<t J

t
!

f

CORE CURRICULUM

J

-

-:t

=

J J J

\\

J

-

CHEMISTRY

:f, \ -t
y

:

CHEMISTRY.
COURSE STRUCTURE

Closs Xl (Theory)
One Poper
Units
l

Time: 3

Hours

Mox. Morks:70 morks Morks

Title
Some Bosic concepts of Structure of

chemislry Properlies

3
6
4

ii

Atom Struclure

iii

Clossificotion of Elements ond Periodicity in

;V

Chemicol Bonding ond moleculor
Stotes of Moiter: Goses ond

5
4

Liquids

VI

Thermodynomics Equilibrium
Redox

6
6

vtl

vill
IX

Reoclions Elements Elements
Techniques

3
3 5
7

Hydrogen
s-Block

X

XI

Some p-Block

xll xlll
XIV

Orgonic Chemistry: some bosic Principles ond

7

Hydrocorbons
Environmentol

8
3 7A

Chemistry

Totol Objeciives of lhe syllobus should be well defined. Depth of eoch topic should be given.

stoichiomelry ond colculolions bosed on stoichiomefry. otomic number. ond d orbiiols. Discovery of electron. shopes of s. proion ond neutron. quonfum numbers. isotopes ond isobors. chemicol reoclions. *\J r j Rulherford's model ond its limitolions. oloms ond molecules. stobility of - J : - . p. rules for filling elecirons in orbitols . electronic configurofion of oloms.\ . Pouli exclusion principle ond Hund's rule. \\J \ Dollon's otomic theory: concepl of elemenls. concepf of orbitols.Aufbou principle. concept of Heisenberg uncerlointy principle. empiricol ond moleculor formulo. Hisloricol opprooch to porticulote noture of motler. Bohr's model ond its limitolions. --r J Generol Inlroduction: lmporlonce ond scope of chemistry. r :omposilion. lows of chemicol combinotion.

Significonce of clossificoiion. Avogodro's low. -- l. volence bond theory. lonizoiion entholpy. moleculor orbitol tIeory of homonucleor diotomic molecules ond hYdrogen bond. eleclro negolivily. chorles' lcw. Nomencloiure of elements number greoler thon l0O. -. Unil V: Stotes of Motler: GCIses ond Liquids (Periods l4) melling ond Three slotes of motler. ionic bond. Inlermoleculor interoctions. Derivoiion from derivolion of gos equoiion. !. Unit lll: Clossificolion of Elements ond Periodicity in Properlies r-li' <:i- f-i. Boyle's boiling points. c. unit lV: chemicol Bonding ond Moleculsr Structure (Periods l6) Volence electrons. volence. the molecule. !. Goy Lussoc's low. Lewis siruclure. Role of gos lows in elucidoting ihe concepi of empiricol low.. covolent bonc: Born Hober of Cycle. covoleni chorocler ionic bond.. resononce. ldeol gos equolion' ./':. geometry of covolent molecules' vsEPR theory. ionic rodii.' l (Periods 8) periodic toble. brief history of the developmenl of periodic lrends in modern periodic row ond the preseni form of periodic tobre. polor chorocter of covolent bond. Avogodro's number. goin properties of elements -olomic rodii. concepi of hybridizotion. types of bonding. electron with olomic enlholpy.- :. involving s. bond porometers.. ldeol behoviour. p ond d orbilols ond shopes of some simple molecules.

\ d ideol behoviour.iroduction of entropy os o stole function. ir ir i-t I l|- Unit Vl: Chemicol Thermodynomics (Perlodsl6) l:ncepls of Sysf em. -st low of lhermodynomics . liquefoction of goses. fociors offecling equilibrium . energy. la. . ^.Vopour pressure. otomizotion.internol energy chonge (AU) ond enlholpy chonge Hess's low of F F F \ Ld \ l\ r. Gibbs energy chonge for spontoneous :nd nonspontoneous processes. stote funclions. ionizotion. formolion.Le Chotelier's crinciple. low of moss oction. conslont heot summotion. Work. types of systems. ionizotion of polybosic ocids.rd solution. entholpy of: bond dissociotion. strong ond weok elecfrolytes.ionizolion of ocids ond boses.l). :'. exlensive :-d = intensive properties. l\ lr l\ Second ond lhird lows of thermodynomics. equilibrium conslonl. Unit Vll: Equilibrium (Perlods 20) l!-. ll\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \_ lquilibrium in physicol ond chemicol prrccesses. sublimolion. ::nrbusiion. Phose tronsformotion. criticol femperoture. degree of ionizolion. viscosity ond surfoce tension (quolifofive ideo only. crilerio for equilibrium. heof . kinetic energy ond D \ moleculor speeds (elementory ideo) -iquid Stote . - I \ : mothemolicol derivofions). ionic equilibrium . dynomic nofure of uquitiUrium. surroundings. ocid strenglh.

