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The Periodic Table of

Elements
1
1

18

13 14 15 16 17

1.008

2
3

10

Be

Ne

6.941

9.012

11

12

Na

Mg
24.305

9 10 11 12

10.811

12.001

14.007

15.999

18.998

20.180

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

26.982

Si

28.086

30.974

32.066

Cl

35.453

Ar

39.948

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ca

Sc
44.956

Cr

Mn

40.078

Ti

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

47.87

50.942

51.996

54.938

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

85.468

87.62

92.906

95.94

Tc

55

88.906

91.224

56

71

72

73

Cs

Ba

Lu

137.327

174.967

Hf

Ta

87

88

103

Fr

Ra

(223)

(226)

132.905

4.003

39.098

He

Li

22.990

Lr
(262)

55.845

44

Ru

72.61

74.922

78.96

79.904

83.80

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

107.868

112.4

114.818

118.710

121.760

127.60

126.904

131.29

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

116
Uuh

117

118

Uus

Uuo

Os

104

105

106

107

Rf

Db

Actinides

69.723

106.42

Re

Lanthanides

65.39

102.906

(262)

63.546

101.07

183.84

(261)

58.69

(98)

180.95

178.49

58.933

186.207

192.217

195.078

Pt

Au

Hg

108

109

110

111

Mt

112
Uub

190.23

Sg

Bh

Hs

(266)

(264)

(269)

Ir

(268)

196.967

Ds

Rg

(269)

(272)

200.59

(285)

204.383

207.2

208.980

113

114

115

Uut

Uuq

Uup

(284)

(289)

(288)

(209)

(292)

(210)

(222)

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

La

Ce

Pr

Nd

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

140.116

140.908

164.930

167.26

168.934

Yb

138.906

144.24

Pm

173.04

(145)

150.36

151.964

157.25

158.925

162.50

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

232.038

231.036

238.029

(257)

(258)

(259)

(227)

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

Periodic Periodic Law Periodic Table


Something periodic occurs at regular or at
least generally predictable intervals
Periodic law - physical and chemical
properties of the elements are periodic
functions of their atomic numbers
Periodic Table of Elements a table of
the elements, arranged by atomic number,
that shows the patterns in their
properties; based on the periodic law
Can you think of anything that is periodic?

Element
A pure substance made up of one kind of
atom that cannot be broken down into
simpler substances by physical or
chemical means
90 occur naturally on earth
25 were synthesized (made) by scientists

http://www.privatehand.com/flash/elements.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cAnOUwPfHlk

Dmitri Mendeleev
In the 1860s he
devised a periodic
table where the
elements were
ordered by their
atomic masses
He did this by
grouping elements
together according to
their similarities
Image taken from:
http://jscms.jrn.columbia.edu/cns/2006-04-18/fido-luxuriantflowinghair/mendeleev/

Mendeleevs Published Periodic Table of Elements

Why do you think there are question marks here?


Image taken from: http://www.chemsoc.org/networks/learnnet/periodictable/post16/develop/mendeleev.htm

Mendeleevs Predictions
Although Mendeleevs Periodic Table of Elements
had missing elements or gaps, he was able to
predict the characteristics of these missing
elements because of Periodic Law.
Ekasilicon
Date
Predicted
Atomic Mass

1871
72

Germanium
Date
Discovered

1886

Atomic Mass

72.6

Density

5.5 g/cm3

Density

5.47 g/cm3

Bonding
Power

Bonding
Power

Color

Dark Gray

Color

Grayish
White

Notice how
Mendeleevs
predictions
(orange column)
were very
accurate when
compared to
Germaniums
actual
characteristics
(green column)

Henry Moseley
In 1914, his work led
to a revision of the
periodic table by
rearranging the
elements by their
atomic numbers
He concluded that the
number of protons in
an atom is its atomic
number

Sample X-ray
Spectra

Image taken from:


http://dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/smith/

3 Classes of Elements
1
1

1.008

2
3

Li

Be

6.941

9.012

11

12

Na

Mg

22.990

10

17

He
4.003

10

Ne

10.811

15 16

11 12

20.180

12.001

14.007

15.999

18.998

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

26.982

28.086

30.974

32.066

35.453

39.948

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ca

Sc
44.956

Cr

Mn

40.078

Ti

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

47.87

50.942

51.996

54.938

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

85.468

87.62

92.906

95.94

Tc

88.906

91.224

(98)

55.845

44

Ru
101.07

58.933

58.69

63.546

65.39

69.723

72.61

74.922

78.96

79.904

83.80

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

102.906

106.42

107.868

112.4

114.818

118.710

121.760

127.60

126.904

131.29

55

56

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

Lu

Ta

137.327

174.967

Hf

Re

Os
190.23

Ir

192.217

Pt

195.078

Au

Hg
200.59

Tl

204.383

Pb
207.2

Bi

208.980

Po

At

Rn

103

112
Uub

113

114

115

117

118

Uut

Uuq

Uup

116
Uuh

Uus

Uuo

(284)

(289)

(288)

68

69

70

132.905

13 14

19
39.098

24.305

18

Classas a guide,
Color color
Using this
Metal
code your
periodic table to
Non-Metal
show the three classes. Start
Metalloid
by highlighting
the zig-zag.

