The Third Book of Natural Magick

"Which delivers certain precepts of Husbandry, and shows how to intermingle sundry kinds of Plants and how to produce new kinds."

Chapter I "How new kinds of Plants may be generated of putrefactions" Chapter II "How Plants are changed, one of them degenerating into the form of the other." Chapter III "How to make one fruit compounded of many."

Chapter I! ""f a second means whereby fruits may be mingled and compounded together" Chapter ! ""f a third way, whereby diverse kinds of fruits may be compounded together." Chapter !I "How a double fruit may be made, whereof the one is contained within the other."

Chapter !II ""f another device, whereby strange fruits may be generated, and made either better or worse." Chapter !III "How to procure ripe fruits and flowers before their ordinary season." Chapter I# Chapter # "How we may have fruits and flowers at all time of the year." "How to produce fruits that shall be later and backward."

Chapter #I "How we may cause fruit to grow bigger then their ordinary kind." Chapter #II "How to produce fruit that shall not have any stone or kernel in it." Chapter #III "How fruit may be produced without any outward rinds or shells." Chapter #I! "How to procure fruits, to be of diverse colors, such as are not naturally incident to their kind." Chapter #! "How the color of $lowers may also be changed."

Chapter #!I "How fruits and $lowers may be made to yield better flavor then ordinary." Chapter #!II "How to procure fruits to be sweeter and pleasanter for taste."

Chapter #!III "How fruits that are in their growing, may be made to receive and resemble all figures and impressions whatsoever." Chapter #I# " How fruits may be made to be more tender, and beautiful, and goodly to the eye."

Chapter ## "How diverse kinds of fruits, and likewise Wines may be made medicinable." Chapter ##I "How to plant $ruits and !ines, that they may yield greatest increase."

%he Proeme
We have rehearsed concerning different kinds of new
living creatures. &ow I shall speak of plants, which ravish with admiration the eyes and minds of those that contemplate on them, with their abundant pleasantness, and wonderful elegance. %hese bring more profit, and by these a natural Philosopher may seem more admirable. $or use made with the earth, is more honest and honorable then with other things, and the ground never grows old or barren, but is everywhere naturally rank to receive new seed, and to produce new, and is ever unsatisfied fruitfulness, and brings perpetual increase. 'nd if nature be always admirable, she will seem more wonderful in plants. Copulation was but of one kind, here it is almost infinite, and not only every tree can be (ngrafted into every tree, but one tree may be adulterated with them all. )iving creatures of diverse kinds were not easily produced. 'nd those that come from other countries were hard to get. Here is no difficulty at all. *rafts are fetched and sent, if need be, to any part of the world. 'nd if diversity of creatures are made in 'frica, by their Copulating when they meet at the rivers, that so new creatures are always produced, here in Italy, where the air is always calm, and the climate very indulgent, strange and wild plants find a good harbor, and ground to grow in, which is the mother and nourisher of all, and so fruitful to produce a diversity of new types of plants, that it can hardly be e+hausted. 'nd we can better write of them, and know the truth more then others, because we have them still before our eyes, and an opportunity to study their effects. 'nd if our

the nature of the climate. %he same thing is observed in $igs.ancestors found many new things. &ature brought forth but one kind of Pear tree. that it were madness to number them up. but now by the help of -acchus alone. we by adding to theirs. that one is called . What of the Peach. being pleasant and admirable2 What of Clove gilliflowers. of )ivy and Pompey. because daily by our art. What shall I say of )aurel Cherries. by nature or new e+perience.olabella. 1anliana from 1anlius. were too sharp to eat in the days of %heophrastus. have found many more.iodorus writes.ecumius and . from the . Chapter I "How new kinds of Plants may be generated of Putrefaction. Cestiana from Cestius. 'lcinus. and the art of planting. that the !ine at first was but one. and at 1emphis. and that was wild. and 'lmond peach nuts. fruits our fore fathers knew not.uality of the ground. found in Pliny his time2 What of Citrons2 Which as 'thenaues says.olabelliana. yet now are they eaten. that the gardeners art has made so dainty and sweet scented2 'nd so of other plants I have everywhere set down in this work2 "ur &aples abounds so with them. 0uinces are of many kinds. but Palladius made them to become sweet. %heir varieties have made the authors names immortal. new plants are made. and the ancestors of Plutark and Pliny. and not worth our time.ecumana. -ut I shall briefly and plainly relate the History. . some called 1ariana from 1arius." . another . that were made to hang above ground. or by chance. that we would not go forth to see the orchards of the Hesperides. 3emiramis. &ow so many men/s names are honored by it. it is varied into many kinds. and another is named from . and shall produce more e+cellent things overpassing them. 'ppiana Claudiana from 'ppius Claudius.

that ground dug out from under the lowest foundations of certain houses. if I took of the earth that had been dug out of the thick woods. nature showing therein her admirable work and power. pounded and buried. and leaves full of "uice and substance. and that particular places did yield certain particular plants. were of opinion that diverse plants were generated of the earth and water mixed together. as we knew not what they were. without any help of feed or such like. is generated of a kind of pitchy or clammy rain and thick dirt. 3enegreek. to proceed in the same order as we have begun. nd the Herb will show itself out of the earth presently after the rain is fallen. #ay further also. or out of moist places. such as they had used for the -allast of their ships. and with his drying operation. sown or planted in it. when they lie fallow.S we have shown before. and no other thing. In like manner. and rotten seeds. nd many such things they report. and 3tone crop. bring forth %histles. the ground is of that nature. that the ground when it is stirred. and likewise that a rough and stiff earth full of holes. and full of crevices. that the rain causes much Putrefaction and alteration in the earth. such as Penny wort. we have brought forth in a manner the very same . are the cause of every thing that grows upon the earth. that if it be stirred anywhere. and there 1acerated with water. Purslane. as are usual in the same place. and laid open in some small vessel to the force of the 3un. that the waters which fall from above. nd their tilled lands. would bring forth a slight Herb. that new kinds of living creatures may be generated of Putrefaction. The 'ncients. and leaves full of fine little ranges. that a fine light earth would bring forth Herbs that had 3light stalks like a 4ush. which we have spoken of in the books of the knowledge of plants. those that are somewhat moist. hard as wood. and we found such Herbs generated thereof. or out of the holes that are in hollow 3tones. it would bring forth Herbs that had smooth bluish stalks. and watered them often with a little sprinkling. so . %heophrastus held. we will now show that new kinds of plants may grow up of their own accord. nd I myself have often experienced. questionless. Pliny said. who held that plants are generated of water Putrefied in itself. and found thereby. and the bottom of some pits. They write also. even out of very roots and barks of trees. and thereby plants may be nourished. In the Isle Creta.iogenes before. it will of itself bring forth a Cypress %ree. and a little earth tempered therewith. !o the Herb )aser in frica. We made trial also of some kinds of earth that had been far fetched. the 3un working upon it with his heating. We rehearsed the opinion of . brings forth such kinds of plants always.

will at all times of the year bring forth 1ushrooms." . be set on fire at such time as there is a rain brewing in the clouds. upon some part of the field. that the bark of a White Poplar tree.Herbs. he must take the Horns of wild 4am. &ut %arentinus speaks of this matter more precisely. and pour upon it some )eaven that has been steeped in water. and profit of the more curious sort. writes. will cause many %oadstools there to spring up of their own accord. are very hurtful. after the field is thus set on fire. both in making and in properties. or some rotten cloth. If. and others have written. where the fire has been. or else if such plants had been produced. 'e adds further. there will soon grow up some Poplar %oadstools. if you rake a thin )inen cloth. There is one . What should I here rehearse. or any noisome plants. as out of an "aken root. and "ak fern. write of these things. and sow them in eared ground. if I could have reduced them into any method. Which I have neither time nor leisure now to mention. and water it. the Herb Polypody. if *od will. for the delight. &ut such as grow near to a 3erpent/s hole. that if any man would have good store of 3perage to grow. and of a black. &ut let us see. and speculation. or %oadstools that are good to be eaten. seeing this work is rustled up in haste. if they had been nourished with a shower of rain. then. that they are more particularly generated in those places.ydimus. of every several mixture of Putrefied things. ll which I would here have set down. if an upland or hilly field that has in it much stubble and many stalks of Corn. "How 3perage may be generated. how many kinds of %oadstools and Puffs we have produced$ %es. nd in another place he says. "How %oadstools may be generated. where there lies some old rusty Iron. so many several kinds have been generated.ioscorides. and 3plenewort. &ut those come that were never sought for. and beat them into very small powder. says he. and sowed in dug lands or furrows. and he shall have his intent. but not so good as otherwise they would be. and let the water drop through by little and little like rain. as I intended. &ut if. there will grow %oadstools. happily the rain which the clouds before threatened does not fall." . then the rain falling. you cut the stock of a -lack Poplar piecemeal into the earth. being cut into small pieces. #ext we will show. &ut happily I shall hereafter. or a least such Herbs as did resemble those.

nd though I have made often trial hereof. &ut if these things be true. that if the Horns be pounded and dug into the earth. "%hat Ivy grows out of the Harts Horn.ydimus opinion. and the Herb Hyphear generated5" for both these. did receive into it some part of the root. (or so is. has produced 3perage. and diverse other plants also do grow up in the $ir trees and Pine trees. and make a hole in them. then surely no man will deny but that diverse kinds of plants may be generated of divers kinds of living creatures Horns. they will bring forth 3perage. but only cut a little. &ut %heophrastus writes. and so some part of the Horn being soft and ready to Putrify. and by this means it might there grow. as I can say or see nothing to the contrary. which. there is a certain Phlegmatic or moist Humor. when it abounds too much within. "Polypody. (or in many trees. The same my friends also have reported. that the Hart might have rubbed his Horn against some Ivy roots. In like manner. breaks forth into the outward show of the boughs and the stock of the tree. this proposition carries no show of probability or credit with it. and so set them. that there was Ivy found growing in the Hart/s Horn. though . though for my own part I never tried it. whereas it is impossible to think how any Ivy seed could get in there. Pliny is of . nd whereas some allege. that if you take whole 4am Horn not pounded into small pieces." and 'ristotle writes of an Husbandman that found such an experiment. may plants be generated of the Putrefied barks and boughs of old trees.ioscorides thinks it to be impossible. yet my friends have told me of their own experience. and the heat of the 3un working upon it there.that reports a more strange matter. quickly turns it into such kinds of Herbs. they will yield 3perage. . and such other. near to the bark. that the same tender seed that is contained within the 4am Horn. and there it meets with the Putrefied Humor of the bark. but could not find it so to be. that is found to Putrify.

and that which comes of it. all which are clear cases by the books of Husbandry. or a -lack into a White. their air. both in color and fashion. will be a -lack Wild !ine. If you would change. one of them . and peculiar kind of sowing or planting. or to effect those things which are contrary to the ordinary course of nature. The reason is.egenerating into the form of the other. as %heophrastus teaches. others set by some root. and be quite turned into another kind. -ikewise if you shall change their place. and color. but the natural planting of it is by 3prigs and roots. both in taste. (urthermore. that plants may forsake their own natural kind. for some must be sowed by seed. and you shall find that the young growing plant will resemble another kind. every plant has his proper manner." !ow the seed of a White *arden !ine. Wherefore if you deal with it otherwise then the kind requires.e and fashion. wholly Degenerating. or by cunning handling and dressing them. others planted by the whole stem. It may be done by negligence. their ground. that which comes of it must needs be unkindly. either if you neglect to dress or handle them according to their kind.) To work miracles. and si. and such like. "' White !ine into a -lack. and so the seed of a -lack *arden !ine will bring forth a White *arden !ine. that which comes up will be of a diverse kind from that which grows usually. as %heophrastus writes. others Grafted by some 3prig or branch. nd this I say may easily be done. you pervert their kind. if it be planted according to its own nature. because a !ine is not sowed by seed. !ome examples we will here rehearse. !o that if that which should be sowed by seed.Chapter II "How Plants are changed. &y the like means. is nothing else *as I suppose+ but to turn one thing into another. or else dress them more carefully and artificially then their own kind requires. .

"' White $ig tree may .egenerates into a black. for the 1yrtle is not sown by seed. and such as most commonly is of a quite contrary color. (or these likewise . Therefore we are counseled to *rafting him when he is prettily well grown. that it agrees in nothing with the natural "live.egenerate. as we have shown in our discourse of Husbandry. . though it be never so good." . that is has nothing of the right garden !ine. or else to change him and shift him off. nd therefore whereas the best grows in Cyprus. and 4ape into Coleworts . of the 6ernel of the natural "live comes a wild "live. and the Pomegranate itself. !arro says that.+ and in the process of time there is such a change. so that of a white $ig tree it . for of a soft one comes a harder. of a right and noble !ine is generated a -astard !ine. yet they could never produce the like of that. if it be set. but planted by a *rafting. !ometimes also. and many have planted the same elsewhere. and contrariwise a black $ig tree . and commonly a sharp fruit. into a baser color. and also in feeling. never brings forth any other but a wild or a wood $ig tree. "Coleworts are changed into 4ape. !o also are. n "ak likewise will become worse. that sometimes it cannot bring forth fruit to any perfection. as the same %heophrastus reports to have seen in 'ntandrus." and cannot choose but loose their color. "%he 4ed 1yrtle and the 4ed -ay tree into -lack. but all nearly wild. In like manner. In like manner also are changed. The 'lmond . *and that they say that the male Cypress tree for the most part .egenerates into a hard." for the 3tones or 6ernels of the Pomegranates are changed from their right blue.egenerates likewise both in taste.egenerates into a female.egenerates into a white.egenerate into a -lack." for the 3tone of a $ig. "3weet 'lmonds and 3weet Pomegranates changed into sour ones. and that so different in kind often. and the -ay tree is planted by a setting a little 3prig thereof that has in some part of the root. but is so stark wild.

the best and choicest things that were most made of." for this may be done.egenerate. are changed into Wheat. Wherefore he took the purest and the cleanest Wheat and -arley that he could get. brings forth 4ape. there remains in it but a weak smell. says he. which did . and contrariwise.egenerates into Coleworts .egenerate into other kinds. *alen/s father. for when a man does not look to it and dress it. !o all seeds. I myself have sowed 1int seed. at length yet to . !irgil has observed it. old 4ape/seed . do often . !o. left it so . that the Herb '+esceed did grow among Pulse . and still to have need to be renewed. and become worse. the very same in manner that is in a common 1int. for the old seed of Coleworts being sown.egenerate. and at last found in Pulse a hard and round $etch. a man very studious of Husbandry. unless it be prevented by skill and pains. I have seen. or arise out of any seeds of the fruits themselves. as %heophrastus counsels. if you take them being of a thorough ripeness. whether the annoyances of fruits.ld seed is of so great force in some things.egenerate from the excellency and goodness of their kind. or the air where they are. did spring up of itself. and it has . but very little in the -arley. and thereby the upper part being weakened.. and having picked out all other seed whatsoever. especially in his old age. that it quite changes the nature. and moreover. nd when he found much %ares growing in the Wheat. unless mans industry did yearly supply them with his help. that the Corn 3iligo is changed into Wheat the second year. he put the same experiment in other grain practice. sowed them in the ground. "%he Herb -allamint will turn into a 1int. by labor also and dressing. either by reason that they are neglected. and 6nead them. and then plant them. the roots thereof will grow very large. by a kind of . but this will not so prove the first nor the second year. losses the rankness of his favor. bestowed great pains and diligence to find out." Wherefore it must be often shifted and translated from place to place. Pliny writes. and that being lost. that which mars their pure goodness. !o fatal it is for all things to wax worse and worse. but you must expect the proof of it in the third year.egeneration of the Pulse into '+esceed. and 3pelt. and Wheat into them. as %heophrastus shows. or because there is some indisposition either in the earth. "%he Corn %ypha.

" if it be laid open to the 3un/s hottest and greatest force. &ut we must not think that this change is made while those trees or boughs last. "Cloves. . "-asil royal . a place so called. nd likewise if "ak boughs be set in the ground of llummun. I mean. but into -allamint also. such as their *rapes yield good Wine. if they be not well heeded. if they be pared. that !iolets. sometimes white. will become white. nd it will not only . only in such case as where there is kind of vicinity and likeness of nature.egenerate into Cinnamon. of purple. and the experience thereof I myself have plainly seen. or else if they be not well looked unto. will ." either by reason that they are old. 4oses. is quite changed into it. but also where there is not such vicinity. and the nature of the ground works into them.egenerate into !ines. and changes them into !ines.egenerate one into another. "'n "ak may be changed into a !ine. but let the truth thereof lie upon his credit+ he reports. . that "ak or -eech boughs being *rafted into the %ree 1yrica. (or. I say. that." 'lbertus reports. which is a baser kind of wood. !iolets.been changed into wild Pennyroyal. and *illi flowers. and so into the tree called %remisca. #either yet will plants .egenerates into wild -etony. -ikewise the boughs of the shrub Casia. in three years will wax white.egenerate into -etony. one plant may be changed into another of a quite different kind. in favor only. *if the thing be as true as it is strange. and sometimes the old "aks. (or %heophrastus records. 1artial writes. they will be quite altered into right !ines. as *alen reports. -ikewise. and sometimes of a rosy color. and *illi flowers. but when once they are Putrefied. 4oses. (or then it will bring forth sometimes purple flowers. (or the fashion of the 1int remained still in it.

and so of many to make one. whereby you my procure White 1ulberries. (or *rafting is in plants the same that Copulation is in living creatures. nd . the %urpentine tree. by *rafting into one fruit. as well as by *rafting. and likewise the 1ulberry tree into the Chestnut tree. #either must thou suffer thyself to be discouraged herein by the sayings of rude Husbandman which have attempted this thing. &ut above all other. of the tree that bore it. that every tree may be mutually incorporated into each other. that . and perform that which a man would think were not possible to be done. !irgil makes mention of such a matter. nd whereas it may be thought a very toilsome. and likewise the Cherry tree into a %urpentine tree. s for example. as Columella supposes. nd to conclude.Chapter III "How to make one $ruit Compounded of many. you must arm yourself with a due consideration of such experiments as the 'ncients have recorded. and an "ak. here the excellent effect of the work must sweeten all thy labor. and indeed impossible matter. and 'pples that naturally were not their own. Wherefore against such discouragement0s. so now we will show also how to contrive diverse kinds of fruits. nd this is the cause of every composition of many fruits into one. of every adopted fruit which is not the natural child. %et I deny it not. after a wonderful manner. ready and willing for all comers. when he says. that the $ig tree may be incorporated into the Plane tree. as it were. and thy painful diligence will take away the supposed impossibility of the thing. but there are other means whereby this may be effected. and the White Poplar. for that it is like to a common Whore.ido admired certain trees which she saw. seeing experience teaches you that it has been done. that they might be mingled into one. by Copulation. but for want of skill could not perform it. and likewise the Chestnut tree into a Ha7el. nd this is the cause of all strange and new kinds of fruits that grow. and likewise the Pomegranate tree into all trees." As we heard before of diverse living creatures. as being the best and fittest means to incorporate one fruit into another. and the 1ulberry tree. that bare new kinds of leaves. *rafting is most praiseworthy.

