph.)

INSPECTING THE PAN Gum or varnish on the dipstick, discolored fluid, and particles or specks on the paper towel indicate the sump in the pan. It should be removed and inspected. A small amount of materials in the pan is normal. Look for large pieces of metal and large amounts of friction material. These indicate abnormal wear or failure. The unit then requires rebuilding or overhaul.

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CHECKING FOR FLUID LEAKS When the dipstick shows a low fluid level, look for a fluid leak. Some fluid can be lost through the case vent if the fluid has foamed. To locate the source of a leak, see if the automatic transmission fluid is dyed red. The dyed red helps in detecting and identifying easily the leak. Another method of detecting a leak is to use an ultraviolet leak detector. If a leak detector is not available, do the following procedure:

Fig. 62. Checking the fluid leaks. (www.google.com.ph.)

1. Clean the suspected area with solvents to remove any traces of fluid. 2. Observe the area if there are leaks and make necessary repair or replacement of gaskets and parts.

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 6 Assessment Criteria:

Automotive Servicing NCI Performing Underchasis Preventive Maintenance Inspect and bleed air tank 1. Data pertaining to air tank obtained 2. Air tank inspected for moisture and leakage 3. Air tank bleed/drained of accumulated water.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF AIR BRAKE SYSTEMS The air brake system consists of three sub-systems: the air supply system, the air delivery system, and the parking or emergency air brake system. The components making up the brake system of each vehicle may differ, but all systems operate in basically the same manner. All models use a vertically split brake system. If a failure occurs in the front brake system, the rear brake system will continue to operate and give reduced stopping capability until the air supply is depleted. In the event of a failure in the rear system, the relay valve modulates application of the rear spring brake units and the front brakes continue to function.

AIR SUPPLY SYSTEM The air supply system is the source of air pressure for the brake system. It consists of a compressor, reservoirs, governor, low pressure indicator, depth gauge, safety valve, drain cock or automatic moisture ejector valve and tank charging valve. The compressor is engine driven and controlled by a governor. When reservoir air pressure reaches 793-861 kPa (115-125 psi), the governor cuts out the compressor. When reservoir pressure drops to 82-179 kPa (12-26 psi) below the cut-out pressure, the governor allows the compressor to cut in again. When reservoir air pressure drops below 353 kPa (60 psi), the low pressure indicator valve closes an electrical circuit to the warning buzzer and the warning light. If the air reservoir pressure exceeds 1034 kPa (150 psi), the safety valve will release the pressure. The air reservoirs are equipped either with manual drain valves and or with an automatic moisture ejector valve which can be drained to remove the of moisture from the air brake system.

AIR DELIVERY SYSTEM The air delivery system delivers the air brake pressure from the air supply system to the brake chambers. It controls the amount of air pressure that is delivered to the brake chambers, and thus controls the amount of braking during a stop. It consists of the foot control valve, the relay valve, quick release valve, and the brake chamber.

AIR STORAGE SYSTEM A number of variations have been incorporated into the air storage system of Louisville models, and are broadly classified, as follows:

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Two tank system with emergency release, which was introduced in 1975 to august 1980. Two tank system with less emergency release which was used in August 1980 to 1983 Model Year. The two tank system has the primary tank on the vehicle right hand side and secondary on the left. Three tank system for 1983 Year Model.

PARKING or EMERGENCY SYSTEM The parking or emergency brake system is composed of a parking brake control valve, a relay or double check valve (tractors), quick release valves and spring brake chambers. The spring brake chambers use a powerful spring to mechanically apply the brakes when air pressure is not available (provided the brakes are properly adjusted). Air pressure releases the spring brake chamber when the vehicle is moving. The air pressure is delivered to the spring chamber by a relay valve or a double check valve which is controlled by an air pressure signal from the control valve on the instrument panel. The relay valve or double check valve also functions to prevent the application of the spring brakes and service brakes at the same time in order to avoid damages on the brake system.

TRACTOR or TRAILER AIR BRAKE SYSTEM The tractor or trailer air brake system is a standard in 9000 models. Its function is to provide air supply to the trailer for its braking system and control the trailer brakes during normal and emergency stops. It also protects a tractor's brake system should a failure occur in the trailer's air system and provides operation of the trailer brakes independent of the tractor brakes. These are the components of this system: tractor air supply control valve, tractor protection valve, trailer brake hand control valve and the hoses, hanger and connectors. Air pressure from the reservoir to the reservoir port of the governor forces the piston to overcome the resistance of the pressure setting spring. The piston and the inlet and exhaust valve move up when reservoir air pressure reaches the governor cut-out setting. The exhaust steam seats on the inlet and exhaust valve thus opening the inlet passage. Reservoir air pressure flows out of the open inlet valve, passes through the piston and out of the unloader port to the compressor unloading mechanism. As air pressure in the reservoir drops to the governor cut-in setting, the force exerted by air pressure on the piston will be reduced so that the pressure spring will move the piston downward. The inlet valve will close and the exhaust valve will open. With an opened exhaust valve, air in the unloader line will escape through the exhaust stem and out of the exhaust port. Some governors are mounted directly on the compressor, allowing direct connection between the compressor unloader and the governor unloader port.

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SAFETY VALVE The safety valve protects the air brake system against excessive airpressure build-up. The safety valve consists of a spring loaded ball valve subjected to reservoir pressure which will permit air to exhaust the reservoir pressure to the atmosphere. This happens when the reservoir pressure rises above the valve pressure setting which is determined by the force of the spring. A safety valve setting of 1034 kPa (150 psi) is used and is not adjustable.

