You are on page 1of 2

Volume 15, number 1

PHYSIC8

LETTERS

1 Maroh 1 ~

erature d e c r e a s e s , until the residual r e s i s t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of impurity scattering is reached. The o b s e r v e d behaviour i s s o m e w h a t s i m i l a r , although t h e plateau below 20°K between the two regions of TW-vartation cannot be explained. The s u r f a c e scattering contributions vanish for perfectly specular reflection of conduction e l e c t r o n s at the surface, The o b s e r v e d i n c r e a s e d t e m p e r a t u r e dependence of epitaxlally grown f i l m s , a s compared with polycrystalline f i l m s , is due to the partial s p e c u l a r reflection exhibited by these films [10-14]. The a s s i s t a n c e of R. Randlett Is acknow-

2) ft. B. Dingle, Proc Roy. Soc. A2C1 (1945) 545. ~) E.H. Sondheimer7 Adv. in Physqcs I (1952) 1. 4) M. Ya Azbel and E A. Kaner, ZL. Experfm. i.

ledzed.
~efel~e~ces 1) K. Fuchs, Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 34 (1948)100.

Teor. Flz. 32 (19f, 7) 890. 5) M. Ya Azbe[ and R N. GurzhJ, Zh. Experim. i. Teor. Fiz. 15 (19~2) 1133, 6) F . J . Blair and ILG.Satz, ,lelv. Pk~s. ~ 33 (1960) 1007. 7) E. R. Andrew, Pro<:. P~y~. 8o¢. A62 (1~40) 77. 8) J. L.Olsen, H e i r . . _ ~ s . Acta. 31 (1968) 713. 9) A.N. Frledman an# S . H . K o e r ~ , ~ Journal 4 (1960) 158. I0) K. L. Chq)ra, L.C.i'kfl3b sad M.H. Fr~oombe J, Appl. Phys. 34 ( x ~ ) 189S. 11) K. L.Chopra and L.C.Bobb, ActaMet. 12 (1964) 807. 12) K. L. Chopra and ~ C.,dobb, Sfngle-Crystal Films. (Pergamon Press, 1964),p. 371. 13) M. S. P. Lucas, Appl. Phys. Letters 4 (1964) 73. 14) D. C. Larson and B. T. Bolko, Appl. Phys. Letters 5 (1964) 155.

SPECIFIC

HEAT

OF

TYPE

II S U P E R C O N D U C T O R S

L . J . VIELAND RCA Laboratories, Princeton, New J e r s e y Received 28 January 1965

T h e t h e r m o d y n a m i c p r o p e r t i e s of a t y p e H s u p e r c o n d u c t o r in a m a g n e t i c ii¢ ld can be d e r i v e d f r o m the A b r l k o s o v t h e o r y [1]. Although the t h e o r y is s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a b l e only along the c r i t i cal f i e l d c u r v e , i . e . , f o r low o r d e r p a r a m e t e r , the s p e c i f i c heat d e r i v e d f o r f i e l d s s u b s t a n t i a l l y below H c . ( T ) is found t o be in good a g r e e m e n t with e x p ~ i m e n t . T h e A b r l k o s o v f r e e e n e r g y can be w r i t t e n

Cs(n,

_

T

3/+

B(2--~: 1)14~r~ c d T ~ + \ - ~ - - ! J t +

VII
" 4".~(~.,2-1)
. .

d2Hc2
~ (2)

dT 2

Gs(II, 7) = Gn(T) + V
/-/ >>//C 1

AfdH = , T2 = -~3/

(1) V(/4c2-R)2 8nB(2n 2 - 1)

T h e b r a c k e t e d t e r m is the f a m i l i a r z e r o field s p e c i f i c h e a t d i f f e r e n c e mid t h e l a s t t e r m is e s s e n t i a l l y t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e p e n d e n t , s o that the s p e c i f i c h e a t m a y be w r i t t e n

Cs(lt, T)
T

1 C's(0, T) /1 ~ = B' T +

-

l-h\ -'ff-] 3/

(3)

w h e r e V is h~.e m o l a r v o l u m e , ~ is a c o n s t a n t (1.18), and the i n t e g r a t i o n e x t e n d s o v e r the linea r r a n g e of the m a g n e t i z a t i o n . T a k i n g x a s c o n s t a n t and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t w i c e g i v e s the s p e c i f i c heat,

w h e r e e' -- ~ (2~ 2 - 1)/2x 2. and h = WHc2(0). T h e o c c u r r e n c e of a l i n e a r t e r m in t h e s p e c i f i c heat, which has r e c e n t l y ~een the s u b j e c t of much d i s * This work was supported by the Air Force Materials I~borato~T0 Resea-eh and Technology Division, Air Force Systems Color,and, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, under Contract No. AF 33 (657)11208.