nd the stocks into which they are to be *rafted. whereby we may cause those diverse plants which we would intermingle. and be taken off from young plants. Then we must see that the *rafting be made in the purest and soundest place of the stock. and to agree better together. &ut we must not here omit to speak of the )oam. because. namely." for it is very helpful to glue or fasten the skins of both the barks one into the other. or that they be in anyway contrary to each other. we must see that either of the trees have their bark of one and the same nature. that the young *rafts or shoots be brought from the most convenient place or part of the trees. such as never bore fruit before. so that it neither has any %umors or knobs. must likewise be as young as may be *rafted into. as was required in living creatures. all the excellencies of both the parents. we shall labor in vain. the flesh being . as we have shown in our books of Husbandry. they must be of a fruitful kind. that they will easily grow together. when they are beginning first to bud. and such as are of two years growth. and the fruit had a double 4elish. which makes "%he *raft and the 3tock to close more easily together. gain. where the 3un is want to rise in the summer time. nd surely it is commodious in many respects. their hardness will scarce give any entertainment to strange shoots to be planted upon them. according to both the kinds whence it was Compounded. it is very material. (irst therefore. and likely to bear fruit in their second year. nd many such observations must be diligently looked into. nd both of them must have the same time of growing and shooting out of their 3prigs. yet by this )oam they may be so bound into one. from those boughs that grow toward the east. and nourished with two sorts of "uices. for if they be old. or that clammy 1ortar. They must also be taken in their prime. &ut now. and the stock has a moist or soft bark. as in mans body. for the producing of new and Compounded fruits. that trees are "oined together as it were. (or if the *raft has a dry or hard bark. (irst. to "oin more easily. neither yet has been *rafted. by carnal Copulation. or any scars. as we did in our tract of the Commi+tion of diverse kinds of living creatures. nd if the barks be of a diverse nature. gain. that both of them should have the same time of breeding their young ones.Palladius says. nd the same trees were garnished with two sorts of leaves. so here also it is met to prescribe certain rules. to the end that the fruit thereof might contain in it.

one form a Peach apple %ree. and let them there Putrify. nor yet thought upon by the ancient. but you must do it quickly. We will give you a taste of some. will close together again very speedily. and make a pit in some moist ground. this )oam will knit them so strongly into the stock. 2oreover. if there be any open chink between the bark and the tree. and fit them one into another. is soon closed up again with stiff and clammy plasters." which kind of Compound generation.wounded or pierced into. If you be diligent herein. &ut let us return to *rafting. both to fasten and also to cherish. presently the air will get in. and there bury your Holly !ines. but covered with the . and stamp them till you see they are become a clammy slime. that they may be let one into another. namely "'n 'pple Compounded of a Peach apple. This is also made of the fruit 3ebesten in !yria. and a &ut peach. by the applying of this 1ortar. that it has caused a new kind of a -astard fruit that was never heard of before. This is to be done by a kind of *rafting which they call (mplastering. and yet the cleft not seen. (or if you pull the bark off from a tree. this )oam is needed. was never seen. and lose the natural "uice and moisture. which inconvenience this )oam will prevent. and likewise it may be made of ordinary -irdlime. it will soon wither. that this *lue or 1ortar must be as near of the nature of the thing *rafted as may be. and fade. so that the bud to be *rafted may stand fitly in the midst between them both. nd whereas there are some trees which cannot away to be harbored in any of another kind. that they cannot but bud and blossom. and will not suffer them to close. therefore to make it sure that they may close without fail. applied on them1 so the bark or the boughs of trees being cut or rent. Then pare off the bark of them about two fingers breadth in compass. lest you perish the wood. 3ull off the bark of Holly. or slip off a little 3prig from a bough. for this has a special quality. Take off two young fruitful 3prigs. for then it will perform this duty more kindly. &ut here we must observe. you may do many matters. that it may stick as fitly every way in the *rafting as while it grew. Then cleave them through the middle a little way. which is of such great force. and such as are ready to bud forth. nor heard of. but they must be well grown. and the other from the &ut peach %ree. which will be done in twelve days. &ut the best of all is made of the 4inds of (lm roots stamped together. that by these you may learn to do the like. unless you close it up so cunningly. then take them forth.

nor well divided. the *raft will very kindly prosper. "Pomegranates may be brought forth. which will be sweet on the one side. having first cut out a round fit place for them therein. which is most neat and fresh/colored. so the rain does not fall down upon it. but especially take heed to the cleft. and sour on the other. and so thin." If you take either the shoots or the buds of each of them. that you hurt it not. and set it into the midst of the boughs which we spoke of before. and put the half of one. and then cut them in the middle.bud. -ikewise. and the half of the other together. because the bark is so weak. put the half of each together. Thus if you do. and slender. and it shall carry the hue both of the Peach apple and the &ut peach by equal proportion. may be produced. as also lemons half sweet. and place where you pulled off the bark. lest they draw the nourishment from the *raft. They must be *rafted in that part of the tree. and half sour. and after you have divided them in the middle. as we spoke of before." if we mix them after the same manner as we spoke before." for if we take the buds of each of them. &y this means also we may procure the bring forth "of a $ig half white and half black. and these kinds of Compound "ranges and )emons are very commonly . and so (mplaister them into the tree. paring them off together with the bark round about them. as before was spoken. nd when you have so done. that you plaster it up well with 1ortar. for these are very fit to be *rafted by (mplastering. which requires it all for itself. !o also. that it will not endure to be much or long handled. &ut this may be done best upon the shoots or 3prigs. and cover it with something. and so *raft them together into the other tree. and the bud grow forth into a fruit that is Compounded of both kinds. for the bud can hardly be pared off. the fruit thereof will be a $ig half white and half black. the 3prigs that grow about that place must be cut off. such as was never seen before. Then take off a bud. ""ranges Compounded of divers kinds. and such as are half )emons . bind it about gently.

and *raft them into a fruitful !ine of some other kind. but the same bough. and such as are wrought and as it were embroidered with diverse goodly colors. If we would produce. "%o produce some that are half red. and having cut them asunder in the middle. as we showed before was to be done by the buds of other trees." we must take the 3prigs of a white 4ose. -ikewise we may procure. (or there are of this Compound fruit to be found in #aples at this day. and bind them up well. and they do not only bring forth party/colored flowers. may be as well practiced also upon flowers. by such (mplastering. and match them fitly together." seeing they have no buds at all. the Compound bud will in due season bring forth 4oses which will be white of the one side and red of the be seen in many orchards in #aples. "' *rape that has a 6ernel or 3tone half black. In like manner we may mingle and Compound.f which kind we have great store. most pleasant to be seen. . . and cleave them in the middle." if we put those two kinds together." We must deal by the shoots of !ines. as we spoke of before. cleave them in the middle. and then have a diligent care still to cherish them. %ou must take two roots of them. nd the same which we have shown concerning fruits. and bind two shoots or more of diverse sorts of !ines handsomely together. and of a red. and *raft them artificially into the bark. "' Peach of the white and the 4ed Peach. that they may grow up in one. and pare off the buds of each of them. and desire. and diversely colored. will bear white ones and red ones. "4oses that are half white and half red. and one and the same 3prig. and they are common among us everywhere. put the halves of each together. that they may grow each to other. &ut if you would make trial hereof of Clove gilli flowers. you must practice this experiment upon their root. s for example. and then will they yield Compound Clove gilli flowers.

by another manner of *rafting. all those slips will grow up "ointly into one tree. and receives his several nourishment from itself. and how in the same *rape may be found a white and black 3tone hanging together. then you must match them equally and bind them up together. s for "Pomegranates Compounded of diverse kinds. and bruise them with a -eetle. namely. and the uppermost half of either of them must be bruised together. but so. and set them in the ground." Take the branch of a white !ine. and severally digests it. their natures will easily close together. that every one of them retains his own kind. (or then if they be dissolved. and another of the black. The same %heophrastus teaches us in the same place. nd the chief community which they have all together. if we would produce." %heophrastus shows us how to do it. nd if they be well laid together. as these are in some sort when they are bruised. example. and plant them. and then bind them up very hard each to other. .Chapter IV ""f a second means whereby fruits may be mingled and Compounded together" There is also a second way of compounding diverse kinds of fruits together. especially where one is of the same or the like kind with the other. is their mutual embracing each of other. (or by this means they will grow up both into one "oint. We must take the young slips or branches of divers kinds. so that they may stick and hang together. for every living thing may be matched with another. "How one and the same !ine branch may bring forth a black and a white *rape both together.

then put them each to other. or else with some very stiff clammy earth. then break the pipe. Then bind up the branches with paper as hard together as you can. and so bind them up. &ut yet either of these branches has his several nourishment by itself. . and by this means you shall have such kinds of *rapes as you desire. as do the rivers Cephisus and 2elas in &oeotia. borrowing it from Columella. casting away all the other branches. according as either of the 3prigs requires. that both of them concurring into one. seeing the like hereof may be found in certain rivers which meet together by confluence into one and the same channel. when they are all knit and closed into one. and so plant them. and near about the middle of the stalk beneath the sprouts. and cover them over with the 3ea onion. says he. &ut . If you would produce. covering them with 1uck. should yet retain each of them their several kind. and close them together. that the cleft go as far as the bud is. a kind of *rafting. there where they seem to have most grown together. put them into a trench in the ground. so that the bud of either of them meet right one with the other. Take four or five. that there may be some parts of them seen standing out a both ends. and watering them till they begin to bud. and none of the Pith or "uice be lost. and mingle them together by equal proportion. and water them after four or five days. and sundry colors. whereby it comes to pass. take two of the best of them. nd when you have so done. nd when that stalk shall shoot up into 3prigs. after two or three years. Take two !ine branches of diverse kinds. and then lay it under the ground again about three fingers deep. whereby both those buds may become as one. cut off the !ine. that the fruit arising from them is of a diverse nature. and heal that part where it is so cut. This very same experiment does Pliny set down. let them touch together. and those parts so standing forth. whereby such kind of *rapes are produced. or more *if you will+ !ine branches of diverse kinds. but so. without confusion of both together. which is to be done by this means. nd as much as possibly may be. so long till they shoot forth into a perfect bud. and yet either of them keeps his own several course and passage. must be dissolved or bruised. fterward put them into an earthen pipe or a horn fast together. There is. and cleave them in the middle. and cherish them and plant them into the ground.idymus prescribes it in this manner. nd when the buds are grown fast together. #either ought this to seem strange.and be compact into one nature. but with such heedful regard. Columella teaches us to do this thing on this manner. as have 3tones of diverse kinds.

and bud with bud. Then bind them up hard in paper. nd about two years after. I produced . and the very same year they brought forth *rapes that had cloven 6ernels or 3tones. I put to another. I put that also to another. as I myself have had experience.ung on them." and that not only of two. I myself have cleft or cut them off in that place where the buds were shooting forth. and presently clap them together so. and when that was so sprung up. The like experiment to these is recorded by Palladius. though they be somewhat hard to be done. you must shred the branches of each. and so let them lie three days or thereabouts. diverse kinds of *rapes. and bind them up together. "How a !ine may bring forth clusters of *rapes that are white. nd surely these experiments are very true. and then let them lie till a new bud come forth of a fresh Head. nd after they begin to bud. !o then by this means. left when the buds should wax greater. that is half white and half red. but you must see that both the shoots be of the same age. leaving the third part of the bud upon the branch. "'ll fruits may be made to be party colored. who show the way. take them up. branch with branch. and bound them up into one very fast. and water them. so that they may grow up into one stalk." If white and black !ines grow near together."' $ig. and so become one. nd by this means you shall procure in time. I fitted them so well. and put . one of them might fly off from the other. but the 3tones of the *rapes black. and require a long times practice. according to the diverse branches you put together. I fastened them together. you must rake the buds of each. accordingly as many kinds of fruits may be Compounded together. but of many colors." )eontinus teaches you to do it after this manner. fter that . and plant them into another stock. and the same growth as near as you can. and by other 4reek writers. and by this continual fitting of diverse springs one to another. see that they be well and fitly matched together. and thereby you shall have $igs of two colors. Then lay them in a trench. This shoot so springing up. that they made but one stalk. and cover them with soft and moist earth. that the bud of either may meet right together. Take two shoots of diverse kinds of $ig trees.

but all of them were of diverse colors. according as husbandmen are found to do when they plant such trees after they are grown old. and the 3tones were some long. and so one and the same branch will bring forth fruit of diverse kinds. it was cut off in the middle. some crooked. and by great chance. as well as it was by chance. nd so when the stock budded afresh. some round. and the other a sharp fruit. When occasion served to transplant and remove the tree. Pontanus has elegantly shown . if any man have a mind to produce such kind of fruits. one brought forth a sweet. !o you may procure." nd this kind of commixtion was invented by chance. Chapter V ""f a third way. after the bark has been pared away. "How Citron trees may bear diverse kinds. and fastening each to other with a kind of glue. and when they are *rafted into one stock." namely. (or one and the same *rape was sweet and unsavory. there arose one bud out of the sharp and sweet branches both together as they were left in the stock. and this one bud brought forth apples or fruit of both 4elishes. by "oining two sundry boughs together. "'n "range %ree to bring forth an 'pple half sweet and half sour. whereby diverse kinds of fruits may be Compounded together. they must be very carefully covered and looked unto. that they may grow up one as fast as the other. Wherefore no question but such a thing may be effected by art." . for there were *rafted two boughs of "range trees.clusters of diverse/colored and diverse/natured *rapes. it was cut off there were the two boughs had been before *rafted.

whereby we may mingle and Compound diverse kinds of fruits together. #otwithstanding. matter. and black. but even an impossible matter. who writes. This is the . and red. if you sow two diverse seeds near together within a hands breadth. so to sow them. and when they are shot up. though for my own part I think it to be not only a very hard. that this way was devised from the birds.ung it. white. to gather many seeds of sundry trees and fruits. to bind all the stalks together. nd sometimes it brings forth there where they . It should seem that the authors of this experiment. I cannot scorn here to rehearse it. one amongst another. &y such a means.unged in the forky twists of trees. and sow them in the earth together. that they may not lie asunder. because the bud comes not out of the low and hollow parts. and together with their .We will also set down a third way. and be incorporated one into another. and yield party colored berries. and this tree will bring forth diverse kinds of fruits. and then sow two other diverse seeds a little above them. and wrapping them up together. nd though I have put it in practice. but to no purpose. says he. that. #ature." If you take a great many berries. yet I will not discourage any man that has a mind to make trial hereof. because so many will easily and fitly close together. a little after have . and so grow up into one stalk. yes and one and the same fruit will be mingled and Compounded of many. and there are four seeds required. the roots which will come of all these seeds will lovingly embrace and wind about each other. and there it brings froth. it might be a very ready means which would produce exceeding many and wonderful experiments.ung excluded the seed whole which erst they had swallowed. for they must be set with the little end upward. and having moistened and warmed them in their bellies. but out of the highest. "-erries that are party colored may be produced. way which has been delivered unto us by the 'ncients. learned it first out of %heophrastus. The way is this. nd when they are grown up into stalks. (or hungry birds have devoured seeds. but rather grow up all into one tree. bind all their stalks into one. &ut special care must be had how the seeds be placed. which if it were true. Pliny writes. because grave ancient writers have set it down. for it has not so fallen out as they write. for it may be that fortune will second their endeavors better then she did mine. has taught how to *raft with a seed. and sometimes the wind carries it away into some chinks of the barks of trees. they will grow together.

made of the inner bark of elm. but cover them over with some wax." .amosins are mixed together. and withal. Plane tree in a -ay tree. we have shown at large. &ut you must take heed that the wind does not come at them to blow them asunder. is utterly false. and wrapping them up together in a )inen cloth. Then we bound them up gently with thin lifts." Pontanus. "'n "range or Citron %ree bear diverse 'pples of diverse 4elishes.)eontinus attempts the doing of this. which were planted near to each other. removing them into another place. or such like stuff . and an "range or )emon to be mi+ed together.amosin. that so one living thing might the more easily grow to the other. and when need requires. that sundry seeds could not possibly grow into one. &y the selfsame means we may produce. "' . as sailors plat and tie their cables. by taking the 6ernels or 3tones that are in a $ig somewhat inclinable to this variety. whereby diverse kinds of . we fastened two of them together. and altogether impossible. has elegantly taught us how to do it. nd so shall you gather from them in time very strange 'pples of sundry 4elishes. They write also. and a -ay in a Cherry tree." In our books of Husbandry. did give occasion of this invention. but all that is written in favor of this practice. in his work of gardening. &ut first we pared off the bark to the inmost skin. and by this means they will grow up into one stock. and then sowing them.reason why many times we see a Cherry tree growing in a Willow. &ut this experiment we ourselves have proved. and put them into a pitcher. our country/man. in that place where they should touch each other. While the . but many reasons alleged to and fro. and shroud themselves all under one bark. -ikewise we may procure. If we would have. that they may stick fast together. and let them be well plastered with 1ortar about the bark. "' $ig that is partly white and partly red. that the 8ackdaw hiding certain seeds in some secret chinks or holes.amosin trees were very tender and dainty. We must take sundry seeds of them. that the berries of them have been party/colored.

We may also conveniently cherish up with continual watering.ung and hollow near. we must take the . presently they grew into one. we cut off the tops of them about that place where they most seemed to be knot together. having in it Parsley. lest they should be parted and grow asunder. and covered them with 1uck. mixed and Compounded with all those seeds. and as well as you can. I have seen some in the noblemen gardens of #aples. as soon as their boughs closed one with another. and watered them often. and this one tree brought forth fruit Compounded of either kind.ung of a 3heep or a *oat. which growing in moist and shadowed places. and by this means we produced such kind of fruit as we speak of. and partly by reason of the tenderness and the rankness of the boughs. lay it in the ground about two handful deep. a %ruttle of *oats . then cover it with a little thin earth. they might grow up the better. and after they are grown up into a stalk.that is soft and pliable fur such a purpose. get out the inmost Pith. and perform other services towards them which are necessary for their growth. If we would procure that. both under it. packing them in as hard as the %ruttle will bear it. and bore it through. whereof. nd concerning lemons. and if any part of them were so limber that it would not stick fast. Then we rid away the earth from the upper roots. "' )ettuce should grow. says he. and when the seeds also are sprung forth. yet you must make a shift to bore the %ruttle through the middle. and instead hereof put into it those seeds which you desire to have mingled together. If you take. and about those tops there sprung up many buds. and round about it. nd when you have so done. and much commended. which. did so cling and grow together. you must still apply them with water and . very goodly. that they became one tree. for fear of spoiling it. yet not too hard. Palladius prescribes the same more precisely. and the rest we cut away. and water it a little and a little. and make it hollow cunningly with a . nd as it may be done by lemons.ung. we wedged it in with splints. and 4otchet. you must be more diligent about them." or any such like commixtion. and by this means at length there will arise a lettuce. nd thus after a few years that they were grown together into one tree. that by this cherishing and tilling on. and -asil gentle. and brought forth berries of sundry colors. and though it be but a small substance. so we have seen the same experiment practiced upon mulberry trees. partly by continual watering at seasonable times. with .ung .

and bury them in a little trench of such ground as is fruitful and well manured for such a purpose. you shall have flowers that are party/colored. one hole being a reasonable distance from the other. whereby the lettuce grows up. &y this means.ung. and when you have so done. If you would procure. and 4adish. the 4adish will grow downward into a root. nay.ung. and then fill it up with the seed of )ettuce. and cover them about with . it is thought that . %ou must take the seeds of diverse kinds of flowers.thers effect this experiment on this manner. and when you have bound them up in a )inen cloth. set them in the ground. They pluck off the )ettuce leaves that grow next to the root. and then lay them under the ground. -asil. lap them up in more of the same . and make holes in the thickest substance and veins thereof. ." you may effect it by the same ground and principle. the other sees will grow upward into a stalk. that they resemble little shreds of silk patched together. Chapter VI "How a double fruit may be made. all but the 4adish seed. such as are to be seen with golden leaves. and by the commixtion of those seeds together. yielding the several 4elish of every one of them.aisies of diverse kinds were first brought forth. where they then put in the before mentioned seeds. Cresses. whereof the one is contained within the other. some of them are so meddled with diverse colors. guarded by the stalks of so many Herbs as there were seeds put into the leaves." . reddish about the edge.-odkin. 4otchet. and the )ettuce will contain them all. "Party colored flowers to grow.