Fig. 63. Safety valve. (www.google.com.ph.) Should system pressure rise to approximately 1034 kPa (150 psi) air pressure will force the ball vent off its seat and allow reservoir pressure to vent to the atmosphere through the exhaust port in the spring cage. When reservoir pressure decreases sufficiently, the spring force will seat the ball check valve, sealing off reservoir pressure. This occurs at 930 kPa (135 psi) for the 1034 kPa (150 psi) setting. It is important to note that the desired pressure setting of the safety valve is determined by the governor cut-out pressure. The opening and closing pressures of the safety valve should always be in excess of the governor cut-out pressure setting. The pressure setting is stamped on the lower wrench flat of the valve. Normally, the safety valve remains inoperative and only functions when reservoir pressure rises above the setting of the valve. Constant 'popping off' or exhausting of the safety valve can be caused by a faulty safety valve, governor compressor unloader mechanism, or a combination of any of the preceding items.

AUTOMATIC MOISTURE EJECTOR VALVE The automatic moisture ejector valve expels moisture and contaminants from the air system reservoir. It operates automatically from ascending and descending reservoir pressures and requires no control from other sources. The | Inspect and and bleed air PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE-Inspect bleed air tank tank
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automatic moisture ejector valve may be drained manually by depressing the stem wire located in the exhaust port. The selector valve has a die cast aluminum body and cover, and is mounted on the bottom or lower end port of the air system reservoir.

Fig. 64 Schematic diagram showing the location of the automatic moisture ejector valves and related components. (www.google.com.ph.) With no air pressure in the system, the inlet and exhaust valves are closed. Upon charging the air system, a slight pressure opens the inlet valve which permits air and contaminants to collect in the sump. The inlet valve remains open when pressure is ascending in the system until (governor) cut-out pressure is reached. The spring action of the valve guide in the sump cavity closes the inlet valve. When reservoir pressure drops approximately 13 kPa (2 psi), air pressure in the sump cavity opens the exhaust valve and allows moisture and contaminants to be ejected from the sump cavity until pressure in the sump cavity drops sufficiently to close the exhaust valve. The length of time the exhaust valve remains open and the amount of moisture and contaminants ejected depends upon the sump pressure and the reservoir pressure drop that occurs each time air is used from the system. To drain the valve manually, use a tool to move the wire in the exhaust port upward and hold it until draining is completed at 0 kPa (0 psi).

LOW PRESSURE INDICATOR SWITCH Low pressure indicator switches are located in both the primary and secondary air supply lines. The switches operate a warning buzzer and a light in case of low air pressure.

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TANK CHARGING VALVE A valve is provided in the supply reservoir to allow air pressure to build up in the brake system from an external air source. The tank valve is similar to a tire valve stem and operates similarly.

AIR GAUGE The air gauge provides a direct reading of each service system's air pressure.

PRESSURE PROTECTION VALVE -- PR-3 The pressure protection valve is a normally closed, pressure control valve which can be referred to as a non-exhausting sequence valve. An example would be in an air brake system to protect reservoir or reservoir system from another system, by closing automatically at a preset pressure should a reservoir system failure occur. The valves can also be used to delay filling of auxiliary reservoirs to ensure a quick build-up of brake system pressure. Air entering the supply port is initially prevented from flowing out of the delivery port by the inlet valve which is held closed by the pressure regulating spring above the piston.

Fig. 65 Pressure protection valve. (photo courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph.)

When sufficient air pressure builds beneath the piston to overcome the setting of the regulating spring, the piston will move, causing the inlet valve to open, and allow air to flow out of the delivery port. As long as the air pressure at the supply port and beneath the piston remains above the specified closing pressure, the inlet valve will remain open.

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SINGLE CHECK VALVE Single check valves protect the primary and secondary air reservoirs against air pressure loss in the compressor.it also protect the supply tank against loss of either primary or secondary system pressure by maintaining the remaining system's operation, thus allowing an emergency stop. The single check valve is located in the air line from the supply tank to each reservoir. It allows air to flow in one direction only, avoiding reverse flowing of air. Air flow in the normal direction moves the check valve disc from its seat and the flow is unobstructed. Flow in the reverse direction is prevented by the seating of the disc, which is caused by a drop in the up-stream all pressure and assisted by the spring.

Fig. 66. Single check valve. (www.google.com.ph.)

FOOT CONTROL VALVE (E-7) The foot control valve is mounted on the dash panel and uses a suspended pedal. It is the dual brake valve type which provides two separate circuits to control the primary and secondary systems of the dual or split systems.

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Fig. 67 Foot control valve. (www.google.com.ph.) Dual foot control valves are connected to each of the air supply systems. The air from supply tanks is metered by the foot control valve as the driver applies the pedal during a brake stop. The metered air pressure is then delivered to a rear axle relay valve which controls the amount of air to the brake chambers. This amount of air is proportional to the air delivered from the foot valve air. The front brakes are supplied directly by the foot control valve.

RELAY VALVE TYPE R-6 The relay valve is air actuated, graduating directional control valve of high capacity and fast response. As it receives signal pressure from the service brake valve, it will gradually hold and release air pressure from the brake chambers to which it is connected.

Fig. 68. Relay valve (www.google.com.ph.)