hydrogen peroxide-preporotion.ionic. properties ond uses of hydrogen. occurrence. preporoiion. oxidolion number. Hydrolysis of solls {elementory ideo). occurrence. trends in ihe voriotion of. (periods g) Position of hydrogen in periodic toble.concepf of pH Henderson Equoiion. redox reoctions. solubilily product. onomolous properlies of fhe firsl elemeni of eoch group. diogonol relotionship. boloncing redox reoclions in lerms of loss ond goin of eleelrons ond chonge in oxidolion ' number. electronic configurotion. covolenl ond inlerstiiiol. properties. woter. Unlt lX : Hydrogen . isotopes. unil vlll: Redox Reoctions (periods 6) Concepl of oxidolion ond reduction. Unil X: s-Block Elemenfs (Alkoli ond Alkoline eorlh melols) (periods 12) Group I ond Group 2 elemenls: Generol inlroduction. uses. heovy woler. hydrogen os o fuel. otomic ond ionic rodii). physicol ond chemicol properties of woler. common ion effecl {with illusirolive exomples). lrends in chemicol reoctivily with oxygen. Buffer solutions. hydrides . . hydrogen ond hologens. slructure ond use. propertigs (such os ionizotion entholpy.

biologicol a a mporlonce of sodium ond potossium. physicol ond tat J J chemicol properties. scme imporlont compounds: borox. ollotropic forms. lheir uses ond struciure of silicoles. frends in chemicol reoctivity. sodium hydroxide ond sodium hydrogen corbonote. electronic configurotions. D - . silicones. voriofion of properlies. Boron. silicoles ond Zeoliles. O Preporollon ond properlles of some lmporlonl compounds: Sodium corbonole. trends in chemicol reoclivify. uses of some imporlont compounds: oxides. occurrence. loC.physicol ond chemicol properties. oxidolion stoles. O rt lmportont compounds of silicon ond o few uses: silicon tetrochloride. . Group 14 elements: Generol introduction.-) a a_ . boric ocid. occunence. CoCO:ond industriol use of lime ond limeslone. onomolous behoviour of first elemenl. boron hydrides. ' criotion of properties.colenoiion. Corbon . electronic configurotions. biologicol imporlonce of Mg :rd Co a Unil Xl: Some p-Block Etemenis Generol Introduction to p-Block Elemenls (Perlods l4) t- Group l3 elemenls: Generol inkoduction. onomolous U croperfies of first elemenf of the group. oxidotion slotes. Aluminium: t reoctions wiih ccids ond olkolies ond uses.

hydrogen holides (Uorfovnikov's oddition ond peroxide effect). sfruclure of lriple bond (ethyne). Unil Xll: Orgonic Chemislry . eleclrophiles ond nucleophiles. free rodicol mechonism. Aromotic hydrocorbons: lnlroduction. eleclromeric effecl.Nomenclolure. ozonolysis. chemicol reoclions including hologenotion. clossificotion Electronic displocements in o covolenl bond: induclive effect. mechonism of electrophilic oddiiion. physicol properties. oxidotion. IUPAC nomencloture. chemicol reoclions: ocidic chorocler of olkynes. physicol properties. isomerism.Nomencloture.. Homotylic ond heleiolytic fission of o covolenl bond: free rodicols. methods of preporolion. slruclure of double bond (ethene) geometricol isomerism. " Alkenes . combuslion ond pyrolysis. Alkynes . chemicol properlies: mechonism of electrophilic substiiulion. Benzene: resononce oromoiiciiy . .Nomencloture.nifrotion . physicol properties. conforrnoiions (eihone only). corbonions. wofer. oddition reoction of . ond IUPAC nomencloture of orgonic compounds (Periods 16) Generol inlroduciion. hologen. hydrogen holides ond woler. Methods of preporotion. hologens.Some Bosic Principles ond Techniques . resononce ond hyper conjugolion. corbocoiions. melhods of quolitotive ond quontitolive onolysis. chemicol reoctions: oddition of hydrogen. types of orgonic reoclions Unil Xlll: Hydrocorbons (Periods 16) Closslffcolion of hydrocorbons Alkones .hydrogen.