"How to make an "live *rape. "%hat a *rape should have 1yrtle in it. that so it may draw and receive both from the !ine. whereby it may be nourished. &ut the manner of these *rafting he has not set down. &ut let us see how the 'ncients have effected this. Though if we *raft them any other way but this. 'e reports that he say such a tree in the orchard of 1arius 1a+imus. while the !ine has not yet born fruit. that is to say. he thought with himself that he felt the 4elish of an "live berry and a *rape 6ernel both together. and bring forth one fruit that shall have in it both kinds. whereof I myself have first made trial. and "live grape. We must bore a hole through the !ine near to the ground. (laeo staphylon. and plant them elsewhere. as if they were but one. these 3prigs will retain the mixture and composition of the !ine and the "live tree together. brings forth a fruit called (laeo staphylon." . and also from the ground. we shall need no poles at all. which therefore is called by a name Compounded of both their names. and the !ine branches thereon *rafted. whereby fruits may be so meddled together. that so it shall bring forth not only bunches or clusters of *rapes. has shown the manner how to *raft the "live into a !ine. but that one and the same fruit shall be double. nd first. and put into it the branch of an "live tree. (or so will the fruit taste pleasant. If you . not as we have shown before. I suppose also that by this self/same means it may be effected. 'e writes also that such plants grow in frica. will bring forth *rapes that have myrtle berries growing underneath them. that one part of it should be of one fruit. that the !ine may be *rafting into the 1yrtle tree. &ut we must set props under them. to bear up the weight and burden of the boughs." %arentinus writes. and tasting the fruit thereof.iophanes shows that the "live being *rafting into the !ine. an "live grape.T here is also another way of composition. natural "uice and moisture. and are there called by a proper name in the country language 9bolima. but an "live fruit also. and the other part of another kind. nd moreover. you take the fruitful spring thereof. if. nor yet that one and the same bough shall at once bear two or three kinds of fruits. &ut $lorentinus in the eleventh book of his *eorgicks. containing in itself two kinds. sweetness.

that is.amosins that have sweet 'lmonds within them. as the "live tree must be into the !ine. likely for this cause. then you may produce 1yrtle *rapes. then they will bring forth *rapes after their ordinary manner.amosins that shall be of the color of &uts. that whereas the fruit of itself would make a man )a+ative. and was *rafted in the 3ervice tree.amosin *rafted into an 'pple tree. might cause it to be more binding.*raft the !ine branches in the higher boughs or arms of the 1yrtle. this only has a sweet 6ernel. &ut damosins. "." which of late was called by the !paniards 1alina. though not without some difficulty. It is a peculiar property of these fruits that are *rafted into &ut trees. says he. for whereas others have a bitter 'lmond or 6ernel within their 3tone. neither can there be any prettier double fruit devised. which outwardly is a Peach. in this kind of fruit an 'lmond 6ernel. as Pliny reports. but in taste like unto &uts. which come of a . &ut now we will show. but with has an 'lmond 6ernel. The same Pliny reports also. &ut if you *raft them as he showed before. We may likewise produce.amosin that has in it the substance of an 'pple. not having any myrtle in them. There is also a kind of fruit called by the 'pothecaries. the sharp taste of the 3ervice tree being mixed with it.amosin. being therefore called by a mixed name. &ucipruna. as the same Pliny writes." . !o there may be produced. They *rafted it into the 3ervice tree. near to the ground. whereby the 6ernel was pleasanter. ". which has in it a sweet 'lmond. which differs from all others." for such kind of fruit were produced by the 'ncients. though in Pliny/s time it was common in Italy. that they are in color like to their own kind. and called &ucipruna." There is." This same 1i+a is a kind of . that there is a kind of ". 3ebesten. It is a plant peculiar to !yria and 5gypt. "How to produce an 'lmond peach. "1i+a.

and also of the qualities of either parent." which kind of fruit is common with us. by this example.utwardly it resembles the Peach both in shape and color. such a fruit as was never heard of in former ages. . or it were *rafted. wrought by skill and diligence used in *rafting. happily. nd the most of those kinds are to be found among the -rutii. which the 'ncients have recorded. if you *raft the !ine into the 1yrtle. either upon one of the trees that bare one of the buds. because it bears in it self the nature. we may produce by laying the bud of a Citron upon the bud of a )emon. In like manner. and so the fruit will be threefold. yet would it not bring forth any such *rapes. &y this self same means we my produce a very strange 'pple. &ut we will demonstrate the manner of it to the whole world. not only false matters. but inwardly it has a sweet 'lmond with the 6ernels that both looks and tastes like an 'lmond. because it was never seen nor known. a people dwelling near #aples. but he showed not the manner how they may be produced. nd it is a new kind of adultery or commixtion. but indeed impossible to be so done. the wonderfullness will ravish our senses and our thoughts. that you would wonder and be ama.The former means producing double fruits. there will be no such fruit brought forth after that manner. are but vain fables. &esides. it is impossible to *raft the "live tree into the !ine. "' double "range may be produced. we may set a third bud. and the !urrentines in Campania. and so is the tree also a middle between the 'lmond tee and the Peach tree. or else setting them both into a third tree. by clapping the bud of one upon the bud of another.ed to see. wherein are double ranks of 6ernels in such rare proportion. The manner of *rafting is. both of the almond and the Peach Compounded together. These trees we had growing in our own orchards many years together. and these fruits proceed from the tart "uice that is within the branch. This fruit is called and 'lmond peach by the late writers. I say. we have shown in the book of Husbandry. as we have done when the trees have been old. namely "' Citron that has a )emon in the inn parts. and &ut damosins. We may also go farther." and this. Pliny speaks of 'pple damosins. partaking both of the shape. and upon that branch wherein those two buds grow up together. . for.

born at the city of reste. and some which the 'ncients have found out. and therefore if a man follow that example of Corellius. "How to produce a Chestnut of the best. and so produced a Chestnut called Corelliana. that the former is a larger Chestnut. nd the good that comes by *rafting is such. These things have been done by the 'ncients." There is one rare example hereof not to be omitted. The cherry tree is very kindly to be *rafted. "%he -arbery %ree into the tree called %uber. nd you shall scarce ever have a good and a sweet Cherry. after his name." Concerning the praises and excellency of *rafting. and made either better or worse. his heir. the fruit will thereby be made better. unless it be by *rafting upon some other tree. We will relate some experiments of our own. *rafted a Chestnut upon a Chestnut branch in the country of #aples. and some worse then their ordinary kinds. whom he made a free/man. as Pamphilus reports. new fruits may be produced. a nobleman of 6ome. whereby strange fruits may be generated. that by *rafting. &y the precedent of this example. as that if anything be *rafted into the stock or branch of its own kind.Chapter VII ""f another device. some better. 'ere it shall suffice only to show. or the -arbery %ree. Corellius. and *raft the "+yacantha often into the branch or stock. is nothing else but a -astard. we have spoken elsewhere more at large. fter that. *rafted the same Corelliana upon another tree. or a wild %uber. nd first. but this latter is a better fruit. we have endeavored to change. it will be much . that the "+yacantha." for I take it. The difference between them both is this.

for I find that it brings forth already. it has within. That part of it which lies against the 3un is reddish. as I myself have seen. Which kind of fruit cannot be supposed to have been otherwise brought forth then by diverse *rafts of the Peach into the &ut tree. but into branches of another kind. having a green color like a &ut.bettered. as are *rafted not into their own branches." There is a kind of Peach called a Peach nut. s also on the other side. the taste of it is sharp and somewhat bitter. it smells very well. both greater and sweeter berries. of an 'pple and a 0uince mi+ed together. at length it took fast hold. which contain in them both the fashion and the properties of either kind. namely. "' Peach nut. nd we will teach the manner how to Compound a new kind of fruit lately devised. it is long before it becomes ripe.iophanes made a Compound fruit called "1elimela. and is of a hard substance like a Peach. It bears the name and the form also of both the parents whereof it is generated. does . till it does bring forth tubers. if it be not dressed and looked unto. and that often. in my own orchard. the %uber tree. I myself have *rafted it three or four times into the branches of its own kind. and if I live so long. and has no 1oss down on the outside. or 6ernel within. but has lately been produced by pains taken in *rafting. It has a pleasant 4elish.iophanes produced "Citron apples Compounded of an 'pple and a Citron. but very smooth all over. and become the %uber tree. and hard like a Peach 3tone. but it withered as soon as ever it did shoot forth. one year after another.egenerate into the -arbery %ree. I will still *raft it so. and became a Citron apples tree. 'owever. mi+ed of a &ut and a Peach." for he *rafted an 'pple into the Citron tree. We may also better the fruits by *rafting them into better trees. " . #ow we will speak of such fruits. but the 'pple will not last so long as the &ut. 'natolius and . which the 'ncients never knew of. a rough 3tone. .

. nd so if you *raft an apple into a . that an ordinary 0uince. the fruit will have a bitter 4elish. will neither be so great. how by *rafting. which alone of all other 0uinces is to be eaten raw. Pliny writes.amosin tree. and be somewhat a latter fruit. the fruit of it will be much less. nor yet so good. which the thenians call 1elimelum. the tree will yield a very good 'pple. effects greater matters then nature does." We will show it first by a Pear. we will declare also. 8ohns 'pple. #ow as we have shown how to make fruits better by *rafting. the fruit which it yields. Chapter VIII ". yields a kind of fruit called 1ilvianum. 'ence it is that a 1agician being furnished with art..How to procure ripe fruits and flowers before their ordinary season. it will not taste so well as that which is *rafted into an orchard Pear tree.. 1arcus !arro says. both for show and for properties. -ikewise if you *raft a Chestnut into a Willow. If you *raft a peach into a . says he. as it is in its own kind." The 0uince. the taste of it will be more bitter." A rt being as it were natures 'pe.. being *rafted into a 0uince pear. but we call it a 3t. as it were another . "$ruits may be made worse. that if you *raft a very good Pear into a wild Pear tree.amosin tree. and a 0uince pear Compounded.for if we *raft an 'pple into a 0uince tree. even in her imitation of nature. If into a bitter 'lmond tree. "Produce a fruit called 1ilvianum.

you must take one of the next and best branches from it. and saw off the stock of the Cherry tree upon which it is *rafted. that it may be more rare and of better worth. and partly by that which he sees. %ou must bore the Cherry tree stock through with a Wimble. (or the tree will bring forth *rapes the very same season. and all other growing things that the world affords. how we may by *rafting. We may also by the help of *rafting procure. making the winter to be as summer. after the scar is grown over again. the same as when it would bring forth her own fruit. and flowers. and also as being made partaker of the "uice of that tree into which it is *rafted. making things ripe before or after their natural season. does work upon nature.idymus shows us. but you must not cut it off from the !ine. "Produce *rapes in the 3pring time. being nothing hurt by that *rafting. and springtime as the winter. your !ine growing by it. you must cut off the branch from the !ine. and put it into the 'uger hole. takes his sundry advantages of nature0s instruments. but still bring forth her own fruit. bout which time. searching thoroughly in those works which nature does accomplish by many secret means and close operations." . are produced by the circuit and motion of Celestial bodies. "' 4ose to 3how forth her buds before her time. mong other means. and. and thereby either hastens or hinders her work. and partly by that which he con"ects and gathers from thence. but place it in its own mother the !ine. all above the boring place. 'e knows that fruits. and so indeed makes nature to be his instrument. If you *raft a black !ine into the cherry tree. &ut this *rafting cannot be done without boring a hole into the stock. (or so shall neither the !ine be idle. #ow let us see." If we see a Cherry tree bring forth her fruit in the springtime. he effects it by Counterfeiting the times and seasons of the year. and therefore when he is disposed to hinder the ripening of any thing. *rafting is not a little helpful hereunto. as . you shall have *rapes growing in the springtime.nature. This 3prig within the compass of two years. and let the !ine branch grow up in the rest. will grow and be incorporated into the Cherry tree. there is a fit opportunity of attaining our desire. as %arentinus writes. and we desire to have *rapes about that time. or else to help it forward. and that branch also which was *rafted does grow up together with it.

to convey . and this they do daily. how we may procure that. and the air is more temperate.ung. and so you shall have Cucumbers very soon. or that there is any heat or rain.ung into them.If we pluck off a 4ose bud from the mother. &ut after that the cold and the frost is ceased. and when the 3un shines. The like may be done by *ourds. nd first. which may grow up together with the $ennel and the -rambles." Columella found in . and water them with warm water. and having first loosed the Pith of either of them with a wooden Punch. they take their Panniers and dig a place for them in some well tilled ground. and you shall have your desire. the 4ose so *rafted. and put into them some fine sifted earth mixed with . and lay them in the 3un. and preventing the ordinary season. that if a man sow Cucumber seeds in the wintertime. you must plant therein Cucumber seeds about the beginning of spring. and therefore we can hardly produce flowers sooner then their time by that means. &ut now let us show how we may accomplish this thing by Counterfeiting as it were the seasons of the year. we will show another means here.uinoetial day. (or by this means the seeds will receive nourishment from the root of the stalk into which they are *rafted. cut them off a little with the ground.olus 1endefius an 5gyptian. and there set them. or else by the fire.unged. and then look well to them. still watering them as occasion serves. . they bring the Panniers forth into the air. the same into the open bark of an almond tree. they will yield very timely Cucumbers. and a rank of -rambles one within another. and about 3un setting they bring them into a closed house. as the almond tree does bud. that it may be somewhat liquid. &ut because it is a very hard matter to *raft into an Herb. at such time. %heophrastus shows us. and namely. so that the brims of them are even with the earth. an easy way whereby this may be done. long before their ordinary season is to grow. and when seed time comes. and *raft by such an (mplastering as we spoke of before. "How Cucumbers may hasten their fruits. and after the '. put the whole Panniers of them into the ground. %ou must set in your garden in some shadowy place well . "Cucumbers shall be ripe very timely. and withal to *raft in them Cucumber seeds. a rank of $ennel . will bring forth her own flowers out of the almond bark." The 0uintiles say you must take Panniers or earthen pots.

and warm water." If they be used after the like manner.idymus shows. "' Cherry ripe before his time. namely. but yet the device and practice is not all one with the former. and cover them all over with 1uck. and grow up by the temperature of another year. says he. by laying warm Cherishers. either by hindering. yet there they have ripe $igs of two years growth as it were. as in 2aefia. and &itre. even before Winter be past. *a small tree it is. which presently do embrace the heat of a new 3un as it were. and carefully look unto them. even before other $ig trees can so much as blossom. "How to make $igs that were of last years growth. that %iberius the 5mperor took great delight in the Cucumbers that were thus ripened. to the roots of trees and Herbs. for his gardeners every day drew forth their hanging gardens into the 3un upon wheels. or Chalk. There are." nd this is by keeping them from the cold also. they dig up the trees again with the fruit upon them. #ow when the Winter is past and the air is somewhat calmer the year following. and such as is more beholding to art then to nature+ which they use in this manner. If you would have. and use them as you would use *ourds and Cucumbers. to make them ripe before their ordinary season. fter the utumn or (all. &ut because we cannot so well practice these experiments in the broad and open fields. as kindly as if they had then newly sprung up. therefore we will try to ripen fruit and flowers before their time. that though the country is very cold. . which he had at all times of the year. and when any great cold or rain came." . Pliny shows. to be ripe very soon the ne+t year after. in certain countries. Then it comes to pass. if you set them in Hampers or earthen vessels. winter $ig trees. they straight away carried them in again into their close Hovels made for the same purpose. and the green $igs that grew upon them in the beginning of winter are also buried upon the tree with them.Columella says. "4oses may bud forth. as )ime. they lay them in the earth. or by helping the temperature of the air.

Palladius counsels. as %arentinus and $lorentinus both affirm. and mix it with water. a foot above the root of it. %heophrastus says you may procure it by setting the same.ung and the "il to be laid upon the $igs when they be raw and green. you must take the mother of the Wine before it is sour. ." %ou must take &itre. by reason of the strong inward heat which that Herb is endued withal. &ut to procure the *rapes to be timely ripe.ung." . "' !ine to bring forth before her time.emocritus shows another means. so that it be made of the thickness of Honey." for if a $ig tree be set but near it. by applying the same with Pepper and "il. 'owever. and so shall your buds shoot forth within nine days after. and Pigeon/s . and pound it down. nd to be brief. if you would have anything to bud forth very timely. and lay the same upon the root of the plants when you set them. there is nothing set in the 3ea onion. but will more easily and speedily shoot forth. and so the $igs will sooner .Pliny says. lay good store of your &itre upon the !ine buds. when the slip begins to shoot up. the tree will dry and wither away. you should then besmear them with the "uice of a long "nion mixed with Pepper and "il." #amely. nd as soon as you have pruned the !ine. $lorentinus would have the . and by either of these means you may procure the ripening of Cherries before their time. and there pour in warm water upon it.ydimus says you may effect it by covering the 4ose bush with earth. whereby you may cause. 2oreover. If you would procure the ripening. it will cause the speedy ripening of $igs. that when the $igs begin to wax somewhat red. ""f a 4ose before his time. "Into the 3ea onion. -ikewise if you would have. and before any blossom appears. that you must lay Chalk or )ime to the root of the tree before it begins to blossom. or else you must often pour hot water upon the root. for at that time it is best so to use them. "%he $ig tree to bring forth hasty $igs.

for within fifty or forty days it is found to appear out of the earth. whereby in a few days the fruit is ripened. when the $igs begin to wax ripe. "Parsley to come up before his time. and so thrust it through both ends of the $igs. and by reason of some error and negligence. for if you fail.ur practice is this.ther effect this by heaping up a great many 4am Horns about the root of the tree. that it has devised to bring forth. &ut the mind of man is so bold to enter in the very secret bowels of nature. . and anoint it over with "il. you must show yourself a painful workman. . for I have studied it. or thereabouts. &ut in any case. that if you pour !inegar upon it by little and little. . Pliny shows. as %heophrastus and other affirm. or else if you cherish it with warm water as soon as ever it is sown. 'owever. and in the beginning of summer you must dip them in the !inegar. suffering them to lie a while in some warm place. held up with little props. There you must sprinkle them often with a little warm water. Then remove the cloth away. or else by laying upon it black &itre. we take a wooden &eedle. by the diligent search of experience. it will shoot up very swiftly. "How to make Coleworts branch before their time. or commit never so small an error herein. many of my friends having . "Parsley e+ceedingly timely. as it begins to grow. and water them still. for this will hasten the ripening thereof. that the heat does not leave them.ur countrymen call it Perroselinum. !o will they in short time appear out of the earth." nd this is by laying good store of 3ea *rass about it. In the practicing of this experiment. Then wrap up the seeds in some small loose earth. and thereby the stalk will grow up in length.ripen." Pliny says. it will grow up. you must be painful and very diligent. I obtained not my desire." It grows up easily of itself. nd Palladius says. you will miss your purpose. as by their writings may be seen. which for this purpose you have before meddled with the ashes of burnt -ean straw. as much as you can take up with three fingers. that if you sprinkle hot water upon it. to the great admiration of beholders. %ou must take Parsley seeds that are not fully one year old. We may also cause. and cover them with some cloth.