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MODULATING VALVE (R-7) This valve performs four functions: 1. Limits an adjustable hold-off pressure to the spring brake actuators. 2. Provides for quick release of air pressure from the spring cavity of the spring brake actuator allowing fast actuator application. 3. Modulates the spring brakes through application of the foot brake valve in the event of loss of rear axle service brake pressure, This action takes advantage of the driver's natural reaction to apply the foot brake valve in an emergency brake situation and eliminates the need to actuate dash mounted controls.

Fig. 69 Modulating valve. (www.google.com.ph.)

BRAKE SERVICE AIR CHAMBER The air system in air vehicles with spring actuated rear wheel parking brakes is equipped with a tank valve for connection to an external air supply. This valve permits the system to be recharged with air from an outside source, releasing the spring actuated parking brakes. This enables the vehicle to be towed in an emergency. Outside air source can be used only if the protected system is in operating condition. The brake chamber assembly consists of two separate air chambers, each with its own diaphragm and push rod. The service brake chamber applies the brake by air pressure and releases it by spring pressure when air is exhausted. The parking or emergency brake is applied by spring pressure and is released by air pressure. Diaphragms should be replaced every 80,000 km (50,000 miles) or every 12 months. Compressed air, admitted to the brake chamber, enters the chamber behind a dLm3hraoPa which forces the push plate and push rod outward. In camtype air brakes, the outward movement of the push rod rotates the slack adjuster which rotates the brake camshaft and cam, forcing the shoes against the drum. Air pressure delivered to the air chambers (delivered through the inlet port) acts on the diaphragm, thus moving the push rod and plate. The amount of force coming from the chamber is equal to the air pressure multiplied by the effective | Inspect and and bleed air PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE-Inspect bleed air tank tank
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area of the diaphragm. This force is proportional to the air pressure delivered to the chambers.

Fig. 70 Brake chamber. (www.google.com.ph.)

The very strong spring in these units is highly compressed and can cause serious, even fatal, injury if the spring is released without control. Do not remove chamber clamp before the spring is caged. Install release tool in spring plate and tighten down to cage the spring.

REAR SPRING BRAKE CHAMBER Spring brakes are a dual-purpose device containing both a service air Brake actuator and a spring mechanism for positive parking and emergency use. Application is by driver control or automatic at a predetermined service brake air system pressure.

Once applied as parking brake, spring brakes cannot be released unless adequate air pressure is available to operate the service brakes.

Applied as emergency brake, spring brakes are capable of stopping a moving vehicle if there is a failure in the normal service brake air system.

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SPRING BRAKE ACTUATOR OPERATION A spring chamber incorporating a powerful internal spring and an operating piston is installed in place of the pressure plate of the service brake actuator. Its purpose is to apply the brake mechanically by means of the spring and piston to act as a parking brake. The Emergency Spring Brake Release Reservoir and Control Valve The function of the reservoir is to provide sufficient air to release the spring (park) brakes at least twice after they have automatically applied because of a failure in the air supply side of the park brake control valve (e.g. compressor drive failure). This is to move the vehicle to a place for repair. In its normal operating condition, the emergency spring brake release valve allows the blended park brake supply circuit air to pass smoothly to the park brake control to provide release pressure in the spring brake unit. To release the spring brakes after a blended air supply failure, depress the emergency release valve knob. The failed supply circuit at the valve will now be closed off and air from the emergency release tank will be routed through the valve to the park brake control and be available to release the brakes.

Fig. 71 Shows the opening of the quick release valve. (www.google.com.ph.)

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QUICK RELEASE VALVE The quick release valve reduces the time required to release the brakes by hastening the exhaust of air from the brake chambers or valves. The valve body contains a diaphragm which permits supply pressure from the control valve to flow through the quick release valve to the brake chambers. When control pressure is reduced, the air present will escape rapidly through the exhaust port, rather than back through the brake valve.

DOUBLE CHECK VALVE Double check valves are used in an air brake system to direct a flow of air into a common line from either of two sources, whichever is at the higher pressure. They may be used for directing air flow for specific functions or to select the higher pressure of either of two sources of air as a supply source.

PARTS OF DOUBLE CHECK VALVE 1. Inlet passage from emergency pilot valve. 2. Shuttle 3. Inlet passage from brake control valve 4. Outlet

Fig. 72 Parts of double check valve (www.google.com.ph.)

It is used with the tractor hand control valve to allow either foot brake control or hand brake control valve applications of the trailer brakes. The double check valve operates, as follows: air under pressure enters either end of the double check valve (supply port). The moving shuttle responds to the pressure and seals the opposite port, assuming it is at a lower pressure level than the other. The air flow continues out the delivery port of the double check valve. The position of the shuttle will reverse if the pressure levels are reversed.

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VM1 TRACTOR and TRAILER VALVE The VM1 valve is a combination of two double check valves and a tractor protection valve.

Fig. 73. Tractor valve. (www.google.com.ph.)

With this valve either of the two service brake circuits of the dual air system in the vehicle, can be used to apply the trailer brakes. In addition the VM1, when used in conjunction with a control valve like as the PP-3/7, can open and close the trailer service and supply hoses in the same manner as a tractor protection valve. The VM1 prime mover or tractor protection manifold is located in the air manifold and performs three main functions.

1. Trailer brake system. When the control valve is in the manual position, air supply to the trailer system is cut off. When the control valve is placed in the automatic position, air supply to the trailer system will shut off should there be a sudden drop in air pressure on the trailer side of the primer mover or tractor protection manifold, as with a trailer breakaway. 2. The second function is to permit operation of the trailer brakes from either the prime mover or tractor primary or secondary circuit. As long as both prime mover or tractor air circuits are in operation, blended air from both circuits, which is supplied by the prime mover or tractor brake valve, will be supplied to the trailer brakes, Should either prime mover or tractor air circuit malfunction, the prime mover or tractor protection manifold would provide pressure from the operating air circuit to the trailer.