\_. hologencdion. . strotegy for conlrol of environmentol pollulion- I U t f t- al f .- t j \_ -\ D sulphonotion.J J D rt v a. greenhouse effect ond globolworming icllution due fo industriol wostes. Unil XIV: Environmenlol Chemislry (Periods 8) ! J :.:llution.fects of depletion of ozone loyer. f+iedel Crofl's olkylotion ond ocylotion corcinogenicity ond ioxicily. green chemistry os on ollernofive fool for reducing :.

Bending o gloss lube 3. . Culting gloss tube ond 2. copper sulphote. Boring o cork B' Choroclerizotion - ond purificotion of chemicol substonces (periods 7) L Determinolion of melting point of on orgonic compound 2.Procticols Evoluotlon Scheme for Exominollon Morks r0 X Volumetric Anolysis Solt Anofysis Conteni Bosed Experimenl Closs Record ond Vivo Tolol 6 6 30 PRAcTlcAts A. Benzoic ocid. Determinolion of boiling point of on orgonic compound 3. cryslollizotion of impure sompre of onyone of lhe following: Alum. Drowing out o gloss jel 4. Bosic Loborolory syLtABUs Totor periods 60 (periods 3) Techniques gloss rod l.

Preporolion of stondord solution of oxolic ocid. . . Comporing fhe pH of solutions of strong ond weok ocid of some concenfrotion. Study of pH chonge by common-ion effect in cose of weok ocids ond weok boses. Preporotion of stondord solulion of sodium corbonole. Quoniitotive estimolion (Periods l8) . . Experiments relofed lo pH chonge . (Perlods 7) {o) .ond chloride ions by chonging the concenlrofion of eilher of the ions' E. b) Anyone of lhe following experiments: Determinotion of pH of some solulions obtoined from fruit juices. Chemicol equilibrium (Periods 5) One of ihe following experimenls: io) Study the shifl in equilibrium between ferric ions ond fhiocyonote ions by increosing/decreosing the concentrotion of eilher ions. voried concenlrotions of ocids. . . S-tudV the pH chonge in the tilroiion of o strong bose using universol indicoior.boses ond solls using pH poper or universol inoicofor. Determinotion of strenglh of o given solution of sodium hydroxide by titroting il ogoinst slondord solution of oxolic ocid. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(HzO)o]z.C. D. . . Using o chemicol bolonce.

CH:COO (Note: lnsoluble solls excluded) G.A. BO2*. sulphur. Delerminolion of strenglh of o given solulion of hydrochloric ocid by tikoting it ogoinsf stondord sodium corbonole solution. Quolilolive onolysis (Periods l8) Deferminotion of one onion ond one cotion in c given soli COliOnS.COs2-'. SOo2-.S2-. Mg2*. Cl-. F. AS3*.-chlorine (Periods l2) .|3*. Br-.Fe3*. l'. CU2*. CO2* CO2*..Sr2*. Delection of nitrogen.Mn2*. Czao2'.Nii*. NOz-. NHt* Anions.Pb2*. POo3-.7n2*. NOr-. SOs2-.

ond f. Morks:70 morks Morks 4 Iime:3 Titles Hours D a . - . Keiones ond Corboxylic ocids I 6 4 4 xlt XIV O Orgonic Compounds conloining Nitrogen Biomolecules Polymers J XV XVI 3 3 a Chemisfry in Everydoy life Totol: t. t xtl Aldehydes. Phenols ond Ethers 3 4 4 X XI . Mox. e 70 a .! t ! Closs Xll (Theory) One Poper .Block Elements Coordinolion Compounds Holoolkones ond Holoorenes Alcohols.t J J J Unils I Solid Stote Solulions tl ill 1V Eleclrochemisiry 1 5 q Chemicol kineiics Surfoce chemislry' 4 VI Generol principles ond processes of lsolotion of Erenrents 3 p-Block J vtl Elements B q t- vill IX d.