-ikewise may. ")entils be hastened in their growth. and the shell feeds the . ""f Hastening Cucumbers. !o. a little before they are sown. will live long. Therefore if a man cuts off a Cucumber close by the ground. after it has brought forth fruit.ung. even before others that were most seasonably sown." If they be smeared over with dry "+ . &ut %heophrastus says this may be done by macerating them in the water before seed/time. "1elons may be hastened in their fruit. or else by supplying it with continual moisture after it is sown. and then cover the roots over with earth. Cucumber roots.ung will cause them soon to sprout forth." If we sow them before their ordinary season in -arley time. the very same roots the year following will bring forth very timely fruit. found it to be a very true experiment. as $lorentinus shows." nd that is by 1acerating the seed before it be sown. "Cucumbers to hasten their fruit. %ou must keep them warm with some covering.made diligent trial of this procedure. but especially if you 1acerate them shells and all.ung. the heat of the ." &ut %heophrastus sets down another practice. and afterward when the air is more calm. and the cold of night. (or there is but a little of it will turn to Putrefaction." (or if in the wintertime you lay a parcel of earth in mixtures that are made of hot . %heophrastus also sets down another way. from the snow. nd by this same device of preventing their seed time. if they be carefully looked into. !o also we may procure. you must plant them in some other place. and in the same earth sow 1elons seeds. but they had need lie in that dung four or five days before they be cast into the ground. we may cause. (or by this means we have hastened the fruit hereof. "Peas or !itches to be timely ripe.

that the milky "uice may there swell and issue out of it." If you daily sprinkle them with continual moisture. "4oses growing in the month of 8anuary. "*ourds shall bring forth very timely. The same %heophrastus shows also." &y propping up and holding up their young tender 3prigs. nd if we would have them to hasten their fruit very speedily.6ernel well at the first. says he. does hide the same in a heap of earth. then in all other . "%he $orward $ig tree to hasten her fruits. In like manner we may cause. and . "' 0uince may be hastened in ripening." If we sow or plant them in some place where they may lie still opposite against the 3un. and so the fruit will be sooner ripened." If the gardener. one from above. and still water them with warm water. There may be other fruits also be timely ripened. it will cause it to bring forth very timely fruit the year following. that which is left behind. To be short we may procure. we should have an oven made under those vessels. and the Island Inarime. "How the 4ape root may be hastened in growth. that when the superfluous Humor is gone forth. and the other from beneath the fruit may more speedily be produced.emocritus says. "%he timely ripening of all kinds of $ruit." If you water the slip twice a day in the summertime. why fruits and flowers are more forward and sooner ripe in the country 3uteoli. We may likewise procure that. may be the more easily Concocted. or it we put them into certain vessels made for the same purpose. as Palladius shows." &y renting or scarifying the body of the tree. and let them lie continually in the 3un. as. nd surely this is the only cause. however afterward it turns to nothing. that so by reason of a double warmth. you may have.

but is now usual in many places. " &oth in season and out of season." By these ways of procuring fruit to be timely ripe. nor the wind to dry them. and must be hidden in some ditch. says he. where the 3un cannot come to waste and consume their moisture. "How we may have Cucumbers all the year long. by cherishing the roots thereof with fire and heat within the earth. and some later that come after. and cover it over. that *ourds and Cucumbers must be taken when they are small. When they are ripe.places of Campania. as we see when it falls from a tree. that they are so situated. it may be effected. When their season is . so that they will still be fresh and green. which two things would mar and hinder their growth. If you would have. Chapter I "How we may have $ruits and $lowers at all times of the :ear. you must observe that manner and custom which was first peculiar in ssyria. #ature of herself affords them unto us." To have Citrons still growing fresh upon the tree. and in their tender growth. near the place where they grow. s for their own time. "Citron %rees bear fruit all the year. and the wetness of the place will keep them supple and moist. &y this means the heat of the 3un cannot come at them to dry them. you must put them into a watery ditch. nd %heophrastus after him says the like. as both the wind and the 3un have their full scope upon them. that we shall have fruits and flowers at all times of the year. because there they hasten the Concoction and ripening of them. then. some very forward that come before their ordinary season. 'ristotle in his Problems shows.

"%o have 'pples all the year." . that 'rtichokes always bring forth fruit about the same season that they are set in. as at any time else. that the tree will bud forth afresh in those parts where it finds itself destitute of fruit. !o shall you find a new supply of fresh fruit there where you cut off the former. !3perage al"ays gro"i#g fresh. "'rtichokes grow continually." We may learn to do it out of Cassianus. 7anuary. &ut they will bring forth also in 2arch and pril. and so fresh fruit will also come up in their stead. if you desire to have.ydimus in his *eorgics says. Pontanus has set down the same experiment in verse. grieving as it were that one bough should be beautified with fruit. and the other should have none at all. and when these be ripe. plant them in the months of #ovember. if you desire to have. and prune those parts well where you have left no fruit. and by this means they will shoot up into new stalks. be gathered. and therefore it is easy to have them all year long. but you must leave some behind. if they be planted accordingly. (or if we desire. The ordinary season of planting 'rtichokes is in #ovember and !eptember. you must take this course. who following the authority of !arro. "4oses growing all the year long. it will bring forth for the most part continual fruit. and commonly they bear fruit in 7uly and ugust. you must dig round about the roots as they lie in their own place under the earth. you must cut off some of the fruit from the tree. you shall have 'rtichokes of that kind. then cut off those which you left upon the tree before. for so it will come to pass.! nd fit to be eaten. We may also effect this by the help of *rafting. upon some other parts of the tree. If you practice it three years together. for by that time they will have as perfect a soul. s soon as you have gathered the fruit. nd if we would have. as will bring forth fresh fruit almost all the year long. -ikewise. that if we *raft an 'pples into a Citron tree. (ebruary. and 2arch." . 8ecember. In likewise manner.

and careful dressing. that if we deal thereby." (or if. The best way is. &y the like practice. Chapter "How to produce fruits that shall be later and backward. %heophrastus says.%ou must plant them in every month. as in the procuring of !iolets. and then they will come on the better. and so many several flowers of them as you have planted several roots. you shall by this means have )ilies all the year long. you take the roots or cloves of )ilies. now it remains that we set down such . some twelve." We have already shown how to produce forward fruits that will be very timely ripe. and 1uck. when they will grow no where else. we shall have flowers upon it continually. so 'natolius thinks the same practice will take like effect in all other flowers. (or commonly fruits and flowers will grow there. that we may have. some eight fingers deep. &ut they must be very carefully looked unto." (or %heophrastus writes. some fourteen. "%he Herb "enanthe shall flourish all the year. and applying them with moisture. and taking good heed unto them. and keep them from vehement cold and heat. nd as this may be done by )ilies." If we set them in well/fenced places. you shall have fresh 4oses continually. and such as lie open to the force of the sun. "!iolets always growing. ")ilies all the year long. and by dunging them. you may also have. !o we may procure also that. to set them in earthen vessels. and set them in the ground. bringing them forth still when the air is calm and temperate.

" $lorentinus shows how it may be effected. -ikewise we must sow or plant late. as soon as ever the fruit comes forth. &ut we must see that the Willow. grow in such a place. (or growing in another body. and whereas we were to heat that which we would have to be timely ripe. here we must *raft forward fruits into later trees." If we *raft the same into a Willow. To begin with *rafting. are long before they have their hair. and bring forth backward fruits. and do not change their hair before the same time of the year come again. "%o produce later Cherries. for we have declared before. we must here use coolers to make things ripen slowly. We may effect this also by that kind of *rafting which we spoke of in the eighth chapter. -ikewise we may procure that. If any man would have. however.cunning sleights and devices. and this *rafting must be done about the last days of the 1oon/s last quarter. so also in plants it comes to pass. and the same time will the 4ose open itself. and certain it is. that thereby a very later fruit may be produced. as where it may be nourished with continual moisture. (or as beasts that are long here must be perfectly bred. yet in time it will forget its former 4elish. When you have *rafted the !ine branch into a Cherry tree. so bitter that is called 'marendula. not to be ripe before the lowest of winter. that is to say. we will show how thereby. yielding a very excellent favor. that if they be set late. nd this we may learn to effect by contrary causes to the former. the fruit of its own kind be very bitter. that we may receive later fruit. branch of this tree being *rafted into a Cherry tree. look what time the tree wherein it is set. in which they were brought forth. they will grow late. and yield a more pleasant taste. as whereby we may procure fruit to grow very later. a -itterling. after three or four *rafting will bring forth at length Cherries that will be very later. and whereas before we were to *raft later fruits into forward trees." There is a kind of tree that brings forth a very bitter fruit. you must set the bud of a 4ose into the bark or Pill thereof. will $ructify. and besides will . that such a *rafting there may be. but that will be longer in working. and it must be *rafted between the tree and the bark. nd. "4oses grow later. "' Pear shall grow e+ceeding later.

especially such as are found to be fullest of leaves. This practice will take best effect. so that we have continual winter . To be short. nd by this means it is. and other slips which have yielded flowers all the winter long even to the very pleasant to behold. all kinds of fruits may be made to grow later. if it be 1usk 4oses. for thus we have the country store of 4oses growing all winter long. "Clove gilliflowers blow later. that they lose not all their moisture. shake them off. !o if you would have. these later buds will be good fruit. nd Pliny following his authority. and set them in the heat of the 3un all the summer long." %ou must tuck off the first stalks and slips about that time as they are ready to bud. for then others will come up in their stead." We must take away the bunches that grow first. When the green $igs are very small. which will be long in ripening. and then others will grow up in their stead. that clusters may grow. "$igs that are very backward. by this kind of *rafting. ")atter *rapes. and the tree will bring forth others that will not be ripe before the latter end of winter. &y this means likewise we cause. though they be slow. time wears away. for while new buds are growing up in the room of the first. #ow there is another way whereby we may procure the backward growth of fruits." If we tuck off the buds that grow first. at such time as the flower begins to appear and show forth itself. (or by this practice we have procured other stalks. "4oses to open or blow very later. and at length be ripened. and yet if the air be seasonable. that %arentinus shows how to produce. if the first green ones be shaken off when they are about the bigness of a bean. and well ripened." s Columella shows. and are set up in windows. says. nd this is by shaking or plucking off the buds or blossoms that grow first upon the tree. but you must water them continually. that $igs will grow latter. &ut we must have a special care still to look to the !ine. Thus we may produce. as they stand in earthen vessels.

both at home and in the country abroad. and they may be ripened through the heat and fatness thereof. that they grow up round together. stopping up the mouth thereof with some fat $oil. and when the winter draws on." We must watch the time when the tops of the sets begin to shoot up. let them lie a while in the 3un. either to set thereof into great $ennel stalks." s we have in the summer. &y the like device as this is. If we would have. as we have shown before. ")ettuce for a Winter 3alad.*illiflowers. or cold storms. &ut the best way to have later Cucumbers. and keep the growing in an earthen vessel. If we would. where the root afterward will take. in such a place as they may always receive fit nourishment. whereby no cold may come at them to destroy them. or showers. and the if we would have them to be red of their own natural color. not by shaking or cutting off the buds. or else to cast the Cucumbers into a pit for a certain season. we must take them while they are white. . and keeping away the cold from them. and then take away the sets. before they are grown to their reddish color. is. and plant them in another place. "3trawberries in the winter or spring. In like manner. "Produce later Cucumbers. and we shall obtain our purpose." When she has brought forth her leaves. we must lay heaps of 1uck round about them. and so yield us a winter 4ose. s for example. "' 4ose blow in the Winter." &ecause we know that this kind of fruit cannot endure any frost. There is also another device whereby we may cause fruit to ripen very late. -ikewise if we desire to have. and burying them in the earth till Winter comes. as they grow on their beds. you must bind the tops of them about with a little string. and by this means you shall have them still white and tender. and put them leaves and all into 4eeds or Canes. we may reserve. therefore we must sow the seeds in the summertime. but by planting them late.

that so the "uice may more plentifully bestow itself upon the fruit that is left behind. then if it were not so planted. to procure larger fruit. as hereafter will be shown. and *rafted the same into the tree again.+ . and show how we may procure thereby. . if the tree be overloaded.r else by planting upon those trees which bring forth greater fruit of their own kind. and for my own part." tree that is planted with a *raft of her own kind. 4ardeners with us cover them in their gardens with sand or such like earth." To have it still fresh for any use." t remains now that we set down certain rules and ways whereby fruit may be made greater. as to cover them only with earth.thers take other courses that are less chargeable. .r else by gathering of the fruit here and there some. . (or it may be done either by (ngraffing only *for indeed this is the chief privilege that (ngraffing has."(ndive may be kept all Winter. and far exceed the ordinary bigness of their own kind. and yet en"oy them all Winter long. Chapter I I "How we may cause fruit to grow bigger then their ordinary kind. and this may be effected diverse ways. that Corellius took a 3cion of a Chestnut tree. "%hat 'pples or other like fruit shall grow bigger then they are found. will always bring forth greater fruit.r by other devices. I have often made the like proof in many other fruits. whereby they keep them very white and tender. We will first begin with (ngraffing. and by experience have found that all fruits may be . and thereby produced a greater and better Chestnut.r else by dressing and trimming them. We brought an example hereof out of Pliny. . or with straw and leaves.

We may effect it by (ngraffing them to a 0uince tree. &ut if you (ngraff it into any other .amosin tree.idymus writes in his *eorgicks. In our #aples and !urrentine orchards. nd thereby the least Pears that are may be so augmented. that they will become a very goodly fruit. !o we may cause. (or the 'pricot does not endure kindly. then the Pomegranate tree does when it ." 5specially the least sort of Pears called 1yrapia." The Pomegranate tree and the 1yrtle tree are each delighted with others company. and likewise the 1yrtle tree into the Pomegranate tree. of all others. and seen it tried by many others. the greater 1edlars we shall produce. by grafting upon another tree. We may also. 5xperience whereof. The proof whereof both I have made myself. because the kind of this is greater then the kind of that. as . nd I never say any where else. *it may be it is our 3cag tree+ and by this means I procured great 'pricots. there is excellent fruit of this kind. "Pears that should be greater then ordinary. it will yield but a -astard fruit. &ecause the 0uince tree. do each of them bring forth a greater fruit. "%he 1edlar tree to bear huge 1edlars. if we would produce." 4reater then any man would imagine. bears the greatest fruit. Where he says plainly. we have in many places in our country. "%he small 'pricot may be made greater.made greater by (ngraffing. that the Pomegranate tree being (ngrafted into the 1yrtle tree. but especially Citrons.amosin tree which bears a Plum like a *oat/s 3tone both in shape and greatness. nd the oftener we so (ngraff it. to be (ngrafted into any other trees besides. whose kind is to bear bigger fruit. if we (ngrafted it into the 0uince tree. or 1usk pears. -ikewise. &ut I am persuaded that the 1yrtle tree brings forth greater fruit in proportion to her body when it is (ngrafted upon the Pomegranate tree. !econdly we may procure fruit to be greater then ordinary. "'ugment the fruit of the 1yrtle tree. I have often (ngrafted it upon that kind of ." Whereas they are the smallest kind of Peaches that are. s for example. and careful looking unto.

"Citrons greater then their kind. when we dig about them. and thrive much the better. nd. and those also that grow in the chiefest and likeliest parts of the tree. big enough to fill your hand. (or so shall the "uice of the tree bestow itself more liberally upon the fruit that is left. only leaving some few. the $ig tree will cause it to change his (ngrafted upon the 1yrtle tree. and leave but a few behind.+ (or. "Citrons may be made greater. there is yet another means whereby we may cause fruit to be the greater. you must shake off a great many from all the boughs." nd it is by this same means. you would have great Citrons. and make it greater." If we (ngraff a 1ulberry into a $ig tree. by this means. If. . they are much helped and delighted with continual digging about them. nd first. that if the 1ulberry be (ngrafted into a $ig tree. (or when they hang thick upon the boughs. and leaving some few upon the tree. Pontanus also says the same. we should pluck off here and there some. so that they shall be greater 1ulberries then ordinarily their kind is found to yield. and so the nourishing "uice may be converted to the best and the fairest may thereby be the better augmented. you must gather away the worst. "1ulberries greater then ordinary. says he. mother does more bountifully feed one child with her 1ilk. then she can feed two. that when the fruit begins to weigh down the boughs. third means whereby 'pples or such like fruit may be augmented. and water them and lay 1uck about them. !o shall they that are left be thicker an bigger in every way. &y such a kind of means we may also procure. nd this by dressing and trimming." $lorentinus counsels us. says he. Wherefore if we would procure. and will fill up the fruit thereof with a fat "uice. will make himself merry and fat with his brother0s 1ilk. (or so Palladius has written. by plucking off some of the fruit here and there. Palladius shows." (or. the heir that is left. is. but you must leave both the greatest. as Palladius says. "How to make 'pples greater then ordinary.

whereunto we put an equal portion of 3wine/s . and practice the same upon it the next two years following. and there wrapped in this "intment around them. both for the bigness of the -ean. nd we kept all this in a dry place for a year together. nd at length. questionless. "-ring forth very great ones. we dug away the earth from about some parts of the Pomegranate tree roots. -ikewise we have caused. you might produce very huge Pomegranates. and also of the Cod. as %heophrastus shows. fterward in ." &y anointing them with this same "intment. covered them with earth. "' 4ape grow bigger and rounder. nd. nd afterwards sowing them in the earth. nd at last we put !inegar to it. We took a good portion of fat 1uck. and set them in another." s the same author shows. "Peaches may be augmented much." If we plant them in moist places. and supply them with continual watering. I had greater Pomegranates then ever the tree bore before." nd by this means. by watering them continually. &ut now if you would go forward. s big as *ourds. "%he Pomegranate tree to bear a mighty fruit. lso. wonderful to bee seen. and suckle them three days together with three pints of *oat/s 1ilk. We have practiced to cause. as Palladius shows. ")eeks and roots of 4adish may be made greater.ung. every month managing them again one with another."0uince pears may be made greater." %ou must watch the time when they blossom." If we translate them out of one place. "-eans to bring forth great Cods.ctober and #ovember. nd by this device. and made it like an "intment. &ut if you would have the Peach trees. If you would have. Whereby we had great increase." . and the )ees of Wine and -arley -ran.

" If. nd the bough . which %heophrastus has set down. &ut if with all you peal off the topskin. -ikewise. and put &itre into the water wherein they are steeped. how to make. as %heophrastus says. they will be far greater. to grow up thereby. they steep them shells and all." If they be set with a little pole. and water them often in the summertime." for art may cause the greatness of fruit. you must dig away the earth about them. %ou shall by this means have a fuller and a more tender 'rtichoke. We may also practice another device whereby to make greater fruit." s 3otion shows.ung. "'rtichokes to bear fuller fruit. you take Peas. If you plant them in a well soiled place. and so plant them. and the larger grown. nd he brings an example. they will grow the greater. and sow them in their shells. and they will grow much larger. bout some twenty days before you translate them from the place where they first grew. -ikewise we may cause. and steep them in warm water the day before you sow them. When the first buds be formed upon the boughs. and let them lie drying. and cover them with old . "Peas of a bigger growth." s !arro shows. It will be the more augmented because the root will thereby be the better filled. because they would have greater Peas growing. that all moisture may be kept from them. nd then plant them again. (or by the advantage and benefit of the season wherein it is sown. "Pomegranates to grow greater then ordinary. $lorentinus shows. "!itches may be made bigger. !ome men take more pains then needed. they must be put into an earthen vessel that is made with a hole quit through.%ou must sow it as soon as ever it is ready to be taken out of the husk. Who. ""nions may be thickened. how to make. says he. (or this will cause them to thicken.