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3. The third function is to permit independent control of the trailer brakes by means of a hand control valve located at the steering column. The prime mover or tractor protection manifold also includes connections for service stoplights and trailer emergency stoplights. The functions of the double check valve and the trailer emergency breakaway valve have been incorporated in the prime mover or tractor protection manifold.

CONTROL VALVE (PP-3/7)

The PP-3/7 push-pull control valve is a pressure sensitive, manually operable, on-off control which will automatically return to the exhaust position when manual force is removed and air pressure supply is below the required minimum.

Fig. 74 Control valve. (www.google.com.ph.)

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 7 Assessment Criteria:

Automotive Servicing NCI Performing Underchasis Preventive Maintenance Check tire and tire pressure 1. Tire inspected for unwanted solid object. 2. Tire inspected for wear and deformities in accordance with manual. 3. Cause of abnormal tire wear determined. 4. Tire pressure check in accordance with manufacturers specification.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Checking Tire and Tire Pressure Purpose of Tires The automotive chassis includes the brake, steering, and suspension systems. The chassis components that drive the vehicle and support its weight are the wheels and tires. Only the vehicle tires have contact with the road surface. Tires have two functions. First they are air-filled cushions that absorb most of the shocks caused by road irregularities. The tires flex as they meet those irregularities. This reduces the effect of road shocks on the vehicle, passengers, and load. Second, the tires grip the road to provide good traction. This enables the vehicle to accelerate, brake and make turns without skidding.

Types of Tires There are two types of tires and tubeless. Tube tires have an inner tube inside the tire. This tube is a round rubber container that holds the air which supports the vehicle. Both the tube and tire are mounted on the wheel rim. The tire valve is part of the tube and protrudes through the rim. Compressed air is forced through the valve to inflate the tube. The air pressure in the tube causes the tire to hold its shape. Tubes are used in some truck and motorcycle tires. Tubes are seldom used in passenger and light-duty vehicles. Most automotive vehicles use tubeless tires. The tire mounts on an airtight rim so air is retained between the flange and the tire bead.

Fig. 75 Construction of the tubeless type tire. (www.google.com.ph.)

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Tire Construction The tire casings for tube and tubeless tires are made in the same way. Layers of cord or plies are shaped in a form and impregnated with rubber. The tire sidewall and treads are then applied. They are vulcanized in place to form the tire. To vulcanize means to heat the rubber under pressure. This molds the tire into desired form. The number of cord layers or plies varies. Passenger-car tires have 2, 4, or 6 plies. Heavy-duty truck and bus tires may have up to 14 plies. Tires for heavyduty service, like earth-moving machinery, may have up to 32 plies. All tires do not have the same shape or profile. The aspect ratio or profile ratio differs. This refers to the ratio of a tire's section height to section width. Three aspect ratios are 80, 70, and 60. The lower the number, the wider the tire appears. A 60-series tire is only 60 percent high as its width.

Fig. 76 Different parts of the tire . (www.google.com.ph.)

Bias and Radial Plies Plies can be applied in two ways: diagonally or radially. For many years, most tires have diagonal or bias plies. These plies crisscross, making the tire strong in all directions because the plies overlaps, although, the plies tend to move against each other and produce heat, especially at high speed. Also, the tread tends to close or "squirm as it meets the road. Radial tires were produced to remedy these problems. In a radial tire, the plies run parallel to each other and vertical to the tire bead. Stabilizer belts are applied over the plies to give strength parallel to the beads. Belts are made of rayon, nylon, fiberglass, or steel mesh.

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All new cars and most light-duty vehicles have radial tires. The radial-tire sidewall is more flexible than the bias-ply. Therefore, the radial tire tread wraps around the edge of the tire to compensate for the flexible sidewall. The result is that the radial tread does not hold up as much when the vehicle rounds a curve. This keeps more of the tread on the road and reduces the tendency of the tire to skid. The radial tire provides better fuel economy than a bias-ply tire. This is because the radial has less rolling resistance and therefore, requiring less engine power to roll. The radial also doesnt get worn out easily. It has less heat buildup and the tread does not squirm as the tire meets the road.

Fig. 77 Bias and radial type . (www.google.com.ph.)

Tire Tread Tire tread is part of the tire that meets the road. It has a raised pattern molded into it. There are many designs, depending on the intended use of the tire. Many passenger vehicles use mud-and-snow tires. These can be identified by M+S or M&S molded into the sidewall. They provide quiet running with good traction on mud and snow.

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Fig. 78 Three different tire thread patterns . ( http://www.google.com.ph.)

Mud and snow tires are used by four-wheel-drive pickup trucks. Its tread pattern is deeper and wider (or "more aggressive") than normal tread designs. This provides better mud-and-snow traction with acceptable wear on paved surfaces. The tread compound is also designed to resist tearing and chunking.

Fig. 79 Mud and snow tire. ( http://www.google.com.ph.)

The treads are symmetric and nondirectional. "Nondirectional" means the tire can run equally well in either direction. The tire can be installed with either sidewall facing out. The tire must be installed in forward rotation in the direction indicated by an arrow on the sidewall.

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Fig. 80 Directional and asymmetric . (www.google.com.ph.)