eleclrolysis ond lows of electrolysis (elemeniory ideo). colligolive properties pressure. Clossificoiion of solids bosed on different binding forces: moleculor.relotive lowering of vopour low. leod occumulotor. number of oloms per unit cell in o !': cubic unif cell. delerminolion of moleculor mosses using colligotive properlies. unit cell two dimensionol ond three dimensionol lotlices. solid solutions. semiconductors ond insulolors ond n & p lype semiconductors.Bond lheory of melols. omorphous ond cryslolline solids (elemenf ory ideo). EMF of o cell. . poinl defecls.electrolyiic cells ond Golvonic cells. expression of concentrolion of solutions of solids in liquids. specific ond molor conductlvity voriotions of conductivity with qoncenlrotion. Rooull's .: tj i. eleclricol ond mognefic properlies. : ond melollic solids. pocking efficierrcy. depression of freezing point. Unit lll: Eleclrochemistry (Periods l4) Redox reoclions. voids. obnormol moleculor moss. conduclonce in eleclrolytic solutions. solubilily of goses in liquids. elevolion of boiling poinl.Unll l: Solld Slote (Perlods 12) covolenl in of :. colculotion density of unil cell. Kohlrousch's Low. (Periods l2) : t Unit ll: Solulions Types of solulions. ionic. von't Hoff foctor ond colculotions involvino it. dry cell . . conduclois. pocking in solids. osmotic pressure. siondord electrode poteniiol.

fuel cells. J t-'J \ . foctors offecting odsorption of goses enzyme cotolysis. temperoture. Arrhenious equotion' (Periods 8) \_ J . colloids ond suspensions. foctors offecting rotes of reoction. t lyophobii. colloidol stcle: distinction between lrue solutions. a t. cololyst. properlies of colloids. lyophilic. concepi of collision theory {elementory ideo. no mothemolicol treolmenl). Brownion movement. Activotion energy. multimoleculor ond mocromoleculor colloidb. electrophoresis. conosion . Tyndoll effecl. rote low -\ J -) first order reoclions). o reoction vr l\VlV l-'" concentrotion. order ond moleculoiity of o reoction. ! J \-_ J J Adsorption .tt _i .physisorption ond chemisorplion. a a Unit lV: Chemicol Kinefics - (Perlods 12) Fnrc of (overoge ond instontoneous). \D Nernst equotion ond its opplicofion io chemicol cells. Relotion between Gibbs energy-chonge ond emf of o cell.

PCls) ond oxoocids (elementory ideo only) Group l6 elemenfs: Generol inlroduction. ii i: i: " . Unlt Vl: Generol Prlnclples ond Processes of lsolollon of Elemenis . dioxygen: preporotion. lrends in physicol ond chemicol properlies. clossificotion of oxides. holides (PCls. ozone.preporolion. t''i oxidolion sloles. reduclion of eleclrolytic method ond refining. compounds of sulphur: preporotion. oxidotion sloles. sulphuric ocid: industriol process of monufoclure. occurrence' frends in physicol ond chemicol properties.. . properlies ond uses. occurrence ond principles of exlrociion oluminium. (Perlods 8) Principles ond melhods of extroclion . properlies ond uses of sulphur dioxide. copper. oxides of nitrogen (slruclure only). s unll Vll: p-Block Erements (perrods 14) .. oxidolion.. properlies ond uses. eleclronic configurolion. zinc ond . niirogen . phosphorus-olloiropic forms. other oxides ond oxoocids of sulphur (slruclures only).concenlrolion.o lron. compounds of nirrogen: prepororion ond properties of ommonio ond nilric ocid. occurrence. electronic configuroiion. compounds 'of phosphorus: preporoiion ond properiies of phosphine. Sulphur .'. Group l5 elements: Genorol inlroduction.ollotropic forms. properlies ond uses.