87

88

Fr

Ra

(223)

(226)

Lr
(262)

178.49

180.95

183.84

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

(266)

(264)

(269)

(269)

(272)

(261)

Lanthanides
Actinides

(262)

57

58

186.207

59

60

Nd

La

Ce

Pr

138.906

140.116

140.908

144.24

(268)

61

62

Pm

Sm

(145)

150.36

196.967

63

Eu
151.964

(285)

64

Gd

157.25

65

Tb
158.925

66

Dy
162.50

67

(209)

(292)

(210)

(222)

Er

Tm

164.930

167.26

168.934

173.04

Ho

Yb

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

232.038

231.036

238.029

(257)

(258)

(259)

(227)

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

Metals
Location
Found on the left of the
zigzag line/staircase on
the periodic table
(exception Hydrogen)
Chemical Properties
Have few electrons in
their outer energy level,
thus lose electrons
easily
Physical Properties
ductile, good
conductors, malleable,
shiny, most are solid @
room temperature

79

Au
196.967

11

Na
22.990

Image taken from:


http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictableelements/ig/E
lement-Photo-Gallery.--98/Sodium.htm

What metal is not a solid


@ room temperature?

Atoms with Few Electrons in


their Outer Energy Level
Notice: only 1
electron in outer
level

+
-

+ +

++
+
+
++
+ +
++ +

Notice: only
2 electrons
in outer level

Be

22.990

9.012

Na

11

Non-Metals
Location
Most found to the right of
the zigzag line/staircase on
the periodic table
Chemical Properties
Most have almost full outer
energy levels, thus they
tend to gain electrons;
some have completely full
outer level
Physical Properties
not ductile or malleable,
not shiny, poor conductors,
most are solid, but some
are gas at room
temperature

17

Cl
35.453

Image taken from:


http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/resource/ptable/cl.htm

16

S
32.066

Image taken from:


https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/rockandmineral/sulfur.asp

Atoms with Full or Almost Full


Outer Energy Level
8

15.999

++ +
+ + +
+ +

Notice: 2
electrons in
outer level
FULL

+
-

He

4.003

Notice: 6
electrons in
outer level
almost full

+++
+ + +
++ +

F
18.998

Notice: 7
electrons in
outer level
almost full

Metalloids
Location
Border the zigzag
line/staircase on the
periodic table
Chemical Properties
Most atoms have ()
complete set of
electrons in outer
level
Physical Properties
have properties of
both metals and nonmetals

14

Si
28.086

Image taken from:


http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113863/bios.shtml

B
10.811

Image taken from:


http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113863/bios.shtml

Atoms with () Complete


Outer Energy Level
Notice: only 4
electrons in outer
level

10.811

++
+ +
+

Notice: only 3
electrons in outer
level

+ +++ +
+
++
+ +
+ + ++

14

Si

28.086

Important Features of the Periodic Table:


Period (Row)
each horizontal row of elements on the periodic table
1

18

13 14

15 16

17

1.008

2
3

10

Li

Be

Ne

6.941

9.012

11

12

Na

Mg

10

11 12

14.007

15.999

18.998

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

26.982

28.086

30.974

32.066

35.453

39.948

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ca

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

40.078

37

38

Rb

Sr
87.62

44.956

47.87

50.942

51.996

54.938

39

40

41

42

43

Zr

Nb

Mo

92.906

95.94

Tc

88.906

91.224

(98)

55.845

44

Ru
101.07

58.933

58.69

63.546

65.39

69.723

72.61

74.922

78.96

79.904

83.80

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

106.42

107.868

112.4

114.818

118.710

121.760

127.60

126.904

131.29

102.906

55

56

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

Lu

Ta

137.327

174.967

Hf

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg
200.59

Tl

204.383

Pb
207.2

Bi

208.980

Po

At

Rn

103

112
Uub

113

114

115

117

118

Uut

Uuq

Uup

116
Uuh

Uus

Uuo

(284)

(289)

(288)