Directional and asymmetric sports car treads are used as the rear of some car models. "Asymmetric" means the inside half of the tread is not the same as the outside half. This tire provides better braking and handling characteristics than a comparable symmetric, non-directional tire. Some car manufacturers use different tire size in front wheels. As a result, each tire has a specific work. It can run only in a specified wheel-position on the car. Other tires are classified as snow tires, studded tires, and off-road tires. Snow tires have large rubber cleats that cut through snow to improve traction. Studded tires have steel studs that stick out above the tread. These improve traction on ice and snow. However, many states regulate or ban studded tires because of possible damage to the road surface. A variety of off-road tires are available. These often have tread patterns using knobs or cleats. Off-road tires usually make noise and wear prematurely when driven on the highway. Some tires use two different compounds in the tread. Con compound is softer than the other for improved traction. In general, the softer the compound, the better the traction. The harder the compound, the longer the tread life.

Tire Valve Air is put into the tire or tube through a spring-loaded tire valve or schrader valve. On tube tires, the valve is in the inner tube and sticks out through a hole in the rim. Tubeless tires use a separate tire valve mounted on a hole in the rim. Spring force and air pressure hold the tire valve in its normally-closed position. A cap is usually threaded over the valve stem end to protect it from dirt. The cap also keeps guard against air leaks. Some tire valves have a non-movable valve core. The core is three-pronged white plastic. A special deflator is required to let air out of the tube.

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Fig. 81 Tire valves. (photo courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph.)

Tire pressure The amount of air pressure in the tire depends on the type of tire and how it is used. Passenger-car tires are inflated from about 22 to 36 psi (152 to 248 kPa). Heavy duty tires for trucks and buses may be inflated to 100 psi (690 kPa). The maximum inflation pressure is marked on the tire sidewall. A tire placard or tire information label lists the recommended inflation pressure for each kind of tire. This label is usually located on a door edge or door jamb, or inside the glove box. The label also lists maximum load and tire size (including spare). Running the tires at a specified pressure helps provide better vehicle handling, while avoiding premature tire wear. Underinflated tires wear easily on the outsides of the tread.

Fig. 82 Tire pressure inflation chart. (www.google.com.ph.) Also, tires flex excessively producing extra heat and rapidly wear. Over inflation causes the center of the tread to wear. The tire cannot flex normally and this puts stress on the sidewalls and plies.

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Tire Pressure Monitoring Some vehicles have an electronic low-tire pressure warning system (TPWS). This system senses or monitors the tire pressure in a moving vehicle. When the pressure drops in a tire, an instrument panel light illuminates to alert the driver. A tire-pressure-sensor and transmitter mounts inside the tires on each wheel. When the tire pressure falls below 25 psi (172 kPa), the tire pressure sensor sends a radio signal to the receiver-control module in the instrument panel. This turns on the low tire pressure light. The receiver-control module also has self-diagnostic capabilities and can store fault codes. If no signal is received from a tire pressure sensor, the control module turns on a SERVICE LTPWS light. The tire-pressure sensors are piezoelectric devices and do not need batteries. In a piezoelectric device, a small voltage appears across a crystal when a pressure is applied. In the tire-pressure sensors, the vibration produced by the rolling tire generates the voltage. Therefore, the system works only when the vehicle is moving or the tire is being vibrated.

Tire Size and Sidewall Markings The format for the metric tire-size designation found in most tires appears in various letters and numbers. Each marking has a special meaning.

TIRE INSPECTION Several cautions must be followed to avoid personal injury and to prevent damage to the wheel and tire. 1. Matching tire and wheel width Do not try to install a narrow tire with a high-aspect ratio on a wide rim. For example, a tire with an 80 aspect ratio must not be installed on a wide rim that requires a 60 tire. 2. Matching tire and wheel diameter Do not try to mount a 16-inch tire on a 16.5-inch wheel, or a 15-inch tire on a 15.5-inch wheel. The result could be a deadly explosion when inflating the tire. Check the rim size. It may be stamped near the center of the wheel disc. 3. Mixing tires All tires in a vehicle should be the same size, construction (radial or nonradial), and speed rating unless, otherwise specified by the vehicle manufacturer. If two radials and two non-radials are used by the vehicle, put the radials at the rear. Snow tires should be installed in pairs on the drive axle (either front or rear), or on all four wheels. Never put non-radial (bias or beltedbias) snow tires on the rear if radials are on the front. Match tire sizes and construction in four-wheel drive vehicles. Tires affect vehicle stability and handling. Mixing tires may cause handling problems.

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4. Respecting compressed air A terrific force is contained in an inflated tire. An explosion of the tire-andwheel assembly can result from improper or careless mounting procedures. Never stand over a tire while inflating it. If the tire explodes, the sudden release of compressed air has enough energy to throw a person more than 30 feet (9 m) in the air. People have been seriously injured or killed by exploding tires. 5. Protecting your eyes. Wear eye protection (safety glasses, safety goggles, or a face shield) when demounting and mounting tires. When deflating a tire, avoid the air stream from the tire valve. The air comes out at high speed and can blow dirt or debris into your eyes. Checking Tire Pressure and Inflating Tires Before checking tire pressure and filling it with air, know the correct pressure for the tire. The specification is in the owner s manual and marked on the vehicle tire-information label. When the vehicle is carrying a heavy load, like pulling a trailer, or driving at sustained highway speed, higher tire pressure may be necessary. Pressure should never exceed the maximum pressure marked on the tire sidewall. Inflation pressure is given to a cold tire. Pressure increases as tire temperature rises. Highway driving on a hot day can increase the tire pressure from 5 to 7 psi (35 to 48 kPa). As the tire cools, it loses pressure. Never bleed a hot tire to reduce its pressure. The pressure will then be low when the tire cools. Install the cap on the tire valve after checking pressure or adding air.