" %ou must dig the 'lisander around the root. nd by the thickness it draws nourishment to it. Then cover the pot with earth." They take a Citron when it is young. nd besides. &ut the pill is much thicker. "Cucumbers and *ourds greater then ordinary. the pot preserves the fruit from the vapors that would otherwise annoy it." &y hiding them while they are young that nothing may come at them to hinder their growth. the earth ministers some moisture unto it. (or the roots spend all the moisture themselves. &y the like device. or in earthen pipes. and suffer no nourishment to ascend up to the buds. and so you shall have very great Pomegranates. to the increasing of their growth. "'lisander or Parsley may be made greater. out of %heophrastus. and then heap earth upon it. so by virtue of the heat it does Concoct and digest that which it has attracted. The reason for this is. -ike to this device setting them in $ennel stalks. is waterish and worse.upon which they grow. (or which cause that is much thicker. &ut there must be a hole made through the vessel. must be swayed downward without damaging it. whereby the Herb. This practice he borrowed from 'ristotle. The like practice Palladius and 1artial use. and also Concoct it. %heophrastus assays to produce. so that the bigness of it is increased by the store of nourishment. whereby the air may get in unto it. till it comes to be of the bigness and fashion of the vessel wherein it is put. and cover it with Cachryl. nd therefore the 6ernels are no greater then ordinary. you make a hole for it in . which cause the taste of this fruit so handled. if when you plant it. &ut the 4ind receives outward nourishment. There must needs be a greater augmentation of that Herb. This Herb may also be made bigger by another means. a like device. This Cachryl is hot and thick. then if it were out of the earth. The proper "uice of it is somewhat wasted. (or the Citron will increase continually. It receives no more help from the tree. Whereby the natural "uice and nourishment is kept in. #amely. We will also show. and shut it up fast in an earthen vessel. nd therefore seeing this does both draw more nourishment to the 'lisander. "' great Citron. thereby to procure. and spends none.

but only spread forth in breadth. and put chaff into the pit which the stake has made. &y a device not much unlike to this. covering it over with earth and 1uck.ung. !o there is a means to make. s in some cold places of 4ermany there are 4adishes growing as big as a little child.the ground with a great stake. "-eet may be made greater. nd when they are grown half a handful high." %ou must remove them. &y the same device." &y laying tiles on the roots thereof. 'natolius shows how to make. %ou may also make. you must cover the roots over with some fresh "+ . %heophrastus shows another way to make. as Pliny shows. -ay a broad 3tone or a tile upon it.ung. that if you drive a stake into the ground six inches deep. and lay upon them a little barrel or tub that never was pitched. "4adishes greater. (or the root will at length fill up the hole. that the roots may be seen. "1ake a great )ettuce. to cause it to spread froth in breadth. (or 4adishes are much cherished and delighted with cold. as upon )eeks." If it be planted in a cold ground. cut the leaves cross with a sharp knife. and water them well. !ome have reported. "' 4adish root grow bigger. and laying a great 3tone or a broad tile upon them. and then put in the 4adish seed." . ")eeks greater. nd when they are waxen bigger. "*arlic greater. *for Pitch will hurt the Herb+ that so it may grow not in height. Then wrap them in "+ . $lorentinus shows how to. and water them still." s 3otion shows. To make a -eet grow in bigness. !o the Herb. you must dig round about them." &y removing them. and divide the leaves or buds. and cover them over again. says he. the 4adish will grow up to the bigness of the pit.

" When it is most full of leaves. but all the nourishment may be committed to the Head of the Herb. if we take all that stalk. nd by this. that is the provider of the nourishment. we must bow them downward. and turn it downward. that so it may grow into the earth. that the Head does not but forth. In like manner." s %heophrastus supposes. nd there bury them asunder about eight inches deep. Then make furrows for them in the ground. The like means. before it be bladed. never shooting forth either into buds or leaves. you must strip off all the leaves. that so they may grow to a greater bigness then ordinary. ""nions to grow bigger. that if we desire to have great Headed "nions. "%he Herb Wakerobin to grow greater. and cut off the stalk an inch above the root. nd when you have cast earth upon them. may it descend downwards. you shall have great 4ape roots. We also may make. he must cut off both the tops and the tails thereof. and when the leaves be at the broadest.nd he states the gardeners of his time were found to practice it." We must take all the greenish substance thereof. covering them over with earth. winding them round the root within the earth. that if a man plants onions. and cast the 4adishes into the ground. that so the "uice may be forced down to the lower parts. "*arlic Heads greater then common. whereby to make. %heophrastus thinks to make. whereby to make Herbs and roots . There is yet another device. The like experiment does Palladius teach. when they flourish most. that they lay uncovered. tread it in. -est it should be that chief virtue thereof should spend itself upon the feeding. They took away the leaves in the winter. Palladius says. 3otion says." s soon as you have brought them up. we must cut off all the blade. if we would have. concerning the 4ape root. except it were the earth was gone. "4ape roots greater. nd so they lasted and grew till summer came again.

are commonly most perfect. the experience here is more evidently in them then in any other. who puts it for a general rule. you must take your seed. it makes not a little to the enlarging of fruits. and other Herbs in the same manner. and the buds to be larger also.grow bigger then ordinary. but also in all other fruit. This course Columella prescribes. . that if a man sows many seeds bound up together in a )inen cloth. we shall procure. nd so cast them into the ground. and that will yield you the largest fruit. if the seeds be set with their Heads should take the seed out of the middle of the *ourd. (or they are of more force when there are many seeds together. even out of the middle of it. where the *ourd swells most. Which thing Palladius also confirms by his authority. as it were. nd they will yield great )eeks. "How to make )eeks grow greater. . and is of the largest compass. to take the seeds which we would sow. in his Hortulus." Columella has prescribed this course. that so the roots may be drenched therein. as the 0uintiles say. (or the seeds which grow in the bowels or belly. and set it with the top downward. -ikewise the grains that are in the middle of the ear. Whereas the seeds that grow in the outward parts. Whereas both the highest and the lowest are not so perfect. nd first. yield the best Corn. Cucumbers will be of a great growth. &ut yet I like not so well of it. 2oreover. of any fruit. "' *ourd of a greater or larger growth. and yield most perfect fruit. (or we have known them grow both sweeter and greater by this device. nd this is experienced not in *ourds only. produce for the most weak and unperfected fruit." . -ook. and bind them together in )inen clouts. all of them concurring into one nature. however many ancient writers have set it down. Then.r else if you set a vessel full of water under them in the ground. &ut both of them had it out of %heophrastus. nd therefore in his time they often found to sow )eeks. %ou must take a great many )eek seeds. it will cause both the root to be larger. Parsley. says he. out of some certain part of the former fruit. s for example. in the very same words. &ut because *ourds yield great increase.

both that trees may live after their 1arrow is taken out from them. it will be so far from yielding any stoneless fruit. and also that they will bring forth fruit having 3tones or 6ernels in them. Which may appear by experience. will live. that it cannot chose but to die. every tree that has any Pith in it at all. (or nature has so ordained it. through the marrow or Pith of the stock. that all the parts draw their nourishment. lest I should omit anything belonging to this argument. They will yield fruit without any 3tone. their food and breath. returns and crooks backward. There are many means. as it were through a 3. even though there be no Pith in the tree themselves.ung. as it were. and without any 6ernel. is conveyed especially by the Pith into all the other parts. especially among those that have set forth unto us the choicest and nicest points of Husbandry. (or it is Pith that both breeds and nourishes the substance of the 6ernel." It is a received thing in philosophy. that if you take 0uicksets.Chapter II "How to produce fruit that shall not have any stone or 6ernel in it. whereby plants may be deprived of 6ernels. (or the nourishment which the ground sends up into any plant. &ut I for my part must needs hold both against %heophrastus and against others also that have written of Husbandry. or any branches that you would plant. say they. I have thought good here to set down the examples which those 'ncients have delivered in writing. and become quite dried up. may find better success herein then I have found. &ut the rcadians are of a quite contrary opinion. or any like instrument made of bone. and get out the Pith of them with some (arpicker. till it be quite dried up. because the Pith is the moistest and most lively part of any tree or plant. &ut if all the Pith be taken out of it. We . This. s namely by (ngraffing. (or. #ot withstanding. and by other devices. by foiling with .uirt or conduit pipe. so soon as the 1arrow is gone. as the 'ncients have shown. as I have shown more at large in my books of Husbandry. The reason is. that every man that wants may make a trial of. nd some among the rest using greater diligence in the proof hereof then I did. seeing any bough or stalk. or by watering. by taking out their Pith.

will first begin as our founded manner is. Which thing howsoever it has had . "' Peach apple without a 3tone. that it may stand bending like a bow. the Willow must be relieved with continual watering. cut the plant beneath the "oining place. the "live tree. *as it delights in moisture+ and it may also minister abundant "uice to the plant that is (ngrafted in it. which he says also he had experienced in a Peach tree. says he. do grow upon such trees as have in them the hardest Pith. nd fill up the hole that you bored. Then draw it through the hole of the Willow bough. s the . that it is the Pith which nourishes the 6ernel. nd besides. when the Peach tree and the Willow are incorporated into each other. that. and so the nature of the wood may be cherished. and the 'lder tree. "' Citron shall grow without any seed in it. Then strip off all the Peach tree 3prigs. that such trees as have a soft and a spongy kind of Pith in them. %et. it will have a softer 6ernel a great deal. They saw also. Cover both the Willow bough and the top of the plant also with earth. as 'vicenna shows. &ut it must be very sound. and carry it where a young Peach tree grows. as the $ig tree. and will show how to produce. and remove it. "' 1edlar without any 3tones. The reason which brought the 'ncients to think and write thus. &ore it through the middle.amosin tree. with dirt and moss. They saw that such fruits as have in the hardest 3tones. if we (ngraff it into a 0uince tree. was this. and two yards long at the least. if it be so (ngrafted. Take a Willow bough about the thickness of a man0s arm. bring forth fruit without any 3tones in them at all. &y the like experiment we may procure. &y this means you shall procure Peaches without 3tones. and bind them with thongs.og tree. ll but the very top. or a 3ervice tree. 'lbertus promises to produce. with engraffing. and the like." &y (ngraffing it into an 'pple tree. and such like. it will yield such a fruit. bout a year after. nd from hence they gathered and concluded. the . &ut this must be done in moist and waterish places. the 1yrtle tree. surely. Then stick both ends of the Willow into the ground." (or. &ut experience proves this to be false." Palladius says he learned this new kind of (ngraffing of a certain !paniard.

%heophrastus says. in that part which you will plant within the earth. &ut it would be much better. and fasten it to some sure prop. nd when it comes to bear. as if it were many stoned and eaten up together.some little shadow of truth in it. if you rob the !ine branch of the Pith that is in it. s for example. !ome go to work more . must be cleft in the middle. that if you would have *rapes without 3tones.emocritus counsels you to take a branch or twig of a !ine. as also the heat hereof will cherish them much. . nd so plant it in a well soiled ground. set them in the earth. that you may procure *rapes without any 3tones in them. !o will they soon grow up together into one. must be made of Paper or Parchment. must be a moist place. and either with a 3tone.r at least as far as you can hollow it without spoil. nd when we have bound them hard up. (or this is as good as glue to fasten them together. If you would procure the growing of. When it begins to shoot up into slips. &ut the bond wherewith they are tied up. there is a pleasant kind of *rape which has no 6ernels in it. and there water it often. if you would put the clove or Head of a 3ea onion into that part which you have robbed of the Pith. &ut so. nd the moisture hereof will keep them supple. and cleave it "ust in the middle. nd the ground where they are set. we must close them together again. and bind it up again. as they were before. Palladius says. Then "oin it together. so far as we mean to set it within the ground." . "' *rape without any 3tone in it. as the 4reeks record. it will yield *rapes without any 3tones. The manner of procuring it is. #ow let us come to the second means whereby fruit may be prevented of their 6ernels. where you must plant them in one. or some instrument made of bone. by art assisted by nature. that the buds be not hurt thereby. Then presently bind up the parts together again with paper stiffly and tightly wrapped about them. nd Columella says. and make a trench for them in some moist and very fertile soil. whereof the 3tones are found to be *endred. yet they should not have extended it generally to all plants. The set which we would plant. seeing experience proves it to fail very often. so that it may be swallowed down easily. fetch out all the Pith. nd when we have picked and clean scraped out all the Pith of those parts. you must cleave the !ine branch. and take out all the Pith. you must dig deep about it often. so that you crush not the buds. and that with no small pleasantness. nd this is by taking forth the Pith or 1arrow. that it may not be wreathed nor bowed.

which is the mother of the 6ernel. and cover the whole cleft both on the top. is quite taken away. will have no hard 6ernel in them. -ikewise you may procure. into a 3ea onion. though never so soft. Then they set the !ine branch in a well soiled ground. and are persuaded that a !ine branch can bear fruit with 6ernels when the Pith is taken out of it. and when it begins to shoot forth. if you deal with these as with !ine branches. all plants do sooner and easier take root.precisely. is cloven in the middle. -ikewise that. Cut off a young plant about two foot long. "Pomegranates and Cherries without any 3tones. as Columella writes. nd seeing also it is impossible almost that any tree should bear fruit without 6ernels. Palladius borrows this same experiment of 'fricanus.emocritus also shows. it is a great marvel that there can be in them any 6ernels at all. so far as the plant was cloven. they prune it. and on both sides." If in like manner you pick out the Pith of young plants that you set." 1artial shows more distinctly. because the 6ernel carries itself the very seed whereby one fruit may be generated of another. when the !ine branch that is to be planted. and all the Pith is scraped out. !o shall they grow fast together again in one year. with a special care that the buds receive no harm in any way. such as never bore any fruit before into this stock. and cleave it as it stands in the ground. as . and the pieces knit up together again. (or by the help thereof. "' Cherry tree may bring forth fruit without any 3tone within. plucking out the Pith after you have cleft them. &ut surely I for my part marvel at those who think it strange that a tree should live when this Pith is gone. and then plant them. with 1uck. Then fetch out the Pith on both sides. !eeing many men in the Country are eyewitnesses that there do many plants live without any Pith in them. and sets it down word by word as he does. and dig often about it. nd after a while cut off the upper parts of the plants when they have budded forth. . will yield fruit without any 6ernels. there is a new invented kind of *rape. nd 'fricanus says. The *rapes which it bears afterwards. and presently tie them up again fast. Then (ngraff some young 3prigs from a Cherry tree. then the Pomegranates set. !eeing all the Pith. 'owever. down to the root. Pliny likewise says. and put the plant so cleft and made up again.

never cleaving it. Columella says the very same. and moist nourishment does alter all wild and unkindly fruit into that which is milder and more natural. !o shall you intercept the Pith from ascending out of the root into the branches. nd having so cut off the Pith from passing upward. says he. you must pick out the Pith at the highest end. That the !ine branch as it grows upon the !ine must be cut. Then take some Cyrenian . that one might be ministered into the upper parts.. To begin with a !ine. It is a kind of mildness in fruit. as the 4reeks call it. and still growing on the !ine. that soft. and there. Then they put a stake or a wedge into it. you must take a fruitful 3prig.uice. "How a !ine may bring forth *rapes without a harsh and stony 6ernel. to the thickness of 3odden Wine. which might stop the passage of the Pith. In like manner. so that it might pierce the whole Pith. !ome writers are there. as well as you may. and cross it in the middle if the tree. as it grows. somewhat near the top as you can." t such time as !ines are pruned." %ou must.uice steeped in water. which show how to procure stoneless fruit by diligence in dressing and trimming of plants. for it comes by reason of a kind of harsh and dry nourishment that the earth sends up into them. &ut the branch being whole.nd by this means you shall procure Cherries without any 3tones at all. nd this you must do for eight days together every day once. out of the top without the cleaving of the branch. &ut first you must steep this "uice in water.thers. "' Peach without any 3tone. you must fill up the hole with a stake of Willow or Prickwood.amin or Cyrenian . to have a little. It is held for a rule in Husbandry. and there uphold it with a prop that it bow not down. soft and sweet 6ernel. by diligence and skill in dressing them. and pour it into the place that is hollow. bore a hole beneath through the body of the tree. until the !ine branch sprouts forth again. it is wildness to have a great and hard 6ernel. but hollowing it with some fit instrument as well as you can. Wherefore no doubt but we may procure the 6ernel of a fruit to be smaller and more tender . and the Pith of it fetched out with some fit instrument. %ou must put into it some -en. that they might accomplish their purpose more speedily. as . did not cleave such tender young Cherry trees. 'fricanus teaches how to procure. . s on the contrary.. fat. but bored a great hole through trees of good growth.

we may likewise use in the practice of producing &uts." %heophrastus teaches us how to do it. and such like fruit as are likely to grow in shells and 4inds. the filth or shavings of skins. !o if we would procure.uor. If you water the 1yrtle tree with hot water. says he. nd this is to be done for eight days together. (or once there stood near to a bath. nd so lay them about the root of the 1yrtle tree at such time as the buds begin to show themselves.idymus also says. if you lay good store of 3wine .was shown before.ung about the root of the Pomegranate tree. and set it upright with a prop. or else very small 6ernels in them. "' 1yrtle without a 6ernel. !ome affirm. that the "uice may not run forth. a 1yrtle tree which no man regarded. that this experiment was found out by chance. Then they carried some home. that if the 1yrtle tree be often watered with warm )i. and put them in 9rine. Take. That they may grow naked as . . says he. and without any 6ernel. and so this kind of fruit began first in thens. %heophrastus shows yet another way whereby this may be effected. Chapter T III "How $ruit may be produced without any outward 4inds or 3hells. then. the fruit will be better. it will yield berries without any 3tones or 6ernels within." he very same helps and devices which we prescribed for the producing of fruit without their inner 6ernel. and found them without any 6ernels. -ikewise the Pomegranate may be produced without any 6ernels within it. The visitors to the bath took off some of the fruit by chance. and set them. nd so shall you have berries that have either none at all.

you must water the tree with )ye thrice a month throughout the whole year. how to procure. and will suffer the like alteration by the like means practiced upon them. Palladius counsels you to bore the hole through the root. (or by this means you draw down that harsh and wild . If you would produce a %arentine &ut. "'lmonds and Chestnuts with a soft shell. will have the softer shell without. If you bore a hole through the &ut tree. or of Copper. If the &ut be too hard shelled. that if we rid away the earth from the roots of the 'lmond tree some certain days before it begins to blossom. (or the greater store of nourishment there is applied to the tree. as . often digging will cause both the plants to prosper better. "%hat kind of &ut which is called &u+ %arentina. and stop it with a stake of -o+. s. Palladius says. the moister it is. If you would soften and alter the fruit. %ou shall thereby stop the Pith from ascending into the upper parts. nd likewise all other kinds of fruit that grow in any shell or 4ind." The same author ." 2ay be produced. we shall hereby procure 'lmond shells to be very tender.ung. if we continually apply the body and the root of the tree with pouring ashes upon them. nd first this may be effected by taking away the Pith from the plant that bears them so. and so you may obtain your purpose. or some wedge made of Iron. and the larger 6ernel within. (or this is a very forcible worker. -ikewise. 5very &ut and 'lmond will yield a mild fruit with a tender shell. If we would produce. by cutting off the tops of the roots.amageron shows. .thers effect such alterations by correcting the plants. in such fruit as have any 3tones in them. and all that while applying them with warm water. we must apply the root with 3wine . and the fruit to become better also. &ut %heophrastus shows. may be so wrought upon. and put into it a stake of (lm to fill it up. &ut Palladius would persuade us. nd such fruit as grow in shells or were without any shell at all. "' &ut without a shell. you may also remedy it by cutting and paring off the bark of the tree as . (or the 6ernels will be smaller. nd so no shells can grow because it is the Pith only that causes them.amageron teaches. and the substance of the fruit is so much the more increased.amageron has shown us how to do it." nd this is by skill in dressing the trees. as 'lmonds and Chestnuts.