132.905

20.180

12.001

85.468

24.305

10.811

19
39.098

4.003

22.990

He

87

88

Fr

Ra

(223)

(226)

Lr
(262)

178.49

180.95

183.84

190.23

192.217

195.078

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

(266)

(264)

(269)

(269)

(272)

(261)

Lanthanides
Actinides

(262)

186.207

(268)

196.967

(285)

(209)

(292)

(210)

(222)

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

La

Ce

Pr

Nd

Sm

Dy

Er

158.925

164.930

167.26

168.934

Yb

151.964

162.50

Ho

140.908

157.25

Tb

140.116

150.36

Gd

138.906

(145)

Eu

Tm

144.24

Pm

173.04

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

232.038

231.036

238.029

(257)

(258)

(259)

(227)

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OR RIGHT TO LEFT

How many
periods
(rows)
are on the
Periodic
Table
Of
Elements?

Period (Row) Properties


Seven periods on a periodic table (numbered
from the top down)
Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as
you move from the left to the right in a period
All atoms of the elements in the same period
have the same number of orbitals/levels
All atoms of the elements in a specific period
have that respective number of orbitals/levels
Example
Period 1 = 1 orbital
Period 2 = 2 orbitals
Period 3 = 3 orbitals
Etc

Examples of Period (Row) elements having the same


number of orbitals/levels in their atoms
-

In what period
(row) do
you think these
atoms
reside?

+
+++ ++
+ +

+
++
+

In what period
(row) do
you think these
atoms
reside?

+++
+
++ +
+
++ +

++
+
+++ +++
+
++ ++

Important Features of the Periodic


Table: Group (Family)
each column of elements on the periodic table
1
1

1.008

2
3
4

Li

Be

6.941

9.012

17

He
4.003

10

Ne

10.811

20.180

12.001

14.007

15.999

18.998

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

12

Mg

22.990

24.305

26.982

28.086

30.974

32.066

35.453

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ca

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

40.078

37

38

Rb

Sr
87.62

44.956

47.87

50.942

51.996

54.938

39

40

41

42

43

Zr

Nb

Mo

92.906

95.94

Tc

88.906

91.224

(98)

55.845

44

Ru
101.07

58.933

10

58.69

11 12

63.546

65.39

69.723

72.61

74.922

78.96

79.904

39.948

83.80

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

106.42

107.868

112.4

114.818

118.710

121.760

127.60

126.904

131.29

102.906

55

56

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

Lu

Ta

137.327

174.967

Hf

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg
200.59

Tl

204.383

Pb
207.2

Bi

208.980

Po

At

Rn

103

112
Uub

113

114

115

117

118

Uut

Uuq

Uup

116
Uuh

Uus

Uuo

(284)

(289)

(288)

132.905

15 16

11

85.468

13 14

Na

39.098

18

How many groups


(families)
are on the
Periodic Table
Of Elements?

87

88

Fr

Ra

(223)

(226)

Lr
(262)

178.49

180.95

183.84

190.23

192.217

195.078

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

(266)

(264)

(269)

(269)

(272)

(261)

Lanthanides
Actinides

(262)

186.207

(268)

196.967

(285)

(209)

(292)

(210)

(222)

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

La

Ce

Pr

Nd

Sm

Dy

Er

158.925

164.930

167.26

168.934

Yb

151.964

162.50

Ho

140.908

157.25

Tb

140.116

150.36

Gd

138.906

(145)

Eu

Tm

144.24

Pm

173.04

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

232.038

231.036

238.029

(257)

(258)

(259)

(227)

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

FROM TOP TO BOTTOM OR BOTTOM TO THE TOP

Group (Family) Properties


Eighteen groups on the periodic table (numbered
from left to right)
Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as
you move from the top down in a group (family)
Atoms of elements in the same group have the
same number of electrons in the outer
orbitals/levels of their atoms (known as valence
electrons)
Exceptions:

Transition elements (3-12)


Hydrogen (could be 1 or 17)
Helium (actually has 2 valence electrons)

Elements in groups usually have similar physical


and chemical properties

Examples of Group Elements with the


same # of valence electrons
How many electrons do
each of these atoms have
in their outer
orbital/level?

H
1.008

Li
6.941

11

Na

22.990

19

K
-

39.098

++
+
++ +
+ +
++ +

37

Rb

+ +

85.468

55

Cs
132.905

87

Fr
(223)

What group (family) do


these elements reside in?

