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Rhetoric Study Guide

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Two Bible Passages on Rhetoric:   Ecclesiastes 12:9-14 1 Corinthians 1:17 – 2:5

Words do what three things in Ecclesiastes?    Delight the hearers Direct to action Drive the truth

Two-pronged Criterion   Christ-exaltation Self-humiliation

Two examples of Biblical Eloquence   Climax – Romans 5:3-5 Parallelism – Luke 1:42-47

Piper’s Five Uses of Rhetoric      Keep Interest Increase Power Gain Sympathy Awaken Sensitivity Make Memorable

What makes Rhetoric an art?   Systematic Natural Skill VS Practice

What is the primary substance of rhetorical persuasion?  Enthymeme

Rhetoric can be used unjustly (remember Gorgias) What are the Four Uses of Rhetoric?     Persuade an audience to action Promote the truth Perceive both sides Protect yourself

What is Aristotle's definition of rhetoric?        "The faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. "

What three abilities should an orator have? Logos - Ability to reason logically Ethos - Ability to understand human character and goodness Pathos - Ability to understand emotion

What are the two ways to prove something? Example Enthymeme

What is an enthymeme? An enthymeme is a syllogism where not all of the points are stated.

What are the types of oratory, audiences, times, functions, and aims?

Political Oratory:
What are the Five Categories of Political Oratory?

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Ways and Means National Defense War and Peace Legislation Imports/Exports

What are the four definitions of happiness? Prosperity combined with virtue Independence of life Secure enjoyment of maximum pleasure Good condition of property and body together with the power of guarding and making use of them What are the parts of Happiness?         Good birth, good friends, good children, good luck Plenty of friends, plenty of children, (plenty of) wealth, (plenty of) happy old age Fame, honor, virtue, strength Health, beauty, strength, stature

Name a Scripture reference that commands joy in God Philippians 4:4 - "Rejoice in the LORD always. Again I will say, rejoice!"

Give a Scripture Reference that talks about happiness: Psalm 16: 11 - "______________________________________________."

What are two definitions of good? "That which ought to be chosen for its own sake." "That for the sake of which we choose something else."

Know how to list something admittedly good and something disputably good. What are two examples of greater/lesser good evaluators?               Harder things VS easier things Larger things VS smaller things

What are the four types of government that Aristotle defines? Democracy - values Freedom Oligarchy - values Property Aristocracy - values Education Monarchy

List the 8 Tones of Delivery: Dignified Narrative Facetious Broken Hortatory Sustained Explicative Pathetic

------------------------------------ (Insert Ceremonial Oratory Notes) ------------------------------------

Give Aristotle's definition of wrongdoing:  "Injury voluntarily inflicted contrary to law."

Chart the Causes of Action:

Chart the States of Mind:

Give three examples of people who attract crime:

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Rich people Trusting people People never before offended

What are the two types of law? Universal Particular

What does Equity bid us to do to others? Be merciful, forgiving, negotiable, considering meaning over word, etc.

What are the five non-technical means of persuasion?       Torture Law Witnesses Contracts Oaths

How does Aristotle define the emotions? "All feelings that so change men as to affect their judgments and that are accompanied by pain or pleasure." Define Ethos:     "Power to make a credible, personal character"

What three things are needed for credible Ethos? Good sense Good will Good moral character

List the 14 emotions by Aristotle:     Anger Calmness Friendship Enmity

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Fear Confidence Shame Kindness Shamelessness Unkindness Pity Indignation Envy Emulation

State some differences between Enmity and Anger   Persons VS Things Incurable by Time VS Curable by Time

What are three gifts of fortune that affect human character?    Birth Wealth Power

Name some techniques that arouse emotion      Personal Experience Nearness/Farness Tone Gestures Facial Expression

Differences between young people and old people

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Strong Passions VS Passionless Generous VS Miserly Fast VS Slow Pleasure VS Security Trust VS Suspicion

Name some characteristics common to an audience gifted in any way, whether wealth, strength, or ancestry     Pride Ambition Recklessness Piety