$lorentinus produced." . about half a foot deep. nd it has such a tender shell. or between the &ones and the Ides of 2arch. This if you practice before the Calends of 2arch. we must abate the bark of the tree. (or a Peach being (ngrafted upon a bitter 'lmond tree. and note but he . because the bark of the tree answers to the shell of the fruit. if you take the first branch or 3prig of a *ourd. I have growing in my own orchard. and within the Pith of it put your $ilbert without any shell upon it. put into it a little earth. the (mots or such like !ermin should have gnawn it. nd there plant the seed of $ennel giant. he broke the shell very carefully. and so cover it all over with earth. so that the 6ernel was kept whole. thing which we have observed by another like example. and sometimes green leaves of the !ine. that as soon as ever it is but touched. nd when the $ennel has come up. This secret may stead you in many other experiments of the like kind. and bury it in the earth as they use to deal by !ines. Columella shows another device whereby we may procure. will grow seedless. or of the Plane tree. cleave it." The *ourd.n his manner. They prescribe likewise another device. "'n 'lmond without a shell. &ut this kind of &ut.Humor. you shall have your purpose." When you have made your pit wherein you intent to set your &ut. and the fruit is bare and naked. as to amend the inner 6ernel we abated the Pith. that it could not be eaten until the Pill were pared off. which we now speak of. Then he took Wool. &ut we must have a special care that the slips which grow up out of the stalk be cut away. "' $ilbert to become a %arentine &ut. the shell falls off. "*ourds may bring forth fruit without any seeds within them. so to soften or amend the outer shell or 4ind of the fruit. so that only the Head thereof may appear. and wrapped it about the 6ernel . when it is a little grown up. nd therefore. the Pill of the fruit thence growing was so bitter. -est he should have set it without any covering about it. whereby. nd so soon as it is grown up again. and so thin. to bury it so again. The reason for this is. say they.

we must (ngraff it upon a plant that flourishes with the same color which we would borrow." We must (ngraff them upon a Plane tree. such as are not naturally incident to their kind. is to (ngraff them into a Plane tree. -ikewise they will grow without seeds in them. as 'fricanus witnesses. . and (ngraffings which can never be sufficiently commended or spoken of. other like practices. s for example. Chapter N IV "How to procure fruits." ow we will show how to color fruits. as .stalk left behind.f whom Palladius learned that the way to make 4hodacens look red. and the fruit will be red. be 1acerated or steeped in 3ea 3amine oil." . "Citrons of a red scarlet color. If we would color any fruit. The effecting whereof there have been diverse means devised. !o shall the fruit that grows upon it. "4ed 'pples. be destitute of all seed within.iophanes. if the seeds which are planted." If we (ngraff them upon a Plane tree.idymus. To begin with (ngraffing. "4hodacens shall grow red. to be of diverse colors. . whether it be *ourds or Cucumbers. !o we may procure that the fruit. for the space of three days before they be sown. if we would produce. If you would have. and Palladius affirm. s watering.

-ikewise. -ikewise he that desires to have. (or this will alter the color of the fruit." &y (ngraffing it upon a 1ulberry tree. as 'vicenna shows." .'vicenna shows you may effect by (ngraffing them into a Pomegranate tree. may be caused to bring forth. as the same . Which experiment . that the 1ulberry tree itself. &ut -eritius and .iophanes approves. &y the same means. #ot by (ngraffing the 1ulberry into a white Poplar. and cause. that the $ig tree does persuade 1ulberries to change their own color and to take hers. but into the $ig tree. (or this also will alter their color. "Citrons to be blood red." If it be (ngrafted into a 1ulberry tree. "'pples may be of a blood red color.iophanes witnesses.iophanes do witness. Whereof I myself have seen the experience. (or this means the Pears will grow red. Wherein he says. as %arentinus and ." If it be (ngrafted into a white Poplar tree. of "' white !ine may be made red Wine. "White 1ulberries.iophanes write. "4ed Pears . "' white $ig to become red. &ut Palladius procures this effect by another means. (or we have shown before that such an (ngraffing may well be made. "White 1ulberries." 2ust (ngraff them into a 1ulberry tree. !o also you may procure." s he shows in his verses." $lorentinus shows that you may effect this by (ngraffing them into a 1ulberry tree. which makes all other 'pple fruit to become red. &ut if you would have.

If we (ngraff a white !ine into a black. (or the stock into which it is (ngrafted, will alter the color much, as I have seen by experience in Honey *rapes, those which we call 4reek *rapes. (or the !ines which have been (ngrafted upon those 4reek !ines, have yielded a blackish "uice or Wine. nd the more often such (ngraffing has been made, the blacker the "uice that was yielded. In the places bout the 'ill 9esuvius, the white Wine *rape, which grows upon her own stalk that is (ngrafted into the 4reek !ine, yields a more high/colored Wine then others do. nother way to make,

"'pples grow red,"
Is by diligent and cunning dressing, even by applying them with hot and fat 4eceipts. (or there are two chief elements or principles of color. White and black, or dark colored. #ow by dressing them, and applying fat things unto them. We may procure every flower or fruit that is blackish, to become brighter and fresher colored. Whereas on the other side, if they be neglected, that we do not bestow pains and care in trimming them, their color will not be so lively, but ,egenerate into a whitish hue. (or all colors that begin to fade, wax somewhat whitish. -eritius therefore, endeavoring to make 'pples grow red, watered them with 9rine, and so obtained his purpose. &ut ,idymus,

"%o procure red Pomegranates,"
Watered the tree with bath water 3odden into )ye, and some other water mixed therewith. &ut there is yet another device, whereby we may procure,

"'pples to grow red,"
&y opposing them directly to the greatest force of the 3unbeams. (or this will make them red. -eritius, that he might cause the reflex of the 3unbeams to be more forcible upon the fruit, used this 3light. 'e fastened certain stakes into the ground, and weighing down the boughs that had fruit upon them, he bound them charily without hurting the fruit to those stakes. nd near thereunto he dug certain ditches filling them with water, or else would place some other vessels full of water near the boughs. Casing this in his con"ecture, that surely the heat of the 3un lighting upon the water, would cause hot vapors, which being reflected together with the heat of the 3un into the

places near ad"oining where the fruit hangs, and so reflected upon the fruit, would procure them to be of a reddish and goodly color. -eritius assayed to procure,

"4ed 'pples,"
by another device, by a secret kind of operation. :nder the tree he would often set 4oses, which did lend there goodly hue to the 'pples that grow upon the tree above them. ,emocritus practiced the like device not upon 'pples, but upon 4hodacens, and made,

"4ed 4hodacens,"
by planting 4oses underneath the tree, round about the roots. -ikewise we may color fruit by coloring the seeds of them. (or look what color we procure in the seed, either by 3teeping it in some colored )i.uor, or by any other means, the fruit will grow to be of the same color which the seed is, when it is set or sown. s for example we may color,

With 3an.uinary or !ermillion. If we bury a Peach 3tone in the ground, and take it up again seven days after *for in that time, the 3tone will open of itself+ and then put into it some !ermillion, and bury it in the earth again, and afterward look carefully unto it, we shall thereby procure !ermillion colored Peaches. nd ,emocritus is persuaded, that if we should put into it any other color after the same manner, the Peach would be of that other color. It is a thing commonly reported among us, and it is not unlike to be true, that,

"Peaches may be of a 3anguine color,"
&y another means. %ou must take a Peach 3tone, and put it into a Carrot that is then growing, and the stalk which grows of that 3tone in the Carrot. If it be carefully nourished and preserved, will bring forth Peaches of a 3anguine color. In like manner, if you would have,

"White 6ernels growing in a Pomegranate."

Palladius shows how to do it, by the authority of 1artial. If you take Chalk and white Clay, and with them mingle a quarter so much plastering, and apply the Pomegranate tree roots with this kind of foliage or ,unging, for the space of three whole years together, you shall obtain your purpose. -ikewise, if you desire,

"1elons of a 3anguine color."
%ou must take 1elon seeds, and steep them in 3anguine )i.uor for three or four days together before you set them, you may easily have your desire. .r else, if you open a little the skin of the seed, and put within it the "uice of red 4oses, Clove gilliflowers, and -lackberries that grow upon -rambles, or of any other like thing. !o that it be not hurtful to the seed, you may effect your purpose. nd I suppose that the 3anguine colored 1elon which are seen in these countries, are thus used, that they may be of this color. Consequent upon these devices is that the sleight whereby,

"' Peach may grow with any writing upon it."
The 4reeks affirm, that a Peach may be made to grow with a writing upon it, if you take out the 3tone and bury it in the earth for seven days. nd then when it begins to open, pluck out the 6ernel, and write in it what you will, with !ermillion "uice. Then bind up the 6ernel into the 3tone again, and set it so into the ground, and you shall have growing a written fruit. #ow as the 3un does color the Herbs that it may welcome at, as we have shown. !o by keeping the force of the 3un away from them. nd with us,

"' )ettuce may be made white,"
s $lorentinus shows. If you would, says he, procure goodly white )ettuce, then must you bind together the tops of the leaves, two days before they be gathered. (or so they will be fair and white. -ikewise you may whiten them by casting sand upon them. nd with us,

"'rtichokes are made white,"
&y the very same means which we speak of. cause, nd if you would

" When the leaves are shot forth. If you would procure. and afterward when you take away the Cane or 4eed. and lay a broad 3tone or a tile upon it. . and be ravished with admiration. Those which are of a deep purple color may be meddled with a." n transforming and meddling the colors of flowers together. and as we spoke before concerning )eeks so here you must cleave the bud." %ou must put the slips as soon as ever they appear out of the earth. In the beholding whereof. the mind cannot choose but be affected with great delight. and so make them very white. the 3perage will be whiter then ordinary. !o Columella teaches how to make." %ou must cover the roots over with Cow . ."-eets to become whiter then ordinary. Chapter I V "How the color of $lowers may also be changed. may be meddled either with a duskish hue. or some other Compound colors. and as it were quite . we may procure such strange medleys. "White 3perage.ung. into a broken 4eed. Those which are white as 1ilk.thers are at less charges. and cover them over with an earthen vessel set fast into the ground. "(ndive to grow white. as nothing can be more delightful to be seen. nd there let them grow for a while.ur gardeners lay them in sand. or crimson. nd the Herb will be white. as 3otion shows. you must tie them about the tops with a small string.ure blue. and cover them over with some earth. or with a green.

how by (ngraffing. has yielded a sea colored flower. and plant into it a *illiflower new plucked out of the earth. Then cleave that in the middle which is left growing in the ground. %ou must set a 4ose or a 8asmine near to the -room. you must cut off all the Head somewhat above the (ngraffing place. then with any other earth that shall be as it were their step/ mother. !o shall you have a . and yet never see it effected. and when they are somewhat grown. when the set is grown into the stalk. of a most delightful color to behold. That a white *illiflower slip being (ngrafted into a red Carrot made hollow for the same purpose." %ou may procure it by (ngraffing either of them into a -room stalk. as also the flower 8asmine to be of a :ellow color.overcome with the excellent beauty of them. cover the with )oam where the (ngraffing was made. whereby we have shown how to alter the color of fruit. (or of all other. nd so buried in the earth. "' 4ose. or -ugloss. as we prescribed certain rules before. whereby we may be able to alter the color of flowers. root and all. by which means also you may turn a purple *illiflower into a scarlet. being as it were their mother. or else white. Wherefore we will set down certain rules. I have often made trial of it.+ then bore a passage into the -room stalk and plant it into the -room. yet it may be effected by boring into the stalk after this manner. "*illiflowers that are of themselves purple. many of my friends will need to persuade me. take them up together with the earth that is about them *for they will prove better when they are set again. though for my own part. and lay a good store of earth and . nd let it be grown to an inch in thickness. &ut this I have seen.ung round about it. nd so bind them up. nd first we will show. fterward. that is somewhat bluish. If you would have. but the old wild (ndive is best for this purpose. may become a7ure blue. the -room flower is most yellow. If after the same manner you (ngraff it into the root of "rchanet. nd though we cannot do it so well. !o shall it yield you a flower. Then bind up the stalks or slips with some 3light bond. with their own earth which is about them. This." %ou must cut off *somewhat near the root+ a stalk of (ndive or -lue bottle. by clapping the leaf or the bud of the one upon the leaf or bud of the other. nd there.

Take a )illy Clove or Head. which we have procured to be so deep colored. nd so shall you have )ilies that bear a purple flower. as $lorentinus has shown us." The manner whereof. &ut you must be very careful that you hurt not the Clove or Head. about such time as they are ready to yield flowers. Which kind of flowers are very usual with us. &ind them all together and hang them up in the smoke. %ou must take them apart. (or if we apply them with fat and fertile 1uck. nd on the contrary. "%o produce white Ivy. and this their borrowed color is so orient and bright that the eye is scarce able to endure the brightness thereof. and may be made blackish. and that is by pouring some coloring into the roots. . and set every one of them by itself. when you so open it. you must be sure to cover it with fat and well soiled earth. Therefore when the time of the year serves to set them. ")ilies to be red." 'e 3teeped it in white 1arle. There is another means also whereby we may color flowers. pour into it some 3inoper. and it brought forth white berries. We may effect the like matters by careful manuring and dressing of fruit. s we have often proved in Clove gilliflowers. and covered the roots of it with the same 1ortar for eight days together. that they have been even black. Cassianus attempted by the very like means." We will show how to do it.4ose or a 8asmine thereby growing. watering them still with the same )ees. like unto a 3callion. and the )illy flower that grows out of the Clove so dressed. will be of the same color. the flowers will be a great deal the better colored. 'natolius shows to be thus. Then will there spring out of them some small roots. %ou must take ten or twelve )illy stalks. of a lovely yellowish color. If you would have. or any other coloring. ")illy flowers of a purple color. until you see they are thoroughly stained with that color. nd besides. you must steep the stalks in the )ees of red Wine. &y the like means you may procure. and when you have opened it well.

which is called )imoncellum picciolum. Whereby he makes 4oses and Clove gilliflowers to become white very suddenly. Chapter A VI "How fruits and flowers may be made to yield better flavor then ordinary.idymus has devised another kind of sleight diverse from these. Clove gilliflowers. how to make. Which thing we may effect by diverse ways. do become light colored. and (ngraff into a Citron tree. not only these kind of flowers. &ut . but almost all other. ." If they be not carefully looked unto. the stock will inspire the fruit with a very nice smell. nd the more often that you so (ngraff it."4oses. so it is worth our labor to procure them a more fragrant smell then their ordinary kind is found to afford. and by other devices. and !iolets will wa+ of a whitish color. by watering. that either you do not water them well. that grow in the woods and forest unregarded. and for example sake. nor dig about them. nd this is by smoking and perfuming them with -rimstone about the time they begin to open." If we take that least kind of )emon. nor transplant them. by planting." s it is pretty and delightful to see fruit and flowers wear a Counterfeit color. !o also we may procure. the sweeter smell it will afford. (or by this means %heophrastus writes. as by daily experience we have tried in our #aples gardens. nor feed them with 1uck. ")emons to become very "doriferous. we will first show.

was produced by the often (ngraffing of an 'pple into a 0uince tree. and the place where it grows." s Pa+amus shows. nd I suppose that the 'pple called 'ppium malum. nd it is not unlike that 'ppius Claudius found it out. &ut you must often reiterate the (ngraffing of it again and again. !o also we could make. and prove best. . &y a 3light not much unlike this we may procure." If they are (ngrafted into a 0uince tree. besmearing the branches that are to be (ngrafted. and smell the sweeter. !o we have procured. !o shall it be more beautiful and more full of leaves. "%he Centifole 4oses to be more "doriferous. that. &ut your labor will take the better effect. with 1usk." . "!ines to smell of sweet "intments. you must (ngraff it into that kind of 4ose. If you would have the !ine to smell sweetly." &y (ngraffing them upon a 0uince tree. I have practiced an easier and slighter way. &ut it is best to (ngraff it by Inoculation. if the 1usk did not stay upon them. which by reason of the sweet smell of 1usk that it carries with it. for the stock thereof will lend the fruit a graceful favor. and first procured it by the same means. nd questionless could never be produced but by the same means. "'pples may be made more "doriferous." If you would do so also. and pour in sweet "intments into them when you are about to plant them. is called 1oschatula.iophanes vouches. (or so it will take soonest. ")emons to be as "doriferous as Cinnamon. by clapping the bud of the one upon the bud of the other. you must take the branches and cleave them. if you first steep the branches in sweet oil. nd that hereby are procured those good 'pples which the thenians call 1elimela. (or the smell of it is somewhat like a 0uince. -ikewise we have with us great red 'pples."!ery "doriferous Pears. and then plant or (ngraff them. and some of them of a murky color. Which yield the same smell. or else 3teeping them in 4osewater.