Group (Family) Names

Alkali
Alkaline
MetalsEarth

Noble
Boron
Nitrogen
Carbon
Oxygen
Gases
GroupGroupGroupGroup
Halogens

Metals

Transition Metals

1
1

18

13 14

15 16

17

1.008

2
3

10

Be

Ne

6.941

9.012

11

12

Na

Mg

10

11 12

20.180

12.001

14.007

15.999

18.998

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

26.982

28.086

30.974

32.066

35.453

39.948

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ca

Sc
44.956

Cr

Mn

40.078

Ti

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

47.87

50.942

51.996

54.938

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

85.468

87.62

92.906

95.94

Tc

88.906

91.224

(98)

55.845

44

Ru
101.07

58.933

58.69

63.546

65.39

69.723

72.61

74.922

78.96

79.904

83.80

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

102.906

106.42

107.868

112.4

114.818

118.710

121.760

127.60

126.904

131.29

55

56

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

Lu

Ta

137.327

174.967

Hf

Re

Os
190.23

Ir

192.217

Pt

195.078

Au

Hg
200.59

Tl

204.383

Pb
207.2

Bi

208.980

Po

At

Rn

103

112
Uub

113

114

115

117

118

Uut

Uuq

Uup

116
Uuh

Uus

Uuo

(284)

(289)

(288)

68

69

70

132.905

24.305

10.811

19
39.098

4.003

Li

22.990

He

87

88

Fr

Ra

(223)

(226)

Lr
(262)

178.49

180.95

183.84

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

(266)

(264)

(269)

(269)

(272)

(261)

Lanthanides
Actinides

(262)

57

58

186.207

59

60

Nd

La

Ce

Pr

138.906

140.116

140.908

144.24

(268)

61

62

Pm

Sm

(145)

150.36

196.967

63

Eu
151.964

(285)

64

Gd

157.25

65

Tb
158.925

66

Dy
162.50

67

(209)

(292)

(210)

(222)

Er

Tm

164.930

167.26

168.934

173.04

Ho

Yb

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

232.038

231.036

238.029

(257)

(258)

(259)

(227)

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

Identify the Element


1
1

18

13 14

15 16

17

1.008

2
3

5
6

Be

14.007

15.999

9.012

12.001

6.941

10.811

18.998

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

24.305

10

11 12

26.982

28.086

30.974

32.066

35.453

10

Ne
20.180

39.948

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Sc

40.078

44.956

Ti

47.87

50.942

Cr

Mn

39.098

Ca

51.996

54.938

Fe

Co

Ni
58.69

Cu

63.546

Zn
65.39

Ga

69.723

Ge
72.61

As

74.922

Se
78.96

Br

79.904

Kr

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

87.62

95.94

Rh

85.468

92.906

Tc

102.906

106.42

107.868

112.4

114.818

118.710

121.760

127.60

126.904

131.29

88.906

91.224

(98)

55.845

44

Ru
101.07

58.933

83.80

55

56

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

Lu

Ta

137.327

174.967

Hf

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg
200.59

Tl

204.383

Pb
207.2

Bi

208.980

Po

At

Rn

103

112
Uub

113

114

115

117

118

Uut

Uuq

Uup

116
Uuh

Uus

Uuo

(284)

(289)

(288)

132.905

4.003

Li

22.990

He

87

88

Fr

Ra

(223)

(226)

Lr
(262)

178.49

180.95

183.84

190.23

192.217

195.078

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

(266)

(264)

(269)

(269)

(272)

(261)

Lanthanides
Actinides

(262)

186.207

(268)

196.967

(285)

(209)

(292)

(210)

(222)

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

La

Ce

Pr

Nd

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

140.116

140.908

164.930

167.26

168.934

Yb

138.906

144.24

Pm

173.04

89

90

91

Ac

Th
232.038

(227)

(145)

150.36

92

93

Pa

Np

231.036

238.029

(237)

151.964

157.25

94

95

Pu

Am

(244)

(243)

158.925

162.50

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

(257)

(258)

(259)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

Carbon - C
Strontium
Astatine
- At
- Sr- Rf
Period 4
Group
17
2 Period
5
Group
Period2
14
76
Rutherfordium

Using the Periodic Table


The boxes that make up the periodic table contain a
significant amount of information. To understand this
information, it is necessary to refer to the periodic tables
key(s)

Atomic Number

Element Symbol

Oxygen

Element Name

15.999
Class
Metal
Non-Metal
Metalloid

Color

Which class
does Oxygen
fall into?

(Number of protons)

(Written with a capital letter or a capital


followed by a lower case if two letters )

Atomic Mass

(Rounded to a whole number, equals


the number of protons and neutrons)

State
(@ Room Temp.)

Solid
Liquid
Gas

Symbol
Color

What is
Oxygens
physical state
of matter?