Tire Inspection The purpose of inspecting tires is to determine if they are safe for further use. When defects or improper wear patterns are found, inform the driver. Recommend the services that will correct the cause of the abnormal wear. Tires have tread-wear indicators or wear bars. These are filled-in sections of the tread grooves that will show when the tread has worn down to 1.6 mm. A tire with a wear bar showing is worn-out and should be replaced. Too little tread remains for continued safe driving. A tread-depth gauge can be inserted into the tread grooves to measure tread depth of at least 0.8 mm in any two adjacent grooves at any location on the tire. Check for bulges on the sidewalls. Bulges mean plies have separated and the tire could fail at any time. Tires with separated or broken plies should be replaced.

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Fig. 83 Tires wear factors. (www.google.com.ph.)

Tire Rotation The amount of wear of each tire depends upon its location or how it was mounted on the vehicle. The right rear tire wears the most, followed by the left rear tire, then the right front tire, and then the least, the left front tire. To equalize the wear, it is recommended that the tires be rotated every 8,000 kilometers of operation.

Fig. 84 Common tire rotation for five and four wheel vehicles. (www.tirerack.com)

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Inspection or checking of Wheels and Tires Examine the sidewalls and tread area of each tire. Check for cuts, tears, and lumps, bulges, separation of the tread, and exposure of the ply or cord. Check that the tire bead is correctly seated on the wheel rim, that the valve is sound and properly seated, and that the wheel is not distorted or damaged. Check that the tires are of the correct size for the vehicle, that they are of the same size and type in each axle, and that the pressures are correct. Check the tire treads depth. The legal minimum is 1.6mm over of the tread width. Abnormal wear may indicate incorrect front-wheel alignment. Recommend the vnecessary repair.

Fig. 85 Tires wear caused by different factors. (www.google.com.ph.)

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SELF-CHECK No. 8 1. Technician A says the lower the aspect ratio, the wider the tire appears. Technician B says aspect ratio is the ratio of the tires section height to section width. Who is right? a. b. c. d. 2. A only B only both A and B neither A nor B

The following statement are true about radial tires, except a. b. c. d. all plies run parallel to each other there is less squirm with bias-ply tires a belt steel mesh or other material is applied over the plies a radial tire has greater rolling resistance than bias plies

3.

Recommended inflation pressures for the front and rear tires of a car are listed in the a. VECI label b. tire information label c. VIN number d. sidewall markings

4.

If two radials and two non-radials are on the vehicle, the radials should be a. on the front b. on the rear c. removed from the vehicle d. inflated to a higher pressure

5.

When rotating tires, all the following are true , except a. do not rotate tire if the front and rear tires are of different sizes. b. directional tires must remain on the same side of the car. c. check tire pressure after rotating tires. d. always perform a five-tire rotation.

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Qualification Module Title Learning Outcome 8 Assessment Criteria:

Automotive Servicing NCI Performing Under chassis Preventive Maintenance Check under chassis body bolts and nuts 1. Body bolts and nuts inspected for tightness and damage. 2. Cross member bolts and nuts checked for tightness. 3. Transmission mounting bolts and nuts checked. 4. Propeller shaft bolts and nuts checked for tightness and damage. 5. Leaf spring shackle center bolts and nuts checked for tightness and damage.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Automotive Fastener, Bolts and Nuts Fasteners Fasteners hold automotive parts together. Examples are screws, nuts, and studs. Others are rivets, snap rings, and cotter pins. Most fasteners are removable so the assembly can be taken apart. There are three permanent ways of fastening pans together: soldering and welding and metal pans and panels are welded together to form the car body.

Fig. 86 Different kinds of fasteners. (www.google.com.ph.)

Screw Threads A fastener that has a spiral ridge or screw thread on its surface is a threaded fastener. This includes bolts, screws, studs, and nuts.

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Fig. 87 Screw threads. (www.google.com.ph.)

Bolts and screws are lengths of rod with a head on one end and threads on the other. A stud looks like a headless bolt with threads on one or both ends. Bolts, screws, and studs have external threads. Nuts and threaded (or tapped) holes have internal threads. Screws, bolts, studs, nuts, and tapped (threaded) holes are manufactured using either US customary (USC) or metric screw threads. They are not interchangeable. A USC screw will not fit a metric tapped hole. A metric screw will not also fit a USC tapped hole. Some cars have metric fasteners. Others have USC fasteners. Some have both. Working on a variety of cars, you need new fasteners of both types available. In addition, your tools must include both USC and metric sockets and wrenches.

USC Screw Threads Five ways of describing USC screw threads are by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. size threads per inch or pitch thread series, which is the coarseness or fineness of the thread thread class (closeness of fit) right-hand or left-hand direction of the threads. All threads are right-hand unless otherwise specified. If the bolt tightens as the head is turned clockwise, the bolt has right-hand threads.

METRIC SCREW THREADS Metric bolts, screws, and threads are measured in millimeters. Thread pitch is the distance between individual threads. A pitch may run from 1 to 2 mm as the diameter of the threads increases. A bolt with a basic thread diameter of 6 mm has a pitch of 1 mm. A bolt with a thread diameter of 16 mm has a pitch of 1 mm.

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Fig. 88 Metric bolt screw threads.(www.google.com.ph.)