" &y taking the seed of )ettuce. or of 1astick. nd is termed by the common people )imon celleum incancellatum. and 3teeping them in sweet water before they be taking 1elon seeds. nd this is. !o we have procured. and 3teeping them in 4osewater wherein some 1usk is . or some other like. will yield the smell and favor of that which the seeds were before steeped in. if we would procure. and put therein your 'rtichoke seed. and so planting them one amongst the other. lso you may make 'rtichokes smell like -ays. or Clove water . and afterward set them when they are dry. or the "uice of 4oses. by taking the seeds of them. and so plant it.. and so planting it.. (or by this means the flowers will entertain the smell . and so planting them after two days 3teeping . There is also another device whereby fruit may be made "doriferous. that if you steep 'rtichoke seeds for three days together in the oil of -ays. or 3pikenard. and make a hole in it. and steep them for the space of three days in the "uice of 4oses. s for example. that then the 'rtichokes that grow out of those seeds. and to smell of 3pice. and laying them up among the dry 4oses. and lay them in Clove powder. "1elons of the fragrant smell of 4oses.istilled. and so to set them in the ground. or -ays. nd this kind of )emon is usual among us. "$lowers grow that shall smell of Cloves. if you take a -ayberry. nd so set them.&y taking the 3prigs that are to be planted.istilled also. and besmearing them with oil or the water of Cinnamon and dressing them with much industry and diligence. I have procured 1elons to smell like 1usk by opening that part whereby the seed sprouts out." fter this manner. ""doriferous 'rtichokes." Cassianus has declared out of !arro. Palladius records out of the same author." If you take the seeds of those flowers. %ou must take 'rtichoke seeds. the manner how to effect it. fter the same manner. ""doriferous )ettuce. or -alm gum. and putting it into the seed of a Citron. you may learn to make. )ilies. or the oil of Cloves.

or make any other scar in them. they are of a smaller si." 3otion has taught us the way. and plant it near your 4oses. Chapter T VII "How to procure fruits to be sweeter and pleasanter for taste. by 3teeping their seeds in Clove water." here are some trees. it will not have any bad favor. or by supplying them with the oil of Cloves. which will abide not only a scar. "How to make *arlic grow that shall not smell rankly and unfavorably. but . you do set *arlic. We may add to these 3lights another device." #amely. *illiflowers do grow everywhere of themselves without any such pleasant smell. &ut it should seem. nd this I take it. (or questionless. that the gardeners did by their industry and trimming. &ut if you cut their stock never so little. (or the Corruption will fall downward to the root. presently the air and the extrinsecal heat get in.e.and favor of the Cloves. bestow the smell of Cloves upon them. was the cunning sleight whereby our ordinary Clove gilliflowers were first produced. #ow there are other trees. "How we may procure 4oses to yield a more "doriferous smell. if you take *arlic. If. nd besides. which cannot away with any scar. nd %heophrastus has taught us a means. both when the 1oon is underneath the (arth. and so make the trees presently to wither and fade away. nd so planting them. and of their own kind somewhat wild. says he. and so the trees perish. and pluck it up again. or else by sticking Cloves in the roots of them.

are most healthful and likely to live longest.e. they will bear fruit more plentifully. !o when these trees have a cut or a scar in them whereby they sweat out. if the parts have any continuation at all.f a very large si. that if you (ngraff a Cherry upon a -ay tree." . by (ngraffing we may procure.f all which there is very great use. to receive so much nourishment as is sufficient for them. (ngraff a Cherry upon a -ay tree.also to have their stock cleft. s does both the Pomegranate tree. Their nature and kind is. but yet pleasant withal. their hurtful and superfluous moisture. the 'lmond tree. "3weeter 'pples by *rafting them into a 0uince. that have a bittersweet taste." (or as we have shown before. (or as those living creatures which sweat most. nd besides. and there will be such a medley. !o likewise may be procured. secondly by boring or cutting. of a very 3anguine color. because it is too sweet. and last of all by other means. or have some other issue in their bodies. you shall then have Cherries then growing that will have the taste of the -ay. though it be never so little. which they called -ay cherries. and the 'pple tree. #or yet to be refused for their overmuch bitterness. will have the 4elish of the -ay. far better then any other Cherries. . so that they are neither loathsome for their overmuch sweetness. "Cherries that shall have in them the 4elish of -ays. as it were. In my time. that your fruit shall have a very savory 4elish. (ngraffing may amend those defects that are in plants and endure them with better qualities. there have been seen certain Cherries in #aples. (irst by (ngraffing. and the fruit that grows thence. !o that if you have any fruit that is loathsome. and by this means also. nd the better that the moisture is digested. Palladius says the same. they will live. . and to be bored into. We will show how to procure fruit that shall be sweeter in taste then ordinarily their kind is likely to afford. somewhat bitter. only if they may but hang together. they do more easily digest that moisture which is left behind within them. nd first. the sweeter and pleasanter is their "uice. %es. The reason hereof is this. do but (ngraff it into a bitter tree. most excellent kind of fruit. and to void away hurtful and superfluous Humors. nd therefore they will easily defend themselves from any harm that may happen unto them by cutting or mangling of any of their parts. Pliny says. full of "uice.

'fricanus likewise affirms. as the Husbandmen are like to call them. that the 4elish of the Honey is conveyed up into the fruit. then that which is left. a bitter tree will become sweet. fruit may be made sweeter in taste. nd when once that which is superfluous is evacuated. that the *um of tree. so that the *um may have egress that way. #ow we will show also. If you dig round about the stock. and make a hole into it some four inches above the root. and wipe away the Humor which issues forth. that it may not be quite empty. through the Pith. (or the bitterness proceeds from not other cause.iophanes shows. and so they will bear the sweeter fruit. and if you wipe away the *um still as it comes forth. the 'pple will have a 4elish like Honey. the trees may purge themselves of their superfluous moisture. as it were. which causes bitterness of the fruit. whereby it may sweat out the hurtful moisture. because they taste like Honey. as . or an arm of it. but only from the superfluity of the nourishment and moisture.(or if you do (ngraff an 'pple into a 0uince. who after they have made that hole. by piercing or boring the stock. do presently put Honey into it. . the *um will thereby drop out. it will become sweet. and bore through it about nine inches above the ground. you may by this means alter a bitter 'lmond tree into a sweet one. which is abated by boring into the stock. or scaring it round about. #amely. says he. if we would procure. s for example. and so the tree becomes fertile in bringing forth a sweeter and better fruit. !ome there are. %heophrastus says. that if you dig about the stock of a bitter 'lmond tree. and so the fruit will become the sweeter by that chastisement. as through a conduit pipe. (or by these means." 'ristotle has taught the way. is more easily Concocted. If you would learn. that by Husbandry and skillful dressing. and observe this for two or three years together. Pliny says the same. and alter their nature into a milder kind. that if you dig round about the stock of the 'lmond tree. nd this is such a sleight that hereby you may tame. may drop out by that passage. Which kind of fruit the thenians do therefore call 1elimela. or by some other chastisements. %ou must knock a great nail into the body of the 'lmond tree. (or they are of the opinion. and bore through the lower part of it. s for example sake. wild trees. If you cut off a bough. "How to procure the 'lmond tree to yield fruit without any bitterness.

or else in (wes 1ilk. hot to alter the bitter Pith of a Citron tree into sweet. Columella says. &ut you must continually water the tender roots thereof with man0s water." 2ay be procured. about thy hand breadth. then they fill up the hole with 1ortar. &y 3teeping their seed in 1ilk. that art will not search into$ Cut a thick !ine."3weet Citrons. #or yet in Pliny/s time. %heophrastus shows how to make sweet Cucumbers. and let the !ine grow.. till they have drunk them up. and cover it with a broad 3tone that the 3un may not come at it. then open the Concavity wider. This has Pontanus set down in his book called. will produce sweet Cucumbers.+ nor in 'thenaus/s. that a Cucumber will eat very tender and sweet. "3weet Cucumbers. if you take the Citron seeds. What is it. (or they being planted. Palladius has shown. even by the same method. that so there may be no other moisture let into it. 'is words are these. !ome do bore a hole sloping into the body of the tree. nd when the !ine has drunk in all that. that the brim of the hole be brought round and something close together. but the whole vine may grow up as it were in the spring of Honey. and leave it so. "How to make sweet 'lmonds of bitter ones. till the fruit is fashioned. Palladius shows also. by 3teeping Cucumber seeds in sweet waters. then fill it up again with the like. if you steep the seed as such before . and putting into it a wood wedge smeared with Honey. and make it hollow on the top. &y which passage the bitter Humor drops away. *for this is better+ for the space of three days before you set them. %he *ardens of Hesperides." 5ven by boring a hole in the middle of the stock. so the sides be about an inch thick and no more. This hole they make in it about (ebruary. as himself reports." *for that kind of fruit was not often found to be eaten in %heophrastus/s time. or else in water and Honey mixed together. nd by this device the Pith is made sweet. &ut not quite through it. nd when that is soaked in also. 3our into it and fill it up with liquefied Honey. It is reported that the bitter Piths of Citrons may be made sweet. says he. nd you must be sure that you leave not buds or leaves upon the stock. &ut after the fruit is fashioned. nd so planting them. and steep them in Honeywater. &ut so.

there will grow up a very sweet fruit. whereby to make sharp or bitter fruits to become sweet. "3weet )ettuce. it will cause sweet )ettuce. s for example. Pliny and Palladius do write the same things of the same fruit. and set them being so dried. ." (or if you 3teep $ennel seed in sweet Wine and 1ilk. or casting soil and such like about their roots. !o you may procure. as both Palladius and $lorentinus have recorded. . nd this is by art and cunning in dressing them. "3weet $ennel growing.uor as they will soak up. There is also another device. by pouring hot water. and after you have dried them again.r in 3odden Wine. as 'risto+enus the Cyrenian has taught out of 'thenaus. !o you may procure. Cassianus has declared out of !arro." (or if you water them in the evening with new sweet Wine. and the fruit will 4elish of Honey. out of the same authors. if you put the seeds thereof in dry $igs. and let them drink for three evenings together as much of that )i. and 3teep them in 1ilk and Honey. . then set them. "3weet 1elons." &y 3teeping the 4adish seeds for a day and a night in Honey. even by 3teeping the seeds thereof in 1ilk and sweet Wine for three days together.r else. s. and so plant them. "' sweet 4adish may be procured. or else in the "uice of 4aisins. do steep the seed thereof in Honeywater. !o you may procure the same. . the like effect will follow. "3weet 'rtichokes growing." s Palladius shows. or the )ees of oil." %ou must take the 'rtichoke seed. will be much set it. then will the fruit that grows out of those seeds. by 3teeping the seeds in new sweet Wine. because they would have the Cucumber to be the sweeter. (or then if you dry them. When we would. !o. -ikewise you may procure. how to procure.

if you uncover the roots. this is your way to amend it. that. s also if you pour on good store of cold water. and afterward a sweet an pleasant Pomegranate. does sweeten the "uice of the tree. Pliny reports the very same thing out of the same authors. because of a kind of softness in the roots. nd so it will yield you for the first years a fruit that tastes somewhat like Wine." (or these also may be changed from sharp and sour into sweet. the fruit will be the better and sweeter. and to lay 3wine . &y the same device.ung. as 3wine . which is peculiar unto them alone. (or the roots of this tree have need of some sharp matter to gnaw upon them. 'natolius shows. &ut indeed the Pomegranate roots are more durable. or with the offals and refuse of hides." We cast some sharp piercing matter upon the root. 'ristotle shows in his book of plants. and watered with some cool sweet )i. that by virtue of their heat. it will become sweet. says he. The reason is. to the root of the bitter 'lmond tree. the roots of a Pomegranate tree must be applied with 9rine. %heophrastus says. by covering the 'lmond tree root with 3wine . as we said before of the 'lmond tree. or somewhat that is of the like operation. nd Palladius uses the very same practice. and most of all. 'fricanus says. #ow 3wine . and apply them still with 9rine. in 2arch.ung.ung and man0s "rdure. %heophrastus says. Pa+amus prescribes this course."' bitter 'lmond to become sweet. Columella says. the Pomegranate trees. of a bitter one it becomes sweet. water it with man0s 9rine. the tree may the more easily Concoct her moisture. it their roots be applied with 3wine . nd for all that time you must use the same Husbanding of it. and water them with man0s 9rine that has stood long in some vessel. then will the fruit will be sweeter. To dig round about the root of the tree.ung. "3harp and sour Pomegranate trees may be made to bring forth a sweet Pomegranate. &ut it will be three years before the tree will be so changed. it will work some kind of change thereof. The 0uintiles report of 'ristotle. or such like. yet not in too great a quantity.uor. or with 3wine . %ou must cover the roots with 3wine .ung.ung.ung upon it. and so yield a sweeter fruit. and then when you have cast earth upon that. . that if we apply hot and strong "il. being cast upon the roots. if you have a Pomegranate tree that bears a sharp and sour fruit. every third year.

do forsake their bitterness. "3weet Coleworts. that they may be sweet. we may procure." . or of the )i. either of the ground where it is set. (or the saltiness.uor wherewith it is watered. "3weet (ndive . Which very same things Pliny reports out of the same author. will make them sweeter also. if you would procure. There is another sleight in Husbanding of Pot Herbs. it will become better. . "3weet 4ochet. to water it with some 3alt )i. and become sweet. if you water it with 3alt )i. and so they will be better. -ikewise you may procure. "-asil will grow the sweeter. does abate and take away the tartness and natural saltiness of the Coleworts." !uch as will yield leaves that shall be more %oothsome. s for example sake. pplying them to the roots of the 'pple tree. and thereby cause it to bear a sweeter fruit. nd this is by Cropping the stalks of them. %heophrastus wills us. and which is a thing very comfortable to an 'pple tree. !ome do use *oat ."How to make an 'pple tree become sweeter. nd therefore if we would have sweet (ndive.uor.ung and the )ees or dregs of old Wine.f which sort (ndive is one." nd therefore the 5gyptians do mix water and &itre together. or else to set it in some 3alt places. by watering it continually with 9rine. whereby they may be produced fitter to be eaten. The like applications being used to Herbs. The like practice will procure." There are many things. nd hence it is that the best Coleworts are they which are planted in 3alt grounds. and sprinkle it upon Coleworts. In like manner.uors.uor. %heophrastus says." %heophrastus counsels you to water them with 3alt )i. which being watered with 3alt )i." nd that is.uor. if you water an 'pple tree with warm water in the spring time. "3weet -etony.

r. (or at the second springing. they will gather and yield a far sweeter 4elish." &y Cropping them once or twice. does make the second sprouts to be the sweeter. the stalk will be sweeter and pleasanter. will be far sweeter. . %heophrastus says. most evident reason whereof is assigned by %heophrastus. the "nions will cause the nuts to last the longer. namely. s for example. which is not so pleasant. are full of a milky kind of "uice. The cause whereof he has assigned to his book of causes. 'e shows also. (or the first tops of their first springing. &y another sleight far differing from this. "*arlic may be made sweeter." t the second springing. The like is to be thought and practiced in other Pot Herbs. nd therefore if you lay up &uts among "nions. ")ettuce will be the sweeter. Whereby they either help one another. &ut they which grow at the second springing. In lieu of which kindness. &uts and onions have a sympathy or agreement of nature. or else supple them with the )ees of "il. as Palladius has observed.If you Crop the stalk of it. that the sweetest )ettuce springs up after the Cropping of the first tops. . when you do set them. There are also diverse other sleights in the Husbanding and dressing of such of Pot Herbs. and afterward let them grow. that diverse things do exercise a mutual discord or agreement and concord of natures toward each other. almost in all Herbs. that their first shooting up in the weakest and the most unperfect. if you take them when they are young and tender. ""nions may be made sweeter. !o. that if you break the cloves of *arlic before you set them. because that it is not thoroughly Concocted. &uts do gratify "nions with another good turn. if their natures agree. if their natures differ. ")eeks may be made sweeter. (or the Cropping or cutting off. for they ease the "nions of their sharpness." (or we must consider. how. whereby they may be may be made sweeter to be eaten." (or 3otion is persuaded. they hurt and destroy one another.

and hapha. if you make the case accordingly. turn and apply to very good use. and dispose of them in places convenient on the fruit. whereby. or any stick. may be made to receive and resemble all figures and impressions whatsoever. which were made there by chance. the fruit will wear and express the same colors. . which has caused the same impressions. as they say. nd this is the sleight that 'fricanus prescribes. which an ingenious man lighting upon. and much labor and practice. nd in all points expressing the color of a man0s head. Which is the natural color of that fruit while it is growing. the wit of man has devised to cause diverse kinds of fruit. of often experiments that he makes of them. purple cheeks. diverse kinds of stamps and impressions. Whence. lso if you pound down any colors and mix them together. to grow up with diverse kinds of figures upon them." M any things do fall out by chance. 'aving it the lively resemblance of white teeth. s by the hitting of some carved matter. thence it is. If you take an earthen vessel. and to come to pass besides nature0s rule. and will be of any form whatsoever you would desire. Therefore it comes to pass.Chapter VIII "How fruits that are in their growing. the 'pple will grow to fill up his earthen case. does by his great industry. without any greeness at all. that they are esteemed to be miraculous. Whence it is that the poet says.ard. as it hangs upon the tree growing. nd because the most part are not acquainted with the cause of such things. manifold experience. as if they were natural unto them. sets a broach to the world many new arts and rare devices. and put into it an 'pple that is very young. that often the yellow 0uince is made to grow like a man0s head. or such like. and black eyes. on the inside of the case. We have often seen in Citrons.

!o may you make. be of Wood. or (arth. and fashion it to the bigness of a Citron that is at his full growth. you may frame them to every fashion. If it be of Clay. Pears. The like we have shown before out of $lorentinus. you may clap it on. nd that Counterfeit will fashion the fruit into any form. that 'pple fruit may be made to grow up to the shape of any living creature. that if you bestow the same pains and diligent care upon any other sort of 'pples. "' 0uince grows in the shape of living creatures. nd when it is taken out. says he. "Pomegranates. that the stalk of the fruit may there let in. or soft 1ortar. may not break it open. &ut then when the fruit comes to be of a greater and stronger growth. you must cover it being young. says he."' Citron may be made to grow in the likeness of a man/s head." (or the same author writes. you would have a Citron to grow in diverse shapes. or sheath as it were.e of a fruit of that kind. and bind them about with a strong band. making them to receive any kind of form. then you must first make it hollow within. that it may grow up within it. so that the fruit may be taken out of it handsomely. wherein it may be swaddled. Into these earthen vessels you must enclose the fruit. Pontanus also speaks of the same device. so that it be somewhat dry. it will resemble any image that you have carved with the Counterfeit. for otherwise the growth of the fruit will break them open. &ut you must cleave it round about with a sharp instrument. or any kind of 'pple. or the head of a horse. If. with a hole in them at the lower end. it will bear the same shape and figure which you would have in it. with some Counterfeit of Clay. (or so it is in brief. or any other living creature. and let the fruit be shut up into that Counterfeit. nd when you have procured the fruit to grow up into his Counterfeit. If the Counterfeit or case which you make. nd yet in the mean space the sides of the case must be so closely and firmly "oined together. you must prepare earthen vessels made for the purpose." %ou must take some Potters Clay. !o also you may deal by. that it is come to the "ust si. or Wood. as it is. that the fruit growing on. If you first carve the same shape into a Counterfeit of Wood or (arth." . s a tender infant in his nurse0s bosom.

it will grow so pliable within it." Take an 'lmond. and make it hollow all along. take the 6ernel that is . and then put into it a young Cucumber or a young *ourd. or dishes. it will grow to the same plainness and roundness.ragon. "'n 'lmond should grow with an inscription in it. Then you must write in the 6ernel what you will. if you would tie it hard in that part which you would have to be the less. you must steep the 3tone of it for two or three days.emocritus shows.ung. nd bind them fast about. when the fruit does come to be of full growth. &ut if you lay a *ourd between two platters. as 'fricanus records. They will receive any shape or impression very easily. 'ence we learn how it may be effected that. Cucumbers grow to any fashion that you would frame them unto. and overlay it with 1ortar . and when you have opened it. &ut it is easiest to make. that if you will. and bind it fast about. but write it as deep in as you safely may." s . like a Pear. winding himself many ways. and then cloth the Cucumbers when they are very young. 5specially if it be put into a case that is made of such pliant twigs as !ines are bound all about. and then brake the shell of it very charily. carry it about you. nd by that device. If you take a Cane. it will show you your handy work. %ou may make them to grow like a $lagon. and take out all that is in it. make a Cucumber grow in the shape of a . great at one end. or some )inen cloth. It will serve for a cup to drink in. that the 6ernel receives no harm. &y putting them into some Counterfeit that is carved within to the same proportion.emocritus affirms. and then open it charily. and small at the other. and soil it with . This should be done as soon as it has cast the blossom. and when you go abroad. and so let the 0uince grow within it. a *ourd will be made to grow picked and sharp by many means. Pliny says. "Cucumbers grow to any form. that it will fill up the whole length of the Cane. fterwards when it is come to full growth. !o may you make. -ikewise." (or if you take earthen vessels of any fashion.s . and 3teep it for two or three days. nd of all other fruit. dry it. !o much so. "' Peach to grow with an inscription in it. fter you have eaten the fruit. Then wind it up in some paper. this is the easiest and fittest to be formed to any fashion.