mognelic properfies.elecironic configurolion. Actinoids . oxidotion sfoles.Electronic configurotion. electronic configurotion. Occurence. 4t lonthonoids. oxidotion slofes ond'comporison with a. occurrence. generol trends in properlies of the first row lronsifion metols - metollic chorocter. occurrence ond chorocteristics of J J ironsilion melols. J t Unit Vlll: d ond f Block Elements (Period 14) Generol introduclion. uses. a Group 18 elemenls: Generol inlroduction.J a D D t Group l7 elemenls: Generol inlroduction. olloy formotion. compounds of hologejns: preporotion. oxidoiion stotes. ionizolion entholpy. irends in physicol ond chemicol properiies. oxoocids of hologens (slructures only). trends in physicol ond chemicol properties. Preporotion l C D ond properlies of KzCrzOz ood KMnOr. J t - . oxidolion slotes. electronic configuroiion. interhologen compounds. properlies ond uses of chlorine ond hydrochloric ocid. colour. Lonthonoids . chemicol reoclivity ond a J lonthonoid controction ond ils consequences. ionic rodii.electronic configurolion. inlerstitiol compounds. cotolytic properly.

vBT ond CFT}.osubsfiluted compounds onry. unit X: Holoolkones ond Holoolkones: Holoorenes. lrichloromelhone. ligonds.: unil lX: coordinoiion compounds (period 12) Coordinotion compounds . iodoform. physicol ond chemicol properties.dichloromelhone. rupAc nomencroture of mononucreor coordinolion compounds. stobirity of corbocotions R-s ond configurolions) Llses d_l ond environmenlol effecls of .cunds {in quoliiolive inclusion of onolysis. nofure of C-X bond. freons. .Introduction. lelrochloromethone. DDI. (periods 12) Nomenclofure. structurol ond stereo isomerism importonce of coordinoiion comp.Bonding {werner's theory. mognelic properties ond shopes. colour. mechonism of substitulion reociions. extroction of metors ond piorogicor sysrems). Slobility of corbocotions. coordinotion number. Holoorenes: R-S ond d-l configuroiions Noture of C-X bond. subslitution reoctions {directive influence of hologen for mon.

methods of prepor.J t \D a ) physicol ond chemicol properlies Alcohols: Nomenclolure. methods of Aldehydes ond Ketones: Nomencloture. noture of corbonyl . methods of preporotion.SES. . uses' cno chemicol ProPerties.otion.ecciivity o: olpho hycrogen in olcehydes. methods of preporotion. . \\ a r f tt group. ) ) properties' phenols : Nomenclolure. physicol ond chemicol -\ J physicol ond chemicol properlies' Elhers: Nomenclolure. uses' d a L .

terfiory slrucf ure ond quoternory structure {quolilolive ideo only). importonce. monosocchorides {glucose ond fruclose). enzymes. cellulose. Cyonldes ond lsocyonldes .. Vilomins -Clossificolion ond funclions. Amlnes: Nomenclojutt. mcllose). primory sfruclure. glycogen). polysocchorides {storch. proteins. uses. lheir clossificotion ond functions. copolymerizotion.will be mentioned ol relevonl ploces in context. peptide bond.noturol ond synlhelic. secondory ond tertiory omines.omino ocids. Proleins ' Elementory ideo of a. D-L configurotion. physicol l_ ond chemicol properlies. Diozonium solls: Preporolion. Lipids ond hormones. loclose. Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8) Clossificolion . chemicol reoclions ond imporlonce in synlhetic orgonic chemislry. identificolion of primory. denolurolion of proleins. melhocjs of polymerizotion {oddition ond condensolion). secondory slruclure. polypeplides. methods of preporotion. slructure. Some imporloni polymers: noturol and syniheiic . Unif XIV: Blomolecules (Periods l2) Corbohydroles . oligosocchorides (sucrose. clossificolion.Clossificotion (oldoses ond keioses).

onolgesics. cleonsing oction. 2. disinfectonls. biodegrodoble polymers. ontocids. tronquilizers.soops J J J a = t a J J tt J J . 3. rubber. Biodegrodoble ond non- . ontiseptics. . ontifertility drugs. onlioxidonts. ond delergenfs. Chemicols in J food . ontibiotics. polyesfers. (Perlod 8) Chemicols in medicines . onlimicrobiols. bokelite. Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everydoy life: I. nylon.J I j like polylhene. ortificiol sweetening ogents. . ontihistomines. Cleonsing ogents .preservoiives.