t

23

Such a v a r i a t i o n is s u g g e s t e d by the t h e r m o d y n a m i c r e q u i r e m e n t that the spe c ific heat jump at the t r a n s i t i o n be given by + l (l+r'h)sB 1I 3'/t2 . JETP. F o r high x m a t e r i a l s . Ptkvsics Letters 8 (1. T) = (. 8 (1962) 275.30.Volume 15. Specific h eats w e r e obtained f r o m the tabulation . Superconductivity (Cambridge University Press. T) ~ t l r t ~EXPERlUENTAL ~d~ . Bardeen.G l n z t m r g [6. the s p e c i f i c heat can be written Cs(R.~. 36 (1964) 12-~. The effect of the temperature dependence of may be seen by assuming a parabolic critical field. l~vs. J.. (s) Plots oI tkis equation a r e shown in the figure.. 2-4).J.12. i~cv.25 gives ~'c2(0) -.-" ~ ~ 2 O 'It2 . with the f a c t o r 4 s F in place ot the demagnetizing coef f i ci ent .. L. Dokoup~l. RefeTe'l'tCCS 1) A.n(T) . Mod. 11) J... Van Beelen and H. Phys. and partial flux exclusion can be s e e n in Hake's m agnetization data at the lower t e m p e r a t u r e s . Phys. R. 108 (1957) 1175. J. Soviet Physic3. the d i s c r e p a n c y in the c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the lower fi el ds r e p r e s e n t s a r e a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m the A b r i k o s o v magnetization.J. R... HaRe.25 gives a dependence virtually identical with the Gor~kov e x p r e s s i o n [8}. N. Soviet Physic~ JE T P 5 (1957) 1174. Cardona. Phys. Sherwood. and taking x(T) = x(0) [1 +nt 2] -1. It ~s of interest to examine the data on V-5~o T a m some detail.30 ". Z. 7] d e p e n d e n c e is given by taking ~ = I. T h i s difficulty can be r e s o l v e d by assum i ng that ~ -. Bardeen. 24 . 12) B. JETP. Gorier. L. Cs{~'T T) = Av + (I-X)cBcs[v'Trc{H)](r). 1. 3) B. Cooper and J. to fit the data f o r the 1. Values of ~ of 0. Phys. Rev..R. refs..i J. A. Taking n = 0.. E. 133A (1964) 719. J. Ginzburg.I)/Tc(O))2.07 and 1. and H 0 = }~02 (Tc(]..'ere used. Rosenblum and M. Williams. 10 (1960) 593.20. Physics Letters 12 (1964)166. L. " IMarch1965 I cusston (e. Gorkov. Let.I ~ T I*K)~ "t-- i' (1+m'0(1-h)~ t 7+ (4) Fig. E~I. 66. 9) F. and with the data of Hake [10] on V-5% T a. Rev.17 and ~. Letters 12 (1~4) 657. 5) D. G. Eq.. (2) is ~nalogous to the relationship obtained by P e t e r l s [5] f o r the i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a t e of ~-pe I s u p e r c o n d u c t o r s . R. Hake and W.(l-h) ~ P(T/Tc(II)) . Rev. 6) J.W. Wcrnick an.. N. 95 (1954) 554.. 3 (1956) 621. Soviet Pt~sics. P(T/Tc(H) ) is the B C S [11] t?mperature dependence of the critical field for an equivalent superconductor with a transition temperature Tc(H ).~ M u ] d s c ~ e l [12]. g . Malta.. 1 as T -.Tc. 10) R. P. 2 and 4 k~3 c a s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7) V. giving ~ = 1.11 f o r f i e l d s of 1 and 2 kG. 1 m a y be put in the form c(0) Tc : (d V jHc2. while t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g t h e o r etical v alu e s a r e 0. Rcv. H. f o r which ~ is small.22 and 0. The t e m p e r ~ u r e dependence of the specific heat dLtBermce is a function of ~dz. Kunzler..13. 2) C.J. and "-he low field data fall below the ze co f~el5 data at h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s . and to some e xt e nt at the higher fields.~t if ~ is a s s u m e d to be unity. 4) J.. G..O v -dnc-2 : Tc v~02 (:~(H. Abrikosov. [9] on ¥~.964) 13. nunber I PHYSICS L E T T E R S ~4 2¢ II " I [ (H&glE| . Brammer. Phys.C. T h i s r e s u l t is in good a g r e e m e n t with the data of M o r i n et al. J.~n. De Brttyn Ouboter. Scheffer. is t h e r e f o r e seen t o follow n a t u r a l l y f r o m the f o r m of t he m a gne t i zati. Muhlschlegel.5 k-G. Phys. 8~. (5) where ~ is a function of field alone. .. R. However. F o r the 1 kO c a s e . Rev. the condition H >>Hcl is not met. [1. The B a r d e e n . Cody for many helpful s u g g e s t i o n s during the c o u r s e of this work. Schrieffer.The specific heat can be written d i r e c t l y as The aut hor is indebted to Or. ?)-Cs(O. Shoenberg. 0. Morin. = 0. P. 0. Specific heat of V-5 % Ta alloy. Ferreira da Silva. a n d . 155 (1959) 313. 1952)p. H. /: t_ 1 . van Duykeren and Z.