Bolt and Screw Strength The type of material from which the bolt or screw is made determines its strength. Markings on USC and metric screw and bolt heads show their strength. Common metric fastener bolt-strength markings are 9.8 and 10.9. The higher number indicates greater strength.

Fig. 89 Bolt strength markings is found in the head . (www.google.com.ph.)

Screw and Bolt Heads Vehicles have a great variety of screw and bolt heads. Most bolts have hex heads. This means the heads are hexagonal or six-sided.

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Fig. 90 Types of screw and bolt heads . (www.google.com.ph.) Nuts The hex nut is the most common in the automotive shop. The slotted hex and the castle nut are used with a cotter pin.

Fig. 91 Different kinds of nuts. ( www.google.com.ph.)

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Checking Under chassis Front and rear suspension and wheel bearings

Starting at the front right-hand side, grasp the road-wheel at 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions and shake it vigorously. Check for free play or insecurity at the wheel bearings, suspension ball joints, or suspension mountings, pivots and attachments. Now grasp the wheel at 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions and repeat the previous inspection. Spin the wheel, and check for roughness or tightness of the front wheel bearing. If excessive free play is suspected at a component pivot point, it can be confirmed by using a large screwdriver or similar tool and levering between the mounting and the component attachment. It will confirm whether the wear is in the pivot bush, retaining bolt, or in the mounting itself (the bolt holes can often become elongated). Carry out all of the above inspection on the other front wheel, and then on both rear wheels.

Fig. 92 Checking underchassis. Springs and shock absorbers

Examine the suspension struts (when applicable) for serious fluid leakage, corrosion, or damage to the casing. Also check the security of the mounting points. If coil springs are fitted, check that the spring ends are correctly located in their seats, and that the spring is not badly corroded, cracked or broken. If leaf springs are fitted, check that all leaves are intact, that the axle is securely attached to each spring, and that there is no deterioration of the spring eye mountings, bushes, and shackles.

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The same checkup process apply to vehicles fitted with other suspension types, such as torsion bars, hydraulic displacer units, and others. Ensure that all mountings and attachments are secure, that there are no signs of excessive wear, corrosion or damage, and that there are no fluid leaks or damaged pipes, especially for hydraulic types. Inspect the shock absorbers for signs of serious fluid leakage. Check for wear of the mounting bushes or attachments, or damage to the body of the unit.

Fig. 93 Spring and shock absorbers ( www.google.com.ph.)

Shock absorbers

Depress each corner of the vehicle, then release it. The vehicle should rise and then settle in its normal position. If the vehicle continues to rise and fall, the shock absorber is defective. A shock absorber which has seized will also cause the vehicle to fail.

Fig. 94 Checking shock absorbers | Check under chassis body bolts and PERFORM UNDERCHASSIS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE-Check underchassis bolts andnuts nuts
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SELF-CHECK No. 9

Select the correct answer. 1. Pitch in USC threads is: a. distance between individual threads b. number of threads per inch c. depth of the threads d. thread class 2. Pitch in metric threads is the: a. thread class b. number of threads per inch c. depth of the threads d. distance between individual threads 3. Technician A says the more lines there are on the head of a USC bolt, the stronger the bolt. Technician B says the higher the number of the head of a metric bolt, the stronger the bolt. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. both A and B d. neither A nor B 4. Nuts and bolts that have continuous resistance turning are: a. prevailing-torque fasteners b. torque-to-yield fasteners c. used with a cotter pin d. self-tapping setscrews 5. Bolts that are tightened by measuring how much head is turned are: a. prevailing-torque fasteners b. torque-to-yield fasteners c. used with a cotter pin d. self-tapping setscrews 6. Before installing a bolt in an aluminum part, coat bolt threads with antiseize compound to: a. lock the bolt in place b. prevent thread damage when removing the bolt c. turn the bolt with less torque d. none of the above

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ANSWER KEY MODULE 1. Performing Diesel Engine Tune-up Pre-test: 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. a MODULE 2. Performing Gas Engine Tune Up Pre-test: 1. a 2. b 3. b 4. a 5. b 6. c 7. a 8. c 9. d 10. d Self check No. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Top dead center Bottom dead center Cycle Downward, open Upward, open

Self -check No.2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b c a c d

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Self check No.3 1.spark timing 2.timing advance 3.timing retard 4.Adjust ignition timing Self check No. 4 1. 2. 3. 4. cold spark plug overhauling compression tester

MODULE 3. Performing Underchassis Preventive Maintenance Pre-test: 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. d 5. b 6. b 7. b 8. a

Self check No. 1

1. Brake fluid 2. a. DOT 3


b. c. DOT 4 DOT 5

3. DOT 4 4. DOT 5 5. a. DOT 3


b. DOT 4

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Hard and prolonged braking Letter a Fluid level sensor Return springs | Check under chassis body bolts and nuts ANSWER KEY
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locking primary piston assembly secondary seal secondary piston primary seal spring retainer spring cylinder body proportioner with O' ring quick take-up valve grommet fluid level switch reservoir diaphragm reservoir cover

Self check No. 2 1. a. internal leak b. external leak 2. Moisture or dirt 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. vacuum brake booster release button parking brake lever parking brake cable rear drum brake service brake pedal brake light switch front disc brake master cylinder dual proportioning valve brake lines

Self check No. 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. goggles, hand gloves chemically inert, high and low temperature disconnect socket, open the reservoir cap to inch (12.7 to 19 mm) It acts as a reservoir to hold the brake fluid. build-up pressure in the brake circuit.