. and of a 0uince pear. "$ashion 1andrakes." If you carve any shape upon the bud. "' $ig will grow with an inscription in it. I have printed certain characters upon the 4ind of a Pomegranate. and the roots also be shot forth. nd when the fruit came up to the "ust magnitude. or some other such thing which may shoot out his roots like the hairs of one0s head." . nd then make holes with a punch into those places where the hair are found to grow.within the 3tone. Chapter I " How $ruits may be made to be more tender. &ut. and beautiful. will show you what was written on the 6ernel. I fount it in the same impressions. or a -one Pen. and so plant it. and goodly to the eye. and with a sharp instrument engrave in it a man or a woman. or wild &ep.en pen. and sell to many instead of true 1andrakes. the $ig will express it when it is grown. having first dipped my Pen in 1ortar.r else if you carve it into the $ig when it is first fashioned. giving either of them their *enitories." Those counterfeit kind of 1andrake. until such time as it shall be covered with a bark. which Cou7eners and Cony catchers carry about. with a bra. &ut you must do it either with a Wooden Pen. and so your labor shall be sure to take effect. nd the fruit which that will afterward bear. %ou must get a great root of -rionie. you must let it lie there. nd when you have dug a little pit for it in the ground. #ow it remains that we show how we may. nd put into those holes 1illet. &ut you must not print it too deep. and write upon it what you will. then wrap it up in a paper.

. wedges made of the %urpentine tree. "1ulberry tree will bear more and better fruit. we will set down diverse kinds of sleights in Husbanding and trimming of Herbs and fruit. that the. #ay. nd with this. nd still as the leaves begin to bud forth. the tree will bear more store of fruit. When the crops of the $ig tree begin to be green with leaves. and better relished. nd first. cover the roots of the tree." Columella shows. . the fruit will be a fuller and better fruit. and promises the bettering of the fruit by that means. wedges made of the 1astick tree. but also fresher colored. it will cause the 1yrtle fruit to be without any 6ernel at all. and into every hole beat in a wedge. "-etter $igs then ordinary." If you bore through the stock of the tree in diverse places.r." We may learn out of %heophrastus. that nothing may pass us.ung. Whereby they may be made not only tenderer. that some have reported. Pliny and Palladius record the same experiment out of the same author.N ow at length. who counsels to water their roots with warm water. and more sightly to the eye. Into some of the holes. how you make them grow more plentifully. if not so. was found out by chance. says he. Palladius writes. larger. nd besides. sweeter. yet you must make sure at the least to cut off the top which grows out of the middle of the tree. if you would have it yield you more and better fruit. If you would procure. you must cut off the very tops of them when the bud begins to show itself. nd this.idymus says that. in certain of these trees growing near unto a hot bath. and blend it with )ees of "il and man0s . . When the $ig tree begins to show her leaves. and some of them. you cut off the tops of the boughs with an Iron tool. you must take red Chalk. and to be a sounder fruit. "How an 'pple tree and a 1yrtle tree may be bettered. nd by this means.

%ou must only set it into the bark somewhat near the root. nd the burden or weight of the shard will make it spread very broad. if you plant it among 4oses. "%he 1yrtle tree will have a better leaf. Pliny says." s Palladius shows. %ou may cause also. "4ue will grow tenderer. by reason of some fault either in the seed. Then lay upon it a tile 3hard that has never been seasoned with any . that if your )ettuce be somewhat hard. Columella shows."%he Palm. that it will take the better effect. and after you have strained them. that works also to smear the roots with . nd then having cast in earth upon it again. that you must take the 'rtichoke seed. or place. and rub it upon a 3tone. when you have a )ettuce growing that has been transplanted." nd also yield a better fruit. nd he says. !o. that you may cover it with (arth. or . nd by doing this.ate tree." If you take the )ees of old Wine. Take a little tile 3hard. as . to take away their own (arth from them. water the roots with it. ")ettuce to grow tenderer and more spreading. how you may make it spread broader.ung. if you cast upon it a little 3alt every now and then. and then smear it with some fresh "+ . and Columella. nd as they grow up. or season.idymus reports. Palladius says. you must pluck it out of the (arth and set it again. till you have worn it blunt at the top. nd still as the bud or leaf appears out of the earth." If it is (ngrafted into a $ig tree." !arro says. water it. and the . it will become more tender. you must rid away the (arth from the root after it is grown to be a handful long.ung when they are set.amosin tree will grow to be of a larger and better si7e. and lay it upon the middle of the )ettuce when it is a little grown up. "'rtichokes grow without sharp prickles. nd so you have a most excellent 4ue. $lorentinus says. and so fill up the place with 1uck. and more flourishing. cut it off till it grows up stronger. (or the 1yrtle tree delights to be in the company of the 4ose. and thereby becomes more fruitful.

Pitch. nd so you shall have your purpose. &y the like device you may procure,

"(ndive to be tenderer and broader."
When it is grown up to a pretty si,e, then lay a small tile 3hard on the middle of it, and the weight of that will cause the (ndive to spread broader. !o also you may procure,

"Coleworts to be more tender,"
If you sprinkle them with 3alt water, as %heophrastus writes. The 5gyptians, to make their Coleworts tender, do water them with &itre and water mixed together.

"Cucumbers will be more tender,"
If you 3teep the seeds in 1ilk before you set them, as Columella reports. If you would have,

")eeks to grow cloven,"
The 'ncients have taught us, that first you must sow them very thick. nd so, let them alone for a while. &ut when they are grown, cut them, and they will grow cloven. .r else, you must cut it about some two months after it was set, and never remove it from their bed. &ut help it still with water and 1uck, and you shall have your purpose, as Palladius says. #ow we will speak of some monstrous generations. s of the generation of the Herb ,ragon, and of a cloven "nion. nd first,

"How to produce the Herb ,ragon."
It is a received opinion among gardeners, that if you take a Hemp seed or )ine seed, and (ngraff it into an ordinary "nion, or else into a 3ea "nion as it grows near the sea, or else into a 4adish root, then will grow the Herb ,ragon, which is a notable and famous salad Herb. &ut surely, howsoever they boast of it that this has been often done, I have made sundry trials, and still failed of my purpose. &y the like setting of seeds, they show,

"How to produce cloven "nions,"

&y making a hole into an "nion, and putting into it a clove of *arlic, and so planting it. for that will grow to be an 'scalonian, or a cloven "nion. #ow let us see how to make,

"Parsley to grow fri77led or curled."
%heophrastus writes that Parsley will grow fri,,led, if you pave the ground where you have sown it, and ram it with a 4oller. (or then the ground will keep it in so hard, that it must grow double. Columella says, if you would have Parsley to bear curled leaves, you must put your Parsley seed into a 1ortar, and pound it with a Willow Pestle. nd when you have so -ruised it, wrap it up in )inen Clouts, and so plant it. %ou may effect the same also without any such labor. 5ven by rolling a cylinder or roller over it after it is a little grown up, wherever or however it is sown. Palladius and Pliny record the same experiment out of the same author. I have often seen,

"-asil growing with a kind of brushlike hairs upon it."
The seed of Withywind being planted near to -asil, as soon as it shoot up, will presently wind itself round about the stalks of the -asil, and by often winding about them, will wrap them all into one. The like will be effected also, if the Withywind grows elsewhere, and a twig of it be brought and planted near the -asil. (or by either of these means, the -asil will grow bushy and so thick of hair, and that in a very short time, that it will be most pleasant to look upon. !o you may make the,

"Ivy to bear very sightly berries,"
If you burn three 3hellfish, especially of that kind which is called 1ure+, and when you have pound them together, cast the ashes thereof upon the Ivy berries. .r else, if you cast upon them beaten 'lome, as Cassianus teaches. %heophrastus mentions and experiment that is very strange, whereby to make,

"Cumin grows flourishingly,"
nd that is by cursing and -anning of the seeds when you sow them. nd Pliny reports the same out of %heophrastus. nd he reports it likewise of -asil, that it will grow more plentifully

and better, it be sown with cursing and -anning. If you desire to produce long,

"Cucumbers, and such as are not waterish,"
%ou may effect it by this means. If you take a 1ortar or any other like vessel filled with water, and place it near the Cucumbers, about five or six inches distant from them. The Cucumbers will reach the vessel with a day or two, and extend themselves to that length. The reason is, because Cucumbers have such a great delight in moisture. !o that, if there be no water in the vessel, the Cucumbers will grow backward and crooked. To make them that they shall not be waterish. When you have dug a ditch to plant them in, you must fill it up half full with chaff, or the twigs of a !ine. nd then cover them, and fill up the pit with earth. &ut you must take heed you do not water them when they are planted. &y all these things which have been spoken, we may learn to procure,

"' tree, which of itself may yield you the fruit of all trees."
thing which I have seen, and in merriment have often called it, the %ree of *arden dainties. It was of a good height and thickness, being planted with a vessel fit for such a purpose. The 1ould which was about it, being very fat, and moist and fruitful, that so every way, as well by the liveliness and strength of the plant itself, as also by the moistness and thriftiness of the ground, all things that were (ngrafted into it, received convenient nourishment. It was three forked. :pon one bough or arm, to bore a goodly *rape. Without any 6ernels in it, party colored and very 1edicinable. (or some of the *rapes were good to procure sleep, and some would make the belly loose. The second bough or arm, carries a Peach, without any 3tone in it. nd the smaller branches thereof bearing here a Peach, and there a Peach nut. If at any time there were any 3tone in the fruit, it was commonly as sweet as an 'lmond. nd it did resemble sometimes the face of a man. !ometimes of other living creatures, and sundry other shapes. The third arm carries Cherries, without any 3tone, sharp, and yet sweet overall. nd "ranges also of the same 4elish. The bark of this tree is everywhere covered with flowers and 4oses. nd the other fruit, all of them greater then ordinary, and sweeter both in taste and in smell, flourishing chiefly in the !pring. nd they hung upon the tree, growing even after their own natural season

was past. nd there is another kind of Wine made in that sort. (or indeed there is nothing more convenient for that purpose. bout 'eraclia in rcady. which if it be drunk. and likewise Wines may be made medicinable. so that when one was ripe. how to mix Wine with diverse kinds of 'ntidotes or preservatives against Poison. which are easy both to be learned. and yet easy to be effected. nd in Thrasus there is a kind of Wine. but such qualities operative as the property of the place where their 3imples grow. thing that might very well be practiced. there is a kind of Wine. nd indeed they are nothing else almost. nd the women to become barren. Chapter "How diverse kinds of fruits. and also practiced by those that are well acquainted with the operations of 3imples. and of matters of Husbandry. nd the temperate nature of the air served every turn so well. that it will cause a man to be watchful. if need should be. nd how to use it best in such 4eceipts. &ut there was a continual succession of one fruit after another. by certain degrees. strange to be reported. nd the like thenaus records of that Wine which they have in Troas. that I never beheld a more pleasant and delightful sight. nd they are such as a man0s own con"ecture may well lead him unto. which makes the men that drink of it to become mad. nd therefore they have tried and set down more curiously then need required. nd there are diverse confections of Wine which you may read of in the most exact writers of Physick. there was another budding forth. The branches being never empty. but still clogged with some fruit or other." The 'ncients have been very careful and painful in seeking out. a place in 4reece. will procure sleep. Which %heophrastus copiously set down. even all the year long. many things concerning this argument. does endure them throughout. nd surely I .

. (or so you shall $ig that will make the belly loose. and so cover it with earth. and then set them in the head of a 3ea "nion. and cast them upon the $ig tree roots.r. nd by this means it will yield you grapes that being eaten. as also Wild Cucumber. There you must pluck out the Pith. to set a !ine branch. %ou must pierce the !ine with a Wimble. and kills children in their mothers wombs.r else if you (ngraff them into the same roots.would counsel that these kinds of Confections should be ministered to those that are timorous and uneasy in the taking of medicinal 4eceipts. you must supple the !ine branches in some 'ntidote or counter Poison. if you would have the *rapes to be more operative in this kind. are good to make Phthorium Wine. !o we may procure." If you pound Hellebore and 3ea )ettuce together. and put in certain Withy boughs. "How to make that kind of Wine which is called Phthorium. before they should seem loathsome. &ut the 3cammony or -lack Hellebore must be (ngrafted into the !ine . will make your body 3oluble. that the sets may drink their fill of it. !o shall you have a *rape full of sundry virtues. and so the strength and virtue of the *rape will last a great deal longer. . &ut you must still pour upon it the "uice of that 'ntidote." That Hellebore which grows in Thassus. That so they may be swallowed down pleasantly. and to cleave it in the lower part of the root. and instead of the Pith put Hellebore into it. as also 3cammony. that you may make a $ig to grow which shall be good against the biting of !enomous beasts. whereby you may bind up unto the !ine the other plants that are (ngrafted into it. nd first. . "How a !ine may be made to bring forth *rapes that shall be medicinal against the bitings of venomous beasts. $lorentinus says. and so cover them with earth." $lorentinus bids you in the first and second book of his *eorgicks. "$igs that shall be Purgative. and bind it fast about with some pliant twig. That the cleft may be some four inches long. !o you may procure. which causes abortions. if you set it after it has been laid in %reacle.

and drink it before supper. that the "uice of no other grapes can come near it. you must uncover the roots of so many !ines as in your opinion will make enough Wine to serve your turn. nd it will work very mildly without any danger at all. as the 0uintiles report. and cast them about your !ines. you dig round about their roots. gain. and twice to much earth among them. it will be operative both for sleep and Purgation. and cast some Hellebore upon them and their branches. They rid and cleanse !ine roots. nd cover them up with earth again. you must take heed. If you would keep the "uice of the *rape long that it may last you a great while for that purpose. and lop them round about. nd fill it up with 3cammony or the "uice of -lack Poppy wrapped up handsomely in paper. #ow if you would procure a man to be loose bellied and sleepy also. you may cause." %ou must bore through a bough." If you 3teep the seeds of them in 3cammony water nine days before you set them. Then cover the !ine roots with 1ould and gather the *rapes by themselves. and blend it with water. or some such covering." %ou must take the roots of the Wild Cucumber. and steep them in fair water two or three days. "Purgative *ourds. nd do all this five times. or through the whole stock of a . "Purgative . and pound them. nd when the fruit is ripe. at such time as the earth is used to be rid away from the roots of !ines." fter the !intage.uor for five days together. you may make them Purgative. how you may cause. !o you may procure.ung and old ashes. "' !ine to be Purgative . and put unto them some old rotten . after they are blossomed. take a cup full of it. 2ark them. then pour upon the . if. Then pound down some Hellebore root in a 1ortar.amosins that be good also to cause sleep. -ate writers have taken another course. When you would use it.amosin tree. Cato shows also. nd then water your Cucumbers with that )i. and Prune them well."Purgative Cucumbers.

that the moisture itself is ascending at that time into the superior parts." I pierced the !ine with a Wimble. you shall have *rapes growing upon your !ines.+ nd this I did in diverse parts of the !ine. with a notable and much desired experiment. that are very operative for loosing the belly. and put into it certain "intments fit for such an effect. but especially at such time as the bud begins to full out. that the roots never lie naked and open when the north wind blows. nd that about *rafting time by Inoculation. according as to the nature of the "intment being introduced. does carry up with it the virtue of the "intments. even unto the very 1arrow." hat we may conclude this whole book. We will now show in the end. (or that would draw forth and consume the "uice of the 1edicine that is poured upon the roots. how we may receive a large increase from the fruit. to kill or preserve. 'ere and there about the whole body of the !ine. they cast earth upon the roots again. matter surely that must be exceedingly profitable. *It will suffice. nd this they do for many days together. that they may yield greatest increase. and they take special regard. Chapter T I "How to plant $ruits and !ines."uice of some Purgative 1edicine to water them all about. When they have so done. for a man to receive a hundred bushels in . and conveys it to the fruit. so that the fruit will be operative either for Purgation or for child bearing. I have effected. and !ine which we have planted. either to hurt or help. This if you diligently perform. (or then the !ine is full of moisture. Pulse. "%he same by another means. if you put them with the 4ind. Whereby it comes to pass.

(or *od has appointed some of them of them for the food and sustenance of living creatures. whereof Pliny speaks. and grow in those stalks and many stems. does often spread his root. because that though the weather be never so kindly. as if the fruit were annoyed with over much cold. is of itself so bitter.antium in frica. !ome think that the increase commonly falls out to be so little. or else the ground. or else the plants may not perform their parts kindly. are contained sometimes threescore grains$ I spare to mention here the ground that lies in &y. why half a bushel well sown or planted. seeing that one grain or kernel that is planted and takes kindly. &ut this appears to be false. the increase may not be so great. but that it shall be five times more then ordinary+ &ut if those things do perform their parts kindly together. or birds. which. or rain. &ut not to wander or range any further about. and sometimes parched with heat. such as . because the greater part of the fruit which is cast into the ground. that none of those devouring creatures will taste of it. Which yet I would not have to be so understood. and of other creatures that live in the earth. as it a man should still expect to receive a hundred to one. and will . nd they will think that we promise impossibilities.thers refer the cause hereof unto the weather. yet that cannot make one increase into thirty. a hundred and fifty by increase. or the air and weather. they should rather think it a paradox. and sometimes more barren. and others for feed. &ut this cannot be the true reason.9sury as it were. for one grain was planted in. and in the ear of every one of those stalks. nd in this case. so that sometimes they are more fruitful. so that the fields are sometimes fro. that is. are not prolific. We must know that all grains that grow within the ear or husk. they are not all fit to yield increase. for the one -ushel that he has sown. nd the governor of that country sent to &ero. nd when they are grown up. #ow Pulse or )upines. or heat. This may seem a Parado+ to some. which are as it were abortives. is eaten up by Worms. or 1oles. as we see. but they let it lie safe and untouched. *but yet it shall never be so little. . sometimes up to fifteen. &ut surely if they would consider all things rightly. did yield very near four hundred stalks. There are some grains in an ear. &ut let us search out the cause whereby this comes to pass.egenerate from their natural kind. precisely or exactly so much. you shall commonly find about a hundred grains in the Cods of every stalk. should not yield two hundred bushels increase. three hundred and forty stems growing out of one grain.en with cold. because one bushel of Pulse being planted. you shall receive sometimes for one bushel. never yields above fifteen. (or sometimes the year.

such as are easier to be stripped out of their husk. the more bountiful increase she will procure. nd besides. carefully manured. %he (nd . you must see that her leaves are not wanting. and become more eager to propagation. and bring forth a more legitimate and larger increase. Then lay them in soft and worm 1ould. Wherefore if we can meet with all these impediments. and old *oat/s grease. nd smear them with fat "intments.r if they are. &esides that. . nd let them be continually supplied with sufficient heat. Therefore you must make choice of your seeds or grains. and bring forth a good store of ears. she should be without an issue for her superfluities. nd embrace it more sweetly. sometimes it falls out. !o shall your seeds be made more lively. but rot and waste away into Putrefaction. There are other grains in an ear. (or the seeds will be larger in the roots. (or if the leaves be away. which the kind of the fruit requires. Then wash them and cleanse them from all other seed. then will they send up a greater number of stems. that seeds or grains are not planted in due season. #ot of the most forward. and more pleasant. -et them be planted in the full of the 1oon or about then. her pride being taken away from her. &ut of the middle sort. the "uice will be more delightful. and the male would do by his female. even then the Husbandman does not give that due labor and industry in looking unto them. the !ine has little heart to bear. (or so. (or the larger the 1oon is. . the better will the seeds close with it. Concerning the !ine. and are better enabled by nature thereunto. nor yet of the most backward. (or the livelier that the heat of the 1ould is. which are fitter for propagation.not $ructify at all. &ecause they commonly are the weakest. if you would have a good store of Wine. which commonly the leaves do receive into themselves. and when they have spread their roots under the earth of a good length. we may procure increase according to our hearts desire. and sufficient moisture.nly you must pare off those twisted curls that are found to grow upon it.

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