Project work ond Tolol 30 Proclicols Syllobus A. of differenr B.slorch.oluminium hydroxide. Study of reoction rotes of ony one of the following: {i) Reocfion of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide ol room temperoture using different concenlrotions of iodide ions.t Procliccils Evqluolion Scheme for t. Exominotion Morks Volumetric Solt Anolysis Experimenl vivo l0 B Anolysis Conlenl Bosed 6 6 Closs record. Surfoce Chemistry sor.3um Lyophobic sol . {b) Study of 'the role of emulsifying ogenls in stobilizing ihe emutsions oils. orsenious sulphide. chemicol Kinetics '(periods 4) {o) {b) Effecl of concenirotion ond iemperoture on the rote of reoction between sodium lhiosulphole ond hydrochloric ocid. I . Lyophilic sol . (periods 6) {o) Preporolion of one ryophiric ond one ryophobic . egg olbumin ond . terric hydroxide.

. (perlods 4) lr !-I' !: l| ... \ (NozSOr) using storch solulion os C..^^-i-^^r^ ^r r!-^ nr r y t. KlOrond sodium sulphite: indicofor (clock reoction). t. a^a ^.Sr t_- l.. | | Cuz... J \ \ lii) Delerminolion of enlholpy chongq during interoclion (Hydrogen bond formolionl belween ocelone ond chloroform \-.^t. \ .) Seporotion of cohstiluents presenl in on inorgonic mixture contoining two colions only {constituenls hoving lorge difference in Rrvolues fo be provided).fle of following experiments lhe {^r^. Eleclrochemistry \'/^'i^+ion (perlod 2) of cell potenliol in LnlLnz. {ii) Reoction befween pofossium iodote.t "l Entholpy of dissolution of copper sulphote or potossium nilrofe. J -\ -\ - . Chromotogrophy (periods 2) t i) ii) Seporotion of pigments from exlrocts of leoves ond flowers by poper t\ . Entholpy vr neulrolizotion rrvvrrvrr4vrrvrr vr strong of Jrrvrrv ocid {HC1) vvrv utt\ ond strong bose (NoOH) / of tttvt. Thermochemistry A n. ' D. I s_ r \ ' liil D^^^{inn !-./Cu with chonge in concentrolion of E.i^^ \ | \ lJ | \ i) .

F. Aniline yellow or 2 . ii) Fenous ommonium sulphoie . J. Preporolion of orgonlc compounds 4) ) Preporotion of ony fwo of the following compounds i) ii) Acelonilide Di-benzol ocelone iii) p_-Nitroocelonilide. fqts ond proteins in pure somples ond lheir deleclion in given food sluffs.. olcoholic. oxoloie.Noplhol oniline dye. l. of: (Periods 4) Delerminolion of concenlrotion/molority of KMnOr solulion by titroting il ogoinsl o slondord solulion (Periods 8) i) Oxolic ocid. iu) v) H. phenolic. corboxylic ond omino {primory) groups. : lodoform Tesls for lhe funciionol groups presenl in orgonic compounds: (Periods 6) Unsoturotion.:. - . ':-:':: Preporolion of double soll of ferrous ommonium sulphole or polosh Preporofion of polossium ferric olum. Choroclerislic lesls of corbohybrotes. (perlods '' G.PreporolionoflnorgonicCompounds(Periods4) i) ii) . kelonic. oldehydic. .

Mg2*. Mn2*. CzOo2'.2'. SO:2-.J r ) > .A l3* Fe3* . A53*.3-. NOz. SO. CH:COO (Note: Insoluble solts excluded) Proiect work .52. J J J t ) J t f .. CotiOnS.Pb2*.Sr2. CU2r. etc. NO:. l-.. PO. pulses ond milk.Ni2* . (studenls will be required to prepore slondord solulions byiareighing lhemselves) ) K. Quolilotive onolysis (Periods 14) Determinolion of one cotion onci one onion in o given soll. C02* CO2*.CO:2' . Cl .7n2*. BO2*. NHor J Anions. Br-.wherever feosible moy include i) Model Preporoiion ii) Investigolory Projeci iii) Sr-ience Fxhihils iv) Porticipolion in Science foirs v) Testing of purily of food orlicles t t like butter.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.