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Self check No. 4 1 a. to lubricate all moving parts and prevent wear b. to reduce friction and power loss c. to protect against rust and corrosion d. to keep the interior clean e. to cool the gearbox Chemical additives extreme pressure lubricant SAE 75W 75W-80 80W-90 85W-90 Refer your answer to resource material provided

2. 3. 4.

a. b. c. d.

5. 6.

Refer your answer to resource material provided

Self check No. 5 1. An assembly of gears that provides the different gear ratios as well as neutral and reverse, through which engine power is transmitted to the final drive to rotate the drive wheel.

2.

3.

Oil #90 Oil #140

4.

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moving parts. 5. 6. Correct level of oil.

a. position the vehicle b. open drain plug Self check No. 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True False True True False

Self check No. 7 1. 1. Automatic-transmission fluid is a special lubricant with about the same viscosity as an SAE 20 engine oil. 2. Parts of an Automatic Transmission

3.

4.

a. Automatic transmission is a transmission in which gear ratios are changed or adopts to speed automatically when the accelerator pedal is pressed. b. Automatic transmission is the same whether for rear-wheel drive, front-wheel drive or four-wheel drive vehicles. Most automatic transmission has three or four forward speed. They also have PARK, NEUTRAL, and REVERSE. Pull out the dipstick, wipe it, reinsert it, and pull it out again. If fluid feels cool, the fluid level should be on the low side of the dipstick. If fluid feels warm or hot (too hot to hold) the dipstick level should be on the high side. Fluid level will vary under normal operating conditions as much as inch (19 mm) from cold to hot. | Check under chassis body bolts and nuts ANSWER KEY
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5.

Self check No. 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Self check No. 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. B D B A B A A D B B A

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REFERENCES 1. Diesel Mechanics by: Erich J. Schulz Copyright 1977 by Mc GrawHill, Inc.. 2. Diesel Engines by J.N. Seale Copyright 1977 by Butterworth & Co. (publishers) Ltd. 3. Diesel Engine Manual by: Perry O. Black Copyright 1964 by Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana. 4. Automotive Mechanics 8th Edition by William H. Crouse Copyright 1982 by MC Graw-HiIl, Inc. 5. Automotive Mechanics 10th Edition by: William A. Crouse and Donald L. Anglin. Copyright 1993 by: GLENCOE Division of Mc Millan /Mc Graw-Hill School Publishing CO 6. Automotive Technology - A System Approach, 2nd edition, Jack Erjavec/Robert Scharff 7. Today's Technician Shop Manual for Manual Transmission and Transaxles, Jack Erjavec 8. Brakes 10 - Technical Training Bulletin "L" Series Manuals: 1. ISUZU WORKSHOP MANUAL C240 MODEL DIESEL ENGINE BY ISUZE MOTORS LIMITED TOKYO, JAPAN. 2. SERVICE TRAINING MANUAL OF MITSUBISHI 4D56 DIESEL ENGINE. BY OVERSEAS SERVICE DEPARTMENT MITSUBISHI MOTOR CORPORATION. Internets 1. http://dodgeram.info/tsb/recalls/605.htm 2. http://www.autozone.com/az/cds/en_us/0900823d/80/16/f3/57/ 0900823d8016f357/repairInfoPages.htm#hd1-1-2 3. http://www.valvoline.com/carcare/articleviewer.asp?pg=ccr2006020 1d2&cccid=2&scccid=5 4. http://www.tpub.com/content/construction/14264/css/14264_105. htm

5. http://www.google.com.ph 6. http://www.autoshop101.com 7. http://www.wikihow.com. 8. http://auto.howstuffworks.com

REFERENCES|

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great privileged that this endeavor was given by the Task Force Tech-Voc, Department of Education to the following participants of the Writeshop on the Refinement and Enrichment of Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC), Contextual Learning Matrix (CLM) and Modules of Arts and Trades, It is the fervent hope of the writers that through their consolidated efforts they are able to strengthen and enrich the Vocational Education curriculum to fully prepare and equip Tech-Voc students to become locally and globally competitive in the world of work. TECHNOLOGY WRITERS: Jonathan O. Diaz San Pedro Relocation Center National High School Langgam, San Pedro, Laguna Romeo Q. Ibloguin Sr. E. Rodriguez Vocational High School Division of City Schools, Manila Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila Robert S. Domingo AFG Bernardino Memorial Trade School Lias, Marilao, Bulacan Lino A. Olit Community Vocational High School Masipit, Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro Arpil P. Medrano Tanza National Trade School Paradahan I, Tanza, Cavite

212 ACKNOWLEGEMENT

Copyright Department of Education (TVTF) 2008 First Published May 2008. Revised November 2011 This module was prepared during the Competency-Based Learning Materials Development Workshop conducted at the Development of the Philippines (DAP) Tagaytay City on May 5-10, 2008. Revisions was made during Workshop on the Integration of Evaluation Results/Recommendations by the IMCS editors/evaluators on Tech-voc learning materials (Workshop 1) and Workshop on the Finalization and Packaging of Learning Materials (Workhop 2) held at the same venue on November 21-25 and December 5-9 respectively. Revised and Edited December 2011 JULIUS J. JARDIOLIN Head Teacher III Antonio J. Villegas Vocational High School Manila NCR DEO L. TARNATE Teacher III San Gabriel Vocational High School San Gabriel, La Union Region I JERSON G. SARSUEDA Alona Trade High School Alona Misamis Occidental Region X NELSON GERONA GSCNSSAT Gen. Santos City

ACKNOWLEGEMENT

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